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DESIGN AS

DISCOURSE AS DESIGN

ADS3 Alexandra Gower 201443


Part One

Discourse as Design:

-Wyndham City Council brainstorm -Herzog and De Meuron; Ornament -Computerisation, mass customisation -Callum Morton; Art interpreting architecture -R&Sie(n), dynamism and emotion Part Two

Design Devices - Bio-mentor - Brainstorm - Inspiration - Diagram of inputs - Case Study CUT - Solution Development - Matrix Part Three

Fabrication - Fabrication - Performance Part Four

Refinement

Contents

- Communication


Society is changing. The continuing growth of the population on the limited surface of the world and the reduction of distance within the world through fast methods of travel and instant communication has resulted in a shift in society’s relation to space. Space is becoming a valuable commodity. Advances in design tools and construction techniques has also altered how and what space is defined. Architecture is also changing. The introduction of parametric modeling allows designers to respond factually to site factors and removes many assumptions to allow a new freedom in design. Parametric design therefore enables the designer a fresh appraisal of their project, site and context and the ability to respond to the issues in a directly cause and effect manner. As a suburb in flux, Wyndham is moving through these issues of space and it’s new meaning in 2012. In many ways this rapid change of a community can be perilous. Community identity can either be strengthened when guided in the right direction or completely broken down by the disturbance. It is therefore important for Wyndham to create an icon that engages with contemporary notion of space exploration and encourages discourse. As only through discourse can a positive direction be discovered.


PART ONE


discourse as design - Wyndham City Council brainstorm - Herzog and De Meuron; Ornament - Callum Morton; Art interpreting architecture - Scripting Culture and emotion - R&Sie(n), dynamism and emotion - Computerisation, mass customisation


Wyndham City council

Great Australian Dream of the detached house = Urban sprawl Fastest growing municipality in Australia by percentage Per week: 60 babies born and 120 new rubbish bins requested

Rose Garden, Fibonacci sequence

Site for filming one of the car chases from Mad Max, great Australian cultural icon. Commented on the sustainability of our preoccupation with cars, petrol and speed.

Former orchard farming area, mostly family run. Only pockets now remain.


The Country Suburb

Werribee Mansion: -Historic landmark -Former nationwide recognized art competition, suspended due to financial difficulties

Melbourne’s outer west suburb

Werribee open range zoo, African animals with strong fur patterning

Yarra river referred to the spine of the country by local indigenous population

Werribee Races; former cultural event appreciated by general population, suspended due to track reorientated as quarantine for Melbourne Cup horses.


Innovation in Architecture

Herzog and de Meuron - Ornament

Ornament has consistently been a point of contention in architecture. The Art Nouveau and Art deco styles illustrated with ornament the new dynamism and energy of the modern period. These previous explorations in ornament predominantly focused upon ornament as an applied fixture, very separate from the mass of the building. As a result, ornament was rejected by the International style as a extraneous trapping of past styles and not to be included in a new rational architecture based on the economy of industry. Architecture materializes an extensive range of elements, some pragmatic but also many arbitrary, interrelated but often contradictory idealizations. These aspirations, while not entirely related to function, are what differentiates humanity from the animal kingdom and are a vital inclusion in our built form. It is due to these competing factions that successfully balanced architecture is by nature complex and cannot be comprised of a singular element. Nor can elements exist in isolation, as highlighted by the International style, as units such as ornament consequently loose all significance without


context. It is only when individual units are in dialogue as a whole that the distinction between them dissolves and each alters the conception of the next to create an entirely new architectural expression. Herzog and DeMeuron re-frame ornament, form and structure to investigate how ornament in this manner shifts the conception of space to something transientl. The two dominant walls of the Ricola-Europe SA, Production and Storage building are constructed with translucent poly carbonate panels which have been printed with a repetitive plant motif. Although weight bearing, the effect of the patterned panels is more like a curtain or robe. Light filtered through the patterning transforms the appearance of the internal space during the day, as the volume seems to shift and recede. At night, the facade material dominates, closing and sealing the volume within the confines of the form and becoming more akin to the concrete capping ends. Australia’s current insistence upon separated space such as the detached family home with specific room designation and private but often under utilized backyard space and consequent unmitigated sprawl is no longer sustainable. This new conception of space as transitory and flexible is an important consideration for the future society of Australia and in particular Wyndham as our fastest growing suburb. Notes 1. Ching, Jarzombek, Prakash, A global history of Architecture, New Jersy; Wiley and sons, 2011 2. Jean-Francois Chevrier, Ornament, Structure, Space. A conversation with Jacques Herzog, Basel, Winter 20063. Herzog de Meuron, Ricola Europe Storage Building, www.herzogdemeuron.com/index/ projects/complete-works/076-100/094-ricola-europe-production-andstorage-building.html 4. Perkins, ‘Health Fear on estates,’ in The Age, Melbourne, 2012

Design objective: The Transient nature of space


Computation

Mass Customisation

Design Units in dialogue to m


n objective: make whole

The International style as defined by Gideon, ****** something about wanting a style that was applicable to everywhere. The new prevalence of technology like ****** from WWII encouraged the more dogmatic Modernist architects to believe that this building type was applicable to all climates as a discrete unit, shut off from the environment and independently conditioned with machines to the ambient temperature of 24’C. Conditions were treated as black/white, yes/no, light and HVAC system on/off. Grey was not to exist. A suggested alternative model is the camp fire. With a gradient of heat and light, the inhabitant is able to adjust their comfort by their proximity to the fire. Additionally external influences such as airflow, drafts experienced by the inhabitant, type/condition of wood use etc will change the experience to create a more threshold/dynamic experience and offer a more flexible solution. More akin to the comprehensive needs of humans which includes emotional requirements is the this threshold manner. In order to convert this transient model of the campfire into the conclusive mode of built form, a highly complex object must be created. Consideration must occur of both the unit scale and the whole, how each affects the other and is also affected by environmental factors. Parametric design is built around this notion of self organization, where the base geometry is populated by a unit that can be continually altered and updated. Elements respond and adapt to external stimuli which in turn affects the configuration of the adjacent component and the whole until equilibrium is achieved. An entirely unique space is created by an entirely unique manifestation of the form. In the case of Daniel Coll I Capdevila’s, ‘Strip Morphologies; Design Study for Environmentally Differentiated Healing Environments’ a unique wall configuration creates a specialized variety of conditioned spaces in the aim of terrorization to each hospital, ward (wall itself altered) and ultimately patient (choice of appropriate rooms). As stated by LAB; Industrialization in this case no longer equates to standardization but

rather mass customisation. Like a renaissance sculpture, the Wyndham gateway project is to be viewed from a multitude of different angles and scales, both from those immediately going through the gateway and those viewing it from afar. It will also be viewed at a variety of different speeds and heights including pedestrian, car and truck cabin. With parametric design it is be possible to account for each of these instances and create a complex work that will be successful from all vantage points while still maintaining it’s character as a whole. Notes 1. Hensel and Menges, ‘Differentiation and Performance: Multiperformance architectures and modulated environments,’ in Hensel, Menges and Weinstock (eds), Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic design, London; Architectural design, 2005 2. Banham, The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment,Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1973. 3. Hensel, ‘Computing self organization: environmentally sensitive growth modelling’ in Hensel, Menges and Weinstock (eds), Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic design, London; Architectural design, 2005 4. LAB architecture, Federation Square Fractal Facade, www.labarchitecture.com


Innovation in Architecture

Callum Morton - Art interpreting Architecture


Design has always involved discourse. Subjective elements such as aesthetics traditionally compose a large portion of architectural composition. Innovation depends upon discourse for stimulus and refinement. Discourse as the final desired product of design however is a new phenomenon. To present ideas and stimulate discussion as ultimate purpose is a conceptual and luxurious notion. Poignant only to the first world, this form of architecture is concerned with the moral elevation of a society not their physical situation. Discourse as design is contrary to object prized architecture. It is common for architecture to be described purely as an aesthetic object, without critical reference to function, site or context. Although aesthetic objects do engage in the general discourse of architecture, they refer to ideas only familiar to those initiated and often use jargon to further alienate general society from reflection or input. However as stated by Williams, when discourse is the aspired to product, it purposefully seeks participation from all members of society. This egalitarian approach is a core objective of identified in the brief for this project. One method of materializing discoursed based design is replacing the focus upon the creation of an object with the creation of an emotional response. More subjective than aesthetics, this primal response cannot be validated by, nor requires previous knowledge or specific language in order to participate. The psychological effect of architecture has been acknowledged since the C19th with the overwhelming affect of the new building typology of the soaring skyscraper in the 1880‘s. More recently, the sameness of suburbia and housing estates have encouraged a particular type of depression in many residents including those from Wyndham. The purposeful provocation of an emotional response, while popular in cathedrals of the Gothic period and contemporary art appears under utilized in current architecture. The art of Callum Morton works to highlight

Design objective: Egalitarian discourse through emotional response,

our relationship to, and interaction with, the built environment. Public and private space are explored with a focus upon how ‘we encounter, perceive or experience personal or communal space often unconsciously.’ Valhalla was Australia’s inclusion in the Venice Biennial and is 1/3 scale model of the Morton family home which Morton’s architect father aspired to provide. In its representation for the biennial the building is not idealized as an object of perfect Australian Modernist architecture. Instead the badges of habitation and time are celebrated as Morton presents both personal and general stories of childhood, family and the society of the time. This highlights the positive as well as the negative. Morton hoped that viewers would respond, either sympathetically or critically, to the notions of life presented in this physical form and in this way the building becomes a ‘stage for the unpredictable passions and inevitable foibles of humankind.’ The design serves as a prompt for an emotional response and as a consequence, encourage discussion. Design orientated for emotional and sensory effect is therefore an appropriate device to encourage egalitarian discourse for the betterment of the Wyndham community. Notes 1. Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture,’ in Rampley, Exploring Visual Culture, 2005 2. Perkins, ‘Health Fear on estates,’ in The Age, Melbourne, 2012 3. (Morton, ‘Babylonia,’ in ACCA Education kit, Melbourne; ACCA, 2005) 4. Wyndham CIty, Western Gateway Design Project, Melbourne; Wyndham city council, 2011


Scripting culture & emotion

R&Sie(n); dynamism and emotional response Parametric design offers architecture, as a profession, the opportunity to reconsider the role of computers in design. Predominantly computers have simply been approached as alternative drawing implement to the pen and not to be involved in the conception stage due to the perceived risk of thwarting inspiration. Parametric design places focus primarily upon the process of creation in scripting instead of the final object. The eventual form of the design therefore becomes an inconsequential by product of this systematic application of best suited component to script to meet the objective. The postwar functionalists found that this rule based generation of ideas was important when designing new building types that were without precedent. Form was limited by their then current knowledge of what was possible and applicable. Alternatively, parametric design as rule based design can be a design tool whose determined focus upon the process enables systematic analysis of the site, brief and even concepts previously considered as ridiculous. Historical applications of this design mechanism include Lewis Carroll’s use of mathematics in his fiction, applying


mathematics principles of symmetry and proportion to his writing in order to rationally consider the absurd. R&Sie(n) have explored the potential for Parametric design in creating new building types from existing functions. The code scripted for the FRAC Center project continued to grow and change from past performed iterations by further adding to it’s own future script. A machine controlled by the script is to adjust the location and extension of glass rods which projected into the courtyard space to form the circulation spaces for the building. The final outcome of the courtyard space is not a static object which can be idealized by the architects but rather a space which is informed by the history of the action of the machine. Although a changing space is impractical for a programme space such as the intended circulation space for FRAC, the idea of dynamism in both conception and manifestation is something sadly lost in architecture today. The progressive script also prevents the architect from manipulating the script in order to achieve a certain preconceived notion of form. This fraudulent approach to parametric design is at risk of becoming commonplace, as designers aim for the parametric aesthetic without comprehending the motivations and possibilities of the tool. As an ever unfinished space, almost alien in appearance as the rods protrude out to invade the private space of the occupant, R&Sie(n) believe people will respond strongly to the unique nature of the space. Whether this emotion is positive, negative, curiosity or apprehension is not important. The shock of the different and unapologetic change of conventional approach to space is intended to shatter the indifference with which many people view their built environment. Habits and conforming dull the senses of observation and reflection, so that subtle changes are not perceived. This is particularly prevalent in commuting driving where boredom and habit slowly reduces the alertness of the driver to external stimulus other than the road. The potential for a unique, unconditioned response to the Wyndham gateway project as provided by latest technology in Parametric design and its ability to compose radically unique forms without precedent, would reawaken many people to the project, encourage them to engage emotionally and reflect upon the concepts provoked by the piece. Notes 1. Inaba, Clouette, Unfinished Business, François Roche Interviewed, C-Lab Columbia laboratory for architectural broadcasting, 2006, http://c-lab.columbia.edu/0063.html 2. Herbert Matter, Charles Eames and R Buckminster Fuller, Prefabricated Housing, From Arts and Architecture, July 1944 R&Sie(n), Olzweg, Paris, 2006 www.new-territories.com/welostit.htm 3. Fornes, Scripted by purpose, Philadelphia; Fuel Gallery, 2007. http://scriptedbypurpose.wordpress.com/participants/rsie-francois-roche/

Design objective: Systematic approach to design


PART TWO


design devices - Bio-mentor - Brainstorm - Inspiration - Diagram of inputs - Case Study CUT - Solution Development - Matrix


Biomentor


3. Nature as Mentor – Biomimicry is a holistic way of viewing and valuing nature. It introduces an era based not on what we can extract from the natural world, but on what we can learn from it. Janine M. Benyus

The forms of nature are produced by complex principles. Rather than simply applying the given forms of nature, architecture can examine and interpret the underlying principles as a method or script to derive highly sophisticated forms. Storey Hall was inspired by fractals, self similar patterns, which are commonly found in nature including Romanesque broccolis. The principle of self similar patterns was translated mathematically into the Penrose Tile pattern; flat and thin rhomboids which create a pattern that is identical at the finite small scale and the infinite large scale. At Storey Hall, the Penrose Tile pattern is utilized to organically cover and unite the expanse of the facade, walls, floor and ceiling. The points of inspiration obtained from Wyndham will be approached in the manner of bio-mentor. They will be broken down to their essential principle and this script will grow the form of the project. This will further extend the creative freedom produced by scripting through parametric design. Notes 1. Stuart Hanafin, Growth and Replication: Exploring Façade Subdivision based on Natural Processes, Geelong; Deakin University, 2011. 2. Janine M. Benyus, Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, New York; Harper Collins, 2002


Brainstorming

Transitory Time Movement RAAF Cut: Build/destroy Momentary Historic Legacy Sameness Shadow Witty Novelty Inspiring Claustrophobic Reflect Wonder Unit Whole River as Spine Negative Space Community Cars Petrol Ornament Space Form Colour Mix primaries Monument Sound The country Suburb Art Community Commuter Holiday Freedom Materials Dynamic Kinetic 1950 Patterns Fur Engulfed Anti - indifferent Invoke emotional reaction Positive change Identity Great Australian Dream Reframe Car enabled Transform Meaning Innovative experience vs object refract

Innovation Novelty and Positive change Establishment in context, acceptance is vital Transforming meaning Brief New Identifier Arrival experience New discourse Integrate site inc service station Appropriately scaled Spatial Quality Efficiency


Deer Compensating application of graded colour. Darker on area likely to be lit by light and lighter on darker areas so as to appear flat.

Dazzle

Zebra: To confuse lions in chase. Difficult to estimate speed and direction and discern individual animal from pack

Disruption

Leopard: High contrasting, non-repeating pattern to disrupt recognizable shape outline of animal

camoflage

Countershading


Inspiration

The transition between completely different elements by illustrates how the many complex items of the piece unified through mo

The configuration of petals to create a rose is formed in accordance with the Fibonacci rule. Classification of Roses is established by a progressional change in cup shape and number of petals.

Materiality Brick: apart the flat surf to create the app Veneer is also ve and therefore elev Dream and is tha thermal mass.


y Escher may be orphing.

The Werribee River was referred to as the ‘Spine’ by the local Indigenous people. The spine has connotations of stability as the back bone structure and implies fluid linear direction

: Experimental House by Alvar Aalto breaks face on the house by manipulating bricks pearance of an undulating surface. Brick enerated in Australia as a more expensive vated form of house in the Great Australian ankfully well suited to our climate due to


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Applying the principle of Biomentor; the essential principles of the items of inspiration above are to be applied as rules. This will create the form of the piece to achieve the objective of systematic approach to design.

ion


reverse engineered

Case study: CUT

Cut pattern is independent of the embossing. Circles on a grid are altered in diameter according to the contrast present in the image.


The ornament of the Herzog and DeMueron De Young Museum breaks up the solid appearance of the facade material to make a permeable skin that erodes the boundary between inside and outside of the building. This transient space within the project is a driver also identified as important to the Wyndham Gateway project. Reverse engineering the parametric design will inform the design process of the Wyndham gateway project. The erosion of distinction in space is further enhanced by the patterns conception from images of dappled sunlight through the trees immediately surrounding the site.

The embossing varies in depth according to the contrast present in a different image. Positive embossing where white was present, neutral, as in the original flat material sheet, for grey and negative debossing for black. This corresponded to the script as a re-mapped values of -1, 0 and +1 respectively


Solution Development

The parametric design tool, Grasshopper, repeats a list of simple ta in order to create a complex item. The hierarchy between the whole and the geometies which populate it, enables alterations to the individual geometries to impact upon the form of the whole. Computerisation therefore enables quick visualization of forms and changes. In learning this new program and application to design it was important to break the process down into stages and visualize the effect each component had upon the whole. Dramatic changes can even be made simply by altering the sequence of set components. A matrix enables clear visualization of which element in particular is working where, and which paramters are related to another. The method of ‘Solution Development’, as outlined by Kalay, involves the definition of parameters and then the systematic application of trial and error to realise the end goal. Iterations are then compared to the end goal to determine their validity.

EXTRUSION OF GEOMETRY VIA IMAGE SAMPLER

CHANGE OF GEOMETRY TO RECTANGLES // HEIGHT AND DEPTH DICTATED BY PIXEL DATA

Throughout this course, the point from which I commensed within this system has been closer to the desired end product as my knowledge of the program, it’s grammar and components has improved. Notes 1. Kalay, Architectures New Media, 2004 2. Burry, Scripting Cultures, 2011

CURVES ALIGNED TO GUIDE CURVE AS PER IMAGE SAMPLER

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Herzog & DeMueron SURFACE NORMAL PIXEL DATA EXTRUDE

GEOMETRY APPLIED VIA IMAGE SAMPLER

LOFTING GEOMETRY TO DIFFERING RADII

EXTRUSION OF GEOMETRY FROM LEVEL PLANE // HEIGHT DICTATED BY IMAGE DATA

GEOMETRY EXTRUSION DICTATED BY IMAGE SAMPLER // DARK = POSITIVE SHIFT, LIGHT = NEGATIVE

FINAL DIMPLED PANEL

Form Exploration REVOLUTION OF CURVES ALONG A SURFACE AS PER IMAGE SAMPLERS

APPLIED TO SURFACE IN LIEU OF A CURVE

CURVES REVOLVED PER GUIDE CURVE WITH MULTIPLE PERP FRAMES

3D ROTATION AROUND CURVE AS AXIS WITH MULTIPLE PERP FRAMES

PRIOR ITERATION WITH ADDED LATERAL ROTATION AXIS FOR EACH SET


PART THREE


fabrication - Evaluation - Performance


fabrication


Evaluation according to Design Objectives

The first phase of design applied a systematic approach to all elements within the design. The various units that were included are brought together in dialogue due to the generative process of parametric design. While the variety did produce a transient effect due to relation of the object to the moving spectator in the car, this design objective is not strongly communicated in the form. Neither iteration is able to provoke an emotional response and encourage dialogue.

Materiality

The sliced form successfully illustrated the transition between each unit to evoke an idea of morphing. The embossed metal rosettes manipulate the surface to catch light in different ways according to the different position and intensity of the sun in the sky. The two prototypes produce very disparate results and each is not able to convey both objectives. The sliced form is unable to show the further break down from the intermediate unit to the detail and each rosette did not relate back to each other on the whole.


Performance Change in perspective

The form created was sliced and split apart to illustrate the gradual changes between two units. While this did enhance the sensation of movement as the form was broken down into rhythmic discrete objects, this experience created a distinct separation between the object and spectator. The design criteria of transitional space implies the idea that the experience is dynamic rather than simply a discrete object and so greater integration of car, site and sculpture is required.


Light

Studies performed in the car discovered that shadows produced in this manner would not interact with the car space as hoped but instead would be seen as a flicker due to the speed of the car. This model highlights the power strips of light can have to create a spatial experience in a transient nature when singled out from surrounding shadow. This would effectively be seen on the road infront of the car.


PART FOUR


Refinement - Communication


COMMUNICATION As the Wyndham Gateway Project is an abstract sculpture without functional purpose, it is important to clearly articulate the message of the project through the object itself. As no clues can be gained from function, all elements including the structure, experience and form must contribute to, and enhance this message. If one element is not in dialogue with the other and is disconnected from the message, the strength of the message will be diluted. For this reason phase two has focused upon clearly communicating the intended message of the piece from all scales including: the small detail scale, the experience of moving through the space and the large scale of the point of observation from the other road. Some elements as a consequence were not scripted in a systematic approach but instead created with the sole objective of enhancing the communication of the message. Talk about our simplification down to key objetives and icons?????


Refinement

TILED APPLICATION OF DESIRED GEOMETRY

// HEIGHT AND DEPTH


CHANGE OF GEOMETRY TO RECTANGLES H DICTATED BY PIXEL DATA

These prototypes worked to establish a dialogue between the form and surface treatment by breaking a whole form down into a network of smaller geometries to populate the form. The results of these prototypes will inform the construction of my major project.

REPLACEMENT OF HDM DIMPLES WITH MORE INTERACTIVE TILED GEOMETRY TO HELP CONVEY FORM

CONVERSION TO CURVED LOFTS WITH OPENINGS TO ALLOW LIGHT ENTRY AND INTERPLAY

LOFTS APPLIED ACROSS GRADIENT OR PATTERN TO CONTROL LIGHT FLOW AND INTERPLAY

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