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Along Silk Road: Architecture's Role and Adaptation in Confronting Intractable Environmental Issue

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Abstract The first recalled impression of majority on the legendary Silk Road on all occasions, having a magnificent stage as background as deserts: Sand dunes, camels, aridity, caravans, oasis- perceiving the fascinating scenery and inviting views of landscape are impressive moments. Nevertheless, going beyond the limit is as bad as falling short when the deserts are currently expanding on a burgeoning pace, as soon to submerge human civilizations. According to United Nation's Research in 2011, each year 12 million hectares are lost (which is a frightening figure of 23 hectares/ minute) due to drought and desertification, where 20 million tons of grain could have been grown. Silk Road have been given concern by the world and recently, the environment issue of desertification happening along it needs global involvement and urgent solutions. Sometimes architecture's role in confronting these disasters are always being low regarded, but in fact the proposals have possibilities and potential to be influential and effective towards environmental aspects. In a nutshell, the thesis is overall an environment-emphasized research, to discuss and locate possibility of the role of architecture in the international effort on confronting desertification in a sustainable measure or system and to answer the main question: How to establish sustainable architecture and development design in coordination with palliation effort on desertification issue?

Figure 1: Crescent Lake at Dunhuang, China: The 2,000 year-old oasis was shrinking fast due to desertification and eventually Chinese government were forced to fully refilled and maintain it with pure spring water as a tourist attraction. Source: http://www.thepaper. cn/newsDetail_ forward_1613492

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Content Abstract

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Acknowledgement

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Part I Research

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1.0 Definition

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1.1 Desertification

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1.2 Land Degradation

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1.3 Drought

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1.4 Desert

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1.5 Recall of Desertification

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2.0 Methodology 2.1 Dryland Classification

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2.2 Evaluate Desertification

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3.0 Factor & Process

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3.1 Drivers of Desertification

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3.2 Process of Desertification

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4.0 Area Affected: Silk Road 4.1 Overall condition

5.0 Influences of Desertification

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5.1 Current Conditions and Facts

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5.2 Influences on Silk Road area

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5.3 Stakeholders

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6.0 Solutions and Efforts

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6.1 The UNCCD

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6.2 Common Prevention & Restoration

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6.3 Precedent Studies

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Part II Proposal

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7.0 Experimental Research Project- Hotspot: Dasht-e Kavir, Iran

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8.0 Site

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8.1 Desertification in China

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8.2 Site Selection

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8.4 Issues to tackle

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8.5 Urban Study

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9.0 Idea

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9.1 Initial idea

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9.2 Programme mapping

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9.3 Space arrangement

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9.4 Strategy on sustainability

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9.5 Success Criteria Evaluation

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9.6 Urbanism process

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10.0 Design Bibliography

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Acknowledgement I would first like to thank my thesis advisor Professor Peter Ruge of the Anhalt University Department 3 at Dessau International Architecture Graduate School, Hochschule Anhalt. The route to Prof. Ruge was always open whenever I ran into a trouble spot or had a question about my research or writing. He consistently allowed this paper to be my own work, but steered me in the right the direction whenever he thought I needed it. I would also like to acknowledge Prof. Krassimir Krastev of the Anhalt University Department 3 at Dessau International Architecture Graduate School, Hochschule Anhalt as the second advisor of this thesis, and I am gratefully indebted to his very valuable comments on this thesis. I would also like to thank the experts who were involved in the validation survey for this research project. Without their passionate participation and input, the validation survey could not have been successfully conducted. Special thanks to Kwong Chia Ching, final year student of the National ChiaYi University Agriculture Department, Taiwan who have been interested to answer my questions regarding scientific and practical matters on agriculture. Besides, I would like to thank all the other 3 members involved in CAD Logic Experiment Project for their hard effort in research and proposal. Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my family and friends for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study and through the process of researching and writing this thesis. This accomplishment would not have been possible without them.

Sia, Hong Rui (Alex)

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1st Advisor: Prof. Peter Ruge 2nd Advisor: Prof. Krassimir Krastev Student: Sia, Hong Rui (Alex) CAD Logic Experiment Project Team: Lee Kim Yoong Tan Khai Wei Sia Hong Rui Matthew Wong


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"I don't divide architecture, landscape and gardening; to me they are one."

-Luis Barragรกn

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1 DEFINE What are desertification and the history of this natural phenomena regarding the Silk Road?

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Part I Research 1.0 Definition What are desertification and the history of this natural phenomena regarding the Silk Road/ Silk Route? Concept of desertification is wide-ranging and not a fresh issue. The first reference to this process can be found in the Codex Theodosianus (438 AD.) with several references to the agri deserli or abandoned zone because of its low productivity or as consequence of military campaigns. At the scientific level, Aubreville (1949) used this term for the first time to refer to soil degradation processes in tropical humid zones. (Kepner, William G., Jose L. Rubio, and David A. Mouat, eds. 2005) 1.1

Desertification

Helmut Geist (2005) has identified even more than 100 definitions as the term 'desertification' are controversial over scientific field, and a widely accepted definition is described by the Princeton University Dictionary as "the process of fertile land transforming into desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper/inappropriate agriculture". The most recognized definition of desertification is neatly defined in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in 2012, as: "land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid regions resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities". To understand thoroughly on the issue, relationship between desertification and land degradation, drought are inevitable to be included in research. 1.2

Land Degradation

UNCCD (2012) further defined 'Land degradation' as: Reduction or loss, in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest and woodlands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as: 1. Soil erosion caused by wind and/ or water; 2. Deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil; and 3. Long-term loss of natural vegetation; 1.3

Drought

'Drought' means the naturally occurring phenomenon that exists when precipitation has been significantly below normal recorded levels, 10

causing serious hydrological imbalances that adversely affect land resource production systems. (UNCCD 2012)


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Figure 2: Desertification in Zaranj, Nimroz, Afghanistan Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

Figure 3: Tehran has already run out of its local source of drinking water, as a burgeoning population and drought takes its toll. Photo: Amir Hossein Khouzestan Source: http://en.isna.ir/

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1.4

Desert

Deserts cover around 25,500,000 km2, approximately 20% of the land area of the world. (Ramawat 2010) A place that receives less than 25 centimetres (10 inches) of rain per year is considered a desert. (Harris 2003) Deserts are large bands of dry lands along the tropics in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres (Mares 1999; Middleton and Thomas 1997). The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has prepared a map of the extent of world deserts (Middleton and Thomas 1997). Deserts cover around 25,500,000 km2, approximately 20% of the land area of the world. The boundaries of these deserts, which are constantly changing due to various climatic and human factors, are likely to drift over the next century as human-induced global warming takes effect. The defining characteristic of world deserts is aridity. The current UNEP definition of desert is a moisture deficit under normal climatic conditions where P/PET <0.20, i.e. where rainfall is less than 20% of potential moisture loss through evaporation (Smith et al. 1995). There are basically 4 types of deserts defined by its origin and factor of formation:

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High-pressure deserts; High air pressure area means air sinks. This is known as the Hadley Cell.

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Up-welling deserts: Some deserts are found on the western edges of continents. They are caused by cold ocean currents, which run along the coast.

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Rain-shadow deserts: Air is forced to rise over mountains, air cools and condensation occurs, rain falls over the mountains, dry air sinks down the other side of the mountain.

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Mid-continent deserts: Some deserts form in areas that lie at great distances from the sea. The air here is much drier than on the coast. (BBC)

To classify type of desert by its climate, there are 4 types as well explained by Pullen in 2004: Hot and Dry desert, Semiarid desert, Coastal desert, Cold desert. The research on desertification is mostly focusing on hot and dry desert and semiarid desert. In the experimental project (Chapter), research location is set at Dasht-e Kavir Desert, I.R. Iran, while for the thesis studio project is set at Turpan, China P.R.C. According to KĂśppenâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Geiger climate classification system, Dasht-e Kavir Desert, I.R. Iran 12

is classified as hot desert climate (BWh); Turpan is classified as cold desert climate (BWk).


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Figure 4: The cause of high-pressure desert. Source: BBC.co.uk

Figure 5: The continuous desert area along Asia and Africa. Source: http://www. worldmapsonline.com/

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1.5

Recall of Desertification

Relationship between the rise and fall of ancient empires have always been regarded with its environment. Agriculture is the basis of civilization; drought result in famine and water scarcity, thus ruination. For instance, W. C. Lowdermilk (1948) had written in his report: 'Still farther to the north in Syria (Figure), we came upon a region where erosion had done its worst in an area of more than a million acres of rolling limestone country between Hama, Alleppo, and Antioch. French archaeologists, Father Mattern, and others found in this manmade desert more than 100 dead cities.' To further recall, comprehend the history regrading desertification on Silk Road, another case study is conducted- the lost kingdom Loulan (Figure 7a), Xinjiang is believed that disappeared 1600 years ago because of water scarcity and desertification. The ruins of the kingdom are located on the western bank of Lake Lop Nur, in the northeast of the Tarim Basin. Once a vast lake in ancient times, today Lop Nur has entirely dried up. It is now a lake only in name. Loulan's prosperity lasted for some 500 years, then, in the 5th century, it suddenly vanished from all recorded history without a trace. The rapid disappearance of such a large, prosperous kingdom, and even its exact whereabouts, were for centuries one of history's major puzzles. Then in the turn of the 20th century, the lost kingdom was brought into the light again when a Swedish adventurer named Sven Hedin was exploring the Lake Lop Nur area. Hedin accidentally discovered the ruins of the kingdom buried under the yellow sands of the Taklamakan Desert. (China Internet Information Center 2002) In a broader perspective, Dregne (1986) claims that historical evidence shows that the serious and extensive land degradation/ deterioration occurring several centuries ago in arid regions had three epicentres: the Mediterranean, the Mesopotamian Valley, and the Loess Plateau of China (Figure 10), where population was dense. With a rich history background related to the four ancient cradle of civilization, the theme 'SR Recall' in this research topic is interpreted as 'revival' and even 'reverse'- to reverse the effect of desertification, revive the suitable living environment and sustainable development of the contemporary Silk Road.

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Figure 6: Ruins of one of the Hundred Dead Cities of Syria. From 3 to 6 feet (0.9 to 1.8 metre) of soil has been washed off most of the hillsides. This city will remain dead because the land around it can no longer support a city.

Figure 7a: The lost cities- Loulan(a) and Miran(b) (are believed that) disappeared 1600 years ago because of water scarcity and desertification, which was important cities along the Silk Road. Source: http://www.loulan.gov.cn/ Item/39722.aspx 15


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Figure 7b: (continued)

Figure 8: The ruins in Bam, Iran. The origins of Bam can be traced back to the Achaemenid period (6th to 4th centuries BC), although the city reached its heights from the 7th to 11th centuries AD. The city is now uninhabited.

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Figure 9: Detail Silk Road Map indicating the location of lost empire's city such as Loulan, Miran, Gaochang etc. Source: Waugh, Daniel C. The Silk Roads in History. Expedition 52, no. 3 (November 2010): 9–22.

Figure 10: Together with Silk road, the map is showing the 3 epicentres where desertification happened the most: the Mediterranean, the Mesopotamian Valley, and the Loess Plateau of China. Source: UNESCO

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2 method How are desertification and land degradation being evaluated?

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2.0

Methodology

2.1

Dryland Classification

According to UNCCD (2012), drylands are arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas. In the context of sustainable development the term generally excludes hyper-arid areas (deserts). When land degradation occurs in the world's drylands, it often creates desert-like conditions. In environmental terms, drylands are characterized by:

1.

Low, infrequent, irregular and unpredictable precipitation;

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Large variations between day and night-time temperatures;

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Soil containing little organic matter, and a lack of water; and

4.

Plants and animals adapted to climatic variables (drought-resistant, salt-tolerant, heat-resistant, and able to cope with a lack of water).

The following main types of human use are found in drylands: rangelands (59%); cultivated land (30%); and urban areas (2%). Other areas are defined as hyper-arid such as the world's driest places, the Atacama desert in Chile and the Namib desert in south-west Africa, the Gobi desert in Mongolia and western Inner Mongolia in China, as well as polar regions. The dominant land-cover for drylands consists of shrubs, followed by cropland, savanna, steppe, grassland, forest and urban areas. Water scarcity is the predominant feature of drylands. While heavy rain may occur, rainfall typically varies, sometimes dramatically, from season to season, and year to year. In arid and semi-arid zones, the water balance is negative at year basis, meaning that more water evaporates than precipitates during one year. Therefore, water is scarce most of the time and human settlements may cluster around rare sources of water such as rivers, springs, wells, water catchments, reservoirs and oasis.

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Figure 11: Map showing drylands' location, produced by ZOĂ? Environment Network, September 2010 Source: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Table 1: There are different definitions of drylands. UNEP bases its definition on the aridity index. For comparison's sake the FAO uses the length of growing period. These different definitions lead to different figures. The present information kit uses the UNEP definition.

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Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices 1

2.2

Evaluate Desertification

Desertification affects nearly all of the arid regions, to varying degrees, except for the extremely arid climatic deserts such as the Sahara, Atacama, and Taklamakan. An indication of the extent and intensity of the desertification that has occurred in the past is presented in Figure 12 & 13 . The classification system used in the preparation of continental desertification maps is based on four classes of desertification: slight, moderate, severe, and very severe. The criteria for each class are as follows:

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Slight: Little or no degradation of the soil and plant cover has occurred.

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Moderate: (1) 26 to 50 percent of plant community consists of climax species, or (2) 25 to 75 percent of original topsoil lost, or (3) soil salinity has reduced crop yields 10 to 50 percent.

3.

Severe: (1) 10 to 25 percent of plan community consists of climax species, or (2) erosion has removed all or practically all of the topsoil, or (3) salinity controllable by drainage and leaching has reduced crop yield by more than 50 percent.

4.

Very Severe: (1) Less than 10 percent of plant community consists of climax species, or (2) land has many sand dunes or deep gullies, or (3) salt crusts have developed on very slow permeable irrigated soils.

The "very severe" category represents the extreme condition that many people associate with desertification. It is land so badly degraded that its utility by man or animals is virtually zero and the degradation is economically irreversible, for most purposes. While there are many small areas of land that fit into this category, there are few areas large enough to be shown on the continental maps. Practically all of the world's desertification can, at this point, be reversed. (Dregne 1986) Currently there are various evaluation, calculation method and standards applied by different authorities. Satellite are often used for observation on ground condition. For instances, there are Aledo-NDVI1 Based Desertification Monitoring Model , Net primary productivity (NPP) value used in China, environmental tracer Caesium-137 for the quantification of accelerated soil erosion in Canada, threshold friction velocity ratio for measuring sheltering effect of vegetation on erodible land from wind erosion (Stockton and Gillette 1990, 7785). 22

In India's case, Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS), Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data were used. Overlapping of maps are important method of evaluating as well. For example, United States Department of Agriculture produced a world desertification vulnerability map based on a reclassification of the global soil climate map and global soil map. Some countries did not state the scientific evaluation methodology in their desertification report, which are believed using own method or rough estimation. In a nutshell, it is hard to compare desertification status between countries since different measures are applied but there are no other way without referencing in local national report. Multi-mediums and data should be collected to maximize the accuracy of understanding desertification measurements.


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Figure 12: Desertification in Asia. Source: Dregne, H. E. 1986. Desertification of arid lands. In Physics of desertification

Figure 13: Example Evaluation result of Aledo-NDVI Based desertification monitoring model

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3 factor What are the factors & process of desertification?

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3.0

Factor & Process

3.1

Drivers of Desertification

Jagdish C. Katyal and Paul L.G. Vlek (2000) stated that land degradation occurs when the land's use by man is incongruent with the land's attributes (FAO, 1976). Desertification is caused by a combination of factors that change over time and vary by location. These include indirect factors such as population pressure, socioeconomic and policy factors, and international trade as well as direct factors such as land use patterns and practices and climaterelated processes. Land degradation reduces or destroys soil productivity, vegetation, arable and grazing land, as well as forest. In the most extreme cases, hunger and poverty set in and become both the cause and consequence of further degradation. Further it is important to recognize that issues can only be generalized to a certain extent beyond which, each country and region must be viewed in their individual context. 3.1.1

Climatic variations

Drought means the naturally occurring phenomenon that exists when precipitation has been significantly below normal recorded levels, causing serious hydrological imbalances that adversely affect land resource production systems. High, sustained temperatures lasting for months with infrequent and irregular rainfall lead to drought and difficult growing conditions for plants and trees. As a result, severe hydrological imbalances jeopardize natural production systems. When violent winds and heavy downpours destroy the vegetationâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; carried away by the sudden gush of waterâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; harvests and livestock suffer. As a consequence, the income of the rural communities diminishes. 3.1.2

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Overgrazing removes the vegetation cover that protects it from erosion;

3.

Deforestation destroys the trees that bind the soil to the land; and

4.

Poorly drained croplands salty.

irrigation

systems

turn

Extractive industries advance land degradation by lowering water tables, disturbing land and accelerating soil erosion. Inadequate knowledge on sustainable land management, unfavourable trade conditions in developing countries, nonecological tourism and other socio-economic and political factors, which intensify the effects of desertification, create another form of impact. These factors interact with the causes above and are often the underlying drivers of man-made desertification. (UNCCD, 2011) 3.1.2.1 Over-cultivation Over-cultivation takes a number of forms, which may mean that pressure for more food encourages a farmer to cut the length of time a field is left fallow after cultivation. Another meaning would be the cultivation of soils that are not really suitable for the growing of crops. 3.1.2.2 Overgrazing 'Grazing pressure may cause changes in vegetation but the effects are complex and intermittent.' (Behnke and Scoones, 1993, p. 11) Overgrazing results from the maintenance of herds whose numbers are too large for the land to support. An area of grazing land can support a certain number of animals without suffering any loss of quality, as known as carrying capacity. When the carrying capacity is exceeded overgrazing have detrimental affects on vegetation, soil and eventually the health of the animals themselves.

Human activities

In countries where major economic resources are dependent on agricultural activities, there are few alternative sources of income, or none at all. Soil is damaged by excessive use when farmers neglect or shorten fallow periods, which are necessary to allow the soil to recover sufficiently to produce enough food to feed the population. This in turn causes the soil to lose organic matter, limiting plant growth and reducing vegetation cover. The bare soil is more vulnerable to the effects of erosion. Four human activities are the most immediate causes:

1.

2.

Over-cultivation exhausts the soil;

3.1.2.3 Deforestation The clearance of vegetation by inhabitants of dryland is predominantly undertaken for 2 purposes: preparation of land for cultivation, and collection of wood for fuel. The effects are similar to over-cultivation and overgrazing: a degraded vegetation cover exposes soils to erosion and breakdown of soil structure. Trees also give shade to people and animals and are a source of food for livestock. Their removal also affects the water table. Furthermore, as trees are removed from surrounding areas, villagers supplement wood for fires with dried animal dung. This dung would


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Figure 14: Desertification drivers diagram Source: Author

Figure 15: Survival Hexagon Source: Kepner, William G. et al. Desertification In The Mediterranean Region. 27


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1. Soil compaction: also known as soil structure degradation/ degragation, is the increase of bulk density or decrease in porosity of soil due to externally or internally applied loads.

otherwise be left on the soil, acting as fertilizer. Collection and burning of dung, therefore, adds to decreasing soil fertility. 3.1.2.4

Salinization & Water-logging

Salinization refers to the build up of salts in soils, is a common problem faced by irrigation schemes in dryland areas. Irrigation of arid soils should be the answer to dryland food production, ironing out the vagaries of unreliable rainfall. Unfortunately, many irrigation schemes record declines in yields after just a few years of operation. In the extreme, salinization occurs to the point where the land is too salty to sustain plant life. (Middleton 1991, 18) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2004) define 'Waterlogging' as the state of land in which the subsoil water table is located at or near the surface with the result that the yield of crops commonly grown on it is reduced well bellow for the land, or, if the land is not cultivated, it cannot be put to its normal use because of the high subsoil water table. Moreover, in another reference on meetings report supported by the NATO STS Programme (2006), the 'survival hexagon' illustrates the manifold interactions between desertification and the five other factors of: climate change, hydrological cycle but also by the three demand factors: population growth, food and housing and urbanisation 3.2

Process of Desertification

3.2.1

Water and Energy Balances

According to United Nations (1977), when desertification occurs, the shallow meeting point should be focused on with precise observation between soil and atmosphere, where plants prosper and where a balance is maintained between incoming and outgoing energy and between water received and lost. When rain falls, some of the water were absorbed directly by plants, some were filtered into the soil, where it may remain in storage, and the rest evaporates or runs off. Some soil moisture, that intercepted by plants, is transferred back into the atmosphere by the plants through transpiration. Some of the moisture may seep into deeper layers of soil to be collected in underground reservoirs or aquifers, where it may remain for thousands of years, or may migrate slowly from plateau to depression or back to the ocean itself. The soil—air meeting place participates in a balance energy that is activated by the rays of 28

the sun or through atmospheric heating. Some energy is reflected by the surface layer back into the atmosphere and then into outer space. Some is held by the soil in storage, thereby providing warmth and lights for the earth, and this energy and that from the sun directly that is used by plants to carry out the processes of photosynthesis and growth. Some of the plants are consumed by grazers or browsers, and these animals in turn may be devoured by carnivores. In return, all living animals reciprocate the energy and moisture to the atmosphere through respiration and back to soil in the form of humus. The excreta of animals, their decomposing carcasses and the decomposition of plants enrich the soil with organic nutrients, most densely in the topmost layers and thinning out below. These relations are illustrated in Figure 16. 3.2.2

Adaptation to the Arid Environments

Because of the deficiency and manipulated variable of the rainfall and abundant solar energy from cloudless skies In arid situations, the cycle of water and energy acquire a special temperament. Vegetation is typically inadequate than in humid areas, contributing less canvas to the ground surface and returns less organic matter to the topsoil. Water at the surface tends to be expeditiously lost through evaporation and in the long intervening dry spells the soil is ultimately scorched and heated by the powerful sun during occasional excessive rainfall runoff may occur in outpouring. The dryland vegetations constitutes a significant resource which converts solar energy into food and which conserves and stabilizes the surface of the ground however scanty the dryland can be. These vegetations survives by adapting to water deficit in ways which are important because they regulate seasonal differences in the usefulness of dryland pastures. Part of the plant population that are remaining as seed through intervening dry periods consists of short-lived ephemerals which germinate and complete their life cycles promptly after rain. Plants that are commonly fleshy and palatable and are more preferable by grazing animals. Other plants, such as perennial grasses, wither and die back to the root stock or to bulbs in dry spells and shoot anew with fresh rains. These plants form more sturdy pastures, are attractive and palatable to stock when green, and may provide valuable hay, but are of little pastoral value when thoroughly dried out. Nevertheless, their comprehensive fine root systems remain to attach the topsoil and strengthen the essential to its organic content. Lastly, there are the longer-lived perennial plants


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Figure 16: Soil Degradation Processes in detail. Source:

Figure 17: Stages of degradation in relation to soil productivity. The index property and the range of critical limits B and C differ among soils.

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which resist water loss by such adaptations as woody stems and leathery leaves. The larger plants such as shrubs and trees, which remain nutritious during the dry periods, can produce important food source to browsing animals, although their adaptations may reduce their palatability and attractiveness for some stock. Moreover, larger plants have the additional role of protecting the ground surface, providing shade and retaining an environment which comfort the response of important shorter-lived plants. 3.2.3

Summary of desertification process

The main processes and stages of desertification can be summarized as follows; In pastoral rangelands, there is an initial deterioration in the composition of pastures subject to superfluous grazing in dry periods, specifically a degradation in the fraction of edible perennial plants and an advance in the proportion of annual and inedible species. Increase in the extent of bare ground that caused by the thinning and death of vegetation in dry seasons, followed in turn by a deterioration in the conditions at the surface of the soil that are imperative to plant growth, notably in impoverishment of plant-water relations. The response of ephemerals to rain suffers accordingly. Sheet and fully erosion set in on sloping ground, and the topsoil and its store are lost with inferable escalation in run-off. All these changes mean a number of shrinkage in plant productivity and a decline in the palatability and durability of the native pastures. Formerly productive lands may be lost through soil stripping and gully extension if the erosion continues. These changes are even more severe where de-vegetation occurs in strategic areas, as on watershed uplands, and the processes are advanced where soils are exposed and disturbed in dryland cultivation. Desertification often originates on land cleared for cultivation or left fallow in areas of rainfed farming. Eradication of the original vegetation cover unveils the soil to accelerated wind and water erosion. When the sun comes out, the heating action of rain on naked soil puddles the surface crusts, hence, reducing infiltration and further increasing runoff. Consecutively, leads to addition of soil erosion which ultimately, unless halted by protective measures, strips away the fertile surface soil and exposes infertile subsoils. On the lower parts of slopes and impede farming operations, gullies may form, or prevent them entirely. Filling waterways and aggravates flooding in low-lying areas where sediment deposited at the foot of slopes covers plants, which follows increased run-off from the slopes above. 30

3.2.3.1 Water and Wind Erosion When water and wind erosion occurs at the same time, the redeposited from surfaces stripped by water erosion are distinctly defenseless to wind transport. Wind erosion starts with the movement of coarse soil particles in one part of a field, then progresses downwind with increasing severity as bouncing soil particles knock other particles into the air in a kind of snowballing effect. Finer materials are lifted into the air and carried away over long distances as dust; coarser sandy materials drift over the surface until they are trapped by plants in accumulations as hummocks and small dunes. Removal of fine topsoil materials means the loss of the most productive and nutritious portions of the soil complex, while sterile sand accumulations cover plants and good soil. A further harmful effect of high-velocity sand drift is the destruction of young crops by the blasting impact of moving sand. Fine airborne particles may carry soil-borne diseases, irritate respiratory tracts of animals, cause deterioration on machinery parts and reduce visibility. 3.2.3.2 Salinization and Alkalinization The preeminent indication of desertification on irrigated lands are the salinization and alkalinization of soil, due to inadequate leaching of salts contained in the soil or added in irrigation water. Salinization and waterlogging commonly occur together, where the soil is waterlogged, the upward movement of saline groundwater leaves salts on the surface, hence, water evaporates. Salinization can still occur when water containing soluble salts moves from irrigation furrows into the ridges where crops are planted or to high spots in defectively levelled land on soils that are not waterlogged. Salinization can manifest under-irrigation of weakly permeable soils if the irrigation water is salty. 3.2.4

Desertification can Feed on Itself

Dryland ecosystems interfered by land use or stressed by drought, will usually return to what they were if neglected. Low productivity of dry lands usually episodic, caused recovery tends to develop at a slow pace, with more rapid recovery in years of above-average rainfall. Eventually, former water and energy balances will be restored, with the recovery of the original vegetation. This is a measure of the natural flexibility of the dry lands. These same ecosystems are shown to be fragile, and processes can be set in motion whereby desertification becomes self-accelerating where pressure of land use persists through drought. This can occur where sand dunes are stripped


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Figure 18: Desertification process: relationship between environmental issues

Figure 19: Man induced processes of land degradation- interconnectivity and simultaneousness in occurrence Source: 31


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of vegetation, as near watering points or other places where stock tend to converge. Drifting sand destroys more vegetation and assembles approaching surfaces, and dunes slowly advance and engulf less damaged sites. It can occur where destruction of vegetation initiates stimulating erosion, removing deposit. In turn, buries fields or meadows downstream, or in denuded areas, where hot, drying winds become advancely prevalent. Lack of drainage acknowlegdes watertables to upsurge, waterlog and salinize fields to the point where they must be deserted in irrigated systems. Desertification will often advance inexorably unless preventive measures are undertaken because self-acceleration can exist through a diversity of circumstances. It becomes even more complicated and more costly to treat, with the costs of reclamation continually soaring until the stark equilibrium of extreme desert is reached as it advances. The land has for all constructive intentions passed beyond hope of rehabilitation. The deserts themselves supply none of the essential impetus for the processes described except for hot winds. Occasionally at times of drought stress, in areas of naturally vulnerable land subject to pressures of land use desertification will breaks out. These deteriorated patches, like a skin disease, link up to carry the process over extended areas. It is generally inappropriate to envisage the process as an advance of the desert frontier immersing usable land on its perimeter; the advancing sand dune is in fact a very peculiar and localized case. Desertification, as a patchy destruction that may be far removed from any nebulous front line is a more exquisite and insidious process.

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Typical desertification process

Salinization & Alkalinization

Figure 20: Process of desertification simplified diagrams Source: author

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4 place Where are affected by along the

34

the areas desertification Silk Road?


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4.0

Area Affected: Silk Road

4.1

Overall condition

Throughout the research, overall world map to compare desertification severity is hard to be produced as accurate data until now, because desertification requires high-technology method to be assessed, and diverse measures are applied in different countries and areas. The only reference that includes worldwide area can be found from the United States Department of Agriculture: a 'Global Desertification Vulnerability Map' based on a reclassification of the global soil climate map and global soil map. Overlapped the silk road map on it, the critical places (along Silk Road) vulnerable to desertification is obvious to discover. Basically the affected area can be divided into 4: Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Central Asia and Western Asia. Comparing these areas, the most area affected by desertification would be located in China P.R.C, Kazakhstan and I.R. Iran; however Western Asia, Tajikistan, Pakistan and Afghanistan have the highest percentage of area affected over total territory. As a result, the chosen site for proposal is considered most on these countries.

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Figure 21: Silk Road Map overlapped with Global Desertification Vulnerability Map Source: UNESCO & United States Department of Agriculture

Table 2: Silk Road Map overlapped with Global Desertification Vulnerability Map (Colour indicates the hierarchy of numbers) Source: UNESCO & United States Department of Agriculture

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5 INFLUENCE How does desertification affect Silk Route area? Who are the possible stakeholders?

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5.0

Influences of Desertification

5.1

Current Conditions and Facts

According to UNCCD (2011), Drylands cover 40% of the world land mass and more than 1/3 of population, 44% of the World's food production system, 50% of the World's livestock. Dry forest makes 42% of the earth's tropical and subtropical open or closed forests. Home to the world's largest diversity of mammals whose survival, literally, hangs on the arid zone forests. However, overall Gross domestic product (GDP) in dryland areas is 50% lower than in non-drylands. According to United Nation's Research in 2011, each year 12 million (120,000km2) hectares (of arable land) are lost (which is 23 hectares (0.23km2) per minute) due to drought and desertification, where 20 million tons of grain could have been grown. By 2025, 1.8 billion people will experience absolute water scarcity, and 2/3 of the world will be living under water-stressed conditions; Some 135 million people may be displaced by 2045 as a result of desertification. 5.2

Influences on Silk Road area

5.2.1

Food security/ Hunger

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), food security is achieved when 'all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. For 1/6 of the world's population the great majority of whom live in drylands regions is not valid for such condition. This situation is due to internal factors that characterize these areas, as well as worsening factors at various levels. According to data from UNCCD regional implementation annexes in 2007 countries accounted for more than 93 per cent of the world's undernourished people. With almost 23 percent of the population of that continent considered to be undernourished, Africa presented the highest prevalence rate. Asia had 2/3 of the overall undernourished population with 577 million undernourished people.

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40

Land Degradation over the next 25 years may reduce global food production by up to 12% resulting in an increase of, as much as, 30% of world food prices. Some 925 million people going hungry, 80% of them are small holder farmers & landless poor in rural areas.

5.2.2

Biodiversity

27,000 species are lost or encounter extinction each year. Over 10 thousand species numbering millions of animals migrate every year, and they face some of the highest rates of extinction. Migratory species serve as effective indicators of environmental changes because these species are integral to multiplex ecosystems. Migratory species contribute to ecosystem morphology and operation. On land, by shifting between areas they populate at different times of the year in exploration of food, shelter and safe places to breed. They act as fertilizers, pollinators and seed distributors. They produce food for other animals, and some are useful predators (e.g. by consuming agricultural pests like insects). Prolonged drought dominant to desertification is a essential threat to dryland species and restricts the ecosystem services they provide. Animals fertilize the soil with their excreta and promote plants germinate, and their movement loosens the soil to escalate vegetation productivity. They consume biomass and so reduce fire-loads. Many rural communities in the drylands rely on the annual influx of migratory wildlife for basic subsistence, and recreational and spiritual purposes, while conservation efforts contribute to poverty alleviation. Helping people move into alternative livelihoods such as ranger, farming or tourism activities ensures the active involvement of communities on the one hand and the sustainable use of natural resources on the other. However as desertification advances, migratory species are vanishing. 5.2.3

Climate change

Desertification, exacerbated by climate change, represents one of the greatest environmental challenges of our times. Carbon sinks mean lower atmospheric CO2, more fertile land. For decades now mankind has been at the fore in creating a vicious cycle with critical environmental consequences as a result. By degrading the atmosphere with greenhouse gas emissions, land degradation has risen. This in turn is worsening the degradation of the atmosphere. Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have been increasing for some two centuries, mostly a result of human activities, spearheaded primarily by the rapid rise of industrialization. The degradation of land, however, through unviable agricultural practices also has resulted in emissions of greenhouse gases. As governments, NGOs and corporations around the globe set limits on the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by automobiles, factories and power plants into the atmosphere,


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1

/2

1 football court / 2 seconds

United Kingdom /year

12 million hectare /year

=

3800 m2 /second

Figure 22: According to United Nation's Research in 2011, each year 12 million hectares (of arable land) are lost (which is 23 hectares per minute) due to drought and desertification, where 20 million tons of grain could have been grown. Source: UNCCD, diagram created by author

Figure 23: Food Insecurity: Number of people undernourished 2004-2006, produced by ZOĂ? Environment Network, September 2010 Source: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 41


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a way to 'recycle' CO2 into the ground, carbon sequestration, has received less attention and international support. Little recognized is the fact that the world's soils hold more organic carbon than that held by the atmosphere as CO2 and vegetation combined(Figure 24).

Current agricultural practices represent over 13% of GHG emissions.

Climate change will depress agricultural yields by up to 15-50% in most countries by 2050, given current agricultural practices and crop varieties.

The percentage of Earth's land area stricken by serious drought has more than doubled from the 1970s to the early 2000s

5.2.4

Water stress

Desertification, land degradation and drought have negative impact on the availability, quantity and quality of water resources that result in water scarcity. Increasing occurrences of water scarcity, whether natural or human-induced, serve to trigger and exacerbate the effects of desertification through direct long-term impacts on land and soil quality, soil structure, organic matter content and ultimately on soil moisture levels. The direct physical effects of land degradation include the drying up of freshwater resources, an increased frequency of drought and sand and dust storms, and a greater occurrence of flooding due to inadequate drainage or poor irrigation practices. Should this trend continue, it would bring about a

Figure 24: Carbon Sequestration (in gigatonnes) Source: Bajites & Somboke, 1997

sharp decline in soil nutrients, accelerating the loss of vegetation cover. This leads in turn to further land and water degradation, such as pollution of surface and groundwater, siltation, salinization, and alkalization of soils.

• 42

By 2030 water scarcity alone in some arid and semiarid places may displace up to 700

million people.

Current agricultural practices represent over 70% of the world freshwater resources

5.2.5

Poverty & Migration

With the exception of an immediate and lifethreatening situation, the decision to migrate is often made in the context of a variety of 'push' and 'pull' factors. Rarely is the decision to migrate made due to a single reason. Among the root causes of migration are: 1) Economic factors, 2) Social factors, 3) Degraded security conditions, and 4) Environmental factors There is no consensus yet on defining the issue of environmentally induced migration. What is commonly agreed on is that ecosystem changes, be they physical, chemical and/or biological changes in nature, can impair or render the ecosystem unsuitable to support human life, forcing inhabitants to leave the land. To this date, however, no international agreement has been reached to provide a status for environmental migrants. What is certain is that millions are affected.

74% of the poor (42% of the very and 32% of the moderately poor) are directly affected by land degradation globally

Some 50 million people may be displaced within the next 10 years as a result of desertification

5.2.6

Gender Equality

Desertification has a disproportionate impact on women and children. They directly bear the burdens of land degradation and are the last to leave their land.


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Figure 25: Water Stress: Number of people without access to improved drinking water, produced by ZOĂ? Environment Network, September 2010 Source: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Figure 26: Poverty: headcount ratio at $ 1.25 per day(PPP;absolute) , produced by ZOĂ? Environment Network, September 2010 Source: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

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5.3

Stakeholders

More than 1/3 of population live in drylands. The largest dryland areas are in Australia, China, Russia, the United States and Kazakhstan. The total population of the world's drylands is 2,000 million, excluding hyper-arid (desert) areas. Drylands are thus home to almost one in three people in the world today. (UNCCD 2011) Overall, UNCCD suggests a bottom-up based framework of approach to the solution such as emphasizing in peasant 5.3.1.1

Civil Society

All through the United Nations system, an increasingly global civil society participates in proactive and engaged ways to the work of UN offices, programmes and agencies, making the UN both a counterpart and a witness to its contribution. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) are more and more UN system partners and constitute a valuable link for the UN to civil society and "people out there". (UNCCD 2010) 5.3.2

Parliamentarians

The Parliamentarian Round Tables aim to increase parliamentary awareness of issues of land degradation and desertification, and to boost the effectiveness of land and soil policies. As the success of the UNCCD's objectives significantly depends on the creation of appropriate national land policies, the involvement of parliamentarians in its process is essential. 5.3.4

Private Sector

The private sector is an important stakeholder in a sustainably managed world. By 2050, the world's population will have increased to over 9 billion, with twice the current demand for agricultural products. By 2030, 80% of the global population is expected to become consumers. 44

5.3.5

Development Partners

The UNCCD has adopted a multi-stakeholder approach for maximum effectiveness in combating land degradation and desertification. Successfully implementing the Convention requires productive partnerships, comprehensive resource mobilization and alignment of fundraising efforts. Through our development and funding partnerships, the UNCCD aims to implement sustainable land management worldwide and to reach its targets. Investments in the UNCCD help to facilitate policy reform, leverage larger investments and initiate change at the national level. Better soil management has flow-on benefits to other sectors, such as producing social equality and reinforcing national economies. UNCCD's efforts, with the support of our development partners, have had tangible, highly-successful results in the drylands and worldwide.

UN & International Organizations

The United Nations operates as a unified body, with different UN agencies supporting the objectives of others while carrying out their own work. This approach results in a diverse, yet coordinated response to the issue of land degradation and desertification. Each UN agency approaches this issue through the lens of their own mandate, but their work contributes significantly to the achievement of UNCCD's objectives. 5.3.3

Providing for this growing class of consumers is an exciting challenge. However, with unsustainable land practices reducing essential soil nutrients, UNCCD are undermining own future business potential.

5.3.6

More aspects

Stakeholders Categorized Map (Figure 28) is a preliminary step in the process of stakeholder analysis. In order to continue with the identification of stakeholder to be involved in decision making process, information of stakeholder's perceptions, interests and priorities were investigated. Next, the last stage of the stakeholder analysis was the stakeholder classification in relationship to the power that they hold and the extent to which they are likely to show interest in the issue of the desertification. (Maraglino, T., V. Ricco, M. Schiralli, R. Giordano, and G. Pappagallo. 2010) United Nations Environment Management Group (2011) explained another analysis on the economical sustainability aspects in combating desertification(Figure 27). It demonstrates who, why and how regarding investments in drylands and what is the outcome for these stakeholders. The 'ecosystem' between socio-economic interactions are always vital to be considered as a process towards successful architectural programming to achieve sustainable development.


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Figure 27: Population Prospects, produced by ZOÏ Environment Network, September 2010 Source: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Civil Society

UN & International Organizations

THE UNCCD STAKEHOLDERS

Parliamentarians

Private Sector

Development Partners

Figure 28: Poverty: headcount ratio at $ 1.25 per day(PPP;absolute) , produced by ZOÏ Environment Network, September 2010 Source: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

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Figure 29: A framework for investing in drylands Source: United Nations Environment Management Group, 2011

Figure 30: Population Prospects, produced by ZOĂ? Environment Network, September 2010 Source: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 46


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Figure 31: Stakeholder's Categorized Map (SCM) Source: Maraglino et al. 2010

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6 SOLUTION What are the solutions to combat desertification and the efforts conducted?

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"Sustainability, ensuring the future of life on Earth, is an infinite game, the endless expression of generosity on behalf of all."

Paul Hawken

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1. Germplasm: germ cells and their precursors serving as the bearers of heredity and being fundamentally independent of other cells 2. Growing Season: the part of the year during which rainfall and temperature allow plants to grow.

6.0

Solutions and Efforts

6.1

The UNCCD

Established in 1994, UNCCD is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management. The Convention addresses specifically the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples can be found. In the 10-Year Strategy of the UNCCD (2008-2018) (Figure 32) that was adopted in 2007, Parties to the Convention further specified their goals: "to forge a global partnership to reverse and prevent desertification/land degradation and to mitigate the effects of drought in affected areas in order to support poverty reduction and environmental sustainability" The United Nations General Assembly also declared  June 17 the "World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought" to promote public awareness of the issue, and the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought and/ or desertification. The 10-year strategic plan and framework clarified the ultimate goal of combating desertification and the aim of this research project as sustainable development in environmental, social and economic aspects. 6.2

Common Prevention & Restoration

Solutions to combat desertification lie in controlling the causes of desertification. A cause-treatment approach is the way to counter the degradation processes and to ensure sustainability. However, the intricate web of human actions and natural constraints that causes desertification suggests that there are no easy ways to combat desertification. The solutions will likely be site and situation specific. The task to stabilize and sustain agricultural production in the environmentally disadvantaged drylands is a real challenge. Depending on the causes of land degradation, detailed earlier in this report, the possible solutions for combating land degradation should consider the following:

Climatic variability

Irrigation water, quality of soil and vegetation management

Structural and organizational needs

6.2.1 50

Climatic Variability

According to Jagdish C. Katyal and Paul L.G. Vlek (2000), against the background of general aridity and irregularly recurring droughts, sustainable food security will require agricultural management strategies adjusted to short-term and longterm variations in water availability. A proper mix of adaptation and mitigation strategies will be necessary: 6.2.1.1 season

Crops/varieties and length of growing

Adaptation involves fitting an organism (from its existing germplasm1 or by creation of a new biotype by genetic engineering) to an environment, as well as making alterations in land use to fit the land. For rainfed agriculture in arid environments, the length of the growing season2 sets limits on the duration of cropping (Virmani, 1994). Aligning the crop/variety duration to the length of the growing season is a first step in drought management. An alternative route is to develop plants with resistance or tolerance to drought.

Architectural design response:

Space relating to agriculture should respond to the type of crops and length of growing season, for instance adopting temporary structures lifespan only during growing season. During the dry season in extreme climate, shelter to protect young crops and landscape can be constructed to mediate preferred micro-climate. Spaces for agriculture technologies (such as adaptation and research) should be provided for innovation in better adaptation and storage system during dry season. Moreover, indigenous species of plants (or even grazing) should be chosen in priority in the consideration of plantation, crops and landscape architecture. 6.2.1.2

Land management techniques

A successful application of the fundamental principles of land management can be found in Burkina Faso, Africa. Farmers there have evolved what is known as the Zaï system of planting pearl millet. The methodology involves digging a planting hole, followed by placed manuring, seeding and earthing up after plant-stand establishment. Seeding in discrete planting holes moderates population pressure and concentrates water at the planting site. Selective manuring of micro-sites rather than over the entire field concentrates the treatment effect and yields high efficiency. Finally, earthing up creates a mosaic of micro-catchments for maximum rainfall harvesting and minimum evaporative loss thanks to the creation of dust mulch.


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1.1.To affected populations. Toimprove improvethe theliving livingconditions conditionsofof affected

populations

Strategic ObjecStrategic tives & Objectives Expected& Expected Impacts Impacts

2. To improve the condition of affected ecosystems

2. To improve the condition of affected ecosystems

3. effective imple3.To Togenerate generateglobal globalbenefits benefitsthrough through effective mentation of the UNCCD implementation of the UNCCD

UNCCD: UNNCD, THE 10THE 10-YEAR YEAR STRATEGIC STRATEGIC PLAN PLAN AND FRAMEWORK AND FRAMEWORK

4.4.To implementation of of Tomobilize mobilizeresources resourcestotosupport support implementation the building effective partnerships theconvention Conventionthrough through building effective partnerships between national and international actors. between national and international actors

(2008-2018)

1. Advocacy awareness raising and education.

1. Advocacy, awareness raising and education

Operational ObjecOperational Objectives tives & Expected & Expected Outcomes Outcomes

2. Policy framework

2. Policy framework

3. Science, technology and knowledge

3. Science, technology and knowledge

4. Capacity-building

4. Capacity-building*

5. Financing and technology transfer

5. Financing and technology transfer

Figure 32: Desertification drivers diagram. Source: Author

Figure 33: A normal season (Type 3) & other 5 types: All Year Round Dry Period. PET (or ETP) is the Potential Evapotranspiration, i.e. a measure of evaporative power of the atmosphere; PPTN is precipitation. Source: FAO

Figure 34: The AGFORWARD project is promoting agroforestry practices i.e. the integration of trees with farming. Agroforestry comprises the integration of trees (and shrubs) with crop and/or livestock systems Source: FAO 51


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1. Agroforestry systems are suitable for areas with mean annual rainfall of about 350 mm or more and with land capability class IV or better. Areas with lower rainfall land capability ranking may support either intercropping2 of trees and forage species (agropastoral systems) or their monoculture (Katyal et al., 1994). In an agroforestry system, crops and trees compete for light, nutrients, and water. Optimum performance depends upon their relationship in sharing these resources. Ideally, the presence of trees should cause a minimum reduction in crop productivity. Under no circumstances should the tree produce allelopathic3 effects on crop growth.

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2. Intercropping: grow (a crop) among plants of a different kind.

For agroforestry's variety in species, crops and trees have different growth period throughout their life cycle. Similar to crops/varieties and length of growing season, transforming/ changing spaces with response to the different periods can be applied for better efficiency to combat desertification. Layers of landscape planning should be designed to achieve best protection to the crops and optimized management on maintaining balance between trees, crops and even livestocks.

3. allelopathic: the chemical inhibition of one plant (or other organism) by another, due to the release into the environment of substances acting as germination or growth inhibitors.

Architectural design response:

Smart agriculture technologies can be adapted with specific architectural support such as droughtspecific land-management. The circulation, and spaces regarding management works have to be emphasized to mitigate the management work. 6.2.1.3

Agroforestry1

A system of land use with simultaneous cultivation of trees or bushes and of arable crops or pasture plants fulfils many of the economic, social and environmental requisites (Katyal et al., 1994). Integration of arable crops with trees provides an opportunity to harness the potential of the crop when the trees are young and do not yet yield an economic benefit. When the trees mature they compensate for the reduction in crop yield through products that fulfil the varied needs of the farmers. The presence of trees imparts stability to the system and spreads the risk among the annual and perennial components. Even under severe circumstance, a tree often survives and provides fodder and fuel (Katyal et al., 1994). It makes the environment more hospitable. Optimum performance depends upon their relationship in sharing light, nutrients, and water.

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Architectural design response:

6.2.1.4

Rainwater management

Water plays a central role in drought management and in the sustainable development of all agriculture. Additionally, the availability of water is a fundamental requirement for farmers to invest in, other inputs necessary to support the sustainable development of drylands and secure the necessary credit. There are various routes to secure water supply: in-situ rainwater management, run-off harvesting and irrigation.

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Architectural design response:

Besides infrastructure to solve rainwater management issue, architectural solution to maximize rainwater collection will be helpful. 52


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2. Irrigation Water, Soil & Vegetation Management

Natural Rain & Evaporation

Percolation Ponds

Vegetation Management

Vegetative Barriers

Digging & Filling Pits

Earthen or Rubble Bunds/ Levees

Direct Seeding Instead of nursery-raised seeding Multipurpose Trees

Soil Surface Finishing

Leak-proof Canals

Green Manuring

Agro-pastoral Systems

Conservation Tillage

Fire Prevention Method

Agroforestry

Unlined Open Canals

Policy

Anaerobic Fermentation

Organic Matter

Pipelines

Canal

Zai System

In Situ Rainwater Management

Fertilizer

Run-off Harvesting And Irrigation

Soil Biota (Diverse Species)

Soil Fertility

Joint management People Participation

Micro-catchment

Soil Quality

3. Structural & Organization Needs

Farming Infrastructures

Climate & Growing Season Analysis

Underground

Irrigation Water

Erosion

1. Climatic Variability

Social Fencing

Researcherfarmer interaction Decentralized Grassrootslevel Institution administrative power training of government functionaries

Value addingprocesses

weather advisories

Worm Culture

Agronomic Practices

Figure 35: Summary of solution mentioned by Center for Development Research, University of Bonn, Germany Source: UNESCO & United States Department of Agriculture

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6.2.2

Irrigation Water, Soil & Vegetation Management

Management aspects of water, soil, and vegetation are interdependent and complementary. Treating the management of these resources as an integrated composite rather than as disparate elements is the foundation for holistic land management. 6.2.2.1

Irrigation water

Irrigation has been around for as long as humans have been cultivating plants. Man's first invention after he learned how to grow plants from seeds was probably a bucket. Ancient people must have been strong from having to haul buckets full of water to pour on their first plants. Pouring water on fields is still a common irrigation method today -but other, more efficient and mechanized methods are also used. 6.2.2.1a Irrigation water- underground In most of the lands susceptible to desertification, the possibilities for replenishment of pumped water from greater depth are limited, and overexploitation results. It leads to depletion of water reserves and drying of wells. The adoption of water-efficient application systems the augmentation of supplies can lessen the burden on native groundwater.

Architectural design response:

Traditional water irrigation systems in arid areas such as Qanat in Iran are precious architecture to be studied. How to integrate contemporary architecture with these successful systems are the questions to be discussed. 6.2.2.1b Irrigation water – canal The spread of canal irrigation has been a key feature in the development of agriculture in arid regions. In order to enhance water use efficiency, a shift is needed from cheap methods of application (flood irrigation) to more costly but efficient techniques of application (by sprinkler or drip). While government support will be necessary in this shift, its success will depend on the development of a motivated and highly skilled human resource.

Architectural design response:

One of the challenge regrading this on-ground water irrigation could be: how to effeciently use the irrigation water for example to integrate 54

with the public spaces. A sustainable flow and recycling of water usage is vital especially in the dryland area. 6.2.2.2

Soil quality management

Soil quality is antonymous to soil degradation. The key soil quality attributes that are to be stabilized or improved in order to combat desertification are: 6.2.2.2a Erosion management Most of the strategies to combat erosion focus on obstructing the path of wind and water so as to decelerate their velocities. Generally, earthen or rubble bunds/ levees are constructed to control water erosion. Vegetative barriers control wind erosion.

Architectural design response:

Firstly the strongest type of erosion occurring on site have to be identified, as the strategy would be quite different to solve these issues. Architectural form and typologies are related to these efforts on combating the destructive nature phenomenon. 6.2.2.2b Organic matter management One of the sustainable methods is to the conversion of dung into biogas by anaerobic fermentation as a win-win solution with multiple benefits. Green manuring is another wellknown approach to soil organic matter (SOM) amelioration and nutrient supply.

Architectural design response:

A process or energy cycle between the crops and grazing is possible to contribute in managing soil quality and rehabilitation of land. Factory that deals with the production of fertilizer could be proposed in a sustainable, environmental friendly manner. A self-sustained concept settlement worth considering in the proposal. 6.2.2.2c Soil fertility management 'We believe that of all the threats to sustainability, the threat to soil fertility is most serious' (Warren and Agnew 1988). Soil organic matter improves soil physical conditions and fertility due to an enhancement of the biological community that functions efficiently. (Jagdish et al. 2000) Soil biota is diverse and impacts ecosystem functioning in many ways. Selection and introduction of appropriate soil biological


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Figure 36: Field layout of a type of water management method- Negarim microcatchments which are mainly used for tree growing in arid and semi-arid areas. Source: FAO

Figure 37: Sand, Silt and Clay Soil Classification Diagram- the soil particle characteristics of the northwest Loess Plateau which proves this region is winderosion prone area. Source: Ci and Yang 2010. 55


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techniques such as worm-culture can help build soil quality attributes. Small-scale farmers with limited means are likely benefit the most from this approach. Besides, The integrated use of mineral fertilizers, organic manure, and soil biological support lessens the reliance on fertilizers and better matches the economic limitations faced by the dryland farmers.

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Architectural design response:

Similar to the Organic matter management, the technology to increase soil fertility in degraded land has to be improved, as research centre can be settled near the site as well. Optimization is possible to achieve with the support of the academies. 6.2.2.3

Vegetation management

Combating desertification must consist of controlling deforestation, encouraging afforestation, regulating fires so that their effect is minimized, and limiting the intensity of grazing to the carrying capacity of the land. Improving pasture productivity of grazing with appropriate technology is a way to extend the limits of the carrying capacity of pasture land. Introduction of quality animals (more efficient converters of feed) will also help to reduce the population pressure and to sustain high economic yield. Afforestation can be accomplished by promoting and protecting the growth of native vegetation, or replanting with new vegetation. Moreover, land preparation is necessary as a start for plant recovery: a medium that assures maximum survival and sustainable growth and development after initial establishment.

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Architectural design response:

Native vegetation should play the main role in afforestation works. Architecture design direction should benefits the efficiency of afforestation, while automation are also possible ideas in these efforts. Instead of only to shape 'green wall' to combat desertification, the plantings should be utilized in multi-function such as public area, botanical garden, food-production, herbal, or even industrial use.

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Figure 38: A vertical cross-section of a typical soil profile showing soil horizons (A + B = solum) Source: FAO

Figure 39: The installing techniques of high standing sand barrier to encounter erosion. Source: Heshmati and Squires 2013

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6.2.3

Structural & Organization Needs

Communities play a key role in the sustainable use of natural resources in the context of broader national policies against desertification (Parry, 1996). 6.2.3.1

People participation

Participation of local people with government functionaries makes the former more responsive and the latter more responsible. A typical example is the joint management of irrigation (canal) projects. Working together will make government officials more concerned about the system's functioning and its maintenance and make farmers more devoted to a need-based use of water. In watershed development programs, participation encourages local ownership and management – a fundamental requirement for protection and preservation of permanent soil and water conservation structures (Farrington and Lobo, 1997). Social fencing, so vital to regenerate degraded rangelands and to sustain them after development, is not possible without people themselves agreeing to keep off. Moreover, people participation will be necessary in formulating research programs as well.

Architectural design response:

Structural & organization needs as social dimensions of sustainable development are always undeniable having the importance in architecture. A bottom-up strategy in keeping the community involved is required to sustain a settlement, providing job opportunities at the same time. Such strategies have been conducted in China and, in the proposal, the aim is to maximize the power of community-driven effort. Spaces provided for research can encourage local participation in the discussions and programmes. 6.2.3.2

Administrative and policy issues

Inclusion of people in the development and research plans right at the entry point offers a unique opportunity to develop location- and situation-specific plans and technologies. It also fosters community actions on a landscape basis. Participatory activities are not likely to succeed unless farmers have a genuine interest in arresting land degradation.

Architectural design response:

Architectural design are relatively further from this issue but the connectivity between the town administration to the centre of combating desertification (central administrative spaces of the development) can be possibly affect the 58

implementations. 6.2.3.3 Human resource and infrastructure development Population management is a key issue in development. In almost all the developing countries affected by desertification, the livelihood of around 70% of the population depends upon agriculture. Land imposes limitations on the number of individuals it can support. The present number exceeds the carrying capacity, leading to land degradation. In order for farmers to obtain optimum value for their produce, it is necessary to set up the simultaneous development of infrastructure for access to markets, produce handling and for minimizing post-harvest losses.

Architectural design response:

Job opportunities can be helpful in sustainable development while combating desertification. Education system in instilling the awareness on environmental issue and training of professional human resources is vital. Besides educational spaces, residential spaces can be integrated as well with the proposal, as the greeneries can shape healthy environment for local residents as well. Infrastructure is definitely important in the effort to enable best outcome in combating desertification.


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Figure 40: Win-win-win solutions for livelihood, ecosystem and productivity. Source: Liniger et al. 2011

Figure 41: Afforestation activity in China. Source: UNCCD

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6.3

Precedent Studies

To borrow the words of Albert Einstein: 'We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.' The innovation ideas should not be limited in order to encourage the emerge of better solutions.

Currently the project is in a trial period- a pilot plant built by the Sahara Forest Project (SFP) produced 75 kilograms of vegetables per square meter in three crops annually, comparable to commercial farms in Europe, while consuming only sunlight and seawater.

In order to further assist on the idea and solutions in final proposal, the research requires practical and conceptual examples to be studied. The precedent studies are categorized into current projects and advanced proposals, in another words meaning recent projects and future proposals. 6.3.1

Current Solutions & Projects

Total of 4 projects are chosen to be studied, which are ranging from small modular units to large scale development. 6.3.1.1

Figure 42: Land distribution of 4000 ha facility: 1500ha Revegetation areas, 640ha concentrated solar power, 500ha external fodder cultivation, 480ha salt ponds, 355ha additional infrastructure and facilities, 300ha seawatercooled greenhouses, 75 ha Halophyte cultivation

'Groasis Waterboxx®' plant cocoon

Organization base: Steenbergen, Netherlands Project Locations: USA, Spain, Morocco, Kuwait, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador The Groasis Waterboxx®  is a device that can help growing plants in deserts. The machine functions as a plant incubator, sheltering the sapling from the elements while collecting dew and rain to water the plant through a slow-releasing water battery. From official website, the Waterboxx® plant cocoon uses 90% less water and the trees that are planted with it have a survival rate of more than 90%. Irrigation-free system saves time and cost in water maintenance. The Groasis Ecological Water Saving Technology is an integrated planting technology to plant in dry, eroded, desert and rocky areas. It is not a way of irrigation. During the first year while planting with the Groasis Ecological Water Saving Technology, water savings are more than 90% when compared to any other planting method. From the second year onwards, no water is added and irrigation is not needed. The water savings are from then 100%. 6.3.1.2

Sahara Forest Project

Organization base: Oslo, Norway Project Locations: Jordan, Tunisia, Qatar The Sahara Forest Project (SFP) is a combination of environmental technologies to enable restorative growth, defined as revegetation and creation of green jobs through profitable production of food, freshwater, biofuels and electricity. 60

Figure 43: The salt water infrastructure digram: the process

Besides, there are requirements and conditions to choose a site for the SFP such as: access to saltwater, constant wind direction, proximity to other industry, and social factors. 6.3.1.3

'Sundrop' Farming

Organization base: London, UK Project Locations: Portugal

Australia,

North

America,

Sundrop Farms is a developer, owner and operator


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Case Study A1 Figure 45a: Groasis Waterboxx: Worker setting up one of the unit. Figure 45b: Section cut view (3D) Figure 45c: Capillary drills are introduced to increase the speed of planting.

a

b

Figure 45d: Ancon Lima Peru has had no rain for 20 years, but the project is success in planting a productive orchard with the Groasis Waterboxx Source: https://www. groasis.com/en

c

d Case Study A2 Figure 46a: Sahara Forest Project: the pilot plant Figure 46b: The salt water infrastructure digram: the process Figure 46c: Vision of future: huge scale development

a

b

Figure 46d: The first cucumber harvest at the Qatar Pilot Plant in November 2012 Source: http:// saharaforestproject. com/

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Concentrated solar power: systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. Electricity is generated when the concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator or powers a thermochemical reaction.

of high tech greenhouse facilities which use a number of technology solutions to grow crops with less reliance on finite natural resources than conventional greenhouse production. ("The Q&A: John Phinney Of Sundrop Farms" 2015) Sundrop Farms opened its first pilot facility in Port Augusta, South Australia, in 2010 (operating as Seawater Greenhouse Australia Pty Ltd). This facility was originally designed as a Seawater Greenhouse, however significant technology changes led to the Sundrop System, and the dissolution of the joint venture with Seawater Greenhouse Ltd. Sundrop Farms commissioned an expanded 20 ha facility south of Port Augusta in 2016. Sundrop Farms has offices in London, UK and Adelaide, Australia.

is trapped so the temperature in the greenhouse keeps rising throughout the day. The heat causes water to evaporate, creating air humidity making the greenhouse atmosphere better for plants' growth as well as maximising the dew harvest. When the surface temperature drops at evening until morning, the farmer pulls out the rope to open the top of the greenhouse allowing it to cool, eventually reaching the dew point, atmospheric water vapour condenses to form small droplets on the surface of the bioplastic sheet falling into the water tank container. The timeline and expectations of project is as follows: May-June: Construction of the Ecodome (workshop) and the Dew-collector greenhouse July-August: Coordination between stakeholders September: Beginning of first training session December: Soil building trainings and low-cost solutions applied on more remote farms February 2016: Cereal yields are expected to increase of 5%

Figure 47: The salt water infrastructure digram: the process

August 2016: Perennial plants will give the first yields

The primary inputs to a greenhouse are heat, electricity, water, and nutrients. The Sundrop System is a collection of technologies which, when used in combination, reduce the need for finite resources in these inputs versus conventional greenhouse production. In Sundrop Farms first facilities in South Australia, these technologies include concentrated solar power, thermal desalination, and steam-driven electricity generation. ("Sundrop System - Sundrop" 2017)

August 2017: Farmers will yield a sufficient amount of crops for both improving their food diet and selling the surplus.

6.3.1.4

'Roots Up' Dew collector Greenhouse

Organization base: Ethiopia Project Locations: Australia, North America Roots Up plans to launch its first series of Dew Collector greenhouses in Northern Ethiopia, in conjunction with the University of Gondar. The Dew Collector is just one part of the company's mission to help create a self-reliant farming community in Northern Ethiopia. The entire project include construction of training workshop and biogas toilets. This greenhouse has multifunctional purpose: grow food and produce water. Inside, the hot air 62


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Case Study A3 Figure 48a: 'Sundrop' Farming: Overview of existing farm in Australian desert Figure 48b: concentrated solar panels: to concentrate the solar radiation reflected onto the tower

a

b c

Figure 48c: Capillary drills are introduced to increase the speed of planting. Figure 48d: Ancon Lima Peru has had no rain for 20 years, but the project is success in planting a productive orchard with the Groasis Waterboxx Source: https://www. groasis.com/en

Case Study A4 Figure 49a: Roots Up Dew Collector Greenhouse Figure 49b: Interior view Figure 49c: Section cut view Source: https://www. roots-up.org/

a

b c

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6.3.2

Advanced Proposals

The advanced proposals are mostly larger scale architectural proposals, and also future, conceptual development. 8 projects are studied in this section. 6.3.2.1

'Giant Sandstone Walls'

Site: Sahara Desert, North Africa Architect(s): Magnus Larsson (Sweden) The London Architectural Association student developed an idea proposing using bacillus pasteurii, a microorganism found in wetlands, in the desert to turn sand into sandstone. The antidesertification scheme envisioned long walls of sandstone that would span the Sahara Desert from east to west and would not only block encroachment of desertification, but would also provide refugee housing. A particular microorganism, Bacillus Pasteurii, is flushed through the dunescape (an analogy could be made to an oversized 3d printer), which causes a biological reaction that turns the sand into solid sandstone. The initial reactions finish within 24 hours; it would take about a week to saturate the sand enough to make the structure habitable. The bacteria are non-patogenic and die in the process of solidifying the sand. 6.3.2.2

'Green Machine'

Site: Western Sahara desert Architect(s): Stephane Malka (France) The visionary thought experiment to fight desertification takes the form of the 'Green Machine', a solar-powered mobile city that turns the Sahara desert  into arable land. Moving on caterpillar treads, the massive self-sufficient machine plows the land, plants seeds, and waters the landscape wherever it goes. With its giant caterpillar treads – originally designed to transport NASA rockets – the machine can be driven over a range of undulating terrains. The versatile oasis takes advantage of the region's hostile sun and wind through a series of inventive systems. Completely self-sufficient, the structure generates its own electricity through nine solar towers, which produce 450kw each day. 6.3.2.3

'Bio-Pyramid'

Site: Egypt Architect(s): D. Sepulveda, W. Moussa, I. Kumar, W. Townsend, C. Joyce, A. Armelli, and S. Juarez (United States) 64

As winner of an honorable mention in the 2015 eVolo Skyscraper Competition, the project proposes expanding Egypt's ancient pyramids into a pyramidal bio-sphere 'living machine.' The greenhouse-like structure would run on renewable energy and use carefully cultivated microclimates to support vertical farming, water purification, energy creation and more. The fantastical Bio-Pyramid would also serve as a mixed-use development comprising retail, restaurants, research labs, and university facilities. The project proposes to throw away the statusnorm on historic preservation/ tourism and create a super-hybrid of re-activating areas that truly make a global difference. 'Bio-Pyramid' is a nonconventional skyscraper that not only operates as a 'bio-sphere' but also as a gateway from Cairo across the Sahara Desert; linking a sustainable armature to reverse desertification from a monumental to small nomadic scale. 6.3.2.4

'Desertscraper'

Site: China Architect(s): Yungi Jung, Jeong Gwang Hwang (South Korea) The Desertscraper is a solar-powered mobile skyscraper that restores healthy vegetation in man-made deserts and facilitates long-term growth of green areas. The skyscraper counteracts the ever-growing threat of desertification through two major operations: transplanting greenery and enhancing the general quality of the degraded soil. First and foremost, the Desertscraper operates as a gigantic, regional transplanter that transplants greenery as it rolls along the skirts of a desert. The plants are grown in the adjacent in-house farm, and are prepared in the form of 'plant pot modules', filled with compost and equipped with water supply system. Assembled along the internal circulation of the skyscraper, the modules are planted into the soil as the external belt comes in direct contact with the ground.


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Case Study B1 Figure 50a: 'Giant Sand Stone' Overview Figure 50b: 3D Printing method enable fast construction Source: http:// inhabitat.com/giantsandstone-wall-fightsdesertification/

a

b Case Study B2 Figure 51a: 'The Green Machine' overview Figure 51b: View from top Source: http:// saharaforestproject. com/

a

b Case Study B3 Figure 52a: Sahara Forest Project: the pilot plant Figure 52b: The salt water infrastructure digram: the process Source: http:// saharaforestproject. com/

a

b Case Study B4 Figure 53a: Sahara Forest Project: the pilot plant Figure 53b: The salt water infrastructure digram: the process Source: http:// saharaforestproject. com/

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6.3.2.5

'Valley of the Giants'

Site: Tindouf, Algeria Architect(s): Eric Randall Morris, Galo Canizares (United States) An honorable mention in eVolo's 2016 Skyscraper competition, Valley of the Giants takes a futuristic approach to addressing real and pressing concerns troubling North Africa (and other regions) today. Their answer are these long cylinders that house plant spores and produce, collect and treat water. This combination of attributes allows the giant towers to pollinate the landscape, transforming it from vast stretches of desert into an oasis. They are also connected to a network of underground pipes that create pools and wells. The proposal was not to build temporary shelters or redesign a city from scratch, but instead to use infrastructure and ecology to jumpstart and augment already existing environmental and cultural systems. The concept was simple: a series of towers that would (1) house plant-spores, (2) produce, collect, and treat water, and (3) pollinate the surrounding landscape, catalyzing the production of an oasis in the region. The structures themselves had to be of an immense scale in order to effect significant change; thus they were designed as 1km tall, thin, cylinders. In addition to their independent functions, a new network of underground pipes was implemented to facilitate the creation of pools and wells. Within 20 years, the area would drastically transform from a barren landscape into the Valley of the Giants. 6.3.2.6

'Sietch Nevada'

Site: Nevada, United States Architect(s): Matsys Designs (United States) A futuristic concept city that envisions a dystopian water-hoarding society where drought is a constant state and wars are fought over water. Sietch Nevada projects waterbanking as the fundamental factor in future urban infrastructure in the American Southwest. It is an urban prototype that makes the storage, use, and collection of water essential to the form and performance of urban life. Inverting the stereotypical Southwest urban patterns of dispersed programs open to the sky, the Sietch is a dense, underground community. A network of storage canals is covered with undulating residential and commercial structures. These canals connect the city with vast aquifers deep underground and provide transportation as well as agricultural irrigation. The caverns brim with dense, urban life: an underground Venice. Cellular in form, these structures constitute a new 66

neighborhood typology that mediates between the subterranean urban network and the surface level activities of water harvesting, energy generation, and urban agriculture and aquaculture. However, the Sietch is also a bunker-like fortress preparing for the inevitable wars over water in the region. 6.3.2.7

'Sand Turbine Hotel'

Site: Gobi Desert, China Architect(s): Margot Krasojevic (United Kingdom) Margot Krasojevic's new solar-powered sand turbine hotel in the Gobi Desert utilizes desert winds and sun to produce energy and slow down deforestation. Krasojevic's proposal involves building a sort of underground seed vault which would aid germination and harness wind power to produce clean energy. The futuristic structure, which would also provide housing accommodations, would include a rotating cluster of photovoltaic solar cells and holographic filters to reflect light underground to support plant growth and protect against the harsh climate. Krasojevic's proposal involves building a sort of underground seed vault which would aid germination and harness wind power to produce clean energy. 'This underground shaft acts as an inverted greenhouse which can also produce food.' Solar panels, arranged in a rotating pattern, would be combined with sand turbines framed within a tower that disperses seeds into the environment. In addition to generating power, the structure would use the ability of sand to retain temperatures and utilize it for insulation and as energy storage. 6.3.2.8

'Living Mountain'

Site: Taklamakan Desert, China Architect(s): Anna-Maria Simatou, Dendrou (Greece)

Marianthe

This high-rise conglomerate, in conjunction with man-made lakes, could gradually transform the desert into a habitable environment. The Living Mountain would extract water from the regions substrate and through its smart use, treatment, circulation, and controlled evaporation, could create a microclimate inside the structure. The housing areas are envisioned as 'living pods' of 2,000 square-feet with easy access to all the facilities. Rainwater is collected and circulated on top of the super-structure and freely cascades to the atrium while filtering the air and promoting the growth of indoor vegetation.


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Case Study B5 Figure 54a: 'Giant Sand Stone' Overview Figure 54b: Section View Source: http://www. evolo.us/competition/ the-valley-of-giants/

a

b Case Study B6 Figure 55a: ' Sietch Nevada' overview Figure 55b: Interior perspective Source: http:// matsysdesign. com/2009/06/25/ sietch-nevada/

a

b Case Study B7 Figure 56a: 'Sand Turbine Hotel' Overview Figure 56b: The salt water infrastructure digram: the process Source: http:// inhabitat.com/ margot-krasojevicssolar-powered-sandturbine-hotel-aims-tostop-the-spread-of-thegobi-desert/

a

b Case Study B8 Figure 57a: Living Mountain Figure 57b: The salt water infrastructure digram: the process Source: http:// saharaforestproject. com/

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6.3.3

Analysis: Success Criteria

The method to identify success criteria is vital to increase the success rate of the project upon the issue. According to The idea of sustainability came to public attention after a 1972 report, 'Limits to Growth,' issued by the international think tank Club of Rome. In 1980 the World Conservation Strategy developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, in collaboration with the U.N. Environment Programme and World Wildlife Foundation, worked to make sustainability a benchmark of international action. Then the term 'sustainable development' achieved international public prominence through the 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 'Our Common Future', often called the 'Brundtland Report' after the name of its chair, former Norwegian prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland. It presented the famous definition: 'Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' (WCED 1987, 43).

Work and Economic Growth, Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, Reduced Inequalities, Sustainable Cities and Communities, Responsible Consumption and Production, Climate Action, Life on Land, Peace, and Justice and Strong Institutions. In another words, the following question are raised by the concept of sustainability: 'Can human activity successfully maintain itself without exhausting the resources on which it depends?' (Ruge 2013) To clearly explain success criteria analysis, the ultimate aim of research project are: Investigate new aspect of architectural thinking and idea on sustainable development of the environment of Silk Route area, without overlooking on the historical implication regarding regional context. Success criteria are analysed according to the 3 pillars of sustainable development: environment, social and economy. (Figure 58) The format of analysis are similar to a simulation of competition entries to compare each competition with each criteria identified. The analysis are directed to be objective, some based on estimation.

Furthermore, on September 25th 2015, United Nations adopted 17 set of goals to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over the next 15 years. Almost all the goals are involved in the thesis research, which are: No poverty, Zero hunger, Good Health and Wellbeing, Quality Education, Clean Water and Sanitation, Affordable and Clean Energy, Decent

Case Study

Possible Site

Cost

Area

Cost per m2

1

Groasis Waterboxx

Wider (Arid Area)

Low

200 Euro/unit

200 Euro/unit (roughly `m2)

2

Sahara Project

Limited (Arid area around sea water)

High

4,95 million Euro for Pilot Project/10.000m2

495 Euro/m2

3

Sundrop Farming

Limited (Arid area around sea water)

High

191,5 million Euro/ 200.000m2

957.5 Euro/m2

4

Dew Collector Greenhouse

Wider (Arid Area)

Very low

11.210 Euro (Funding Goal, estimate 1000m2)

11.21 Euro/m2

Forest

Table 3: Comparison between 4 current solution projects 68


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LOCAL IDENTITY

PARTICIPATION

TRAINING & CORPORATION SYSTEM

LVING/ WORKING ENVIRONMENT

VIRTUOUS CIRCLE (RESOURCE

FULFILL NEEDS

INCOMEOUTCOME BALANCE)

SITE CONDITION (FIRST PHASE)

SOCIAL

BEARABLE

Influence on Nature Elements

EQUITABLE

JOB OPPORTUNITY

SUSTAINABLE

ENVIRONMENT

VIABLE

ECONOMIC

SOIL UPFRONT COST

SOIL RESTORATION EFFECIENCY AFFORDABILITY VEGETATION

ENERGY

POTENTIAL RESOURCE WATER

BUILDING MATERIAL

AVAILABILITY

MAINTENANCE

Figure 58: Success Criteria Analysis. Source: Author

Figure 59: United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Source: United Nations 69


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Conclusion

Tested with results around different countries.

Still in pilot project phase, but revegetation is one of the main activities

Not really focus on combating desertification

Using conventional method to combat desertification

Non-electrical device, but mostly plastic in materiality

Solar powered, but industrial material

Solar powered, but industrial material

Without power plans but using local, simple materials: bamboo, masonry etc.

Little impact

Might have great impact on the topography, soil structure, nature element

Direct impact on nature, & mirror solar panel incinerate birds frequently.

Minimum impact on environment, small-scale

Not related to local residences

Produce basic need such as food, biomass, salt but not quite related to social issues

Basically provides food only.

Provides solution to local settlement's issue: poverty, education, infrastructure

Little

Local community are involved according to the strategy

Mostly highskilled workers

Directly involved with local residents

Training require professional skills

SFP facilities provides employment for both highand low-skilled workers.

Not explained in strategies

Training relatively simple to be carried out, adopted by local communities

Mass produce device only

Resource recycle process and system clearly explained

Conventional feasible

Not very stable

Non-electrical device, low maintenance

High maintenance

High maintenance

Low maintenance

Medium, slightly high

High initial cost

High initial cost

Affordable

Could be adopted in programme and production, shallow impact to earth

Good production system cycle in various process with different outcome

Not to make great initial impact but gradually develop

Adoption of local material, light structure to minimize impact on nature

Table 4: Success Criteria Analysis 70


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Adaptable to the environment, but not efficient in restoration of soil condition.

Machinery could be efficient in soil restoration

Not much focus on the soil restoration effort, to interior farming instead

Transplanter, seed ball to be adopted using clock wheel-inspired structure

Programme focusing on landscape restoration, to create oasis

No intention to restoration of soil

Act as barrier to desert, planting a 'green wall'

Mainly focusing on forming micro-climate inside the shell for residential area.

Sand are directly solidify into main building material; but no power strategies Directly controlled the topography and soil structure with microorganism

Mainly steel; solar and wind powered, condenser produce water source

Greenhouselike building material and structure, not specifying power resource

Industrial material; solarpowered

Unspecified material (might be masonry and structural steel); unspecified power source

Unspecified material; unspecified power source

Unspecified material; unspecified power source

Steel, reinforced concrete, glass; unspecified power source

Slight negative impact on ground and environment

Slight negative impact on ground and environment

Relatively small direct impact on the nature condition

Directly transform ground condition and soil structure in-depth

Transform ground condition and soil structure in-depth

Large initial earthwork, destructive to ground condition

Provide refugee housing and block advance of desert; against wind erosion

Holding a city for residences on the platform, but does not fulfil local needs

Structure affect cultural heritage & ground conditions, introducing exotic species Only create micro-climate. No actual positive effect to surroundings

Act as factory to mass produce seed ball planting in desert.

Creating oasis, but not providing housing for mentioned refugees

Underground city concept, solution for preserving underground water

Provide residential to solve overpopulation.

Medium

Residences need to leave their home, onto the machine, like a sailor. Little participation Unspecified

Limited community involvement potentialtourism instead

Similar to B2

Having potential for community involvement

Mega-structure city

Though enormous, the structure can not really block the sand storm. Provide housing. Limited potential as a stand-alone hotel

Unspecified

Unspecified

Unspecified

Unspecified

Unspecified

Unspecified

Fairly sustainable

Self-sustainable but isolated

Unknown

Self-sustainable but isolated

Future development are thought, as totally residential structure

Unknown

Underground farming has low chance to sustain

Living pod are hard to sustain with the low space efficiency of such huge structure

Low maintenance, flexible shape

High maintenance for machineries

Medium/ high maintenance

High maintenance for machineries

Medium/ high maintenance

Medium/ high maintenance

High maintenance

High maintenance

Relatively affordable

High initial cost especially mechanism

High initial cost

High initial cost especially mechanism

High initial cost

High initial cost

High initial cost

High initial cost

Flexible structure can provide various needs in different period

Mechanism and technology that increase the efficiency of land restoration should be adopted

Form are emphasized in blending with context but mainly not contributing much biggest issue.

Factory should be flexible to move but not to largely increase maintenance cost

Architecture should have dialogue with local condition and issues, focusing on ultimate aim

Underground water infrastructure worth studying but minimize the impact on nature

The concept of forming long green wall is valuable but scale matters worth discussed

The idea of modular living pod is ideal as fast production for instant needs.

Construction can only be involved with highly trained workers

Score:

0

1

Limited potential

2

3

4

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7 T

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S

T

How to establish sustainable urban planning system design in coordination with palliation effort on desertification issue in Iran?

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Figure 60: Dasht-e Kavir / Photo credit: George Steinmetz / Source: http://www.amusingplanet.com

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Part II Proposal 7.0

Experimental Research Project- Hotspot: Dasht-e Kavir, Iran

Kavir Desert, Persian Dasht-e Kavir, also spelled Dasht-i Kavir, great salt desert of central Iran. Located in a basin southeast of the Elburz Mountains, it is approximately 77,600 km2 in total area, making it the  Earth's 23rd largest desert. The desert is distinguished by salt crust, caused by the almost rainless climate and intense surface evaporation, lying over treacherous, quick sandlike salt marshes that are almost uninhabited. Settlements are found only in the surrounding mountain ranges. Climate The Dasht-e Kavir's climate is arid and receives little rain and snow each year. However, the surrounding mountains on all side, provide plenty of runoff to create vast seasonal lakes, marshlands and playas. Temperatures can reach 50 oC in summer, and the average temperature in January is 22  oC. Day and night temperatures during a year can differ up to 70 oC. Rain usually falls in winter. Post Glacial System The Kavir was a series of vast lakes in the immediate  post-glacial  time, stretching to about 3,000 years ago. The Asian monsoon rain reached deep into central Iran at the time, bringing heavy summer rain that formed numerous lakes in the closed basins of central Iranian Plateau that form the Kavir and other deserts in the area. Structure The desert soil is covered with sand and pebbles; there are  marshes, seasonal  lakes  and seasonal river beds. The hot temperatures cause extreme vaporization, which leaves the marshes and mud grounds with large crusts of salt. Heavy storms frequently occur and they can cause sand hills reaching up to 40 m in height.

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Figure 61: Annual Temperature Report / Source: www.meteoblue.com

Figure 62: Annual Wind Rose Diagram / Source: www.meteoblue.com

Figure 63: Post-glacial Lake System / Source: International Space Station

Figure 64: Strong dry winds have dried the surface of this salt river into a web of hair-like salt crystals. Their orientation preserves a record of the wind as it blew across the surface. / Photo credit: George Steinmetz

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Site The chosen site is located inside the boundary of Dasht-e Kavir, where the condition to survive is extremely critical: rare sign of life can be found here. The lowest point where the annual storm rainwater flows and accumulates is near to the chosen site enables strategy to maximizing accessibility to water resource.

Figure 65: Site Location / Source: Author

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Figure 66: Site Location and Development planning

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Nature Elements The term 'Biomimicry' in various aspects such as technology had been contributed to human needs and the process of invention. The research on indigenous nature elements are carried out as an inspiration of architecture system and strategy. The adaptation of species to the local conditions such as daily routine, evolution, characteristics, physical composition features and mechanism of anatomy and reproductions are potential information for the brainstorming of ideas in solution.

Facts Head-and-body Length (cm)

300

Height (cm)

170-200 (head)

Total Weight (kg)

300-600

Lifespan (year)

40

Adaptation

Architectural Strategy

1. Hairy eyelashes and nostrils

Avoid sand from windy environment, filter mechanism

2. Short, thick fur

Vegetation/ fur-like shading & insulation on shell

3. Rarely urinate or sweat, but can consume water in very fast pace

Minimum use of water, water harvest and storing speed

4. Widespread toes

Foundation/ footing shape prevent shrinking into sand

5. Can lose 40% body weight (flexible storing of energy)

Expandable mass (grow and decline in different condition)

6. Consuming carrion/ bones in emergency to survive

Reuse recycled building material and resources

Facts Leaves Length (cm)

5-20

Height (cm)

1-2

Total Weight (kg)

-

Lifespan (year)

-

Adaptation

Architectural Strategy

1. Thin stem- minimal heat gain

Minimal structure- linear typology

2. Tomentose hair beneath leaves to minimize air flow and water evaporation, trap water vapor

Architectural devices to minimize water loss

3. Structure of leaves that separate resources efficiently

Connection pattern between building blocksmaximize circulation efficiency

4. Drop leaves during drought period (stop growing)

Dissemble structures and recycle building materials when needed

5. Leaf pores open at night

Openings controlled in response to weather condition

6. Leaves used as shading and photosynthesis device at the same time

Shadings devices covered as solar panel to convert sunlight into energy

Figure 67a: Research on nature elements- List of flora & fauna 78


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Figure 67b: Research on nature elements- List of flora & fauna (continued) 79


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Vernacular Architecture Vernacular Architecture such as Qanat, Windtower and Yachals carry different function to withstand the extreme weather of the region. These architecture ensure the occupants to have a reliable resource of water, store food and keeping the internal building within comfort level in order to survive the extreme hot climate. Qanat It is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking. Qanat is an old system of water supply from a deep well with a series of vertical access shafts, Qanats still create a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid, and semi-arid climates. Wind Tower It is a traditional Persian architectural element to create natural ventilation in buildings. Windcatchers come in various designs: uni-directional, bidirectional, and multi-directional. Windcatchers remain present in many countries and can be found in traditional Persian-influenced architecture throughout the Middle East Yakhchal It is an ancient type of evaporative cooler. Above ground, the structure had a domed shape, but had a subterranean storage space; it was often used to store ice, but sometimes was used to store food as well. The subterranean space coupled with the thick heat-resistant construction material insulated the storage space year round. These structures were mainly built and used in Persia. Many that were built hundreds of years ago remain standing. Traditional Dwelling In Yazd climate plays the most important role in designing houses. As it maintained before, the city is placed in the central Iranian desert. Designing of houses in this area is based on the climatic factors. Entrance of the house is through narrow and covered lane. Most of the streets in the town are facing wind direction and they are narrower than those in other regions, and the covered lanes prevent the very high temperature of the sunlight. Every building material in this desert town is composed of mud and unbaked brick In the cold season the absorbed temperature serve as an insulation which protect the inside air from being effected by the chilly winter desert climate. During hot season the absorbed temperature, mud and un backed bricks strongly resist the incessant sun rays. 80


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Figure 68: Qanat tunnel near tunnel Isfahan./ Source: en.wikipedia.org

Figure 69: Windtower / Source: andrewschneider.com

Figure 70: Exterior of Yakhchal. /Source: Source: http://jfa.arch.metu.edu.tr/

Figure 71: Aerial diagram of traditional dwelling in Yazd. / Source: http://www.archinomy.com/

Figure 72: Sectional diagram illustrate the windcathers of Yazd. /Source: historicaliran.blogspot.com

Figure 73: Sectional diagram of Yakhchal. / Source: misfitsarchitecture.com

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Cultural Behaviour Traditional Normadic Lifestyle: people are determined, life is miserable, starving for recreational activities. Some trying to move into city but they could not adapt to the fast pace of city life, parents have to live separately because their children have to go to school. There is nowhere else like this on earth do animal and human have to depend on each other so completely to survive. Social Organisation Tribes are the basic unit of their social organisation, and though simple, they are highly structured,for wandering purposes, tribes break into smaller clans and family units, travelling and exploiting the land is much more easier."There's no place like home". The wanderers who travel with herds of domesticated animals. They are constantly on the move, with no permanent camping place. Their staple belongings include camels and tents, and they frown upon agriculture and all types of trades and crafts. All three generations live under one roof, men and women have divided out-door and domestic responsibilities among themselves according to their ages and skills. Main professions: Woodwork, wool-weaving, leather work, jewellery making, cloth-dyeing, embroidery, snake-charming, agriculture, herd-grazing Men: ploughing the fields, animal-grazing (domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat, milk and other products), weaving and house-construction or other moneyearning activities. Women: bringing water from the well or pond, cooking, washing, maintenance of house, threadmaking, embroidering, knitting etc. The Vicious Cycle The overgrazing of the nomadic tribes causes desertification which leads to what it might be called the vicious cycle. When the land becomes infertile after some time, the people migrate to occupy another piece of land rather than trying to make good the previous land, perhaps they are lacking of knowledge in saving the infertile lands.

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Figure 74: The daily nomadic lifestyle / Source: Author

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Experiment of Salt To explore and get familiar with the potential material, experiments are conducted. (Further Research in 'Salt: Design by Algorithm') The idea for construction is that: light-weight fabric are transported to site, which crystallisation of salt on it forms a compression structure on-site to enable flexible assembly and disassembly. Material properties of salt From the study of compressive strength and density, salt lies in between rammed earth, masonry and ice. This suggests that salt is possibly best performing in compressive structure for example arch, vault or tunnel.

Figure 75: Compressive strength of salt / Source: Author

Figure 76 : Compressive structure / Source: Author

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Figure 77: 2nd Experiment / Photo credit: Author

Figure 80: Top view of 2nd prototype / Photo credit: Author

Figure 78: 2nd Experiment crystallization on the structure / Photo credit: Author

Figure 81: Salt can actually support a compression structure, even if combined with fabric / Photo credit: Author

Figure 79: When the prototype is rotated around, it works exactly similar as catenary arch-formed compression structure / Photo credit: Author

Figure 82: When the experiment are conducted on a weaker fabric with wider gaps in between, the support potential reach the limit thus the structure does not stand./ Photo credit: Author

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Research Conclusion The information gained from research is rich because there are rich historical content around the chosen place, thus being concluded into a diagram with list of inspiration and adaptation potential in architecture.

Figure 83: Research Conclusion / Source: Author

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Figure 84: Structural Simulation / Source: Author

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Intention The design intention is to invert the extreme condition of the place into opportunities. The main challenge is restoration of soil condition, and collection of water from rain and underground sources. Initial Strategy The first ideas are expressed by sketches in our method, before using CAD software so that the analogue critical-thinking comes first, not dominated and confused by the digital aids. The main ideas comes from the camels and mugwort, which is extremely flexible in either body mass or speed of growing and shrinking during different seasons in a year; from the cultural consideration, temporary and changeable structures find similarity in the traditional nomadic lifestyle (which in this case restore the soil fertility from place to place). (Refer to Figure of Research Conclusion)

EXTREME STRONG WIND

EXTREME SOLAR RADIANCE

WIND POWER

EXTREME SALINIZED SOIL

SOLAR POWER & MINIMIZE HEAT GAIN

RAPIDLY HARVESTING RAINWATER

EXTREME RAINFALL

Figure 85: Design Intention / Source: Author

88

SALT AS BUILDING MATERIAL


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Figure 86 : Design Intention / Source: Author

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Figure 87a: Initial Concept Sketch / Source: Author

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Figure 87b: Initial Concept Sketch (continued) / Source: Author

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Initial Strategy & Scenarios The information gained from research is rich because there are rich historical content around the chosen place, thus being concluded into a diagram with list of inspiration and adaptation potential in architecture. Realization Work-flow The strategy and work-flow are conducted and modified afterwards during manipulation. Rainwater harvesting strategies scenario are separated as it deals with different part of the development system.

Figure 88: Manipulation of Scenario & Work-flow Diagram (Modified) / Source: Author

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Space Organization The Grasshopper plug-in: Syntactic is used for quick generation of space arrangement and connection instead of merely the function of sketched bubble diagram. One of the advantage of this software plug-in is the efficiency of modifying design options by adjusting parameters of space required area, which is especially suitable for design idea of flexibility system. GrasshopperŠ Syntactic

WINTER

SUMMER

'EXPAND'

'SHRINK'

Figure 89: Space Organization diagram / Source: Author

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From Spaces to Shell & Structure

For following step, the GrasshopperŠ plug-in: Kangaroo is used for generating shell compression structure, using the concept of catenary arch that forms inversion of natural tensile forces into optimized compression structure. (Further Research in 'Salt: Design by Algorithm') GrasshopperŠ Kangaroo

1

2

3

Space arrangement diagram extracted from Syntactic plug-in

Centre of Circle

Shortest Path & Connection (Car-free settlement)

4

5

Centre of triangle: Avoid circulation path

Edge of structure & support points

Figure 90a: Space Organization to structure process / Source: Author

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6 Catenary compression structures created by Kangaroo Plug-in

Figure 90b: Space Organization to structure process/ Source: Author

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Rainwater

The scenario of rainwater harvesting includes maximize the water resource gained by simulating the water flow on-site, to determine the direction of building's expansion. This scenario is separated with the main building block's planning as it is the most flexible-growing structure to be constructed before the rain. On a smaller scale, the rain simulation shown information on how the built form are able to collect water by the columns themselves as well. Rhinoceros 5Š | Rainwater flow Simulation E.V.E Rain

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Figure 91: Site / Source: Author

Figure 92 : Rainwater simulation on natural topography/ Source: Author

Figure 93 : Rainwater simulation on basic/ experimental structure / Source: Author

Figure 95: Rainwater simulation during summer / Source: Author

Figure 94: Rainwater simulation showing the best way to collect water is to follow the flow of rainwater which is directly affected by topography. / Source: Author

Figure 96: Rainwater simulation during winter: showing how rainwater are flowing, directed and collected according to the building form. / Source: Author

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Structure & Solar Radiation Optimization of structure is vital for scenario of utilizing salt material which is suitable for compression. Grasshopper© plug-in Octopus offers advantage on this evolutionary architecture optimization process.

Grasshopper© | Structural Optimization Millipede Grasshopper© | Solar Radiation Optimization Ladybug Grasshopper© | Evolutionary Optimization Octopus

Figure 97: Evolutionary Optimization Graph / Source: Author

98

Figure 98: Evolutionary Optimization Graph- chosen 9 options / Source: Author


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Optimized Solutions Structural stress is the first consideration in this case, whereas solar radiation are second- the lower maximum structural stress applied on structure, the higher in material efficiency. Solar radiation simulation are tested only during summer as when the most extreme weather condition happens.

Prefered solutions

Table 5: Table of optimized solutions / Source: Author

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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Figure 99: Solar Radiation Simulation on left; Structural Simulation on right. / Source: Author

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Wind The potential of wind power is a convincing strength at Dasht-e-Kavir, but also importantly the strong wind pressure on structure especially in summer needs to be concerned. It is not joint together with the plug-in Octopus but scheduled in the next step, as in this case Autodesk Flow DesignŠ are chosen for its efficiency and accuracy. One of the principle found from this simulation is that certain fluid-form, curved structure such as birds, aeroplanes and cars can effectively direct flow of incoming air and minimize the wind pressure.

Prefered solutions

Prefered solutions

Table 6: Wind simulation on the chosen 9 solutions from Structure & Solar Radiation simulation / Source: Author

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1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Figure 100: Final decision of solution / Source: Author

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Conclusion of Optimization

The process of evolutionary optimization and simulation are practical for a conclusion for best choices of solutions, which provides flexibility for designers to generate choices in short timing. The optimization also reflects minimum maintenance costs on building and even maximum profit.

Preferred solutions Final solution

Table 7: Conclusion of Optimization / Source: Author

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Salt mining Because of the rich amount of salt found in the lake surface when it is dry, salt mining is seen to be an important activity throughout the summer. It is also because of the salinity of the water that prevents most of the plant to grow. Hence, by introducing halophyte in the salt lake oasis is a good alternative to grow crop and get food.

Figure 101: The conventional salt mining. source: mortonsalt.com

Figure 102: The alternative to grow plant in salt water and to get salt from crystallisation

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Fabrication The salt brick laying machine is a crane-like fabrication machine which operates in within the area of a radius, with minimum movement of the base.

First arch of salt brick structure

Second and third arches of salt brick structure

Salt bricks added from first arch

More salt bricks added

Figure 103: Fabrication / Source: author

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Layout & Typology

The next step is the layout and space planning inside shell structures created. Referring to the planning density in vernacular architecture, the solution is to arrange modular 'pods' for different functions such as dwellings and offices into compositions. It is prefabricated in factory and able to be easily assembled together or disassembled in short time, which is supporting the concept of 'growing and shrinking' in former discussion, which is refer to the research on nature elements.

Figure 104: Concept of 'pod' assembly method / Source: author

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CIRCULATION

SERVICE POD

VERTICAL CORE

DWELLING POD

Figure 105: Dwelling 'Pod' assembly method / Source: author

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5.0

Conclusion

Throughout the research from case studies, brainstorming of ideas to the optimization and generation of design options, the practical results of computer-aided design especially parametricism as an extensive potential design tool. Apparently, the learning curve can sometimes steep which the power of these tools are convincing. Conflicts are existing and the process can be never-ending, but the research project also supported on the understanding on design method of biomimicry and architectural regionalism. On the practical aspect, various CAD tools are introduced as an intensive practicing, especially their technological potential and trends in architecture field can be seen.

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Figure 106: Impression / Source: author

Figure 107: Interior Impression / Source: author

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8 S

I

T

E

Where is the possible site condition for thesis proposal?

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8.0

Site

8.1

Desertification in China

Compare to other countries along Slik Road, China has a large amount of land affected by desertification. (Refer to page 39). China had 5 times of desertification evaluation from 1990. The evaluation result showed that China has around 30% of territory affected by desertification, which can be considered a severe issue for the nation. During 1st and 2nd monitoring, the annual expanding speed of land degradation are getting faster, however discovered negative expanding speed in the 3rd, 4th and 5th evaluation(Table 8). The trend shows China's method and policy has been a success to reverse the desertification speed. The Authority claims that the situation is still severe though, continuing for the effort to combat desertification is vital to the arid zone. 8.1.1

The Great Green Wall

The Great Green Wall (a.k.a. Three-North Shelter Forest Program) is a project to plant a 4,480km (2,800 mile) shelter-belt of trees across the northwest rim of China skirting the Gobi Desert since 2001. The project's name indicates that it is to be carried out in all three of the northern regions: the North, the Northeast and the Northwest. The project have been contributing effect in the negative growth of desert. The measure includes the great green wall landscape and sand fixing projects. 8.1.2

Idea: Direct Seawater into Xinjiang

Xinjiang, China is the farthest place in earth from sea. There are proposals regarding directing seawater from Bohai sea into Xinjiang to mitigate the water scarcity issue. The transportation route is expected to be 1,900 km long. However, the project receives critiques such as over-budget, over-large project scale and problems regarding climate conditions.. 8.1.3 Conclude The result from monitoring projects have been convincing but still yet having great potential. The case are thus worth studying for the proposal, and to choose a site as the base of realizing the concept to combat desertification along the Silk Road, as a sharing of technologies and ideas along the Silk Road, and efficient action to mitigate the issue.

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Wind Erosion Soil Salinization Hyper Arid Area Site

Figure 108: Desertification distribution map in China, redrawn from CCICCD (1997) Source: Yang et al. 2005

Table 8: Desertification distribution data in China, table organized by author. Source: www.forestry.gov.cn 113


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8.2

Site Selection

Lop Nur, (a.k.a Lop Nor) is considered the best location for the design proposal. Through the experiment project in Iran, the requirement for proposal site are desired to be different from the hot desert- as cold desert climate zone has the potential to be studied and contributing a holistic perspective on desertification. 8.2.1

around Lop Nur area during their civilization, but only fishing. After the lake has largely dried up, they are forced to migrate.

Lop Nur: 'Earth's Ear'

As a post located in the lowest part of Tarim Basin (altitude 780m), the former salt lake is known as 'Earth's Ear' because of geographic pattern (which can be discovered from satellite's view), Lop Nur is located at the intersection point between the North and South Taklamakan Silk Road network, Lop Nur was an important oasis city for the trade route. Lop Nur 's name refers to the former salt lake, now largely dried-up. The lake once covered more than 10,000 km2 because there were 5 rivers gathering here. Administratively, the lake is in Lop Nur township also known as Luozhong of Ruoqiang County, which in its turn is part of the Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture. Loulan was an ancient kingdom based around an important oasis city already known in the 2nd century, while declined as severe desertification around 3,000 years from now. Lop Nur is a mysterious place full of stories, thus very popular for explorers and adventurers. Plenty of historical site can be found here, such as the Lou Lan ruins, Xiaohe Burial Site, Qäwrighul, and Miran. The Lop Nur race are one of the most ancient races in Uyghur. There were no agriculture activity Table 9: Difference between 2 project's site selection

Thesis Project

Experimental Project

Final Proposal

Condition / Project Site

Dasht-e Kavir desert (Yazd), Iran

Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China

Climate

BWh- Hot arid desert climate

BWk- Cold arid desert climate

Desert

Dasht-e Kavir

Taklamakan Desert, Gobi Desert

Aridity

Hyper-arid

Arid

D. severity

Very Severe

Very Severe

D. vulnerability

Very High

Evaluated 'cold' by USDA

Land Degradation

Salinization, water erosion, followed by wind erosion

Mostly Wind salinization

Urban/ Rural

Centre of desert (no inhabitant)

Rural (Industrial potash mine)

to directly challenging to rehabilitate desert into inhabitable land

to tackle with desertification where happens the most

5000

2193 (from 176 BC)

History of city 114

Erosion

and


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Figure 109: Lop Nur by satellite (the traces are formed during the gradual evaporation of lake water)

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8.2.2

Lop Nur's changes

Born within Tertiary Period and Quaternary Period, the water level of Lop Nur have been changing frequently. The intense construction of water dams and increasing population along the Tarim river are believed to be the main factor to the tragedy of nature. After the lake was dried totally, there are never wildlife seen around this area, as known as the 'sea of death'.

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Figure 110: The changes of Lop Nur lake

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8.2.3

The initial idea

The significance of Silk Road starts with 'connection'. In macro perspective, the proposal starts with the idea of 'Green Silk Road'- green infrastructure and sustainable development along the Silk Road. As certain positive result can be seen in the effort of combating desertification, the proposal aims to spread the applied technology and effort along the Silk Road, and the development of great green belt along Eurasia.

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Figure 111 : Green Silk Road concept planning 119


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8.2.4

XXXL: Green separation

connection,

desert

In a slightly smaller scale, the idea can be further elaborate to separate the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert. Through the ancient Silk Road map, it can be understand that Lop Nur was a vital node along the Silk Road, which was once described prosperous, full of plants and wildlife. The effort to revive these atmosphere became the next main direction of design.

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Figure 112: Site location "XXXL" (scale 1:40,000,000) 121


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8.2.5

XXL: Ancient ruins, New Lop Nur Township

Lop Nur gives a mysterious impression full of stories, thus very popular for explorers and adventurers. Plenty of historical site can be found here, such as the Lou Lan ruins, Xiaohe Burial Site, Qäwrighul, Miran etc. The responsible to protect these precious ruins are vital, and tourism activities have to be considered.

Figure 113: Site Plan "XXL" (scale 1:4,000,000) 122


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Figure: Satelite map of site: Lop Nur. Source: Google Maps

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8.2.6

XL: Dried lake, potash mine ponds

The discovery of potash at Lop Nur in the mid1990s turned the area into a large scale mining operation. The main potash deposits minded at Lop Nur are potash brines. The brines are pumped to the surface and then to the evaporation ponds in steps until the brines can be recovered as potash. This process is what gives each pond a different colour.

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Figure 114: Site Plan "XL" (scale 1: 500,000) 125


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Figure : Site analysis: Overview

Figure 115: Site analysis 126


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Figure 116: Site Analysis: Wind. Source: Qiu

2011

Figure 117: Site Analysis: Rain. Source:: Qiu 2011

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8.3

Further Researches

8.3.1 Nature The only apparent existing wildlife species is Bactrian camels, which has the best adaptation to the desert environment. The main difference from dromedary camel is their long hair. It helps keeping the body warm as like an insulation layer. The following features discovered are useful to be adopted in architectural response to the local climate.

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Figure 118: Site research: nature 129


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8.3.2

Vernacular Architecture

Vernacular architecture are vital information and inspiration for the design strategies in this caseto confront the extreme environment. Luoburen village are small-scale settlement in Yuli, Bayingol which consisted of simple, light weight materials especially timber. Dun Huang's architecture are apparently a mixture between East and West, as an important Silk Road town that adapted Buddhism culture. Uyghur architecture are much more decorative in building details. The best information is from Turpan, which are consisted of more than 40 obvious architecture features.

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Figure 119: Site research: vernacular architecture

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Figure 120: Site research: vernacular architecture

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Figure 121: Site research: Culture & behaviour

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Figure 122 : Site Plan "L" with site analysis (scale 1: 100,000) 136


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Figure 123 : Zoning (scale 1: 100,000) 137


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Figure 124: Aimed users

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Figure 125: Stakeholder analysis

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8.4

Issues to tackle

Beside desertification's type as wind erosion, the other main issue is water scarcity. The main water resource from glacial lake are expected to disappear in 50-80 years, which might cause severe drought to the oasis settlements in Xinjiang. Furthermore, strong sandstorm reaching level 12 (133km/h) are main destructive threats to be considered at the first place. Seismic activity are not frequent and destructive in this case.

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Figure 126 : Issues analysis

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8.5

Urban Study

To maximize the effect to combat desertification, the scale of proposal are set to larger scale urban design. To understand the urbanism in the same climate condition, analysis and studies are made as diagrams, data collection and arrangement in table.

Figure 127: KĂśppenâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Geiger climate map 144


Name

Shijiazhuang Lahore Khartoum Piraeus Kabul Turpan Lima Altay N'Djamena Aziziya Baghdad Antofagasta Dunhuang Yuanjiang Baku Mazar-i-Sharif Aksu Bamako Ulaanbaatar Ouagadougou Kuwait City Amman Riyadh Tabriz Niamey Ciudad Obregón Kashan Yerevan Hermosillo Karamay Isfahan Navojoa Dubai (Sector 3) Doha Mo‘ynoq Hotan Korla Shibam Tacna Abu Dhabi Sarmiento Ivanhoe Kyzylorda Mecca Ayteke Bi Walvis Bay Las Vegas Qom Alicante Oranjestad Denver Beyneu

State/ Municipality/ Autonomous region

Country

Hebei China Punjab Pakistan Khartoum Sudan Attica Greece Kabul Afghanistan Xinjiang China Lima Province Peru Xinjiang China N’Djamena Chad Tripolitania Libya Baghdad Iraq Antofagasta Chile Gansu China Yunnan China Azerbaijan Balkh Province Afghanistan Xinjiang China Bamako Capital District Mali Mongolia Kadiogo Burkina Faso Al Asimah Kuwait Jordan Riyadh Province Saudi Arabia East Azerbaijan Province Iran Niamey Urban Community Niger Sonora Mexico Isfahan Iran Armenia Sonora Mexico Xinjiang China Isfahan Iran Sonora Mexico Dubai United Arab Emirates Ad-Dawhah Qatar Karakalpakstan Uzbekistan Xinjiang China Xinjiang China Hadhramaut Yemen Province Tacna Province Peru Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates Chubut Argentina New South WalesAustralia Kyzylorda RegionKazakhstan Makkah Region Saudi Arabia Kyzylorda RegionKazakhstan Erongo Region Namibia Nevada United States Qom Iran Valencian Community Spain Oranjestad Aruba Colorado United States Mangystau Region Kazakhstan

Chimbay Zhanaozen Aktau

Karakalpakstan Uzbekistan Mangystau Region Kazakhstan Mangystau Region Kazakhstan Nukus Karakalpakstan Uzbekistan UlanUde Republic of Buryatia Russia Phoenix Arizona United States Odessa Texas United States El Paso Texas United States Kashgar Xinjiang China Qo‘ng‘irot Karakalpakstan Uzbekistan Brooks Alberta Canada Lethbridge Alberta Canada Zaragoza Aragon Spain Uyuni Antonio Quijarro Bolivia Province Almeria Andalusia Spain Baikonur Kazakhstan Lhasa Tibet Autonomous China Region Zacatecas City Zacatecas Mexico Comodoro RivadaviaChubut Argentina Lop Nur Xinjiang China Upington Alice Springs Coober Pedy

Population

Northern Cape South Africa Lingiari Australia Giles Australia

City centre 2 Area (km )

5,145,133 6,318,745 5,185,000 163,688 3,817,200 197,213 271,814 124,500 951,418 29,310 6,150,000 390,832 111,535 281,097 1,229,100 415,100 273,000 1,810,366 1,372,000 1,475,223 60,184 1,812,059 5,188,286 1,773,033 1,302,910 324,800 275,325 1,060,138 784,342 353,299 2,243,249 103,312 928,046 587,055 18,196 119,804 425,182 7,000 293,116 2,784,490 10,858 12,263 227,499 1,675,368 38,046 62,096 623,727 1,292,283 328,648 34,980 600,158 57,930 39,571 66,600 178,187 260,000 404,426 1,445,632 118,918 649,133 506,640 69,000 14,451 92,729 666,058 10,460 194,203 36,175 223,001 138,152 182,631 4,200 74,834 24,210 1,582

Density (Pop. Per km2)

Local Climate (Köppen climate classification)

266.21 345.68 308.45 10.86 275.00 14.90 20.76 9.62 76.39 2.42 525.04 34.13 10.32 28.29 131.36 47.94 36.00 252.08 202.52 219.30 9.10 319.05 933.06 324.00 239.30 60.09 52.54 223.00 168.20 76.49 493.82 22.90 215.67 158.72 4.92 34.32 125.54 2.36 100.66 972.00 4.12 5.05 96.73 760.00 17.34 32.50 352.00 730.00 201.27 22.17 400.00 39.66

19,327.3 18,279.2 16,809.9 15,072.6 13,880.7 13,235.8 13,093.2 12,941.8 12,454.7 12,111.6 11,713.4 11,451.3 10,807.7 9,936.3 9,356.7 8,658.7 7,583.3 7,181.7 6,774.6 6,727.0 6,613.6 5,679.5 5,560.5 5,472.3 5,444.7 5,405.2 5,240.6 4,754.0 4,663.2 4,618.9 4,542.6 4,511.4 4,303.1 3,698.7 3,696.1 3,490.8 3,386.8 2,969.8 2,912.0 2,864.7 2,635.4 2,428.3 2,351.9 2,204.4 2,194.5 1,910.6 1,772.0 1,770.3 1,632.9 1,577.8 1,500.4 1,460.8

BSk BSh BWh BSh BSk BWk BWn BWk BSh BWh BWh BWk BWk BSh BSk BWk BWk BSh BSk BSh BWh BSh BWh BSk BSh BSh BWk BSk BWh BWk BWk BSh BWh BWh BWk BWk BWk BWh BWn BWh BSk BSh BWk BWh BWk

29.87 51.50 140.00 221.00 347.60 1,341.48 113.90 663.70 555.00 76.00 18.59 122.09 973.78 15.34 296.21 57.00 525.00 356.14 548.20 18.79 580.80 49.51 30.50

1,324.6 1,293.2 1,272.8 1,176.5 1,163.5 1,077.6 1,044.1 978.1 912.9 907.9 777.4 759.5 684.0 681.7 655.6 634.6 424.8 387.9 333.1 223.5 128.8 489.0 51.9

BWk BWk BWk BWk BSk BWh BSh BWh BWk BWk BSk BSk BSk BWk BWh BWk BSk BSk BSk BWk BWh BWh BWh

SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

Figure 128: Urban density research

BWn BWh BWh BSh BSh BSk BWk

BWn BWh BWk BSh BSk DFa

Am Af

Mild Desert Climate Hot Desert Climate Cold Desert Climate Hot Steppe Climate Cold Steppe Climate Hot-summer humid continental climate Tropical monsoon climate Tropical rainforest climate

145


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

8.5.1

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Climate

BWh, Hot desert

Population 928,046 Area 215.67 km2 Density (Pop. Per km2)

4,303.10

Founded 7000 BC Figure ground type

Organic

'City of Wealth' Besides global city and business hub, Dubai is a major transport hub for passengers and cargo. By the 1960s, Dubai's economy was based on revenues from trade and, to a smaller extent, oil exploration concessions, but oil was not discovered until 1966. The emirate's Western-style model of business drives its economy with the main revenues now coming from tourism, aviation, real estate, and financial services. Dubai was recently named the best destination for Muslim travellers by Salam Standard. Dubai has recently attracted world attention through many innovative large construction projects and sports events. The city has become iconic for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa.

146


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

147


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

8.5.2

Dunhuang, Gansu, China

Climate

BWk, Cold desert

Population 111,535 Area 10.32 km2 Density (Pop. Per km2) 10,807.7 Founded +-2,000BC Figure ground type

Organic

'Sand city'Dunhuang was the intersection city of all three main silk routes (north, central, south) during this time. Famous with Buddhist caves tourist sites, there are also activities of night market held on the main thoroughfare, Dong Dajie, in the city centre of Dunhuang, popular with tourists during the summer months. A railway branch known as the Dunhuang Railway, constructed in 2004-2006, connects Dunhuang with the Liugou Station on the Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway.

148


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

149


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

8.5.3

Turpan, Xinjiang, China

Climate

BWh, Hot desert

Population 197,213 Area 14.90 km2 Density (Pop. Per km2)

13,235

Founded +-200BC Figure ground type

Grid

'City of Fire' Turpan has long been the centre of a fertile oasis (with water provided by the Karez canal system) and an important trade centre. Turpan is an agricultural economy growing vegetables, cotton, and especially grapes being China's largest raisin producing area. There is a steady increase in farming acreage devoted to grapes backed by strong local government support for increased production.

150


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

151


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

8.5.4

Kashgar, Xinjiang, China

Climate

BWk, Cold desert

Population 506,640 Area 555.00 km2 Density (Pop. Per km2)

912.9

Founded +-200BC Figure ground type

Radial

'City of cultural integration' Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang and is the westernmost Chinese city, located near the border with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Kashgar has a rich history of over 2,000 years and served as a trading post and strategically important city on the Silk Road between China, the Middle East, and Europe. Kashgar's Old City has been called "the best-preserved example of a traditional Islamic city to be found anywhere in Central Asia". It is estimated to attract more than one million tourists annually. The city has a very important Sunday market. Thousands of farmers from the surrounding fertile lands come into the city to sell a wide variety of fruit and vegetables.

152


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

153


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

CRITERIA

8.5.5

Importance Index

Linear urban typology accroding to main transport-ation route

Success Criteria Evaluation

The urban pattern or concept inspired from studies are then evaluated with the success criteria as conclusion of thesis part 1. The decision on urban pattern design is to focus on clustered dense typology, and secondary- angular pattern.

Estimated soil restoration efficiency

5

Advantages 3.5 on soil restoration development process; efficient canal

3

Transportatio n of material is not efficient but directional to resources

1

4

Flexible to adjust route accroding to context

3

5

Not effecient for environmental protection

1

ENVIRONMENT

-Climatic Variability (Flexibility) -Management (Water, soil, vegetation)

Potential resource & material availability -Indigenous material -Advantages for clean energy supply

Direct Impact to Context -Impact on existing nature topography, nature preserves, historical sites, wildlifes

Fulfill needs -comfort environment -disaters: sandstorm & earthquake -water supply -locality & acceptance

SOCIAL

Participation

2

3

Traveling route takes time between stations- not idealfor networking

2

4

Centralized path for transportation

4

3

--

2

Might be simple and economical

-likeliness of public to get in contact with knowledge on soil restoration -research programming

Virtuous Cycle -balance of resource cycle, future development -income-outcome balance and endurance

ECONOMIC

1.5

-potential to encourage participation from all social strata

Training & Corporation System

Figure 129: Evaluation for urban pattern

Maintenance

2.5

-future expenses on maintenance works -advanced costs

Affordability -upfront cost -depends on local stakeholders and users

Total points

Ranking

154

1. 'Linear'

4

78

6


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

Importance Index

2. 'Clustered'

3. 'Underground'

Linear urban typology accroding to main transport-ation route

Dense clustered urban typology inspired from vernacular architecture

Undergroundbased urban concept

5

Advantages 3.5 on soil restoration development process; efficient canal

Protection for4.5 restoration, dense vegetation shelter effect

Restoration take place on ground level

3

Transportatio n of material is not efficient but directional to resources

1

Dense typology enables sharing of material and structure

5

4

Flexible to adjust route accroding to context

3

Flexible to respond to environment

4

5

Not effecient for environmental protection

1

Thermal & 3.5 wind protection for residence; but high urban density

y)

erial

1. 'Linear'

y

s,

quake

2

1.5

trata

Dense typology makes restoration work more accessible

5

5

2.5

3

Traveling route takes time between stations- not idealfor networking

2

Dense typology makes training more accessible

4

Centralized path for transportation

4

Neutral

3

--

2

Might be simple and economical

oil

future

nd

2.5

4. 'Radial'

5. 'Organic'

4

7. 'Angular'

American-grid urban typology

Comparatively loose separated typologies for best treatment of site

1

Canal is not 2.5 efficient to be settled but other supplements are.

Flexibility to fit restoration on context; but management might be hard

3

Grid typology is straightforward method on modular soil restoration

Local materialmud, sand & salt acquired from earthwork

4

Good for wind power plant and energy's supply route

2.5

Flexibility for sand, salt extraction work and energy plants

2

Effecient 3.5 power supply route

Earthworks directly affect original topography

0

Not always compatible with context

2

Flexible to respond to environment

4.5

Sheltering effect from earth

4

Clear distribution routes of resources

2.5

Flexibility according to needs

4.5

5

2

2

4

Residents might be isolated with revegetation

1

3

4

Residents might be isolated with revegetation

1.5

3

4.5

Flexibility for 2.5 modification/ robustness; but not ideal for transportation

Efficient land distribution and management system

5

--

3.5

Non-ordered planning might require higher maintenance

1

Medium-low maintenance

5

Moderate

2.5

Might be slightly costly because of flexible organic organization

2

Grid pattern 3.5 is simple and economical

1

0

Vulnerability to seismic activity; but providing direct shading effect

Centralized path for transportatio n

Costly especially extensive earthwork

Structurally not applicable for local material;

3

1

5

3

Flexibility according to needs such as water supply

Leave big impact on environment if settlement is dismantled

Dense typology promotes sharing of material and structure

Effeciency and flexibility for energy supply route

1.5

2.5

0.5

2

5

Training 4.5 management and research programme can be effecient

--

Dry ventilation at bottom of structures; enables more vegetation

Lifted upstructures reduced direct contact with topography

1

2

4

3.5

Underground environment might not be ideal for training and research

Rigid organization

Straightforward and also provide flexibility

Flexibility enables appropriate preservation of nature environment

Might be too 4.5 centralized and not supporting bottom-up management

Freedom and decentralized , might be beneficial but hard to manage

Elevated city concept

1

2.5

--

3

Not always compatible with context

8. 'Air'

Straight-forward angular typologies between organic and grid

Centralized typology to connect with radial points & belt

ance

ers

6. 'Grid'

Medium maintenance

simple and economical

2

3

High maintenance

0

4.5

Comparativel -y high

0

78

122

52.5

96.5

92

102

108

54.5

6

1

8

4

5

3

2

7

155


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

9 I

D

E

A

How to establish sustainable infrastructure development in revitalizing the former healthy environment condition of 'oasis' around the dried up lake?

156


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

157


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

9.0

Idea

9.1

Initial idea

Throughout the urban study, the urban design direction can be clearer elaborated. The decision on urban pattern are clustered urban typology as could be observed in vernacular architecture. The idea is to define the city as a 'compact city' which has clear hierarchy and central nuclei pattern. Inspired by indigenous urban typology, the building blocks are designed as irregular, flexible orientation to meet different requirements. The modern-style grid system are inapplicable in this case because of the strong wind, thus being modified in to angular polygons' tessellation to still meet the requirement of rapid, efficient construction. Another strategy is to create clear front and back typology to achieve maximum thermal comfort.

158


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

ISSUE

STRATEGY

WATER SCARCITY

UNDERGROUND SALTWATER DESALINATION

SANDSTORM

WIND POWER

EXTREME TEMPERATURE

SOLAR UPDRAFT POWER

SALINIZED SOIL

SALT MATERIAL STRUCTURE

LOW EFFICIENCY AGRICULTURE

AUTOMATIC CENTREPIVOT IRRIGATION

URBANITY

CENTRAL NUCLEI according to water supply base

FREE, ORGANIC INFRASTRUCTURE according to needs & resistance to wind

TESSELATION OF CIRCLE according to water supply distance

DENSELY CLUSTERED to minimize climate impact

NARROW CLOSED COURTYARD, CLEAR FRONT & BACK

Figure 130: Initial idea 159


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

9.2

Programme mapping

The main character of the programme are definitely agro-forestry (combined agriculture with forestry). It is supported by saltwater pumped out from the Tarim basin and the energy will be provided by the wind power plants and solar updraft towers. Sand mining is important for collection of building material to run 3D printing construction. Research and education system encourages residents to get involved with the effort and provide working opportunities for the society. The programme aims to work as a desert ecosystem to rely on each other as the sustainable recycle of energy.

160


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

Figure: Programme

40

%

SETTLEMENT

FOOD & ENVIRONMENT

35

%

FRESH WATER

AGRO-FORESTRY

COOLING & IRRIGATION

5%

SALTWATER DESALINATION

5%

RENEWABLE ENERGY

2%

SAND MINING

2%

RESEARCH & EDUCATION

1%

3D PRINTING CONSTRUCTION

S A LT

POWER SUPPLY

BUILDING MATERIAL H UM A N RE S OURC E

Figure 131: Programme mapping 161


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

9.3

Space arrangement

Starting from the bubble diagram ideas, the main spaces are then connected to form a centralized typology as inspired by vernacular architecture. It simulates the growth like plants or cells to produce bases away form the first base. Spaces would cluster together as dense as possible but remain required comfort.

162


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

Figure 132 : Detail Bubble diagram 163


DESERT - IFIC AT I O N

Description

Location

GFA Proper (sqm) ty  Type Apart 140,000 ment

Item

Search Date

1

17‐Apr‐17

伊山郡

沙依巴克区

2

17‐Apr‐17

伊山郡

沙依巴克区

Apart ment

3

17‐Apr‐17

和兴北城大观

新市区

4

17‐Apr‐17

和兴北城大观

5

17‐Apr‐17

6

Plot Area  Plot  (sqm) Ratio

Total Storey Green  Units ratio

Rooms

Area (sqm) BUA

Selling Price (RMB) 

Price / sqm 

Developer

Posted Date

27,067

5.17

1046

24‐28 70.00%

2

87.32

      419,136.00   ¥  4,800.00  新疆飞晟房地产开 发有限公司

27/11/2016

140,000

27,067

5.17

1046

24‐28 70.00%

3

98.34

      472,032.00   ¥  4,800.00  新疆飞晟房地产开 发有限公司

27/11/2016

Apart ment

386,000

128,200

3.01

3264

26‐32 38.00%

2

93.00

      437,100.00   ¥  4,700.00  新疆和興房地产开 发有限公司

14/05/2015

新市区

Apart ment

386,000

128,200

3.01

3264

26‐32 38.00%

3

109

      512,409.00   ¥  4,701.00  新疆和興房地产开 发有限公司

14/05/2015

北城君威景苑

新市区

Apart ment

147,000

51,000

2.88

3704

37.00%

2

92.00

      432,400.00   ¥  4,700.00  新疆亿峰鸿瑞翔房 地产开发公司

18/11/2015

17‐Apr‐17

北城君威景苑

新市区

Apart ment

147,000

51,000

2.88

3704

37.00%

3

125.00

      587,500.00   ¥  4,700.00  新疆亿峰鸿瑞翔房 地产开发公司

18/11/2015

7

17‐Apr‐17

中豪润园

沙依巴克区

Apart ment

760,000

330,000

2.30

2500

35.00%

2

75.00

      465,000.00   ¥  6,200.00  新疆中豪房地产开 发有限公司

25/04/2015

8

17‐Apr‐17

中豪润园

沙依巴克区

Apart ment

760,000

330,000

2.30

2500

35.00%

3

93.00

      576,600.00   ¥  6,200.00  新疆中豪房地产开 发有限公司

25/04/2015

9

17‐Apr‐17

力鼎新城

开发区

Apart ment

350,000

210,000

1.67

5000

48.00%

2

77.00

      453,530.00   ¥  5,890.00  新疆新城力鼎房地 产开发有限公司 

18/08/2012

10

17‐Apr‐17

力鼎新城

开发区

Apart ment

350,000

210,000

1.67

5000

48.00%

3

87.00

      512,430.00   ¥  5,890.00  新疆新城力鼎房地 产开发有限公司 

18/08/2012

11

17‐Apr‐17

力鼎新城

开发区

Apart ment

350,000

210,000

1.67

5000

48.00%

4

142.00

      836,380.00   ¥  5,890.00  新疆新城力鼎房地 产开发有限公司 

18/08/2012

12

17‐Apr‐17

香缇雅境

米东区

Apart ment

190,000

82,608

2.30

1820

39.00%

2

86.00

      361,200.00   ¥  4,200.00  新疆广汇房地产开 发有限责任公司 

20/01/2015

13

17‐Apr‐17

香缇雅境

米东区

Apart ment

190,000

82,608

2.30

1820

39.00%

3

98.00

      411,600.00   ¥  4,200.00  新疆广汇房地产开 发有限责任公司 

20/01/2015

14

17‐Apr‐17

香缇雅境

米东区

Apart ment

190,000

82,608

2.30

1820

39.00%

4

187.00

      785,400.00   ¥  4,200.00  新疆广汇房地产开 发有限责任公司 

20/01/2015

15

17‐Apr‐17

力鼎新城

高昌区

Apart ment

2.25

17

48.00%

2

72.72

      341,784.00   ¥  4,700.00  新疆新城力鼎房地 产开发有限公司

09/01/2014

16

17‐Apr‐17

力鼎新城

高昌区

Apart ment

2.25

17

48.00%

3

98.38

      462,386.00   ¥  4,700.00  新疆新城力鼎房地 产开发有限公司

09/01/2014

17

17‐Apr‐17

万科金域华府二 高昌区 期

Apart ment

3.50

6

39.00%

2

86.00

      645,000.00   ¥  7,500.00  新疆万科房地产开 发有限公司

09/11/2013

18

17‐Apr‐17

万科金域华府二 高昌区 期

Apart ment

3.50

6

39.00%

4

142.00

   1,065,000.00   ¥  7,500.00  新疆万科房地产开 发有限公司

09/11/2013

19

17‐Apr‐17

财富广场

若羌县

Apart ment

13,446

100

12

3

97.00

      250,260.00   ¥  2,580.00  巴州靖祥房地产开 发有限公司

01/06/2012

20

17‐Apr‐17

华源圣地欣城

库尔勒市新 城辖区

Apart 1,070,000 364,000 ment

2.94

6986

4‐17 42.00%

2

86.77

      277,664.00   ¥  3,200.00  新疆华源实业(集 团)有限公司

31/10/2012

21

17‐Apr‐17

华源圣地欣城

库尔勒市新 城辖区

Apart 1,070,000 364,000 ment

2.94

6986

4‐17 42.00%

2

86.77

      277,664.00   ¥  3,200.00  新疆华源实业(集 团)有限公司

31/10/2012

22

17‐Apr‐17

华源圣地欣城

库尔勒市新 城辖区

Apart 1,070,000 364,000 ment

2.94

6986

4‐17 42.00%

3

101.99

      326,368.00   ¥  3,200.00  新疆华源实业(集 团)有限公司

31/10/2012

23

17‐Apr‐17

华源圣地欣城

库尔勒市新 城辖区

Apart 1,070,000 364,000 ment

2.94

6986

4‐17 42.00%

4

161.00

      515,200.00   ¥  3,200.00  新疆华源实业(集 团)有限公司

31/10/2012

24

17‐Apr‐17

南廷北院

库尔勒市

Apart ment

157,000

66,700

2.35

1470

2‐24 40.00%

1

55.03

      154,084.00   ¥  2,800.00  新疆新华房地产开 发有限责任公司

01/12/2014

25

17‐Apr‐17

南廷北院

库尔勒市

Apart ment

157,000

66,700

2.35

1470

2‐24 40.00%

2

86.73

      242,844.00   ¥  2,800.00  新疆新华房地产开 发有限责任公司

01/12/2014

26

17‐Apr‐17

南廷北院

库尔勒市

Apart ment

157,000

66,700

2.35

1470

2‐24 40.00%

3

96.85

      271,180.00   ¥  2,800.00  新疆新华房地产开 发有限责任公司

01/12/2014

27

17‐Apr‐17

敦煌阳光现代城 敦煌市

Apart ment

99,677

31,974

3.12

553

30.01%

2

82.00

      334,560.00   ¥  4,080.00  四川新蓥有限公司  01/10/2016 敦煌分公司

28

17‐Apr‐17

敦煌阳光现代城 敦煌市

Apart ment

99,677

31,974

3.12

553

30.01%

3

85.00

      346,800.00   ¥  4,080.00  四川新蓥有限公司  01/10/2016 敦煌分公司

29

17‐Apr‐17

敦煌市宜居轩∙金 敦煌市 水湾

Apart ment

320,000

145,455

2.20

2071

31.00%

3

117.80

      480,624.00   ¥  4,080.00  敦煌市中天建业有 限责任公司

01/05/2015

30

17‐Apr‐17

银山∙丽景花园

Apart ment

100,000

66,667

1.50

1180

6‐12 36.00%

3

78.00

      318,240.00   ¥  4,080.00  敦煌市银山房地产 开发有限责任公司

01/05/2015

敦煌市

Rooms

Average of Area (sqm)

Average of Price / sqm

1

55.03

2800.00

2

84.28

4664.17

3

98.87

4308.54

4

158.00

5197.50

Figure 133: Research on local residential area requirements and trends 164


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

Space Proportion & Room Schedule No. Provided Spaces 0 Total development Area 1 Soil Restoration 1.1 Agriculture 1.1.1 Machine hall 1.1.2 Bulk storage area 1.1.3 Roadways 1.1.4 Farmyard area 1.1.5 Saltwater-cooled greenhouses 1.1.6 Halophyte cultivation 1.2 Forestry & Landscape 1.2.1 Vegetation 1.2.2 Landscape Infrastructure 1.2.3 Wind Barrier layer 1.2.4 Public Amenities (park) 1.2.5 Evaporation Hedges 2 Research & Education 2.1 Research Centre 2.1.1 Studio 2.1.2 Research laboratory 2.1.3 Storage 2.2 Education 2.2.1 Public learning centre for agriculture 2.2.2 University of agriculture 2.2.3 Secondary school 2.2.4 Primary school/ Kindergarten 3 Settlement 3.1 Residential 3.1.1 2 room 3.1.2 3 room 3.1.3 Dormitory 3.1.4 Refugee Housing 3.1.5 Service area 3.2 Commercial 3.3 Community spaces 3.3.1 Community Agriculture 3.3.2 Health 3.3.3 Leisure 3.3.4 Public Amenities 3.3.5 Others 3.4 Administration 3.5 Tourism 3.5.1 Visitor centres 3.5.2 Hotels

User

User per room

Unit Area (sqm)

Quantity

25,000

100.00%

12,500

35.00% 17.50%

12,500

17.50%

2,500

2.00% 1.00%

5,000

1.00%

25,000 10,000 5,000 7,500 2,500

4 6 6 4

90 115 60 35

2,500 833 1,250 625

2

Percentage

40.00% 19.46%

5.84% 13.63%

0.10% 0.97% 500

Total Area (m ) 4,213,285

3.50% 5.25% 1.75% 3.50% 1.75% 1.75% 7.00% 1.75% 2.63% 3.50% 2.63%

0.30% 0.50% 0.20% 0.30% 0.30% 0.20% 0.20%

5.34% 2.27% 1.78% 0.52% 9.55% 4.09% 1.36% 1.36% 4.09% 2.73% 0.49% 0.49%

1,474,650 737,325 147,465 221,197 73,732 147,465 73,732 73,732 737,325 294,930 73,732 110,599 147,465 110,599 84,266 42,133 12,640 21,066 8,427 42,133 12,640 12,640 8,427 8,427 1,685,314 820,104 225,000 95,833 75,000 21,875 402,396 246,031 574,073 172,222 57,407 57,407 172,222 114,815 4,101 41,005 20,503 20,503

4 Green Energy Plant 4.1 Solar Power 4.2 Wind Power

5.00% 2.50% 2.50%

210,664 105,332 105,332

5 Water Desalination 5.1 Karez 2.0 Water system 5.2 Water storage 5.3 Mariculture & Algae 5.4 Salt ponds

5.00% 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 2.00%

210,664 42,133 42,133 42,133 84,266

6 Building material mining 6.1 Mining Plant 6.2 Storage

2.00% 1.40% 0.60%

84,266 58,986 25,280

7 Smart Building Fabrication 7.1 Construction Base (temporary) 7.2 Fabrication factory

1.00% 1.00% 1.00%

42,133 42,133 42,133

8 Infrastructure 8.1 Public transport 8.2 Circulation

10.00% 5.00% 5.00%

421,329 210,664 210,664

Figure 134: Space Proportion & Schedule 165


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9.4

166

Strategy on sustainability


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Figure 135: Sustainability goals setting & strategy

167


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CRITERIA

9.5

Importance Index

1. 'Karez Towers' Settlement planned & distributed according to Karez Towers (Salt water desalination base) for water supply

Success Criteria Evaluation

Concept options are based on different focus on scenarios such as wind, solar, water, 3d printing construction etc. The decision tested is wind optimization scenario as it fulfils the most criteria.

Moderate dense

Desity of urban strucutre Estimated soil restoration efficiency

5

--

3

--

3 -

ENVIRONMENT

-Climatic Variability (Flexibility) -Management (Water, soil, vegetation)

Potential resource & material availability

3.5

B w

3

A c e

4.5

S s

2

2

W p a c

3

3

4

1

3

2.5

M a m a f w

2

2.5

H c m s

-Indigenous material -Advantages for clean energy supply

Direct Impact to Context

4

-Impact on existing nature topography, nature preserves, historical sites, wildlifes

Fulfill needs

5

-comfort environment -disaters: sandstorm & earthquake -water supply -locality & acceptance

SOCIAL

Participation

Optimized water supply organization

-potential to encourage participation from all social strata

Training & Corporation System -likeliness of public to get in contact with knowledge on soil restoration -research programming

Virtuous Cycle -balance of resource cycle, future

ECONOMIC

development -income-outcome balance and endurance

Maintenance -future expenses on maintenance works -advanced costs

Affordability -upfront cost -depends on local stakeholders and users

Total points

Ranking

168

89.5

5


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Importance Index

re

on

A wind-proof settlement immuned to severe sandstorm and efficiently convert it into energy; soil restoration conducted on opposite direction

Modular pod design to maximize capacity of residences, and to accept more refugees

Settlement with temporary strucutres for simple assembly and disassembly, causing least impact to the environment especially after moving of the settlement

Optimized structural endurance to earthquake; with transition of space usage as development sequence

Optimized for salt water desalination in space arrangement, space with other function clustered together in centre high-rise strucutre

Rigid and economical option with gridorganized circulation route

Moderate dense

Dense

Very Dense

Moderate dense

Dense

Very Dense

Dense

3

--

3 --

4.5

bility) l,

aterial

7. 'Grid-based'

Settlement planned & distributed according to Karez Towers (Salt water desalination base) for water supply

--

More human resource for soil restoration works

3.5

4. 'Temporary'

6. 'Water & Salt'

2. 'Aerodynamic'

5

3. 'Over-migration'

5. 'Earthquake'

1. 'Karez Towers'

Fast construction of flexible infrastructure s enhances efficiency

4

Transformatio n of space needs more time and energy

--

2

3.5

Best absorb wind energy

5

--

4

--

1

2.5

3

A shelter to combat soil erosion

4

Overpopulation might cause negative effect to environment

2

Designed for demolition

5

3

4.5

Shelter for sandstorm

4

Dense living condition

3

Flexible 3.5 function transformatio n to fulfill various needs

Optimized for4.5 earthquake, flexibility to fulfill functions

2

2

Whole protected area is connected

5

Densely surrounded by soil restoration works

4.5

2.5

3

3

4

Limited capacity and management hardship

1

1.5

4

1

3

Selfsustainable economy as large scale society

4

3

2.5

More durable and less maintenance as avoided from strong wind

5

Heavy usage may lead to high maintenance

1

3.5

2

2.5

High upfront cost for micro-climate shelter

2

Human resource reduced cost on machines and technologies

4

5

Optimized arrangement for desalination and revegetation

1.5

--

Figure 136: Evaluation for urban design concept

Extremely 1.5 decentralized management

--

3

ergy

xt

4

e rves,

5

arthquake

Optimized water supply organization

al strata

in on soil

e, future

e and

tenance

olders

Designed for whole lifecycle

4

Densely surrounded by soil restoration works

2.5

2

3

2

1.5

3

Optimized water supply organization, but dependant to vertical circulation Isolated of building height

2.5

Clear planning strategy for water desalination

5

2

4.5

Super highrise structure might create unused spaces

2

2.5

4

1

2

3

1

Water needs 1.5 energy to pumped up to high levels

3.5

5

Better endurance

Avoided from eathquake

89.5

126.5

91.5

106.5

99.5

86.5

69.5

5

1

4

2

3

6

7

169


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9.6

Urbanism process

The proposal are divided into different phases including the expected depletion period of existing potash mine. 9.6.1

Karez water system

A Karez is a horizontal underground gallery that conveys water from aquifers in pre-mountainous alluvial fans, to lower-elevation farmlands. The water for the karez is provided by the mother well(s), which is sunk into the groundwater recharge zone. A karez transports water underground, usually surfacing in cultivated areas. Putting the majority of the channel underground reduces water loss from seepage and evaporation. A karez is fed entirely by gravity, thus eliminating the need for pumps.

Figure 137 : Karez water system in Turpan/ Source: gettyimages.com

9.6.2

Parameters and strategy

The first step is locate water service tower called 'Karez', and define the water service distance in 360 degree around it. Inside the water service circle, 3 smaller circle of 400m radius are formed symbolizing residents' comfort walking distance to the centre for public transport.

170


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PARAMETERS

800m

400m

Large circle= water supply distance

Small circle= residential walking distance

Connection line degree= 120 o Optimized direction for wind resistance

Figure 138: Simplified main parameters of tessellation urbanism

171


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1962

2020

2030

2040

Lop Nur lake dried up

1st Phase complete

Green Silk Road project Infrastructure introduced in Central Asia

2nd Phase complete

Soil restoration & revegetation

n= 3

n= 6

Tessellation loops

172


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Figure 139: Urbanism process

2050

2060

2070

Potash mine depletion: soil restoration of mining area

3rd Phase complete

Desertification along Silk Road largely reduced

Dominating wind direction: 45 o North East

45 o

n= 9

173


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9.6.3

Detail process narratives

1 SITE Towards the smaller perspective, the idea is to fully renovate the coal power station into the first base of Karez Tower with underground water supply. The tower is built on the hyperboloid-shape cooling tower, as a significant monument for the revolution of clean energy.

174


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2 KAREZ TOWER CIRCLE The Karez tower act as a water supply infrastructure base for the surrounding circle area, with radius of 800 meter. As the base tower are settled on the cooling tower of former coal power station, next towers are located on the optimized location away from the first, as 60 o angled directions.

175


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176


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3 URBAN CANOPY To combat extreme climate conditions, several intensive measures are adopted. Huge wind turbines facing the predominant wind direction, shorter wind turbines to protect settlement, lightweight structure combined with saltmade panels to create micro-climate that mitigates extreme temperature. The panels are arranged in suitable angle to receive more sunlight in winter; vice versa for summer. Together, the whole form are designed as aero-dynamic form as to direct and gradually absorb the incoming strong wind.

177


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4 W AT E R Water infrastructure is the first-place requirement for urbanism in desert. To design for comfort environment, the topography are analysed with water flow simulation, thus located landscape consisted of lakes in certain lowest points. The following is to connect the lakes with river landscapes to revive the lively oasis atmosphere as the recall of memories in the prosperous Loulan Kingdom.

178


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5 CONTINUOUS GREEN Besides recreational parks, green area planned along the designed river path provides community farming spaces to achieve participation in re-vegetation programmes. Windbreak area are planted facing wind direction with tall trees and shrubs to prevent wind erosion and shelter the agriculture land and settlement.

179


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6 BLOCKS The buildings height gets greater towards the centre following the shape of the entire 'urban canopy'. As shown in the section drawing, wind are blowing from north east direction and gradually rise as it touches the aerodynamic shelter.

180


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7 TRANSPORT The transportation path are mostly irregular to avoid strong wind entering the narrow courtyards. The existing road are mostly preserved and the new roads are connected by angled direction such as 30 or 60 degrees.

181


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9.6.4

Saltwater Desalination Process

Water source are proposed as underground saline water around the Tarim Basin, instead of the idea raised in 2010 to build seawater infrastructure from Bohai Sea which is 1,900 km away from Xinjiang. The saline water pumped up from Tarim Basin are then transported in around 200 km, which is a much shorter distance.

Figure 140 : Underground saline water in Xinjiang

182


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DESALINATION PROCESS

UN D E R G R O U ND S A LTWATE R

M A R I C U LT U R E & A L G A E

S A LT WAT E R - C O O L E D G R E E N H O U SE S

E VAPO R AT I O N HEDGES

SALT PO N D S

S A LT S A LT

FOOD & BIOMASS

FOOD

W AT E R

R E V E G E TAT I O N

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More details in Chapter 7 1

9.6.5

3D Printing Construction Process

3D printing of salt and sand are proposed to be applied in the proposal because both these materials can be easily acquired in Lop Nur. Besides, Traditional cranes are dangerous to be erected on sandy surfaces, and windy condition. 1

184


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S A LT

SHARED SUPPORT STRUCTURES

SALT & EARTH 3D PRINTING CONSTRUCTION ROBOT

KAREZ TOWER & WIND TURBINE

LIGHTSTRUCTURE URBAN CANOPY

SALT SHADING PANELS

CYLINDER BUILDING FOR 3D PRINTING EFFICIENCY

Figure 141 : Construction process

185


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9.6.6

Urbanity Diagrams

Further details to help understanding the urbanity concept can be arranged in the following diagrams:

Greeneries Agriculture + Forestry Industrial Commercial Residential

Figure 142 : Zoning

186


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Community Tower + Public Transport Karez Tower + Public Transport Residential walking distance 200m Residential walking distance 400m

Water service distance 800m

Figure143 : Urban Massing

floors 1- 4 5-10 11-20

Figure 144: Building height 187


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10 D E S I G N H

188

.

o

.

w

.

?


SS1 7 T H E S I S | SR Recall

189


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10.0 Design The masterplan are presented to express the dense, organic, playful integration with landscape infrastructures.

Figure 145 : Masterplan: Aerodynamic pattern & urban canopy form oriented towards the destructive sandstorm to gradually distribute wind load.

190


POTASH MINING POND

WINBREAKS PARK POTASH MINING

refugee housing

PARK

KAREZ TOWER

KAREZ TOWER PARK COMMERCIAL

LAKE

RECREATIONAL

TRANSPORTATION HUB

RESERACH POTASH MINING

KAREZ TOWER

EVAPORATION HEDGES

3D PRINTING CONSTRUCTION BASE

SALTWATER-COOLED

refugee housing

GREENHOUSE

SAND MINE

SALT POND

ECOLOGICAL PARK SALT POND

CENTRE PIVOT IRRIGATION (cpi)

cpi FARM cpi FARM

cpi FARM

cpi FARM


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KAREZ BASE TOWER Constructed on former coal power station's cooling tower as the first water desalination unit. On the upper part act as solar updraft tower that generates electricity from low temperature solar heat.

600

SHARED STRUCTURE KAREZ TOWER 02 Secondary water desalination and distribution units 300

192

Urban canopy, wind turbines and buildings rely on each other structurally to combat lateral force


Figure 146: Cross Section

WIND TURBINE INSIDE URBAN CANOPY Shelter settlement from strong wind

SHARED STRUCTURE Urban canopy, wind turbines and buildings rely on each other structurally to combat lateral force

WIND TURBINE OUTSIDE URBAN CANOPY

KAREZ TOWER 05 Secondary water desalination and distribution units

Larger device to receive wind

PREVAILING WIND

SALTWATER INFRASTRUCTURE


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194


Figure 147: North East Elevation


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Figure 148: Perspective: Recreational Park

196


Figure 149: Isometric View


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198


View from Southwest: the Karez Tower is built on top of the cooling tower in existing coal power plant, which serves as a water supply base and solar tower: to mark the death of coal-fired power plants. On the other side, Karez is a city built to encounter and reverse the extreme environmental conditions including the catastrophic sandstorm.


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Geboers, Eric. The Salt Project: Building with Seawater in the Desert. 2017. Accessed January 8, 2017. http:// buildingwithseawater.com/. Katyal, Jagdish and Paul Vlek. Desertification - Concept, Causes and Amelioration. ZEF Development Policy Bonn. Bonn: Center for Development Research, 2000. Maraglino, T., V. Ricco, M. Schiralli, R. Giordano, and G. Pappagallo. The Role of Stakeholders Involvement to Combat Desertification: A Case Study in the Apulia Region. 116th EAAE Seminar Spatial Dynamics in Agri-food Systems: Implications for Sustainability and Consumer Welfare. Parma: National Institute of Agricultural Economics, Water Research Institute, 2010. Ministry of Agriculture and Forests Royal Government of Bhutan. National Action Program (NAP) to Combat Land Degradation. Semtokha: National Soil Services Centre, Semtokha, 2014. http://www. unccd.int/ActionProgrammes/Aligned%20NAP%20 FINAL(Bhutan).pdf. Ministry of Agriculture, Lebanon. National Action Programme to Combat Desertification: Lebanon. n.p.: Ministry of Agriculture, Lebanon, 2003. The Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Turkey. Turkeys National Action Program on Combating Desertification. Ankara: Ministry of Environment and Forestry Publication, 2006. Ministry of Population and Environment, Nepal. Nepal 201


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I Dessau International Architecture School Anhalt University Department 3 Š 2017

Profile for Alex Sia Hong Rui

Desertification  

DIA SS17 Thesis

Desertification  

DIA SS17 Thesis

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