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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan July 1995


FW: The Miquon School

Subject: FW: The Miquon School From: "Chariss McAfee" <charissm@loomismcafee.com> Date: Mon, 27 Oct 2008 09:28:52 -0400 To: <fitchj@andropogon.com> Good morning, Judith Do you have information that you can forward? Chariss Charles Loomis Chariss McAfee Architects 1906 Rittenhouse Square Philadelphia PA 19103 T 215 546-4468 F 215-546-9124

From: Chariss McAfee

Sent: Thursday, October 23, 2008 1:20 PM To: 'fitchj@andropogon.com' Subject: The Miquon School

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Hello Judith, I am currently working with the Community Design Collaborative (CDC) on a volunteer project to assist the Miquon School with storm water management issues at the school. Andropogon had done a report for the school called Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan in July 1995. I have the document - it references several maps that are not included and do not seem to be in the file at the school, specifically: • Existing Conditions - Nand S • Existing Site Drainage and Circulation Map • Existing Grounds Conditions • Proposed Project Area Maps

• Site Drainage Plan If you need to contact someone at the school to release these documents to me, please call Anne Hitchins at ., Please let me know if you can accommodate my request. It would be very helpful. y ~ /

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Thank you, Chariss McAfee Charles Loomis Chariss McAfee Architects 1906 Rittenhouse Square Philadelphia PA 19103 T 215 546-4468 F 215-546-9124

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

Contents

page

Miquon's Mission Statement

1

Introduction to the Master Plan

1

The Master Planning Process

3

Goals of the Master Plan

11

Current Conditions & Observations Topographic Survey Existing Conditions (North) Existing Conditions (South) Existing Site Drainage & Circulation Ground Conditions (Existing)

16

Overview of the Master Plan Landscape Restoration & Management Plan (North) Landscape Restoration & Management Plan (South)

20

Implementation Strategies

24

Phasing, Project Areas and Budgets Proposed Phase I Proposed Site Drainage Proposed Project Areas 2-8 Proposed Project Area 9

27

Appendix: Cost Estimates

33


Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

Submitted to: The Miquon School Harts Lane Miquon PA 19452-0199 Phone: 610-247-4595 Prepared by Andropogon Associates, Ltd. Architects, Landscape Architects & Planners 374 Shurs Lane Philadelphia PA 19128 Phone: 215-487-0700 FAX: 215-483-7520 Andropogon Associates, Ltd. Project Team: Project Director: Leslie Sauer Project Staff: Carol Franklin, Rolf Sauer, Yaki Miodovnik, Duke Bitsko, Noeline A. Mills and Bernadette Ryan Consultants: Elizabeth Caesar, PlayCare, Inc., 324 Darlington Road, Wawa PA 19063, 610-558-3113 provided playground safety and ADA accessibility standards Dr. Joseph Martin, 252 Sagamore Road, Havertown P A 19083, 215-446-6477 provided soil stabilization & storm water management review Urwiler & Walter, Inc., 3126 Main Street, Sumneytown PA 18084-0269, 215-234-4562 provided CAD topographic survey of grounds


Mission Statement "The natural world is a place to learn. We treasure our unique environment. As part of a lesson or a source of playtime revelation, nature weaves its way into every child's experience." (from The Miquon Philosophy) The Miquon landscape mirrors the school philosophy and gives place to some of the most important and memorable student experiences. Closeness to the natural world is central to this environment where everyday journeys and both play and work are set in a narrow stream valley embraced by forests on the surrounding steep slopes. The built elements of paths, play equipment and outdoor rooms are intended to foster discovery, fantasy and dramatic play where both the body and the imagination are exercised. There is a remarkable degree of consensus in the perception of this special environment and the importance of upgrading its quality without changing its character.

Introduction to the Master Plan This Master Plan is the result of a growing concern about the accelerating deterioration of the landscape at Miquon, from erosion and loss of native species in the natural environment to aging playground equipment and a disintegrated path system. This was coupled with a desire to increase both accessibility and safety. Previously site concerns would have been addressed in a work party or simply fixed in place by Bill Wanamaker, but the level of degradation had reached a point where these approaches were no longer adequate. The magnitude of stormwater damage and the lack of a comprehensive drainage system, for example, made many other improvements short-lived. A Master Plan for Miquon has to be done in the spirit of Miquon, therefore broad participation by the Miquon community was vital to this project. Similarly, the plan assumes that this same community will be equally instrumental in its implementation. The plan is geared to work parties and parent involvement as well as student and staff participation. This Master Plan Report is comprised of the following major components: • The Master Planning Process • The Goals of the Master Plan • Current Conditions • Overview of the Master Plan • Implementation Strategies • Phasing, Project Areas and Budgets In addition to the Master Plan Report and accompanying maps, the Miquon Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan includes three other documents that are intended to facilitate the realization of this plan. Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

1


1. Landscape Management Manual. A important objective of the plan is to initiate the restoration of the site's natural habitats of forest and stream corridor. Ecological restoration is a field in its infancy and the approach depends on on-going site monitoring to fine tune the management strategies. The management manual is intended to provide guidelines for initiating this work and to serve as a starting point for a Miquon Data Base Management Log. 2. Idea Book. Because many of the components of the Master Plan can and will be implemented in-house, this Idea Book is intended to facilitate the implementation of the simpler projects. It is comprised of examples of play ground equipment and other site features that meet the criteria of the Master Plan. While there are also many other solutions to these design problems, these examples are intended to serve as a starting place. These examples can also help to inform a potential donor about the nature of a gift. 3. Playground Safety Questionnaire prepared by Playcare, Inc. This document is a detailed safety audit of the existing equipment that can serve to help prioritize replacements and modifications.

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

2


The Master Planning Process The process of re-envisioning the physical and play environment of the Miquon School began with a series of interviews with those who are most involved with the landscape. The object was to include those who use and manage this landscape extensively in the planning and design process because they are the ones who will realize this vision. A series of interviews were conducted with a wide variety of people who are listed below. They conveyed an intense love of this place and had given a lot of thought to the problems and opportunities of the site. They were also clear about their needs and how they use the landscape.

Interviewees: Cynthia Adams Elaine Ballengee Jon Berger Anne Brady Lynn Braff Penny Colgin-Davis Chuck Conner John Cox Fern Culhane Connie Devlin Eileen Flynn Chuck Freed Zoana Gepler-Muller Heidi Gillespie Richard Glaser Sara Gordon Sue Graf Beth Gross-Eskin Lynn Hughes Tony Hughes Elizabeth Johnson Peter Kuriloff Joel Lea vitt Toni McDonnell Bill Northcutt Leigh Pezzano Joan Ranere Sandra Rogow Craig San Pietro Heidi Shusterman Kris Soffa Diane Sychowski Betty Tilly Kit Wallace Bill Wanamaker

KTeacher 2/3 Assistant Parent, Environmental Steering Committee Parent, Art Specialist Language Arts Coordinator Principal Director, Miquon Day Camp Parenti Arborist K & I Team Tracker Parent and Receptionist Nursery Teacher Assistant Director of the day care program K Assistant Parent/Landscape Architect Board Member Assistant to the Principal/ Admissions Director Nursery Teacher 6 Teacher Science Specialist 3/4 Teacher Capital Campaign Committee Parent, Environmental Steering Committee, Chair K & I Team Teacher Physical Education Specialist 1/2 Teacher 5/6 Teacher Parent Board Member Parent, Environmental Steering Committee Parent Librarian 2/3 Teacher Board President/Parent/Environmental Steering Committee Buildings and Grounds Manager

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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Student and Staff Participation: The most intensive use of the site is by the students whose input in this master plan was invaluable. Both teachers and specialists gave generously of their time to coordinate student participation in this project into the curriculum. Virtually every student in the school participated in group discussions, surveys and/ or map making related to this effort. Representative students from every grade level prepared "mental" maps of the campus which were drawn from memory and reflect very basic perceptions about the campus character. These maps revealed just how well the students know their environment and how varied and intense their use of this landscape is. These maps also served to locate treasured natural features and the sacred places of this campus. Much of the inventory work on this master plan focused on mapping, from the student mental mapping as well as the development of a very detailed base map of the existing site conditions. Throughout the project, as the planning concepts were developed, the students and staff continued to provide continuous input and feedback. In addition, weekly reviews were held with the staff to facilitate the maximum amount

of participation and input. As plans were developed and concepts drawn, copies of the maps were left at Miquon and were reviewed and commented upon by the staff throughout the process. Additional student reviews were also carried out during this time. This report, in part, is intended as a summary of the consensus of these key informants. The following short 'declaration' by the students themselves is also an important statement about how the landscape of this valley is cherished.

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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The joy of play at Miquon is captured in a nursery level drawing.

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

5


sk The 'mental' maps of the site typically were richly detailed, with no 'blank' space. These maps facilitated developing the new base map.

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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(top) This space in the central campus, now given over to the automobile, is proposed for a new climber and balance beam with safety surface. (bottom) A door with a window and access from the pathway and terrace are proposed to replace the present kindergarten entrance. Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

7


A typical Miquon path and a challenge to walk along especially while holding a full tray.

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Pla n

8


(top) The current playgrounds, though simple, afford ample open play space and invite the students into the fantasy world of the surrounding landscape. (bottom) Crayfish Creek is the heart and sou l of the campus-the most treasured landscape. Miquon School Landscape Res toration and Management Master Plan

9


A woodland garden thrives in a sma ll is la nd in the 'homesca pe' around the buildings.

Miquon School Landscape Res toration and Management Mas ter Plan

10


Goals of the Master Plan The following goals of the Master Plan were developed during the initial interview phases of this project in concert with the school students and staff, as well as with the Board, the Environmental Steering Committee and other interested parties. • To see a major change in the level of care of the campus The most frequently cited problem was the increasingly shabby look of the campus over time. This is not an issue in spring when the landscape looks new and green but in the dead of winter. The fact that most of the campus core is now bare ground is depressingly apparent. To those who treasure all the moments of Miquon this may have little impact but to a visiting prospective parent, it may obscure the value of this landscape. Useful space for play, outdoor classes and other events are increasingly restricted by the loss that occurs when a once usable surface becomes bare dirt or mud. Like the velveteen rabbit, the landscape of Miquon is wearing thin from all the love and use. Miquon is simply showing the cumulative degradation of regional environmental decline combined with over half a century of little feet and mismanaged stormwater. The goal is not to change the character of this landscape but rather to treasure it more and care for it well. • To create a more accessible landscape The steeply sloping landscape of the Miquon school does not lend itself easily to access of any kind. This is reflected in the current plan where flat terrain is at a premium and intensely used. Virtually all current paths exceed recommended grades for barrier-free access and would require extensive ramps, radically altering the limited open space on this campus. The problem of steepness is aggravated by various states of disrepair of the path surfaces. Despite these difficulties, however, the goal of this Master Plan is to provide the highest degree of access feasible at Miquon in a program that is phased over time. These improvements will also be invaluable to the elderly, to those pushing a wheeled vehicle or carrying burdens, and to anyone who is less than sure-footed. • To renew the playgrounds and make them, as well as the whole campus, safer. Playcare, Inc. conducted a detailed safety audit of the existing equipment and conditions that is included as part of this Master Plan. Not surprisingly, the playgrounds at Miquon, like most other playgrounds, do not meet current guidelines for Public Playground Safety published by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission revised 1994 and the ASTM F148793 Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Playground Equipment for Public Use, specifically the CPSC guidelines for layout and ASTM equipment specifications. The master plan envisions rebuilding and/ or replacing virtually all the play equipment over time. Where modifications are made to existing play equipment, careful attention must be paid to design details since the school and/or architectural firm will be taking on the Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

11


responsibility for safety. An inspection and maintenance program needs to be specified as part of each completed play area as well as for the larger campus. • To optimize the opportunities for fantasy playas well as playllearn The importance of fantasy play in the Miquon landscape cannot be over estimated. The endless variability of the larger natural environment is especially integral to this and is the central focus of the landscape. The most frequent answers given to the question, "What is your favorite piece of play equipment?" were "trees" and "rocks". In this larger context, play equipment is secondary and should not be isolated too much or divert from the more complex opportunities afforded simply by the richness of the environment. Most importantly, there needs to be room for play, rather than so much going on in the landscape that all free space is eliminated. • To create more usable outdoor spaces of varying characters and scales The interviews revealed a wealth of special places that used to be part of the Miquon landscape, from a wooden platform in the kindergarten playground to several past bridges and a hammock. But over time the diversity of such features has diminished, reducing the opportunities for play, learning, and social interaction. A major goal of this master plan has been to give place to a variety of special events and places that can be developed with the creativity of Miquon parents and other volunteers. • To foster native plants and animals and the ecological restoration of the site and to integrate this effort into the curriculum "We treasure our unique environment." There is a reverence for nature in the Miquon philosophy that has led understandably to a desire to restore the richness of the indigenous landscape that once characterized this site. As the larger landscape is increasingly built upon and simplified by environmental disturbance, there is a growing awareness of the need to restore those landscapes that can be protected, like the natural areas of the Miquon campus. • To address better storm water management for the entire site The most visible source of damage to the campus landscape is concentrated storm water runoff that erodes the paths, play areas, roads, hillsides and streambanks. It is the result of decades of cumulative changes, most notably in recent decades as the imperviousness of the watershed has increased incrementally and the accrued impacts of use on the campus are felt. The problem is so serious at the present time that many other site improvements cannot be implemented because they would be damaged by stormwater. The master plan includes the installation of a coordinated stormwater management system that serves all building and circulation areas.

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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â&#x20AC;˘ To resolve existing conflicts of use

The most notable conflict of use is the presence of moving vehicles in the core area of the campus during the day. This may occur because of a delivery of fuel or food or a pick-up of trash as well as when a campus vehicle leaves and/or returns to campus. This situation is aggravated by the presence of automobiles in three different small parking areas in the campus core which also take up valuable land that might be better used for play. There are no realistic options for increasing parking without substantially modifying the lower woodland area which would also require extensive grading. It is also very unlikely that further encroachments on the stream corridor would be allowed in order to provide additional parking. Because of the general shortage of parking and the need to adequately access the buildings these matters were resolved by the staff and teachers who use this landscape daily. â&#x20AC;˘ To develop additional materials for fundraising for landscape improvements

The Landscape Master Plan Report is intended to serve as a major vehicle for fundraising by clearly stating the larger vision and the need for support. A variety of scales of projects are described from the larger infrastructure of path and drainage to smaller scale features such as a bench site that can be carried out by an individual on the ground. There is something for every level of support and involvement. No less importantly it is hoped that by providing the overall framework of the plan that both the creativity and cost effectiveness of all improvements will be increased.

The space around the buildings serves as well-used outdoor rooms.

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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Sketch #1 (top) Existing view of Upper Campus looking north towards kitchen. The presence of above-ground u tilities, pipes, bare earth and mulch give the campus an unkempt appearance. (bottom) Proposed view showing handicap-accessible eleva tor and new playground. Pipes and electrical lines are placed underground. The parking area is transformed to a safe, new playground . Vehicular access is reduced with collapsible bollards placed at terminus of main parking lot, enhancing the pedestrian en viro nment. Sketch #2 (page 15) (top) Existing view looking north past the library. An impenetrable mass of multiflora rose has thrived due to the relative openness of the canopy along the streambank. (bottom) Proposed view shows vegetated swale used to convey stormwa ter to the stream. Multiflora rose has been removed and replaced with bare root tree species to close the canopy and favor less invasive native species. A new pedestrian bridge invites close observa tion and mitigates erosion at stream crossing. New plantings and fiber rolls help to stabilize the strea m in affccted areas. Groundcover and stone pa ths alleviate soil compaction and help direct pedestrian traffic . Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

14


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Current Conditions and Observations The landscape itself is the center of the Master Plan. This is not a plan for siting new buildings or expansion of facilities; it is about renewal of the outdoor spaces and the living environments of the school. There has never been a forest restoration that brought back the full complement of native plants and animals to a site. The art and science of restoration are both in their infancy as this new field proceeds with a great deal of trial and error. The forest restoration efforts underway for several years in Central Park in New York City and other urban parks and school sites can serve as models for the kind of work that can be carried out on this campus. The success of such an effort is dependent upon small-scale demonstration areas and continuous site monitoring. By recording and accumulating their observations about the site in an organized fashion, the students, with the help of the teachers, will be able to carry out meaningful applied research on this site. The Miquon Database can be kept largely on the computer and serve as a primary vehicle for integrating various disciplines and classes through the use of the computer in the curriculum. In addition to the mapping done by the students and staff, a significant effort was made to develop a record of existing conditions that would be most informative to those who will use and implement this Master Plan. Because much of the work will be designed and/ or implemented by those who may be less familiar with technical documents, the goal was to develop a very representative set of maps with plans that are relatively easy to visualize. This process began with a new digitized Topographic Survey with one foot contour intervals that was prepared by Urwiler and Walter, Inc. This mapping also confirmed that Miquon's use of the landscape has spilled beyond its boundaries and initiated additional communications with adjacent landowners to resolve potential conflicts. Because of the very intense and small scale use of this landscape, Andropogon developed a more detailed base map to portray the Existing Conditions. The topographic base was enlarged to a scale of one inch equals twenty feet and augmented with site surveys of vegetation, facilities, and ground condition as well as the data provided by the students and staff. These two detailed base maps, which breaks the site into a North and South component, can be easily read by most people. This will be especially important during the implementation phase where the work may be performed by both volunteers and professionals. These maps also serve as a base line record of current site conditions. Over time the steep terrain and limited space of this site has led to the concentration of the movement of both people and water across this site. The students provided excellent information on the journeys of the campus. The patterns of movement are efficient. The real problem is the lack of a wearable surface that can be walked upon without resulting Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

16


in soil disturbance. The entire site is not trampled. Large areas are relatively undisturbed by foot traffic on the steep enclosing slopes of the school's landscape. Because runoff is such a serious problem, current drainage patterns were mapped. This revealed just how much of the rainfall had been diverted down the main roadways by the roof drains and pipes. This information is recorded on the Existing Site Drainage and Circulation map. The mapping of the Existing Ground Conditions revealed how much of the land was covered by bare soil, or mud when wet. Much of this area previously supported turf and was then used as an important play surface. There also is no serviceable path system for much of the campus. Much of the woodland is heavily impacted by uncontrolled stormwater, the pressures of overgrazing and a host of other regional-scale environmental impacts. The most visible symptom is the proliferation of non-native invasive vegetation which suppresses the growth of indigenous species. The following descriptions give the existing character of the major landscape areas of the site. Miquon Entry The vehicular entrance off Hart's Lane is problematic because of its location along a brief flat corner of a steeply sloping rural lane. The entrance and drainage conditions of any proposed modifications to Harts Lane should be carefully reviewed by the School. However, the entrance drive into Miquon remains an adequate threshold into the main campus by creating a narrow roofed corridor leading to light at either ends. The steep east-facing slopes (in excess of 2:1) which flank the entry drive aid in creating a sense of mystery, especially during the summer months when dense vegetation screens adjacent houses and debris, such as broken asphalt and trash-filled bags. Silver maple, boxelder, ash, black walnut, mulberry, dogwood, spicebush and a few Norway maples represent the canopy and understory layers, while multiflora rose and garlic mustard are the dominant groundlayer species. Parking Lot and Upper Field A slight change in grade separates the main parking lot from the upper field area. While the entrance drive is narrow the parking lot is open and its lack of definition anticlimactic. The relative openness and separation from vehicular traffic of the upper field lends itself to congregation as well as recreation and fantasy play. Large individual trees of black walnut, silver and sugar maple begin to enclose the parking area, while the upper field contains varieties of smaller, more ornamental varieties. Upper Campus and Play Areas Small yet well-maintained gardens close to classrooms inject a sense of stewardship. While the highly compacted and unvegetated areas create a shabby appearance yearround. Existing paths are narrow and in poor condition; areas around building entrances are heavily used and periodically flooded.

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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West Slope The presence of overhead electrical wires and unvegetated slopes behind the classrooms contribute negatively to the visual quality of this area. Slopes in excess of 2:1 behind the classrooms are unvegetated except for gardens and erosion is a problem for both the slope and existing buildings. However, the journey from kitchen to art building remains one of the most magical aspects of Miquon. Topographically located slightly below the ridgeline, this path is narrow and gives the user a sense of omnipresence, of seeing without being seen, which was an important characteristic for paths used by native americans who once inhabited these areas. The east-facing slopes in front of the classrooms contain a wonderful array of plant species, including American elm, boxelder, black walnut, black cherry, sassafras and a single London planetree. Spicebush is prevalent and some multiflora rose has entered the areas where the canopy remains open. Passive activities, such as bird watching and placement of art within the landscape occur along the West Slope. Several small channels which originated from direct runoff from the 5th and 6th grade classrooms are also present on this site. Lower Field Area A unique transitional area created by several large white pines occurs between the basketball court and pool area: affording a permanent carpet of soft pine needles, dense cool shade, and lower perceived noise levels. Several rows of hemlock provide dense shade on the eastern portion of the road leading from the pool to the pool house; multiflora rose flanks the western slope. Lower Woodland Area A dense grove of bamboo creates a 'forest within a forest' area which children utilize often. Boxelder, ash, silver and Norway maple, sycamore, dogwood and spicebush are the dominant canopy and understory species; the groundlayer consists mainly of garlic mustard, honeysuckle, bittersweet, and multiflora rose. Again, invasives such as multiflora rose dominate where gaps in the canopy exist. East Slope This area starts at the administration building and follows the stream to its northernmost property boundary, extending up the slope to the residential zone along the easternmost portion of the site. Slopes exceed 2:1 in some areas; in many cases property boundaries can not be distinguished. The stream divides the more heavily used central campus and the East Slope, where woodland paths and open patches in the canopy seem more conducive to fantasy play and observing nature than heavy recreation. Large boulders exposed at the surface prompt physical activity. This area remains heavily wooded except for several breaks in the canopy, such as the nursery and kindergarten play area and long stretches along the stream. A break in the canopy has enabled more invasive species to colonize. Particularly evident is the presence of multiflora rose and stinging nettle in areas where maintenance does not occur, predominantly along the streambank. Several channels which originate from adjacent properties near the administration building empty into the stream near the stone bridge. The maintained turf path connecting the Nursery & Kindergarten play areas to the chicken coop are of a unique character and distinguishable from the more narrow, less Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

18


generous path along the West Slope. Ash, silver maple, and boxelder account for most of the mature canopy species, with many young tulip poplars beginning to fill the gaps; black cherry, dogwood, sassafras, spicebush and a few mulberry are the main edge/understory species; groundcovers include multiflora rose, stinging nettle, garlic mustard, sensitive fern, jack-in-the-pulpit and jewelweed (streambank). Planted species which occur adjacent to the stream near the administration building include willow and dawn redwood.

Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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The Miquon School Whitemarsh Township Montgomery County FA

Ground Conditions (Existing)


Overview of the Master Plan The Miquon Landscape Restoration and Management Plan (North and South) reflects the two major characters of the site: the campus core that is laid out in the flatter open valley of the stream and the steeper, forested hillsides that embrace and enclose the campus core. Crayfish Creek traverses the entire site and is a central feature of the campus. The stream is impacted by uncontrolled runoff, especially where Hart's Lane drainage is intercepted. The campus core is comprised of four kinds of spaces: the entry road and parking lots, the playfields and playgrounds, the transition areas and outdoor rooms around the buildings, and the small gardens and remnant natural areas. On this campus flat ground is at a premium and is intensely used. The largest areas are the playfields and the parking lot while the smaller, nearly level places close to the buildings are used as outdoor rooms. The playgrounds generally occur on somewhat steeper ground while the steepest slopes are typically forested and activity is more confined to the narrow trails that traverse this landscape. The primary objective of the Master Plan is to realize a collective vision of Miquon that reflects its entire history. There are two fears about the landscape; first that it might be changed by a 'new' plan and the second, that it is already changing as the environment degrades progressively. This plan seeks to strike a balance between these fears. It capitalizes on retaining and enhancing the kinds of landscape spaces that have made the vision of Miquon over time. It also relies heavily on the continued participation of the school community in the plan's implementation to ensure that it makes Miquon more 'Miquon'. Before any positive planning for the campus could begin, there were several conflicts of use and long-term goals that had to be evaluated and resolved. The major problems addressed here are related to issues of safety and access. The staff devoted many hours to reconciling these problems and determining how to prioritize planning objectives. Vehicular Safety The following guidelines were adopted regarding vehicular safety on the campus and are reflected in this master plan. The physical changes should be supported by a comprehensive program of safety review. 1. The driveway has been narrowed to reduce the speed of traffic. The proposed traffic lane is 15 feet wide which will allow two cars to pass but will require the buses to proceed one at a time. Two pullover spaces are provided to allow the buses to slow down and wait. The current driveway also narrows to one bus lane at the entry to the parking lot however the buses can and do pass each other all too quickly for much of the driveway length at present.

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2. Only one parking lot has been retained in the center of the campus. It is intended to provide for handicapped access when necessary as well as for those teachers and staff who require proximity to the building. The specific cars there will shift somewhat from day to day. The primary requirement is that these vehicles not be moved during the day. There is no in-and-out allowed from this lot in order to eliminate this source of oncampus traffic. 3. The custodial personnel will be responsible for conveying trash driving to the dumpster site adjacent to the parking lot to eliminate the need for trash vehicles on campus. 4. The fuel oil line has been extended to the parking lot area to eliminate the need for the fuel truck to cross the campus. 5. A hand cart is included in the plan to facilitate deliveries without requiring vehicular access past the parking lot. 6. Collapsible bollards have been placed at the beginning of the access road to the kitchen area to ensure that someone actually stops, gets out of the vehicle and checks the area before proceeding. 7. No new parking spaces have been created. This problem will need to be evaluated next year if the traffic patterns intensify when the option of driving students to school as an alternative to van service is available to parents. It is possible that traffic conditions may worsen significantly in which case the policy and or scheduling, especially in the afternoon, may have to be reevaluated. Widening the roadway to two lanes would not solve the problem because of the bottleneck that would still occur in the interior of the parking area. This is a continuing problem that will require ongoing evaluation. Landscape and Playground Safety Landscape and playground safety has been given a very high priority in this Master Plan and the approach taken has many components. 1. The Playground Safety Audit of existing equipment conducted by Playcare, Inc. serves as a starting point and resulted in a prioritized replacement program which is being implemented by the school and is reflected in the Master Plan.

2. The figures used in the budgets and the layouts on the plan as well as the pieces of equipment featured in the guidebook all meet the safety guidelines set by ASTM and the CPSC. Overall equipment needs and desires as well as the amount of safety surface necessary were used in the cost estimates. The master plan does not detail any of the playground areas; this will be done by the designer who sees each site through construction. Beyond these areas defined by spatial availability and proximity to classrooms, each playground area needs to be studied individually for age group usage and spatial opportunities. Developmentally different and more challenging types of Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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experiences could be provided as the student moves down the hill and through the grades. For example, the student progresses from a sandbox in nursery and kindergarten to a sand pile in the older grades or from swings to the zip wire. There were many concerns raised that safe play equipment would not be as much fun nor would it entail the kind of learning experience that a seesaw provides. The Miquon student is capable and self-reliant. These are values to be fostered rather than ignored. In order to accommodate the strong desire for very steep slides, for example, the Master Plan utilizes several extended landscape slides on steep slopes that minimize the actual danger while allowing for thrills. Other such solutions can be developed where available play equipment does not meet staff and student goals. 3. A maintenance and inspection program is vital. General Playground Maintenance Guidelines are included in the Restoration and Management Manual. In addition to the play areas, an inspection and maintenance program should be developed for the entire campus. This effort has begun in the master planning process and should be continued as a central task of the individual charged with managing the grounds. This is important on a regular basis as well as in the interim before all playground renewals are completed. Because the Miquon environment is so complex and changing it is especially important to develop a habit of observation and monitoring with regard to safety rather than relying on safety specifications alone. Access Despite the inherent difficulties of this site's terrain, several interim goals were established that are reflected in this master plan. 1. Develop a campus path system that provides at-grade, stair-free access to all campus buildings, even if desired grades cannot be met. 2. Provide handicapped parking spaces at the entrance and at the core of the campus with safe access to the path systems. 3. Develop a fully accessible playground in the central campus that can be accessed at appropriate grades. 4. Provide a wheelchair-accessible safety surface as well as transfer platforms for jungle gyms and adaptable swing seats in all play areas. 5. Explore ways of involving people with disabilities in active play opportunities The proposed master plan meets these goals, but because the grades for paths are too steep, the site is not yet in full compliance with A.D.A. accessibility guidelines. It should be assumed that a student attending in a wheelchair may require a full-time attendant. This is what has enabled a camper in a wheelchair to attend the Miquon camp for the past three years. Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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Special Places

Beyond the problems, there are the opportunities that this remarkable landscape offers. Miquon is and has always been a landscape of special places that have all the richness and diversity that is so absent from many more conventional sites. The interview process brought to life many of the great campus spaces of the past. The primary focus of the plan in the larger forested landscape is to restore the natural habitat values of the landscape that also gives place to imaginary play and adventure. The major problems addressed are stormwater, exotics, and overgrazing. The opportunities for integrating various disciplines and grade levels in the restoration effort are limitless. The site can be a central integrating factor of the curriculum. Everyone underscored the need for a complex landscape with spaces of many scales, interweaving both built and natural elements. Such landscapes invite fantasy and imaginative play and do not require the more representational objects that limit the range of possibilities of more object-dependent landscapes. These places are used as classrooms, parlors, game rooms, and the settings for adventure or quiet reading. Some specific additions to the real play space of the campus that are incorporated in this Master Plan include: 1. The area where the vans park during the morning and afternoon loading and unloading period is proposed to be paved for use as a hard-surfaced play space for street games in the midday recess when the vans can be relocated to the lower temporary parking area at the entrance to the site off Hart's Lane. Bollards can be used to cordon this area off from traffic during the day.

2. A platform area for gathering has been replaced in the kindergarten playground. 3. An outdoor room and accessible entry way has been added to each of the classroom buildings. 4. A mobile structure, such as a teepee, has been added to the program. 5. A sequence of benches and other sitting areas have been added to all the transition areas of the campus, for overlooking the more active recreation areas or for simply getting away from it all. These spaces will add greatly to the social space of the campus. 6. Valued structures such as a chicken coop and bird blind have been retained but rebuilt and relocated; the bird blind closer to the creek and the coop closer to the older children who serve as the caretakers. 7. Sites for additional decks and platforms have been designated.

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Proposed Elements

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Landscape Restoration & Management Plan (North)


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The Miquon School, Whitemarsh Township Montgomery County PA

8

Landscape Restoration & Management Plan (South)


Implementation Strategies Throughout the planning and design process there has been a continuous focus on how the master plan will be accomplished and how this landscape will be maintained. Because Miquon has always been very cost conscious and because there are many other important things that also need funding, every effort has been made to develop simple, straightforward design solutions using low-cost and materials and durable construction. Although the major paths, drainage, and roads and parking will require outside contractors, much of the rest of the Master Plan can, and will, be accomplished by parents and other volunteers, students, and the proposed landscape manager. The master plan is intended to provide a framework for the creativity and craft that can be found in the Miquon community to build a terrace or a treehouse or to plant a woodland garden. Several key strategies were developed to facilitate realization of the Master Plan: Develop a part-time staff position for a landscape manager. There are at present two full-time staff positions related to buildings and grounds maintenance. With the retirement of Bill Wanamaker, changes in the present staffing will occur. The following positions are proposed for consideration: 1. A full-time building manager who would be responsible for all building maintenance.

2. A half-time custodial position for daily housekeeping in all the buildings. 3. A half-time position for a landscape manager. This individual will have primary responsibility for carrying out the landscape master plan. It is a fairly innovative position that requires a very special set of skills. The following job description is proposed for this position: • Implement the landscape master plan • Manage small-scale construction contracts • Implement erosion control measures and storm water management • Implement small-scale, exterior paving and construction projects • Initiate a forest and stream corridor habitat restoration program • Coordinate volunteer programs with both adults and children • Keep computer-based management log • Remove snow on walkways, etc. • Conduct periodic safety reviews of the larger landscape The applicant should have experience in landscape construction both on the ground and as a project manager. Computer skills are desirable but not mandatory if the applicant is eager to master these skills. Background in natural science is also highly desirable but is similarly optional if the applicant has a strong desire to learn from Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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nature in a heuristic process. Most importantly, the applicant must understand that their work is on the ground and will be measured by the character of the landscape. Give first priority to the basic infrastructure of paths and drainage. The basic infrastructure of the plan must be in place before many of the components can be implemented. Without stormwater control, erosion damage to almost any improvement is likely. Without adequate access, no groundcover can be maintained. There is a clear first phase that must precede the others that includes the major path system and the completion of the drainage system. The installation of this crucial infrastructure is scheduled for the fall of 1995. This will set the stage for the incremental implementation of the remaining master plan components on a very flexible schedule. This is especially important for do-it-ourselves projects. Give priority to replacing existing playground equipment rather than developing new areas. The Nursery and Kindergarten Playgrounds and the Upper Campus Playground are given priority in the Master Plan despite the clear need for additional facilities for the upper grades. Happily this lack will be partially offset by the Class of 1994 gift to the school is a Ring Maze that will be installed near the Moore Building. This piece of equipment will provide an excellent upper body workout as well as serve as a good social space. Safety surfacing will be installed as well. The completion of the Upper Campus Playground will provide a fully accessible playground that also meets appropriate safety standards. It will also expand the available play opportunities in an area with many overlapping grades. Because the Nursery and Kindergarten Playgrounds are sited at the top of the property and are likely to require the use of some earthworking equipment, it makes sense to proceed with their reconstruction before the new paths and adjacent landscapes are completed. Both playgrounds will be brought into compliance with Consumer Safety Products Testing Guidelines at the same time that the enclosing landscape is renewed and enriched. Develop the Miquon Database One of the major factors motivating the initiation of this master planning process was the growing recognition that the richness of the natural landscape is being lost and that the process of restoring the sites habitats would enrich the curriculum as well as the landscape. Indeed, the success of the restoration effort will be dependent on the extent to which it is integrated with the curriculum. The more those who use the site know about it, the better they can care for it. Habitat restoration depends in large measure on very careful observation of change in the landscape. Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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The students are capable of keeping such records and conducting very useful applied research on restoration. This is especially suitable for computerization and should serve as a major vehicle for using the computer to integrate the disciplines. Permanent sites could be designated which are photographed, or sketched, or measured, or written about, year after year and kept as a log of changing over time. The students, for example, can be mapping the extent of honeysuckle and multiflora rose which, while great for play areas, are threatening to overwhelm many native plants as they spread rapidly across the landscape. Similarly deer exclosures can be used to monitor the impacts of deer while also providing a garden of those species that are disappearing locally due to overbrowsing. Even simply labeling the plants species would begin a process of increasing awareness. This landscape provides a unique opportunity for a natural observatory, where the nesting of birds, the blooming of plants and the many changes in each season are observed and recorded. A log for recording the events of the landscape could be kept in the Bird Blind which has been relocated to a site closer to the stream. The stream, which has always been a central focus of play and learning is equally vital to a restoration effort. There is also a wealth of historical records that would provide information important to the restoration effort. Historical photographs, such as those gathered for the 50th and 60th anniversaries, would help to describe the landscapes of Miquon's past. An especially informative exercise would be to start a Miquon Time Line where the great eras of this site are described, from the prehistoric past when the rocks of the Wissahickon formation were deformed, through the earliest settlement and the Lenni Lenape, through the industrial revolution and the Depression to the present. Looking at this historical record will help us to see more accurately the future of Miquon's landscapes. The Master Plan must be part of a larger coordinated program. A major component of the Master Plan is a Landscape Restoration and Management Manual which is intended to serve as the start of an evolving manual and management log to be kept by the Landscape Manager. The Manual includes, for example, recommended plant lists that will guide incremental planting projects as well as techniques for initiating the restoration of forest and streamside habitats. Also included are sections with the manufacturers specifications for some of the materials recommended in the Manual. The Landscape Restoration and Management Manual is followed by a Landscape Idea Book that includes additional information of examples of play equipment that meet the guidelines established in this Master Plan and well as additional information on many landscape features that might be incorporated in the implementation of this Master Plan.

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Phasing, Project Areas and Budgets The following is a description of each of the major project area of the landscape. The descriptions are keyed to the Proposed Project Areas maps. Each of the project areas can be viewed as a single project or as a package of many projects of varying scales. A summary of the costs of the proposed projects is given in the Appendix. The Board has given priority to the following projects, all of which are included in the Proposed Phase I funding package: • • • •

Project Area 1. Campus Infrastructure Project Area 2. Nursery and Kindergarten Playgrounds Accessibility Improvements, in all Project Areas Special Projects: Project Area 7. The Chicken Coop; Project Area 8. The Ring Maze and Project Area 9. The Bird Blind.

Project Area 1. The Campus Infrastructure The new path and drainage system form the basic infrastructure of the Master Plan. Once in place the other improvements can be scheduled relatively flexibly, except that road improvements should be coordinated with proposed reconstruction of Hart's Lane. The main path loop begins at the parking lot and extends to the Nursery and Kindergarten areas as well as to the Library, Music and Administration Buildings. The proposed paths are asphalt and five feet wide which will allow two wheelchairs to pass each other as well as two adults walking side by side with a child between. A PVC conduit has been included in the proposed path section to provide for eventual fiber optic and computer cabling without additional excavation. Night lighting of the pathway is also included. The proposed Site Drainage Plan is integral to the management of stormwater on the site. The system employs existing pipes and downspouts and new building drainage systems as well as additional piping and a system of drainage swales along the major roadsides. Wherever there is room, a shallow drainage swale parallels the path to carry stormwater. The vegetation will help reduce contaminants in the water while providing a special landscape feature. The shallow drainageways will be planted with lowland vegetation and will serve both as major landscape features as well as opportunities to reduce stormwater flows and reduce the sediment and contaminant loads to the creek. Where there is inadequate space, the stormwater is conveyed in pipes to several places to diminish concentrating flows. No increases to the drainage patterns result from the plan therefore no permitting related to storm water management is expected to be necessary. In fact there is likely to be better on-site retention and an overall reduction in sediment loads.

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Project Area 2. The Nursery and Kindergarten Play Areas The proposed improvements to the Nursery and Kindergarten playgrounds include replacing all of the existing equipment and installing safety surface for all appropriate new equipment. The swings in the Kindergarten area are taller and reflect the desire to vary the experiences from playground to playground in age-appropriate ways. The Kindergarten play area also includes replacing a platform place for sitting and gathering. Upon final design specific differences between the two play areas can be further enhanced. In an effort to maintain the current character which encourages dramatic and fantasy play, no other built elements are proposed in order to retain valuable open space. Additional terrain changes and other landscape modifications may be used to increase the interrelationships with the adjacent natural world. The design development should be closely coordinated with the faculty. Additional plantings are necessary in order to restore the natural setting of the experience of the place. The design development for the Nursery playground will have to address issues related to the fact that much of this site is not owned but is currently rented by Miquon. The answers will in part determine the level of investment Miquon is willing to make. Project Area 3. Upper Campus and Accessible Playground The Upper Campus is perhaps the most changed in the proposed Master Plan with the removal of the parking lot by the Nursery I Kindergarten Building. It is proposed that this space is to be fenced from the roadway and safety surfaced to become a new, fully accessible playground. This will consolidate the play equipment that is now dispersed throughout the area, precluding any useful, open play space. The proposed playground, in conjunction with a second one adjacent to it leaves a large, open, turf play area by the library. This site is not large enough for field games and has been deliberately configured to foster less formal play. The hemlock climbing tree at the corner has been enhanced with an overlook, a climbing apparatus and safety surfacing. The faculty should be closely involved in the final design development of the playgrounds. All of the buildings in this master plan have a space just outside the door that serves as both the entry experience as well as an outdoor room and may have benches, a table, chairs, or whatever else is being used at the time. These spaces may be decks, terraces, or a paved surface like the outdoor rooms we create around our homes. They also provide an opportunity for parents and volunteers to work closely with the faculty and students in developing the final designs. Accessibility will be inherent to each of these extensions of the usable space. An elevation also is included to provide access at the end of the access path to the Kitchen, Nursery and Kindergarten paths. The Nursery lKindergarten Building is enhanced with terraces and other outdoor rooms to increase usable space. Many smaller garden spaces such as the woodland, butterfly and birch tree garden, and the vegetable and perennial gardens are set among the areas of hard surface. The door to the Kindergarten is replaced with a windowed door and, like the Nursery door, is accessible. Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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Project Area 4. Main Parking Area and Entrance Plaza The major goals in the design of the parking area were to increase safety, maintain the number of existing parking spaces and make a more pleasant introduction to the campus. The proposed landscape begins with the dramatic crossing of the stream on a bridge that calls attention to the stream and replaces the existing culvert. The overall layout of the parking area is very similar to the current pattern which is quite efficient. The edges are better contained by a neat stone curb which will help control runoff. The parking area has been improved through better drainage and only slightly modified to provide for safe access to the van drop-off area and the entry to the main walkway. The van parking area will be paved and can be bollarded off, to be used as play space during the day when the vans can be parked at the driveway entrance. A wooden fence is proposed to screen the sewage facility and connect to a new storage shed adjacent to it. The dumpster is relocated within the parking area to provide for a more efficient removal system. There is a proposed drop-off area along the van parking strip where people can walk independently of vehicular traffic. An entry courtyard is provided to the Administration Building adjacent to visitor parking. This area serves as a drop-off point for buses and parents. Signage at this point will direct the visitor to the office and provide information regarding campus accessibility. Additional landscaping will better screen the view of immediate neighbors. Project Area 5. Miquon Entrance and Entry Road Three goals influenced the plan for the driveway: achieving better control over traffic for safety reasons; accommodating stormwater; and creating an entry experience for the campus. The entry design is intended to replicate the historic character of the entrance which was once fenced and lined with large hemlocks along Hart's Lane. The road has been narrowed along its length although it still provides for parking except where bus pull-overs occur. The narrow woodland corridor which begins at the new fence along Hart's Lane continues to the bridge that begins the entrance to the parking area. It traverses the area proposed for restoration of the historic plant communities of the eastern forest. The creek has been heavily impacted by stormwater from Hart's Lane which is carried in a reinforced channel below the driveway. A second smaller channel is under consideration as a means of bringing the school into compliance with the township requirements until flows can be diminished when Hart's Lane is repaved. The school should continue its careful scrutiny of storm water management of Hart's Lane to ensure that current undercutting of the filled area is controlled when the roadway is redesigned.

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Project Area 6. The Upper Field Area The upper field landscape includes the heart of the campus. The open green includes the play barn, amphitheater and the open play area overlooking the parking lot. The main non-classroom buildings including the Library, Music Building, and the Administration Building are located around this space that everyone passes through several times daily. Much of this landscape will be renewed with the completion of Phase I, including the building entrances, paths, and much of the drainage system. In addition, a new climber with safety surfacing is proposed for the small triangle next to the Music Building previously used for parking. The field will also be fenced and returfed. Funding for a moveable structure akin to a teepee is included in this project area. Plans already developed for the renovation of the amphitheater are included in this master plan. The crabapple orchard should be thinned to allow grass to be replanted beneath for play. Several benches have been added to this important transitional space. The play barn is also proposed for expansion with additional features related to fantasy play such as a periscope. A new piece of play equipment with hanging rings provides important upper body work as well as useful social space in what is now an ad hoc parking lot next to the library. It will be fenced off from the roadway and safety surfaced. The upper field which is now wood chips will be renovated to reestablish turf once the drainage has been controlled. Project Area 7. The West Slope Area/Grades 1-6 The location of the 1-6 classrooms determines the major landscape uses of the West Slope. There is no flat land of any size in this area therefore playgrounds for these grades are located in the Upper Campus and in the Lower Field. These buildings especially will benefit from outdoor rooms which extend usable space in this part of the campus. A table and chairs are included in the 5/6 outdoor room. In addition to the terraces at grade which also provide access to the buildings, there is an elevated platform mid-way between the Kindergarten/l classroom in the Nursery / Kindergarten Building and the 1/2 classroom on the West Slope. This 'tree house" will provide shared space for these overlapping. A hammock on the slope adds more smallscale space. On the west half of the roof of the 4/5/6/ Building there is space for a deck. A 'secure' chicken coop and yard, 6' x 8', is proposed adjacent to grades 4, 5 and 6, the age group identified as the caretakers. With the rebuilding of the crumbling retaining wall, the gardens can be reorganized to make better use of the available space. The shadier sites would make ideal habitat restoration nurseries for trees, shrubs, and wildflowers. Indeed the whole West Slope site is well situated for forest restoration because it is so central to the campus. Access is even more difficult but a stairless journey is proposed using a ramp to go from of the kitchen door to the path paralleling the slope and path. The journey can continue Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Master Plan

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to the Art Room via the woodland trail but this functions best as a one way loop to minimize longer, steeper, downhill stretches. In addition, the hazardous concrete stairway is replaced with a more reasonable slide for rapid descent as well as a stair along the front face of the slope to provide more opportunities to access this upper slope area. Project Area 8. Moore and Art Buildings and Lower Field A new playground site is proposed at the base of the lower field for use primarily by the oldest students who at present have no special territory of their own. Complete renewal of the turf playing surface is also proposed. The major drainage problems were corrected several years ago but the grass was not renovated despite a lot of damage and overuse. The new turf will be reinforced with fibers in the soil to make it somewhat more resistant to damage in the future. A gate in the fence allows for parking on this field for special occasions, however, this probably causes most of the damage over time, especially if the ground is wet when parked on. Again, soil reinforcing fibers may help extend the life of the renovations. A climbing wall and rubberized safety surface is proposed for the retaining wall along the front face of the Moore Building as well as tetherball and balance beams. In addition, paving at the entrances will provide accessibility to the main entrance as well as usable outdoor spaces. This site was also proposed for a student art project to be coordinated with a local South Street artist, Isaiah Zabar. The new drainage system will correct the current drainage problems on the Moore Building access road. The Art Building is set in the woods reached primarily by a narrow trail. Vehicular access comes close to the building and with some additional paving could provide additional access suitable for pedestrians because of better traffic control. This road is also currently used for wheelchair access to the Art Building. With the correction of the drainage problems along the path from the road and the addition of some minor paving or stepping stones at the building entrance, most of the building needs can be met. The stored materials outside will be relocated to the storage shed off of the parking area. Because the building is relatively remote the immediate area is especially well used by deer. An exclosure is recommended to allow for a garden in this area that can support those species that would otherwise be decimated by browsing. This deer exclosure will also serve to evaluate relative the impact deer have on the landscape. Some modifications and expansion of the zip wire platform have been proposed by Bill Northcutt to allow for more unsupervised play opportunities. Project Area 9. Restoration and Stabilization Areas The major focus of the streambank and woodland restoration is on faster natural regeneration. This is a slow process that is as dependent on accurate site monitoring as it is on funding for plants and other material. The objective is to allow for the self-design of

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the site to the extent feasible. The following strategies guide the accompanying Restoration and Management Manual. 1. Exotics should be controlled in order to allow for regeneration of native species. This is an especially long term proposal that should be initiated in those areas where there are the fewest exotics. This is intended to protect the native species that still persist on site. As exotics are gradually removed, the natural recoverability of the site will become clearer. Only those species that are not reproducing naturally might be considered for replacement plantings. 2. Because adequate control of the deer population is likely in the region in the near term, it is important to conserve those species that are being devastated by overgrazing. Deer exclosures, both permanent and temporary can be used to allow for natural reproduction and preservation. Simple black netting can be easily affixed to tree trunks to provide small exclosures. A space beneath allows turtles etc. to move freely. Exclosures are also excellent tools which enable the monitoring of impacts which deer have on the landscape. 3. Additional paths and bridges are needed along the stream corridor to provide adequate access for student use. The path system in the woodlands requires only minimal additions to provide stability. Stone construction is recommended for these path improvements. It is in character with the site, durable, and can be as simple as rocks to clamber on for ascending a slope. 4. Limited planting should be the objective because the goal is to optimize natural recovery. The planting of native species throughout the campus, however, will create an excellent source of seeds in the valley. 5. Stabilization of portions of the creek channel is also included.

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Proposed Projects for Phase I 1. Project Area 1 - Cam PllS Infrastmctme

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Proposed Project Areas 2 - 8


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Appendix: Cost Estimates

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Plan

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However, Andropogon cannot guarantee th!,t proposals, bids, or other construction costs will notyary from opinions of probable costs preeared b~ Andropogon. ~ the Owner wishes greater assurance as to the costs, then the Owner shall employ an indeDendent cost estimator. I I I

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Plan

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Plan

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Plan

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Plan

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Plan

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Miquon School Landscape Restoration and Management Plan

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