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Preface This book is part of the project, entitled “Let's Fight Obesity. It's not our Destiny", (FOB). It is carried out by partners from ten European countries and will present the attitudes, motivations and behaviours of European teenagers, in an attempt to help them know the differences and similarities between traditional clothing in different European regions, thus enhancing a respect for history and local, national and European identity. The traditional clothing is a live example that has survived over centuries and has left the proof of an authentic artistic creation for the future generations. The traditional outfit is a precious artistic, social and historical document. The objective of this work is to follow the way fashion evolved in different European countries and along different historical times. It focuses mainly on different motives and traditional clothing and how they are still used in nowadays fashion. It starts with ancient times and goes up to 21st century beauty icons.


This book can be easily used during cross-curricular lessons of History, foreign languages (English), European civilization/ studies.


Contents Bulgaria, During the Middle Ages ................................................ 4 Czech Republic, Fashion Brochure ................................................ 8 Fashion of 10s, 20s and 30s …………………………….... 9 Fashion of 40s and 50s .………………………………..…. 10 Fashion of 60s and 70s …………………...………………. 11 Fashion of 80s and 90s …...………………………………. 12 Germany, Fashion and Human Body Seen Along History in Germany ………………………………………………………….. 14 The Golden Twenties (1924 -1929) ...……………………. 14 Greece, Fashion in ancient Greece ................................................. 20 Shoes of Ancient Greece: Sandals ..……………………… 21 Ancient Greece - Hairstyles for Women ...………………. 24 Greek Battle Dress ………………………………………. 25 Ancient Greece: The Beauty Regime ……………………. 26 Italy, Do you know how fashion have changed our lives? ............. 29 Poland, The Polish Baroque …....................................................... 35 Polish sarmatism …………………………………………. 37 Portugal, Portuguese perception of Beauty before and after the 1974 revolution …...................................................................... 41 1910- First Republic ……………………………………… 41 Twenties and thirties, Forties, Fifties and sixties…………. 42 25 April 1974- The carnation revolution. Seventies and eighties ……………………………………………..…….. 44 Nineties and present times ……………………………….. 45 Portuguese beauty icons ………………..………………… 46 Romania, Romanian Blouse Along History …............................... 47 Slovakia, Clothing in Slovakia ……............................................... 53 Turkey, Turkish Clothing History …............................................. 58 Seljuk Period ……..…………………………………….… 58 Ottoman Period …………..………………………………. 58 Republican Period (1923 - ….) …………….…………….. 61



Bulgarians During the Middle Ages

The First Bulgarian Kingdom was able to defeat the Byzantine Empire in 811 and expand its territory eastward to the Black Sea, south to include Macedonia, and northwest to present-day Belgrade.



The kingdom reached its greatest size under Tsar Simeon (893-927), who ruled over a golden age of artistic and commercial expansion. After moving deep into Byzantine territory, Simeon was defeated in 924.

In the Middle Ages, people usually made their own clothes by spinning or weaving cloth themselves. Sometimes they bought linen to make the clothes they needed. Sometimes they bought linen to make the clothes they needed. Wool was very common at that time. It was sheared from sheep and then washed. Rich people made more expensive clothes from linen or silk.



Sometimes they bought linen to make the clothes they needed. Wool was very common at that time. It was sheared from sheep and then washed. Rich people made more expensive clothes from linen or silk.

Only rich women could afford jewelry. The ornaments were part of the clothing of medieval Bulgarians. They were worn by young and old. The most common jewels were rings, earrings, bracelets, buckles, belt ornaments, belt buckles, necklaces, hair pins etc. The most commonly worn were rings. They were made of copper, bronze, some were silver or gold. 6

Bulgaria Mutton and beef were very common and vegetables were also very popular. People liked eating onions, garlic and herbs that they picked from the garden. People from the Middle Ages ate a lot of grains, such as millet, wheat, oats, barley and rye. Wheat is one of the most important for Balkan at that time. Venetian documents contained evidence that in the 14th century Bulgaria even exported wheat. The meal is another important product of the table of the Middle Ages. Rearing of cattle, sheep, pigs give important part of the meat at the table. Another source of meat was hunting, which was a favorite pastime of the government. Dairy products were very important food for the people of Bulgaria during the Middle Ages.


Czech Republic


Czech Republic, Šenov u Nového Jičína 8

Czech Republic 10s Fashion These years have brought a lot of changes. Women started wearing bras. People started wearing fur from animals. In 10’s was discovered a new style of dresses. (Corset and long skirt tape ring towards the ankles).

20s Fashion In these years were these clothes in fashion: Women wore shorter skirts and started wearing pants. Men and women wore hats and women wore pearls on neck. Make-up: Significant lips, long eyelashes and thin eyebrows. Hair: Short curly hair. Typical colours: Gray, beige and brown. 30s Fashion In the 30s nautical style was trendy. Dress decorated with various patterns (for example – cock track, herringbone). Women wore shoulder pads and dresses highlighting the slender waist. 9

Czech Republic

40s Fashion In these years were these clothes in fashion: People wore the three-quarter coats, tight skirts, dresses with short sleeves, blouses with collars, wedges hoes and berets. Hair: Shingle.

50s Fashion In these years were these clothes in fashion: Women wore dresses by the expanding A-shaped or tapered skirt in the shape of Y. Dresses had emphasis on the wasp waist. People wore suits, high heels and capes. The clothing was colourful and cheerful. Patterns: polka dots, strips, cubes. Hair: Women were inspired by the style of Marilyn Monroe. 10

Czech Republic

60s Fashion Fashion in the 60s was influenced by the hippie movement. Women and men had long hair. The era of hippies brought into fashion colourful tunics, floral patterns, loose shirts, pendant sand beads, bell-bottom sand sleeves. Women often wore miniskirts. They wore shoes with wide heels. Hair: Women wore high buns.

70s Fashion In these years were these clothes in fashion: Clothes were from colourful patterned materials. Women wore miniskirt sand too short shorts. 11

Czech Republic In shops appeared safari jackets, embroidered tunics and balloon coats. Men wore coloured shirts. Hair: People often wore wigs.

80s Fashion Denim jacket was typical for 80s fashion. Also flared trousers (trousers wide at the waist and tapered at the ankle), “plísňáky“, short wide skirts, leggings, short jackets, sweaters, jackets with pads. Favourites were animal motifs, snake skin, zebra or leopard patterns. Typical colours: Significant pink, green or yellow. Hair: A perm (curly hair).


Czech Republic 90s Fashion In these years were popular elastic pants, short t-shirts, jackets with pads, trainers, plaid shirt, denim jacket, balloon skirt. They slowly begin to discover the ethno style, tunics and typically high lace-up boots for a long flowered dress. During the 90s people started wearing retro 60s fashion.



The Golden Twenties (1924 -1929) The “Golden Twenties� is a phrase to describe the period after World War I. It is characterized by sustained economic growth especially in North America and Europe. At that time Berlin was with Paris and London one of the most important cultural centres of the world. 14

Germany The spirit of the “Golden Twenties” in Germany was marked by the development of new technologies (radio, film, cars etc.), a break with traditions and new trends in art.

The lives of German women changed significantly. They were allowed to vote in 1919 for the first time and more and more women went to university and started working in fields which were usually reserved to men. As a consequence of World War I there was a surplus of 2.8 million women. Men were killed in action or often crippled through war – unable to work. 15

Germany So women developed a new feeling of independence. The shy, prudish woman of the Victorian Age (in corsets) belonged to the past. The term of the “New Woman” was created which was a swear word among the German conservatives. The women of the Twenties preferred to look more slender, flat-chested showing lots of skin. They often looked boyish or more like teens than grown women. The women’s hairstyle (the bob cut) underlined their boyish look. Marlene Dietrich was a symbol for this women’s masculine appearance.

Women’s shoes became more sophisticated and beautiful, stressing women’s feet and legs. .


Germany The hemlines of the dresses were rising quickly, reaching the knees by 1928. Daytime dresses hung loosely and were often sleeveless. The Flapper was born. .

Their accessories often cigarettes, very long pearl necklaces, boas etc. aimed to provoke or shock the viewer. Coco Chanel created the feminine standard of the Twenties and was one of their icons: .


Germany The men’s hairstyle of the twenties was very simple. The hair was cut short and could be styled with hair tonic or grease and a comb. Men still style their hair very much in the same way e.g. famous actors such as Leonardo Di Caprio and George Clooney. .

In the early 1920s, men's fashion was characterized by extremely high-waisted jackets, often worn with belts. This style of jacket seems to have been greatly influenced by the uniforms worn by the military during the First World War. Trousers were relatively narrow and straight and they were worn rather short so that a man's socks often showed. Trousers also began to be worn cuffed at the bottom at this time. During the 1920s, men had a variety of sport clothes available to them, including sweaters and short trousers, commonly known as knickerbockers. For formal occasions in the daytime, a morning suit was usually worn. 18

Germany For evening wear, men preferred the short tuxedo to the tail coat, which was now seen as rather old-fashioned and snobby. Men's hats were usually worn depending on their class, with upper class citizens usually wearing top hats or a homburg hat. Middle class men wore either a fedora, bowler hat or a trilby hat During the summer months a straw boater was popular for upper class and middle class men. Even among working-class men the straw hat replaced gradually the standard newsboy cap or flat cap in the mid-twenties.



Clothing in ancient Greece was loose fitting, unlike the tight-fitting outfits worn by those people the Greeks considered barbarians. Both men and women typically wore sleeveless tunics. The women’s tunics were usually ankle length, while the men’s were shorter. For the common person, the color of cloth was plain. Those with the financial resources had their clothing dyed in various colors. During the winter, a heavy wool cloak was worn for warmth. Greeks went barefoot or wore sandals outside the home. Inside the home, they went barefoot. Sandals are an open type of outdoor footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps passing over the instep and, sometimes, around the ankle. While the distinction between sandals and other types of footwear can sometimes be blurry (as in the case of huaraches—the woven leather footwear seen in Mexico—and peep-toe pumps), the common understanding is that a sandal leaves most of the upper part of the foot exposed, particularly the toes. People may choose to wear sandals for several reasons, among them economy (sandals tend to require less material than shoes and are usually easier to construct), comfort in warm weather, and as a fashion choice. Usually, people wear sandals in warmer climates or during warmer parts of the year in order to keep their feet cool and dry. The risk of developing athlete's foot is lower than with enclosed shoes, and the wearing of sandals may be part of the treatment regimen for such an infection .The oldest known sandals (and the oldest known footwear of any type) were discovered in Fort Rock Cave in the U.S. state of Oregon; radiocarbon dating of the sagebrush bark from which they were woven indicates an age of at least 10,000 years. The word sandal derives from the Greek word sandalon. 20

Greece The ancient Greeks distinguished between baxeae (sing. baxea), a sandal made of willow leaves, twigs, or fibres worn by comic actors and philosophers; and the cothurnus, a boot sandal that rose above the middle of the leg, worn principally by tragic actors, horsemen, hunters, and by men of rank and authority. The sole of the latter was sometimes made much thicker than usual by the insertion of slices of cork, so as to add to the stature of the wearer. The ancient Egyptians wore sandals made of palm-leaves and papyrus. They are sometimes observable on the feet of Egyptian statues. According to Herodotus, sandals of papyrus were a part of the required and characteristic dress of the Egyptian priests.

A sandal may have a sole made from rubber, leather, wood, tatami or rope. It may be held to the foot by a narrow thong that generally passes between the first and second toe, or by a strap or lace, variously called a latchet, sabot strap or sandal, that passes over the arch of the foot or around the ankle. A sandal may or may not have a heel (either low or high) and/or heel strap. Shoes of Ancient Greece: Sandals, According to Cosgrove (2000) the arrangement of the sandal straps, worn in Ancient Greece, varied but usually consisted of a broad band across the front of the foot, and a thong between the toes. 21

Greece The thong was sown to the sole about one to two inches from the end. This was pulled through between the first and second toes and sometimes between the second and third toes to meet with four other laces anchored to the sole. The complete intertwined system finished above the ankle. Sandals were worn by both sexes and fastened in varied ways. Straps were both light and elegant, leaving the foot almost bare. Some were purple with piped edges attached to clasps elongated by short cords of plaited leather. Others were simpler, with a fan like spread of straps passing through the toes. The colour of sandals varied and were either worn in the natural colour of leather or dyed red, white, vermillion, scarlet, saffron, green, or black (Yue and Yue, 1997). Female footwear was usually adorned with embroidery, gilt and pearls but commoners wore wooden sandals (Yue and Yue, 1997).Cheap sandals made of wood, felt or linen were worn by countrymen, priests and philosophers and these were called phaecasium. Phaecasium style boots were usually worn during sacrificial ceremonies. These were neat fitting and made from white leather which laced part way down the front and often heavily embroidered.

Chiton was a form of clothing and is a sewn garment, unlike the peplos, a draped garment held on the shoulders by a fibula. There are two forms of chiton, the Doric chiton and the later Ionic chiton. The "Doric" style was simpler and had no "sleeves", being simply pinned, sewn, or buttoned at the shoulder. 22

Greece The "Ionic" style was made of a much wider piece of fabric, and was pinned, sewn, or buttoned all the way from the neck to the wrists and the excess fabric gathered by the zone or girdled at the waist. By the late Archaic, Ionic chitons had become more common, especially for men. Making a Greek Chiton, Both men and women wore the tunic or Greek chiton and it was simply an arrangement of folded and wrapped fabric as shown above and left. Women wore a floor length dress called a Greek chiton. In early times the Doric chiton was made from fabric which was the height of the wearer, plus 12 inches. The width was that of the full open arm span. The fabric was folded as shown in the chiton pattern picture shown right. A is pinned to A and B is pinned to B. The open sides are wrapped around each other and a girdle tied at the waistline with the loose fabric of C at the same level. The gap between B and the side fold will drape when in fabric and become the second armhole. Men mostly for everyday clothing, wore a short knee length Greek chiton although there were times when they wore it long as did the Charioteer of Delphi in 475 BC.Men frequently pinned their chiton on the left shoulder leaving a bare right shoulder. Or, they wore it in much the same two shoulder pinned manner as the woman show right.


Greece Ionic Chiton, The Ionic chiton was made from linen or silk. The advantage of using linen to make the Ionic chiton was that it was much more flexible, the result was that it hung in fine pleats of diaphanous crepon. Delicate muslin was also used. With better materials came more sophistication, and more scope for the Greek fashion elite of the day, for example to create sleeves. As a result, Ionic chitons used more material and were fitted with fibulae on the shoulders. The Ionic Chiton attracted more accessories from the Greek fashion forward of those days, in particular they added brooches to confer wealth and status. From a costume history concept of fashion repeating itself, the fine pleated look of the Ionic chiton was revived by the Edwardian fashion designer Fortuny who created Delphos tea gowns. Women adored Fortuny gowns because not only were they very relaxed and comfortable, but also showed off their feminine attributes. Colours for Ancient Greek clothing were not just white or natural as was first thought. While paint had worn away from statue evidence, further investigation showed the women of ancient Greece wearing several colours such as yellow, red, purple, blue or green. Ancient Greece - Hairstyles for Women, Over the centuries hair dressing was important to create various complex updo hairstyles. Women used gold, silver hair pins, cone headdress and tiaras. Young girls used fresh flowers and ribbons. Only boys and women had long hair and men cut their hair once they became youths. Plaiting, crimping and waving of female hair as well as decoration with pins, tiaras and bands is well illustrated in Greek imagery and is shown left. 24

Greece Popular styles involved tying the hair up with a fabric scarf, adding ribbons or garlands when a young woman or wearing a 'Stephanie' metal head dress. When making costumes for fancy dress parties always remember the golden rule of getting the hair and feet as near as the style worn to match a costume. Ancient Greeks mostly went barefoot although some wealthy people did wear sandals. Courtesans wore gilded sandals. Greek Battle Dress, Greek warriors of battle wore tunics of leather with metal plaque reinforcements. Helmets and leg protection called greaves added more skin coverage. Read and see more battle dress, helmets and shields on the Greek battle dress web page. The metal battle dress itself was valuable since it had to be crafted by skilled metalworkers. The higher the rank the better the dress armour and shield was crafted, and possibly, the more protective it became. Some of the decorative metal elements paid homage to favourite Gods the Greeks thought would take care of them in battle and in the after life. One characteristic of the Greek helmet was that it almost totally enclosed the head and sometime had moveable sides, (but no visor) enabling the soldier to push back the face cover when at ease. 25

Greece Horsehair crests made the helmet an impressive sight. Several are shown here. Greek light infantrymen wore double felt or leather tunics and leather greaves. All wore the Chlamys in battle (see above) as a cloak or as a left arm wrap for battle blows protection. Greek male battle dress shares a similarity with Roman battle dress.

Ancient Greece: The Beauty Regime

Bathing rituals in Ancient Greece There seems to be an endless pursuit of adhering to the 'ideal of beauty', which can be charted through the various strategies that women have used to achieve it. Before the arrival of ready made cosmetics, women found a multitude of tricks and recipes to acquire the look of the day. The women of Ancient Greece took great pride in their physical appearance and it all started with their beauty regime. 26

Greece Women would start their routine with a bath, before applying a variety of oils and perfume to their skin. Honey and olive oil were used heavily, on their body, hair and in cosmetics for their moisturising properties. Ancient Greek women wore their hair long and had a preference for it to be golden. This was achieved by using a vinegar solution that bleached the hair in the sun, or a yellow flower dye. Soap, pomades and wax were also used to give the hair shine. To enhance the texture of the hair, Hellenistic women often curled their hair and held it in place with combs. They used different embellishments and veils also. Gold and semi-precious stones were used as were diadems and flowers. A diadem was an ornamental headband primarily worn by the upper classes and royalty, if adorned with gems and gold. Scents were used in the hair and were made my boiling flowers, herbs and spices and mixed with olive oil. In the classical period, women only cut their hair during periods of mourning. Hair played a role as a social communicator and also emphasised class differentiation, as only slaves wore their hair short. Hairstyles Many museum collections hold unguentariums, which are small jars or glasses that contained an unguent preparation or oils. An unguent is a soothing paste used on the skin, for topical injuries such as burns and rashes. They also prepared mixtures of medicinal powders and syrups called electuaries, the ingredients of which sometimes included aloe, cinnamon and honey. Unguents and electuaries were often applied to the skin or taken orally after bathing. 27


Beauty routine Ancient Greek women preferred a natural appearance and rich women used make-up to create their desired look. Pale skin was fashionable at the time, and women used white lead or chalk to lighten their skin. It is astonishing to think that lead was used on the skin, with its very harmful and potentially fatal properties. If women used it frequently, it would have surely caused early deaths. Most of us can attribute this to the adage of 'ignorance is bliss' but it is rather disturbing to think that lightening creams are still prevalent today. Although not as damaging as lead, but still very dangerous. Lipstick was also worn and made up of red iron oxide and clay, a similar red powder was also lightly used on the cheeks. Distinctive eyebrows were held in high regard and dark pigments were used to darken their eyebrows and to create a connected brow (unibrow). Eye shadows were also made with charcoal and oil. Women in Ancient Civilisations clearly took their beauty routines very seriously with some very clever ideas and preparations. Another aspect of Ancient Greek life that I am fascinated with, is of course the costume and the beautiful drapery of that time. Look out for an upcoming post where I will be commenting on the divine fashions of Ancient Greece and its depiction in Classical and Hellenistic sculpture. 28


The 50’s can be considered a rebirth period. Is the decade of rock ’n’ roll, blue jeans, t-shirts and the first bikinis. During the 50’s there is a mix of styles from that of the perfect American housewives to the exuberant one of pin-ups.

All the attention is focused on women, and their narrow waist! How? With skirts below the knee and cinched at the waist, with wide belts or high-waist jeans always accompanied with not so high heels or ballet flats. It was important to be classy and elegant and, not to be exaggerated!



Leather jackets, white tshirts, jeans shorted above the ankle and the tuft like Elvis Presley, become a must have for men.

After the 50’s fashion, let’s discover the 60’s fantastic world, made of colors and geometric figures.

the key player is the miniskirt created by Mary quant, who innovated the female wardrobe forever. From that moment girls wear miniskirts or trapezoidal short dresses decorated with circles or squared patterns. 30

Italy After the 50’s fashion, let’s discover the 60’s fantastic world, made of colors and geometric figures.

This is also the period of Hippies, also called “Flower children”, who express their ideals of freedom and peace, through coloured and flowered clothes.

For sure Fashion isn’t born today. Since the old French women wore very short skirts to show their freedom and men bought more expensive clothes to compete with nobility. The main change happened since then is the influence between society and fashion. It has become our identity card! Think about the aesthetic rules, about the skinny body proposed by fashion and which we try to reach without acceptance of what we are in nature. 31


We know. Having a perfect body is not for everyone. For this reason fashion influences our lives, can hurt us and makes us fall ill. This obsession comes also from advertising images and magazines. But, have we ever thought about the consequences? The body becomes a social object. Society produces bodies, stereotypes and give us fixed roles to follow.


Italy This image is not so innovative, in fact even the 50’s advertisements showed women given to housework and to family.

Since then, women fought to change their destiny and they reached some goals about their independence and their image. But these changes involved just a small part of women not all over the world and some of them had already vanished due to our times fashion. Think about the fact that every commercials show female body, almost naked to promote selling. Bodies shown in these advertisements represent the idea that men have of women. Lots of people follow these false ideals, male and female without any distinction. For the recent fashion standards, people have to be thin and muscular,


Italy so they are on diet and in the worst of the cases they become ill of two opposite illnesses: ANOREXIA or OBESITY.

People enter in an endless tunnel, no-one can understand their position so people don’t eat in case of anorexia.

Or eat too much in case of obesity. For these reasons commercials should show real healthy bodies and encourage people. Dark days of “sick bodies” have to come to an end. It’s time to say:




The Polish Baroque


Poland The Polish Baroque lasted from the early 17th to the mid18th century. It emphasized the richness and triumphant power of contemporary art forms. The Polish Baroque was influenced by Sarmatism, the culture of the Polish nobility. Fluffy ladies with big bellies, thick shoulders, large buttocks, wide hips and heavy thighs dominated not only the paintings of Paul Rubens, but also many painters of his time. Everything completes the layer of unsightly folds, enveloping every part of the heroines’ body. All of this is thanks to the courage and boldness poses (no clothes, bold, defiant pose). But we realize that these fluffy ladies are not just a fancy taste of the famous painter, but also - the canon of female beauty. As we can see, women didn’t worry about their round shapes. On the contrary, women usually smile, they do typical activities for them. They didn’t care about their nudity, overweight and unsightly cellulite. Baroque returned to ancient Egypt’s makeup. Women were strongly powdering to brighten the face, wearing elaborate wigs, creating a storm curls around a small round face. They found long dresses with lots of ruffles and flounces, and with deep necklines (because nudity was reserved for art), 36

Poland and corsets were compressing the waist, in addition exhibited ample bosom. They also liked lots of jewelery and all kinds of ornaments. All this made a collective effect of a number of foreign travel, culture fascination with the unknown so far, and thus - a blend of many styles and trends. The image of women was almost the same both in painting and in poetry. Women loved fun, they weren’t constant in their feelings, their whole life was acceptable and all-night feast in the company of men.

Polish sarmatism For much of the 17th and 18th centuries, the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth was the largest European state. It may have been on a course for disaster – “a beautifully phosphorescent rotheap,” as it was described – but there were still moments of glory as late as 1683, when King Jan Sobieski helped save Vienna – and Christendom – from the Turks.


Poland The Polish nobility cultivated the notion that they were descended from an ancient warrior tribe, the Sarmatians, hence the love of oriental splendour and finery. The Sarmatian era was one of the most colourful in Polish history, even though excess, coupled with political inertia, eventually proved the undoing of the state. “Za Króla Sasa, jedz, pij i popusczaj pasa!” (“Under the Saxon King, eat drink and loosen your belt!”) runs the well-known adage. The man wore a jacket, which fetched a strap or belt to the leather pants (loose or baggy ) , and boots of soft leather with a short upper. Headgear was pointed by a cap called “baszłyk”. The coat was clipped together on the left shoulder. For “żupan” (long dress for men with leaves) men usually would put a long robe with beaded collar, which was not fastened and was worn only by nobility. One of the characteristics of the coat are cut sleeves, called outlets. They can be blamed either on his back or put his belt. Robe was sewn in colour that contrasted with Zupan. The belt, which became one of the most characteristic part of the Polish outfit, was richly decorated and very long (from 2.5 to 4 meters ) . A cap was also an important element of the costume. On the front of the cap a decorative brooch feather was attached. The cap was removed to express homage or welcome. 38

Poland Shoes, that were worn every day, were manufactured of leather, which was dyed to yellow colour, then lubricated with wax to be protected from water. Shoes were put on together with long boots, which were folded and decorated with embroidery and embossing. On the other hand, shoes worn by people from lower social classes were dyed black, and they were made of wood. According to the prevailing rules underwear should have not been shown. It was usually done of canvas and its style was very simple and did not include ornaments or lace. On the feet instead of socks “onucy”, made of pieces of fabric, have been used. The wealthier nobles wore żupan in red (crimson) , peasants’ and poorer nobilities’ żupans were grey , with undyed wool, and Jews wore black clothes. Ladies in the first half of the seventeenth century assumed frilly neck or also headgear ( after leaving home). In the second half of the seventeenth century there was a great revolution in women's clothing – the neck had been exposed. The basic outfit of women were long dresses that had sleeves reached the wrist.

Married women, especially young ones, wore bright clothes or clothes with bright colours, mature ladies wore robes in black, and wore caps on their heads. Young ladies could walk with their head uncovered or belted Garland , they could also wear sleeveless bodices. 39

Poland Married women, especially young ones, wore bright clothes or clothes with bright colours, mature ladies wore robes in black, and wore caps on their heads. Young ladies could walk with their head uncovered or belted Garland, they could also wear sleeveless bodices. ”Giezła” was a simple and long shirt which resembled a petticoat. Sarmatians were believers, therefore, an integral part of women's clothing was a medal or a cross. The richer ladies wore jewelry. Outer garments used by women were woolen coats, which were decorated with fur. Authors: Polish students from ’’II Liceum Ogólnokształcące z Oddziałami Dwujęzycznymi im. Adama Mickiewicza w Słupsku’’



Portuguese perception of Beauty Before and after the 1974 revolution

1910- First Republic The beginning of the XX century was defined by the end of the monarchy in Portugal and the First World War. Women started to have new roles in the world of work, therefore their outfits became more practical.


Portugal Twenties and thirties


After the war, women started to get more freedom, the length of the dresses started to be on their knee; it was the first time that women’s legs could be seen in public. Their makeup was strong, lips were painted red in heart shape and they used eyeliner and shadow on their eyes. Short straight hair was common at that time.

In the forties, due to the second world war and the dictatorship in Portugal, fashion became more simple and colours were more connected to black. The forced simplicity of the clothes aroused an interest for new models of hats.

Fifties and sixties With the end of the war, women became more feminine, glamorous and sophisticated. They used high-heels, gloves, accessories, jewelry and fur. Women’s body became more round and feminine. With the dictatorship, the sixties didn’t have such a big impact in Portugal as in other countries.



Image was a key factor in the course and consecration of Amália Rodrigues. An extremely unusual voice, a great photogenic a very refined intuition, an innate sense of elegance and a clear intelligence and learning ability were the determining factors in building their own image, absolutely iconic, in which costume and jewelry played a fundamental role. We can say that there is a "Before" and "After" Amália, as “Fado” reached an unprecedented social status, being recovered and officially consecrated as the true picture of Salazar's regime itself, and also of the democratic republic that followed it.


Portugal "My Lady / Our Lady / Our Lady of Portugal " - are Ary dos Santos’ verses mapping the portrait of Amália, the definition of an image of Portugality to which Amália contributed so much . The image of the singer , followed by many Portuguese women, acquired an unprecedented media coverage. Before the Diva , the image of the fado singer was a sloppy , careless and transgressive woman; now the singer is full of respectability and sophistication with a cosmopolitan and international look.

25 April 1974- The carnation revolution Seventies and eighties


Portugal The disco burst after the revolution with big moustaches and long hair and freedom was in the air. The eighties brought the blend of trends and ambiguity proving that fashion has no boundaries and it is a projection of ideas, dreams and aspirations – everything is possible in the world of creation. Nineties and present times In the nineties teenagers won space with brands and began to change style a lot. Tattoos and piercings were very popular. The more pluralistic fashion, spurred own individual style, giving clues to the new millennium. Fashion is now international as Portuguese people wear the same brands. Look is more natural and everybody wants to look youngusing medical and technological resources to delay ageing.



Portuguese beauty icons



Romanian Blouse Along History

As a part of the Romanian history and civilization, the traditional clothing is a live example that has survived over centuries and has left the proof of an authentic artistic creation for the future generations. The traditional outfit is a precious artistic, social and historic document. Stitching is an old skill. The decorations of shirts and trousers date from the time of the Thracian-Dacian tribes, around 2500 years ago.


Romania The origins of the designs on the traditional Romanian clothes need to be searched in the remote past. This art must have started long time ago since these designs have reached the peek of development. Proofs of the origins of the Romanian clothing can be found on the of Trajan’s Column in Rome and on the Adamclisi monument. Metopes of Dacian shirts can be seen on this monument, the same ones that Romanian women still wear nowadays, especially in the northern part of the country ( Moldova and Bucovina).

Kerchiefs and aprons exquisitely decorated can be found in other folk costumes belonging to neighbouring countries, but only the Romanians consider the traditional blouse as the most important piece of clothing, all the other ones having to be matched with it. The embroideries on the sleeves are inspired by nature, in perfect balance with the Romanian spirit.


Romania The costume made by the Romanian peasant woman is about her everyday life. It isn’t designed as a simple piece with practical use, but also as an expression of beauty and art, a materialization of talent and love for the nature amongst which she was born. Its preservation was a means of protest against the oppressors. The decorations on the costume indicate the source of inspiration of the peasant woman: the leaves and flowers on the field, the birds, the people, the animals. She knows how to present them in a way in which through the simplest lines she renders the essential with a high purity of expression. In linguistic terms, “ie” (the Romanian blouse) comes from the Latin “tunicae lineae” (a flax thin tunic ).

The specific blouse for the outer Carpathian regions is inspired by plain landscapes, which have been very generous in motifs with the Romanian people over the history. Even if we take into consideration men or women clothing, we notice common patterns such as wheat ear, wild carnations, cockscombs, as well as tulips, roses, peonies and thistles. In the background there are geometric forms. 49

Romania Not only do the decorations of the blouse bring the Romanian people closer to nature, but also the materials used. The “eco” production of flax, hemp, cotton and even silk for the blouse material and the specific decorations respect the nature’s capacity to give limited quantities of materials, even though this made the manufacturing process harder and resulted in a limited number of woven shirts in each household. Nevertheless, the difficulty itself to make a more special blouse, made it so much more admirable, desirable and showed the place in the social hierarchy of the village life.

C. Popp de Szatmary, Nicolae Grigorescu, Theodor Aman’s paitings are just as precious, depicting the country side men and women wearing simple, traditional but picturesque and pristine costumes.


Romania The Romanian blouse has also a powerful spiritual meaning because the magical patterns carefully sewn, with each stitch, were meant to protect the owner from evil spirits, witchcraft and evil fate. The young girls would inherit from their grandmothers or from their mothers not just the art of the popular craft but also the appropriate incantations which were said before the beginning of spinning wool, weaving or knitting.

The traditional blouse is regarded as one of the most valuable objects of the Romanian traditional culture, as well as worldwide. International fame is due to its beauty and simplicity but especially to the publicity which it received indirectly from Queen Maria, who, while touring the United States of America in 1926, wore exclusively Romanian blouses made of precious materials, embroidered and accessorized according to the inter-war fashion, but which kept their traditional and unique character. This triumph of Romanian originality has been restated over the years.


Romania Henri Matisse one of the biggest painter of the 20th century, paints a Romanian blouse in 1940: “La blouse roumaine”/The Romanian blouse. The fashion of the Romanian blouse returned most important Fashion Weeks in North America and West Europe. The integration of the Romanian culture in sophisticated haute-couture collections, such as Yves Saint Laurent’s “ La Blouse Roumaine”, Tom Ford’s, Jean Paul Gaultier’s , Oscar de la Renta’s, made this blouse very popular among youth. In order to honour this symbol which testifies, on one hand, the ancient traditional relationship between the Romanian people and nature, but also the beauty and simplicity of silk embroidered clothes, 24th of June is considered the International Day of the Romanian Blouse, on which occasion we are all invited to wear, at least for a few hours, Romanian traditional clothing.



CLOTHING IN SLOVAKIA Slovakia was poor rural country in the past in spite of each village had own folk costume which were decorated during long winters. The costumes served as a protection against climate change and they also identified people from different villages. Nowadays, the country has not too much population, but its small population is divided into many regions and each region keeps its own cultural identity and significance. The Slovak people have splendid treasure of folk dances, music, art, dialect and traditional costumes. The traditional costume of Slovakia has the influences from the medieval style of clothing that was gradually altered with different patterns, designs and modifications. The origin and development of the folk costumes were affected mainly by domestic raw materials, the type of work and employment, social class and nationality, religion and belief, contact with foreign countries and historical fashion of the higher social class. The biological characters, sex (men, women), age (children, youth and adults), the status and belonging to the family (single, married, widows). Geographic environment and climatic conditions had an important influence on traditional clothing in Slovakia, too.


Slovakia Slovak traditional costumes were made of: leather, fur, skin, lane, hank, sheep wool. Typical colours on Slovak costumes were: Red, White, Yellow, Blue, Black. Men’s traditional wear was fashioned to the town style of the period and the accessories included narrow trousers, tight waistcoat, jacket tapered to the waist. The oldest parts of the male clothing are the canopy shirt and breeches, cloth trousers and various kinds of three-quarter and long coats of fur, capes and caps.

Women’s traditional dress was characterized by a long, large skirt and a white blouse with large sleeves tapered to the wrists. From canopy is the underskirt, shirt, apron, skirt, cap, wool prons, cloth three-quarter jackets and coats. This also included shoes and coiffure.


Slovakia In the lowland areas of Slovakia, people usually preferred linen and the costumes were of loose nature while in the mountainous areas, woolen textiles and furs were also used and the clothing was fashioned more tightly. Decoration and embellishment with embroidery remained a prominent feature and the bodice and bonnet were made with precious materials. Sometimes for more festive clothes, the services of many eminent painters were hired to color the costumes. White, red and blue colors remained very popular throughout the Slovak folk costume culture. The changing occurred due to the foreigners that used to come in the region and the historic fashion trends in the clothing were evolved. New kinds of raw materials were introduced in the region and variations were brought according to the geographic and climatic need as well.


Slovakia Like other European countries, the importance of the national costume in today’s Slovakia was flourished during the 15thcentury Renaissance. Later on the French revolution and under the Habsburg Monarchy, Hungarian culture both put their cultural influences on the region’s clothing. But it would not be wrong to say that the dire need of having an own national costume was reached to its peak after the end of Bach’s absolutism. At the end of the 19th century Slovak costumes had about 60 variations. Costumes varied according to the decorative elements that were placed on the male and female garb, in embroideries, tissues, laces and in their techniques, ornaments and color. The traditional Slovak costume lost its importance after the World War II and its consequences accelerated the gradual transition from the traditional costume to urban clothing, which in the mid-20th century infiltrated into all regions of Slovakia. Nowadays, the urban clothing is dominant also in villages and the traditional costume became only the part of folk events, theater presentations and festive occasions. Apart from today’s stage costume, the traditional dress of Slovakia is really symbolic in the cultural heritage of the country. It can be seen during folk days, folk festivals and in some villages where few very old women still wear it casually. 56


Our students are wearing modern clothes with infiltration of traditional folk symbols into nowadays fashion.

Traditional folk costumes versus urban style of nowadays clothing 57


The knowledge about Turkish clothing has been learned from the miniatures, the mural paintings in central Asia, and also diaries containing detailed accounts of the travellers’ experiences. Before setting Anatolia, Turks used to wear clothes made of leather and fabric. The desings were appropriate to riding and mobility.

SELJUK PERIOD Women used to wear caftans, feraces (bolero) combined with narrow sleeved cardigans, shalwars and also dresses called “Üçetek”. The clothes were mainly made from wool, cotton and silk. Different colours were used, preferably the shades of red and green. Leather, fabric and metal belts were tied on the waistline. As an important part of dressing, boots and shoes were designed according to the needs and social status. Ladies used to wear fancy boots. When boots not preferred, sandals and cediks were worn instead. Seljuk clothing and adornment fundamentals of Ottoman Period.




OTTOMAN PERIOD Unfortunately, we don’t have enough and reliable information about clothing from the establishment of Ottoman State to the conquest of Istanbul. Clothing in Ottoman Period has been learned from the miniatures and the clothes which have been preserved in Ottoman Palaces. 58

Turkey In addition, The diaries of European travellers give us details about the issue. In Ottoman Empire there were different religious communities like Islam, Christianity and Judaism throughout the borders. They had their own style of clothing. Besides, the clothing of merchants, soldiers, courtiers, clergies and reasonably residents of Topkapı Palace used to vary, considerably in fabric, adornment and materials. Similarly, age, gender, rank would affect clothing properties. The main women’s clothes; 1) Dresses a) Dresses worn with shalwar b) Dresses worn without shalwar 2) Shalwar 3) Skirts and jackets

Example 1 : A dress called “Üçetek”


Turkey Example 2: A dress worn without shalwar. It’s called “Bindallı” made of velvet with golden and silver coloured adornments.

Example 3: These clothes made of thin fabric with patterns on them were particularly worn in cities.

As for the fur, it was significant in Ottoman Period. It was brought from Russia and widely sold particularly in Istanbul. In that period, fur didn’t use to be sewed outer side of caftans. On the contrary, It used to be sewed inside.



Example 4 : Ladies used to wear long sleeved cepken - a kind of jacket – with shalwar.

As to hats, they were important in women clothing. Ladies used to wear hats both outside and inside of houses. Hence, there were variety of hats with different properties. Those were called “fez, takke, hotoz, arakçin, tas, tepelik”. The settings of them would indicate the social status of people. With the help of such hats and settings people could understand ladies marital status. In some areas of the Empire, the number of golden coins used to display the years of marriage. Likewise, people would also identify women who were engaged or widow by looking hats and their settings.

REPUBLICAN PERIOD (1923 - ….) When examined history of Turkish Republic, the year 1925 proved to be very important. The law of “Men’s wearing modern hats instead of fez” was accepted in 1925. As a result of revolutions in public life, the social statue of women started to rise. As a consequence, they have been able to dress as fashionably as the ones in western societies. 61


Example 5: General outline of women clothing in 1923. Example 6: General outline of women clothing in 1924.

Example 7: General outline of women clothing in 1928. 62



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