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(KU)JENGA PROJECT :

Walijenga, tunajenga, mtajenga...

How to create a new chapter in the story of Zanzibar Stone Town that could strengthen the link between the past of the existing heritage and the present ?

Amélie Chauvin & Alexandra Papadaki

REALITY STUDIO – DAR ES SALAAM/ZANZIBAR year 2013 ARK161/ARK181: Sustainable development in a southern context 2B


“It is a city of brilliant sunshine and purple shadows; of dark entries and latticed windows; of mysterious stairways, and massive doors in grey walls which conceal one does not know what; of sun-streaked courtyards and glimpses of green gardens; of barred windows and ruined walls on which peacocks preen. It is a town of rich merchants and busy streets; of thronged market-places and clustered mansions. Over all there is the din of barter, of shouts from the harbour; the glamour of the sun, the magic of the sea and the rich savor of Eastern spice. This is Zanzibar!� Major FB Pearce, 1919


(A)CRONYMS & GLOSSARY

ACRONYMS : UNESCO WHL ZSTHS STCDA ST

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage List Zanzibar Stone Town Heritage Society Stone Town Conservation and Development Authority Stone Town

GLOSSARY : Waqf

Waqf means the permanent dedication by a person professing Islam of any movable or immovable property, for any purpose recognised by the Muslim Law auspicious, religious or charitable.

Fundi

Skilled craftsmen in the construction field


(TABLE) OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

Who are we? Acknowledgements A few words... Timeline

INTRODUCING ZANZIBAR BACKGROUND Zanzibar in general Once upon a time in Zanzibar: Brief elements of history Today, under the sun of Zanzibar: datas and tourism Mutation of the city: impact of tourism industry STONE TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA: URBAN CONTEXT World Heritage List: cultural heritage, the richness of the place Concept and theory: the notion of World Heritage Debate around Conservation/Transformation: our statement STONE TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA: CONSEQUENCES & ISSUES The future of Stone Town: fossilization or development? Tangible and intangible heritage: management and preservation Vision of STCDA and rules: good practice guidelines for alterations, extensions and new buildings ARCHITECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Typology : architectural influences Our architectural glossary: the spirit of the town through our eyes

ANALYSIS THEME & ISSUE Original theme Issues: Visions of our project, improvements and for whom Issues: 2 main challenges


STUDY CASE: THE SITE Selection of case: mapping of empty spaces Houses 1973 & 1974: History and location Survey of site and existing ruins: Detailed measurements and drawings Description of the case: tangible and intangible qualities APPROACH AND RESULTS Work method: sketches of the street and measurements, meetings, visits Mapping and plans: study visits in the workshops of stone town

PROJECT

Brief description of the project Concept and design criterias Program Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations Details and perspectives Models

APPENDICES REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY Appendix 1: Interview Makame Juma Mtwana, Chief Executive Officer of ZANZIBAR STONE TOWN HERITAGE SOCIETY (ZSTHS) Appendix 2: Interview Asha Ali Hassan of STONE TOWN CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (STCDA) Appendix 3: Interview Rajab Pandu Faki and Saleh Rashid Salum, head of the department of WAQF COMMISSION Appendix 4: Interview Akbarali Y. Karimjee, Managing Director of AZIM CONTRACTOR


(WHO) ARE WE?

Alexandra Papadaki Nationality: Greek

Status: Studying Design for Sustainable Development at Chalmers University. Education background: Diploma in Architecture and Engineering from The Demokritos University of Thrace, Greece

AmĂŠlie Chauvin Nationality: French

Status: Studying Design for Sustainable Development at Chalmers University. Education background: Bachelor Degree in Architecture from The Brittany National College of Architecture, France Vocational Training Certificate in Interior Architecture from Bellecour School of Applied arts, France


(A)CKNOWLEDGEMENTS

A special thanks to Chalmers University of Technology, Maria NystrĂśm, Inger Lise Syversen and her team, Catarina Ă–stlund and Annika Danielsson for having created, supervised this studio and followed us all along our project. There is lots of people who helped us along the way becoming a source of encouragement and inspiration. Some meetings were spontaneous, others planned.For many we are able to say the names, for others no. A sincere thanks for those who are not mentionned here too. Our further thanks to Daniel Mbisso and his students from Ardhi University of Dar Es Salaam to have taken care of us when we were lost and shown us the true face of the city. We went in places where we would never been able to discover without them. A special debt of gratitude to STCDA office and Asha Ali Hassan, Dr. Muhamed Juma, director of urban and rural planning frome the Ministery of lands, Mohammed J Mugheiry, Chairperson of the Board of Directors of ZSTHS and Makame Juma Mtwana, Chief Executive Officer, Rajab Pandu Faki and Saleh Rashid Salum, head of the department of Waqf Commission answering countless of questions, giving us guidance and key advices to be able to design a relevant project. Our gratitude goes also towards the people of Stone Town who let us into their city, sketching and taking measures of their home and especially to the inhabitants of Kajificheni district. A very special vote of thanks is due to the following carpenters: Bahati Furniture, Zanzibar Hand Craft Garden, Poppat Mulji & son, House of Wonders workshop and other carpenters that we met along our way, sharing their narrative story and skills with us concerning their beautiful know-how and to Akbarali Y. Karimjee, Managing director of Azim Contractor. All of them contributed to justify our vision. A specific thanks to our friends Eddie and Zube to have guided us through the maze of streets when, by one of those hot days, we decided to search the empty spaces and ruins of the city of stone. And last but not least, we would like to thank Fatma Alum to have prepared us for our first steps in this new culture and Mama Abla, Yusra and Paolina to have hosted us in their house.


(A) FEW WORDS This report is the result of a two months field study taken place in Stone Town, main city of the island commonly known as Zanzibar. Closed to the main land, we had also the opportunity to spend few days in Dar Es Salaam, largest city in Tanzania trying to acclimate to the new culture. More than designing a proposal, the global aim of the Reality Studio is to jump into the unknown, to deal with a different context, to understand habits and way of living far away from what we are used to and progressively to adapt until enjoying this wonderful moment where the unknown becomes known. Because of our background (Architecture), we decided to focus on issues related to this subject although there are many and varied challenges in this context. And due to it (endangered World Heritage site), we catched the opportunity to work inside the protected area. Our project is therefore the design of a new construction replacing a collapsed residential building. Precious little traces remain of the story of this house. Fragments of ruins still tell us about the location of openings and highlight the past connections between the neighboring houses. It’s an inspiring site where the emptyness for more than a decade has left the possibility for local inhabitants to appropriate space and then develop informal activities: painter, cooker, carpenters invest both the site as well as the street. This portion of the street contains what the city offers in terms of arts and crafts. And the idea comes, our imagination fills the gap. Our proposition aspires to become a starting point in the process of awareness concerning the preservation and sustainability of local knowledge and built heritage, a place to enhance the rich know-how and traditions with which the master craftsmen shaped the city and with which they still continue to do it. It becomes a place where traditional skills and contemporary techniques could be transmitted, learnt, debated, defended or promoted. Acting as a platform to create a network, a forum to bring together into dialogue the different stakeholders that create the built environment of Stone Town in a succession of isolated initiatives, the building should be the enveloppe allowing the link between local inhabitants, students, people wishing to enter the construction industry, craftmen, builders and visitors. A place that acts as a virtual library where students could create contacts with the professional world and where craftmen could promote their activities on their own behalf. A place to learn about yesterday and imagine tomorrow. A place to talk about the past in order to build the future. A place to collect memories as well as to create new ones. The new building hosts an exhibition space opened to everybody, a workshop, a library and other educational facilities, management offices and includes accommodation in case of workshops or specific conferences as well as a roof terrace for recreation, including a common kitchen. This report is mainly divided in two parts, one summarizing the analysis and inputs that we had after different meetings, observation, measures and the other one showing the design proposal as a result of our knowledge catched along the way.


(TIME)LINE 24/1 - 12/2 Introduction of the Reality Studio, preparations and literature studies. Lectures in Eco-turism, Marketplaces and Conservation and transformation themes.

16/2 Day one in Africa: Dar es Salaam. 17/2 Visit “Village museum”. 18/2 Ardhi University: meet local students. Visit main marketplaces in Dar es Salaam. 19/2 Group work with Ardhi students. 20/2 Tour in the city by the Ardhi students.

22 - 23/2 Workshop: Discover the “Zanzibar style”. 24/2 Theme: Eco-tourism. Excursion to Nungui village and visit the “Panje project”. 25/2 Theme: Marketplaces. Visit main marketplaces in Zanzibar City. 26/2 Theme: Conservation and Transformation. Visit public spaces within Stone Town.

02 - 04/3 Work on the Project area definition (PAD). 05/3 Visit new and ongoing constructions in Stone Town with Asha from Stone Town Conservation and Development Authority (STCDA). Searching for the site of our project. 06/3 The site! 07/3 Start literature studies in STCDA library. 08/3 Meet Dr. Juma from the department of Director of Department of Urban and Rural Planning, Ministery of lands.

11/3 Literature studies. Interviews: Makame Juma Mtwana and Mohammed J Mugheiry, Zanzibar Stone Town Heritage Society (ZSTHS). 12 - 13/3 Literature studies. Survey of our site. 14 - 15/3 Interviews: Rajab Pandu Faki and Saleh Rashid Salum, department of WAQF commission, Akbarali Y. Karimjee, AZIM contractor. 16 - 20/3 Literature studies. Survey of the site. Analysis of our project’s area. Meet our neighbors.

13 - 22/4 Back in Sweden. Documentation/preparation for start-up and tutoring

27/3 - 1/4 Holidays!

24/5 Final exhibition in Chalmers, Gothenburg.

4/6 Hand in of final report.

20/2 Arrival in Zanzibar. 21/2 “To do and not to do” lecture, get to know the culture. Meet our hosting families.

SWEDEN 24 Jan/12 Feb

DAR ES SALAAM 16 Feb/20 Feb

STONE TOWN 20 Feb

27/2 Chumbe island excursion. 28/2 Stone Town tour. 01/3 Visit “S.O.S. children village” and Seaweed Center in Paje.

09/3 Household Systems Reading (HSR) assignment. 10/3 PAD and HSR. hand-in.

20/3 Preliminary presentation of our project. 21 - 25/3 Literature studies. Analysis of our project’s area. Walk in Stone Town, map empty spaces and meet carpenters. 25 - 26/3 Conservation and Transformation course.

23/4 - 16/5 Main design phase, plans, models and 3D model. 17 - 19/5 Preparation of final plans, models, 3D model and report. 20/5 Hand in of preliminary report. 21 - 23/5 Preparation of posters and models for the final exhibition.

02 - 08/4 Project work and preparation of the public exhibition. Sketches, drawings, design of our proposal, model. 09/4 Exhibition in the Old Customs House, Zanzibar. 12/4 End of field studies: Departure from Zanzibar.

Back in Sweden 13 Apr End of the project 04 Jun

Beginning of project 02 March

Public exhibition 09/10 Ap

Final exhibition Chalmers 24 May


(IN)TRODUCING ZANZIBAR :


(BACK)GROUND Zanzibar in general

ZANZIBAR-UNGUJA

2 hours by bus

Stone Town

TANZANIA

Dar es Salaam

> Autonomous part of the United Republic of Tanzania > Zanzibar archipelago: Ungunja (known as Zanzibar island) and Pemba > Zanzibar town: Capital of Zanzibar, divided in 3 areas: Stone Stown, Inner Ng’ambo, Outer Ng’ambo


(BACK)GROUND Stone Town

Dhow Harbour

Old Customs House

People’s Palace

(palace of the sultan)

Beit El-Ajaib

(House of wonders)

Forodhani Park

NG’AMBO

Old Arab Fort

> Stone Town: Thereabouts 1700 buildings divided in 5 shehias (protected areas, districts): Shangani, Malindi, Mkunazini, Kiponda, Mchangani 16000 inhabitants, 32000 people coming everyday to work, visit and shop. Concentration of most of the island’s commercial facilities and public or religious institutions.

High Court of Justice

> Expansion: Gradual development from the seafront to the inner lands: creation of various contrasting spaces.

STONE TOWN

> Main characteristics of the town: urban character with traditional coral stone buildings, narrow streets, massive carved doors, multi-storied balconies. An architectural grammar that was influenced or inspired by the different cultures of the successive inhabitants over time. > Seafront: about 13km, major civic open space within the town.


(BACK)GROUND

Once upon a time in Zanzibar

BRIEF ELEMENTS OF HISTORY : In order to understand how Zanzibar Stone Town grew up and which elements or events have shaped over the centuries the character and the identity of this city, key elements on the historical background of East African cities and on the progressive construction and development of Swahili culture should be known. The broad notion of development in the African East cost is undoubtedly linked to the expansion of sea trade [since 45AD]: merchants from Arabia, Persia and India flocked to this strategic area seeking spices, iron, ivory, amber, gold but also slaves. Strategic settlements were established where prosperous trading activities could be done and Stone Town cities with active harbors had spread along the coast. This picture of a growing and prosperous economy allowed by coveted resources should be kept in mind to realize the complex network of interests [international but also regional] that was built around it along centuries and that continues to be today. We cannot grasp the African context in general without considering also the inheritance of the past: slave trade [and its consequences], non industrial revolution [increasing difference with Europe], the years of colonialism [impossibility of self-management, new national borders division according to trade interests, African cultural traditions smoothed under colonial schemes and models], process of decolonization, African Revolution in 1960’s. Thereby, the main characteristic of the Swahili history [-1000BC to 1960’s] is based on the intermingling of several culture, a mixture between Arab, Indian and African traditions; a melting-pot gathering different way of living, building, prospering or believing. Swahili cultural roots of native inhabitants had to mix with both Arabs, Indians, Persians, Indonesians culture.


(BACK)GROUND

Today, under the sun of Zanzibar

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DATAS AND TOURISM : Statement from the government Zanzibar is a worldwide know name evocating white sand beaches, palmtrees, honey moon and hotels right on the water. Unguja is an appreciated destination where the majority of hotels in the archipelago are located.

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Hotels in Zanzibar (non accurate position)

According to the Tourism Master Plan for Zanzibar of 2003, «Stone Town, with its wealth of historical buildings and traditional Swahili culture, is Zanzibar’s key, unique attraction». The uniqueness of Stone Town and cultural experience compared to other beach destinations come from both this tangible and intangible heritage. The Master Plan recognizes arts and crafts of Zanzibar as potential values that need protection or at least a better recognition. «The best known and distinctive arts activity in Zanzibar is carving, especially production of wooden chests and doors, which has now been expanded to include picture frames, miniature door, chests, other furniture and brass, copperware and jewellery. There is a need to encourage the production of high quality and more diverse handicrafts and to provide improved marketing and sales outlets. Local products should be marketed through value-added approaches.» Zanzibar Vision 2020 is a principal document produced by the Government of Zanzibar and sets out the sustainable development of resource and services until 2020. The Vision policy for tourism is set out as «to develop (a) tourism industry which is culturally and socially responsible, ecologically friendly; environmentally sustainable and economically viable; and the industry must be part of a wider economic strategy and not the main or single industry on which the Zanzibar economy is reliant.»


(STONE) TOWN: URBAN CONTEXT, CHALLENGES, ISSUES Mutation of the city

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IMPACT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY :

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Undoubtedly Stone Town is Zanzibar’s chief attraction. The townscape contains numerous interesting buildings and artifacts which reflects the local culture. Since its inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List, the city is subject to the Stone Town conservation Master Plan 1994. However, the implementation of this plan lacks both human and financial resources. The bigger stake always lies between the step from theory to practice. And the key question is for whom is this all about? Inevitably, cultural heritage entails also economic value and potential which are associated with tourism. Thus this is predominantly what defines for whom the management of World Heritage is for. And in most cases where there is a protected settlement or a residential historic old center, the conflict is more intense and the official guidelines for managing heritage tend to be in favor of the visitor instead of the inhabitant. Concern has been expressed by the STCDA and other observers regarding the impact of tourism both visually and to local cultural diversity. Traditional shops and businesses are being replaced by tourism orientated business such as internet and gift shops. A myriad of garish signs have appeared. Traffic problems are growing, especially around Shangani, as tourist traffic increases, both the cultural and social fabric of the town are considered by some to be under threat. It is considered to be ‘critical townscape’ in that it is irreplaceable. In order to guide future development of tourism activities and Stone Town to maintain its unique values, studies are undertaken based on the limits of acceptable change. The study will need to include such wide ranging issues as environmental impacts, maintenance and upgrading of infrastructure to meet modern demands, social and cultural impacts of tourism and mitigation measures. In the inner city, the tourist industry accelerates the conversion of houses in hotels and restaurants and alters progressively the identity of the place. Progressive higher land values and at the same time greatest pressure for change and increase of tourism lead many of the collapsed buildings or even many of the recreational facilities and public spaces to be built on. Empty spaces become exploitable in the historic center. This acts like an alteration of the nature and the function of the city. However, we believe that another trend can be created and such empty spaces can represent a great available potential to offer a new dynamism for the city by introducing community based activity.


(STONE) TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA : URBAN CONTEXT World Heritage site

CULTURAL HERITAGE, THE RICHNESS OF THE PLACE: Stone Town is a cultural Heritage Site inscribed in the Unesco World Heritage List since 2000. The town was a cosmopolitan metropolis, an hub of a vast commercial empire and condenses many of the outstanding features of the Swahili civilisation. The mix of imprints of different influences until today has gained the place its exclusive reputation. Criterion 2 : «The Stone Town of Zanzibar is an outstanding material manifestation of cultural fusion and harmonization.» This fusion is particularly visible up to the roof when it’s possible to observe the skyline of the city. Mosques, churches, indian temples stand out from the criss-cross of corrugated sheets’ roofs and show the ability of diverse cultural communities to live together. Criterion 3 : «For many centuries there was intense seaborne trading activity between Asia and Africa, and this is illustrated in an exceptional manner by the architecture and urban structure of the Stone Town.» Protected area Buffer zone Green areas inside the buffer zone

Criterion 6 : «Zanzibar has great symbolic importance in the suppression of slavery, since it was one of the main slave-trading ports in East Africa and also the base from which its opponents such as David Livingstone conducted their campaign.»


(STONE) TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA : URBAN CONTEXT Concept and theory

THE NOTION OF WORLD HERITAGE : On the backbone of art historians’ theories and official documents, we can try to summarize the expression “World Heritage” as one of several terms used to describe tangible and intangible inheritances from the past that are judged to be worth protecting and transmitting to future generations. “World Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage are both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration.” is declared at the UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee official website. This brief definition enables us to grasp the complexity of this notion. World Heritage is a broad concept including other notions such as protection, conservation, transmission, culture and significance. The choice is not only concerning the best known properties but also the most modest with great potential values whose anonymity or oblivion will consist in an impoverishment of the heritage of all the nations of the world. In the question of why it is worth protecting this legacy?, the Burra Charter of 1999, answers successfully by declaring that “places of cultural significance enrich people’s lives, often providing a deep and inspirational sense of connection to community and landscape, to the past and to lived experiences. They are historical records, that are important as tangible expressions of [...] identity and experience.”1 And also the Nara Document on Authenticity suggests that “In a world that is increasingly subject to the forces of globalization and homogenization, and in a world in which the search for cultural identity is sometimes pursued through aggressive nationalism and the suppression of the cultures of minorities, the essential contribution made by the consideration of authenticity in conservation practice is to clarify and illuminate the collective memory of humanity.”2 ICOMOS, The Burra Charter for places of Significance, p.1 The Nara Document on Authenticity, 1994, Preamble, No.4.

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(STONE) TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA : URBAN CONTEXT Debate around Conservation/Transformation

OUR STATEMENT:

We believe that the continuity of history, tradition and culture, comes from the people. In the case of Stone Town, we came across with the importance of the link between the past and the future. Our approach realized that keeping alive the identity while “...safeguarding traditional know-how and living cultures requires the acceptance of change as an essential parameter in the process.”3 And also “to protect and conserve the genius loci in fact means to concretize its essence in ever new historical contexts”4. From our point of view, the most justifying value for continuing the struggle to identify the ideal strategy to safeguard the world’s heritage, is sustainability. To conserve is predominantly an act of social, environmental and economic sustainability. However, in order to achieve sustainable conservation, several attitudes must be reconsidered and the concept of adaptation must now, more than ever, take its place in the agenda of the local, national and international guidelines for managing World Heritage sites. “Architectural conservation is not simply about buildings, it is also about people, and the approaches to conservation at any time will inevitably be linked to the values of society at that time. The role of the conservation professional is to make balanced judgements that will help maintain the continuity of buildings and townscapes, while serving present-day communities and their needs.”5 Jokilehto Jukka, A History of Architectural Conservation,1999, p.304. Norberg-Schulz Christian, Genius Loci - Towards a Phenomenology of architecture, 1980, p.18. 5 Orbasli Aylin, Architectural Conservation: Principles and Practice, 2004, p.6. 3 4


(STONE) TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA : CONSEQUENCES & ISSUES The future of Stone Town

FOSSILIZATION OR DEVELOPMENT? Growth and development are possible even in a protected area. Today, almost 250 cities are registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List. These historic cities naturally evolved over time according to specific geographic and socio-economic conditions. The encounter between different flows in this small and narrow city makes it in front of a huge challenge. The proportion day population and night population, the expansion of tourism industry and the constant immigration to the city center create a huge pressure on the existing infrastructure. Walking through the streets of this city and experimenting this urban atmosphere allows to understand how the inhabitants deal with the lack of space and infrastructure. Ingenuity is most of the time shown in many situations. The space delivered by a collapsed building becomes a new opportunity for activities to be developed in. Measures has to be taken in order to face the deterioration or sometimes the alteration of the identity of the town. A museumification process can be observed in many historic cities or a kind of gentrification process that leads to the replacement of the existing population. According to Luis Monreal (Future of Historic cities), «the first premise for the survival of historic cities as we know them today is to give their inhabitants a real chance to improve their living standards and to break free from the constraints of poverty. The gradual development of a middle class, able to play a role in the collective effort to maintain a city’s assets, its domestic and monumental architecture, infrastructure and public services, is key to this strategy.» This implies development and mutation of the city.


(STONE) TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA : CONSEQUENCES & ISSUES Tangible and intangible heritage of Stone Town

MANAGEMENT AND PRESERVATION : Zanzibar Stone Town architecture suffered the ravages of time for different causes and can be considered as an example of conflicts that can appear in the importation of non indigenous culture: “[…] Arabic-influenced building tradition, designed for a much drier climate, was not efficient in the relative humidity of Zanzibar, […] causing rot and deterioration”6. The question of maintenance and conservation of the town and also the management of this cultural heritage are enforced since its inscription on the World Heritage List in 2000. Even if a lot of measures were taken to improve and develop a sustainable management of the town, there is still a gap between the reality and the guidelines that could be a consequence of the lack of information of existing conservation measures as well as a lack of awareness of the importance to preserve such heritage. Moreover, different issues appeared in the last decade on how to deal with the mass tourism threatening the infrastructure of the town. Different elements have to be taken into account to understand the current situation of the town in the conservation debate. After the Revolution (1964) Zanzibar went through a fundamental social transformation. Rural families that were not familiar with urban context replaced original urban owners and occupants. They didn’t have the wherewithal to maintain the old stone houses. As a consequence, many houses collapsed during 70’s. In the same time, many of the mastercraftsmen left because their jobs dried up. Along with them training apprentice based system dried away. During our field study, we had the chance to meet several stakeholders (STCDA, WAQF, contractors, architects, head of department ministry of land) to try to understand this lack of connection between builders and craftsmen, the expectations of each and the way with which this situation could appeared. Syversen, Inger Lise (2007), Intention and Reality in Architectural Heritage Management - Case: Zanzibar Stone Town

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(STONE) TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA : CONSEQUENCES & ISSUES Vision of STCDA and rules

GOOD PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR ALTERATIONS, EXTENSIONS AND NEW BUILDINGS : It is mandatory to get permission from the STCDA before carrying out any building work in the Stone Town. The law says: «No person shall build, alter, remove or demolish a building, part of a building, an architectural or streetscape feature without first making a building application to the STCDA for written permission.» This means ALL building work. The STCDA will judge all applications for building permission. All building work in the Stone Town must follow the Good Practice Guidelines. When thinking about or planning building work, FIRST look at the Good Practice Guidelines.

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DO NOT START any building work before obtaining written permission from the STCDA. Inappropriate new building: Perforated concrete blocks, pre-cast balusters on balconies, security bars, textured finishes

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THE LAW STATES Part IV, 33(1),(3) «Changes to protected architectural features are not allowed except to preserve and/or restore the original design.» All changes or alterations either inside or outside must be reversible. This means that changes can be removed or reversed without causing permanent damage or alterations to the original building.

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THE LAW STATES Part V, 38 (2) «Details and fittings for new buildings and additions shall be compatible, in appearance and proportion, with the traditional character of the StoneTown.» If the original architectural element is damaged, FIRST try and repair it. If this is not possible, replace with replica of original.

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THE LAW STATES Part V, 38 (3) «Colors : Used on the outside of the building must blend with the range of tones and colors found in the StoneTown.» Acceptable Colors: Red oxide, White (roof), Light blue, White, Light yellow (wall), Green, Blue, Clear (Joinery) Use limewash on plaster surfaces, or paints that can breath

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THE LAW STATES Part V, 37 (2a) «Any new building or addition shall be sited so that walls and façades facing onto streets are in line with adjacent building lines. This applies to the ground floor and all storeys above.»


(STONE) TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA : CONSEQUENCES & ISSUES Vision of STCDA and rules

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THE LAW STATES Part V, 37 (2a) «Balconies, canopies, roof overhangs,and gutters may be built beyond the building lines to a maximum of one third of the width of the street, or in any case not more than one meter. Barazas and steps may be built beyond the building line to a maximum of 0.4m and sign boards to a maximum of 0.5m.»

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THE LAW STATES Part V, 37 (4) «The height of any permanent addition to an existing building, or of any new building,may not exceed the maximum height of the adjacent buildings, and in any case,may not exceed three storeys. The Authority may limit the height of a building to protect a Grade I or Grade II listed building or a protected architectural streetscape feature. Penthouses,teahouses, and other such roof-top additions may be permitted subject to the discretion of the Authority.» CHECK LIST When designing new buildings for the StoneTown,always follow these key points: > Respect the Special Character of the StoneTown > When designing a new building, first look at the buildings and the street around. Treat these old buildings with respect. Try to blend in with the character of the street. Do not be intrusive. > Fill the Plot: New buildings must always fill the plot and not leave space around. In particular, the front of the building must be in line with the front of the buildings on either side. > Respect Streetscape and Building Lines: new buildings must follow the lines of adjacent roofs, mouldings, windows, and canopies. > Do Not Exceed the Height of Adjacent Buildings > New building must not be higher than the adjacent buildings in the street, and in any event, may not exceed three storeys. > UseTraditional Fixtures and Fittings > Always use traditional designs of windows, doors, balconies, roof details, porches, and canopies, etc. Look in the street around and copy. > Where Possible, use Traditional Methods of Construction Use coral-stone walls and lime-plaster finishes. These often cost less, and the building will use less energy when finished. > Do Not Use Textured Wall Finishes: Walls must be smooth. > Use Appropriate Colors: It is not permitted to use bright colors on walls or joinery. The colors on new buildings must be the same or similar to those on adjacent traditional buildings. > Always Seek the Permission of the STCDA


(STONE) TOWN, A PROTECTED AREA : CONSEQUENCES & ISSUES Vision of STCDA and rules

Noise: Alterations, extensions or additions must not increase the level of noise reaching another, for instance by locating an open restaurant area next to another’s bedroom.

Privacy : relation to neighboors Ventilation: Many houses in the Stone Town rely on the wind for cooling. Alterations, extensions, and additions must not block the wind reaching another.

Alterations, extensions or additions must not intrude on another’s privacy. In particular, the location of new window openings should be carefully considered so as not to affect the visual privacy of another.

Views: Alterations, extensions or additions must not block the views of another, for instance of the harbour or the street.


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Typology

ARCHITECTURAL INFLUENCES:

The different influences described previously (cf. Once upon a time in Zanzibar) which the city was the object can be read through the various architecture of its building. Indeed, a new architectural grammar was developed creating a united whole that could be seen as one of the characteristic of this city as well as its beauty. The traditional one-storey Swahili buildings made by wattle and daub as well as the traditional morphology of the city [networks of narrow streets punctuated with open places] rub or sometimes let be shaped by first Persian, Arabic, Indian influences and later European influences. The different cultural contributions appear both in the height and general shape of the houses [Persian stonebuilt houses, Arabic multi-storey buildings, Indian shop-front row houses], the use of buildings material and different techniques [lime, cement, woodcarving, coral and mortar, stucco and cast iron], the structure and status of inner spaces [religious influence through the distribution of rooms] and the relation ship with the street through the balance between public and private space [the Islamic inward-looking architecture with open courtyard, the Indian residential-commercial use terraced houses, variety of openness, ornamentation, drawings of the main facade]... Through the study of Zanzibar Stone Town architecture, we are able to read the past of African East cost and to make the link to this historic inheritance in order to understand the present [and the importance to preserve this cultural heritage]. Even if the canvas of the city as it is possible to see it today is also the result of an economic transformation of the nineteenth century, to understand the genius loci, the spirit of the place [NorbergSchulz] we have to observe how the city dealt with the natural landscape and its features [ocean, monsoon, climate, seasons...] to create its own morphology. The map of the city shows the layers of development along time from the sea to the land and illustrate the strong historical link to the ocean. The architecture of the city and the situation of buildings reflect the cultural confluence through form, functions, ornamentation, colors...The relevance and the significance of this cultural heritage can be see in each scales, through its unity, its wholeness as far as its details [buildings, architectural details...].


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

THE SPIRIT OF THE TOWN THROUGH OUR EYES :

> Barazzas > Colors > White > Connection > Layers > Light and ventilation > Relation to the sky > Windows and ornamentation > Construction techniques


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

BARAZZAS :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

BARAZZAS :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

COLORS :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

COLORS :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

COLORS :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

WHITE :

CONNECTION :

: LAYERS


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

LIGHT AND VENTILATION :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

LIGHT AND VENTILATION :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

LIGHT AND VENTILATION :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

RELATION TO THE SKY :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

WINDOWS AND ORNAMENTATION :


(ARCHI)TECTURE OF STONE TOWN: THE SPIRIT OF THE CITY Our architectural glossary

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES :


(A)NALYSIS :


(THE)ME & ISSUES: Original theme

Conservation and transformation theme is the umbrella of the project. Dealing with Conservation and Transformation on the backbone of the study case of Stone Town through the eyes of an architect, is our first intention and wish since the beginning. Preservation and conservation of built heritage requires to be aware of the question of authenticity and by the way the controversal issue of falsification. We believe that the new story of Stone Town requires opportunities to motivate and encourage the local community. We understood that there is a more immediate need and a bigger challenge of how to built a new construction in this context, rather than renovating an existing.


(THE)ME & ISSUES: Issues

VISIONS OF OUR PROJECT, IMPROVEMENTS AND FOR WHOM : Therefore, the main visions of this projects are: > Regeneration of Stone Town: Vision to inscribe and to perpetuate through our project, the knowledge and skills of the past that made Stone Town the foundation of Swahili culture. > Make a statement: Hope that our project will be a strong statement for the sustainable future of Stone Town not only for a way to address the architectural challenge of new construction in a World Heritage context, but also for a way to sustain human resources for building capacity. > Sustain traditional building techniques: Include training procedure for young local builders during the construction phase of the designed proposal. Create opportunity for real practice and implementation of knowledge. Communal and social activity. > Increase local awareness and capability of maintenance: By implementing train based construction our goal is to increase the ability to sustain the existing heritage, as well as, the ability to visualize the future image of Stone Town. > Improvement of the quality of life: Access to decent shelter is a human right. To give the impulsion to write the new story of the island. > Challenging aspect: Preservation of cultural heritage [conservation], but also improving the living standards [transformation]. The balance in between is a key issue for the sustainable future of Stone Town. > Universal value: Stone town: to be used as a study case to understand how sustainable development can take place in the context of protected area, understand impacts and consequences of WH list: Conservation Vs. Modernization, Rehabilitation of historic cities, Sustainable touristic development. Answers to these issues have applications in similar to Stone Town cases in all over the world. > In an academic but also personal perspective: To work in a context where architectural and cultural heritage is the main attraction for tourism, the knowledge concerning these issues can be exported in France and Greece (strong tradition of architectural heritage, tourist-attractive countries). Where the expansion of tourist sector threatens reality to become folklore. Two trends occur simultaneously: what we show to the tourists, and what is the life in reality.


(THE)ME & ISSUES: Issues

2 MAIN CHALLENGES: > How to manage change and create new opportunities in a way beneficial to both historic environment and the community? > How to construct a new building, taking into account the context of a World Heritage site that could reflect the new spirit of the town, express a new image? There is a more immediate need and a bigger challenge of how to bring a new architectural grammar in this context rather than renovating an existing construction or build a new one with the risk to fall into a falsification of what was built before.


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Selection of case: mapping of empty spaces

And if all the empty spaces available in the historic center were dedicated to the handcraft?

School

Our site: Kajificheni district

Barati furnitures Mosque Zanzibar Hand Craft Garden

Existing empty spaces Existing wood workshops


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Selection of case: mapping of empty spaces


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Selection of case: mapping of empty spaces

We believe that each site suggests and carries with it a specific project. Our initial thoughts focused on residential perspectives. This is an inspiring location with a strong identity where the story of the place can be read through the remaining fragments of walls where doors and windows are still visible. with a strong identity where the story of the place can be read through the remaining fragments of walls where doors and windows are still visible.


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Houses 1973 & 1974: History and location Where? Kajificheni district, surrounded by 4 main streets: Changa Bazar Street, Tharia Street, Hamammi Street and Kajificheni Street.

Kajificheni district


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Houses 1973 & 1974: History and location

MZINGA MMOJA STREET

Commercial activities Educational buildings Religious buildings Carpenters Our site

Mzinga mmoja street

Residential buildings

Humrumzi street

Mzinga mmoja street

Get to know the character of the street, its activities and memories: observation, drawings, sketches, photos, measurements, elevations of the street, interviews (owner, carpenters of Zanzibar Hand Craft Garden, the painters that are established today in the site, the cooker and the children of Al Riyami Academy).


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Houses 1973 & 1974: History and location

The proximity with wood workshops where craftsmen still continue to perpetuate the spirit of Stone Town as well as the proximity with schools make it a relevant spot for an educational project that could makes the link between both of them.


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Survey of site and existing ruins: Detailed measurements and drawings


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Description of the case: Tangible and intangible qualities


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Description of the case: Tangible and intangible qualities


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Description of the case: Tangible and intangible qualities Activities on the site, sense of local ownership

Hairdresser, occassionally

Carpenter, present all the day

Painter, present all the day

Cooker, everyday, in the middle of the afternoon, preparation for Forodhani market


(STUDY) CASE: THE SITE

Description of the case: Tangible and intangible qualities Study of shadows and colors

10:00

11:30

13:00

15:00

16:30


(APPROACH) AND RESULTS

Work method: Sketches of the street and measurements, meetings, visits


(APPROACH) AND RESULTS

Mapping and plans: study visits in the workshops of stone town VISIT OF BAHATI FURNITURE : Situation: Arabic influenced house, 2 doors (wooden carving doors with simple and modest patterns.) + neighboured house with one door. Facade with latticed windows and different non original openings created during the past. (“Arabs are jealous , they don’t want to show their woman”) The last floor seems to be an addition: different design for the elevation. Except the ground floor, the rest of the building is dedicated to a residential function (more than 1 family live here).

Bahati furniture

Our site Zanzibar Hand Craft Garden

Footbal player’s workshop

The old carpenter invites us in his workshop and explains us what kind of furnitures he makes. He works in this place since 50 years. He used to make furnitures in wood (chairs, wardrobe, console, dressing table, buffets , traditional Swahili furnitures). He doesn’t do any advertising, even the name of his workshop (Bahati furniture) is not visible on the facade. To be allowed to put the name of a shop in a facade you have to pay and it’s expensive. The workshop is composed by two parts: the main part is used for the wood furniture manufacturing, some wood finishing process and the storage. The second part is composed by just one small room that seems to be used to greet customers, to discuss about what they want (a table in the centre is used to make a quick sketch of the furniture or for finishings (preparation mixture, wood treatment or wood stain). His customers are inhabitants of Stone Town. They came directly in his workshop or they have the possibility to buy some of his furniture (mostly chairs) in the market (only Wednesday and Sunday). The wood is imported from the main land. The timber design is entirely done manually. The furnitures are done in a simple but effective way. He was trained in Zanzibar but also in the main land. He used to take some apprentices (currently, he has 5 youngsters employed as apprentices). During the visit, we could notice 4 workers (1 really young and 3 olders). The place is without daylight. Only the 2 entrances provide natural light. The workshop is mainly dark. There is a lot of carpenters in Stone Town but he cannot say how many. He proposes us to visit the other workshop: the Zanzibar hand craft garden. VISIT OF ZANZIBAR HAND CRAFT GARDEN : Situation: Ground floor of a 2 storey house. Organization: a little room with some furniture to sell directly and in the background, in the yard, the workshop where many employees are working. Clever circulation, used fabrics to make shadows, use also the street as a natural extension of the workshop.


(APPROACH) AND RESULTS

Mapping and plans: study visits in the workshops of stone town

Zanzibar hand craft Garden

Bahati furniture


(APPROACH) AND RESULTS

Mapping and plans: study visits in the workshops of stone town

Poppat Mulji & son workshop

House of Wonders workshop


(APPROACH) AND RESULTS

Mapping and plans: study visits in the workshops of stone town

By observing and understanding the spatial function of these workshops we gain the valuable knowledge of how a space could be designed in order to facilitate such activities in this context and brought it in our proposal. We realized that this space should be really simple. It should suggest as much flexibility as possible, which implies open space without any obstacles in order to give the freedom of modification, depending the activity. It should offer sufficient natural light and ventilation. And last but not least, this space should acquire a semi-public character, thus a strong connection with the street.


(PRO)JECT :


(PRO)JECT

Brief description of the project

DESCRIPTION: Our project is to design a new construction to replace a collapsed residential building inside Stone Town in a World Heritage context. The new construction that will fill-in a specific empty space will host an exhibition space opened to everybody, a library and other educational facilities and will include accommodation in case of workshops or specific conferences as well as offices. Designed as a place where the traditional skills but also contemporary techniques could be transmitted, learnt, debated, defended or promoted, the project aspires to become a starting point in the process of awareness concerning the preservation and sustainability of local knowledge and built heritage, a place to enhance the rich know-how and traditions with which the master craftsmen shaped the city and with which they still continue to do it. Acting as a platform to create a network, a forum to bring together into dialogue the different stakeholders that create the built environment of Stone Town in a succession of isolated initiatives, the building should be the enveloppe allowing the link between generations, the connection of the different stakeholders that create the vitality of the town: local inhabitants, students, people wishing to enter the construction industry, craftmen, builders and visitors. A place that allows the exchange of knowledge, ideas, visions. A place that acts as a virtual library where students could create contacts with the professional world and where craftmen could promote their activities on their own behalf. A place to learn about yesterday and imagine tomorrow. A place to talk about the past in order to build the future. A place to collect memories as well as to create new ones.


(PRO)JECT

Brief description of the project

They built

We build

You will build

.

(KU)JENGA PROJECT : Walijenga, tunajenga, mtajenga...

To build in Kiswahili

NAME OF OUR PROJECT: Walijenga, tunajenga, mtajenga... (Ku)jenga means to build in kiswhali. We wanted to have a name that can incorporate both the notion of learning process (conjuging the verb «to build» like the school method) and those of transmission of knowledge (importance of the learning process). By using different time, we insist on the link between past, present and future. It’s also the name of a famous game «Jenga» that consists in removing blocks from a tower and balancing them on top of it in order to build a taller and unstable new structure as the game progresses. The main goal of the game is to avoid the collapse of the tower. This can be a parallel with the evolution of the morphology of the city. Collapsed buildings create empty spaces that vary during time and the additions on the roof create a new skyline.


(PRO)JECT

Concept and design criterias

CONCEPT AND DESIGN CRITERIAS: • solid sculptured folding baraza running on the ground floor. • distance from the existing wall ( 2m); use the existing windows • bridge connections on the upper floors ( between the new building and the existing walls) • use of filtering; progressively create layers of public/semi public/semi private/private spaces • step back from the street line/use “front row”; space for public-community-social activity • color gradient moving upwards (begin in earthly colors to sky colors) • open terrace roof: common space, reading... • use of light and wind efficiently in the design + use of rainwater harvesting techniques

ARCHITECTURAL DECISIONS (ELEMENTS IN OUR DESIGN) : • Creation of a new perspective from the street. Progressively step up to approach the building. • To give flexibility and dynamism in the space. (Modular character: immediate transformation depending the user) • accessibility concerning all ages, users with special needs and also material supplies. • soft transition of appropriation since the point of sifting from the street into the site. • water tank as a main architectural element. Make visible the stromwater management system. • creation of guidelines of structure that are independent from the existing structure but in a constant dialogue. • the new main building volume slides within the boundaries of the site but never touches the existing walls. • manual mechanisms and profound use of the “free” architectural materials: natural light, wind, rain water in order to make the building able to function without electricity if it is needed. • all construction takes into account that this is a training based building procedure and tries toinclude different structural types (carpentry, stone building, concrete construction e.t.c.), both traditional and contemporary. • think the “how to” and provide detailed implementation/technical drawings that explain the possible way of construction.


(PRO)JECT

Concept and design criterias

QUALITIES/ELEMENTS THAT QUESTION THE LEGITIMACY OF FILLING IN COMPLETLY THIS SPACE : • Impact on public space: because after collapsing, the site became a kind of public space. Now, visible imprints of appropriation ( social and economic activities). We want to give back this opportunity in the neighborhood. Can we bring the quality of this improvised public space in our design? • Pause in the dense urban mesh: challenge because it created a respiration in this narrow street Is it possible to keep this quality of respiration in our design proposal? • Change in the perspective: perceptible dilatation in the narrowness of the street that creates a new point of view. How to create a compromised settlement for our design? • New street elevation: choice of settlement, relationship with the neighbor buildings (the junction in this in between localization: fissure, rupture or continuity), the general perception of the street space, colors (white grey nuances of the street contrast with the orange palette of the site) • New street section: height, impact on the brightness inside the surrounding buildings, create new projected shadow, diffusion of sound ( amplification due to narrowness). How to recreate through this new construction a street elevation that is not an imitation or a falsification of the previous architectural style but affirm its own architectural grammar?


(PRO)JECT Program

GROUND FLOOR public Public baraza to be used as classroom, sitting, meeting space. Workshop. Discussion room. Multifunctional space.

1st FLOOR semi-public Public library. Reception /information - archive/index of fundis - management office.

2nd FLOOR private Student accommodation.

1st FLOOR semi-private Common kitchen Terrace lounge (reading). Mini cinema.


(PRO)JECT

B’

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

A

A’

C

C’

B

GROUND FLOOR Scale 1/100


(PRO)JECT

B’

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

A

A’

C

C’

B

FIRST FLOOR Scale 1/100


(PRO)JECT

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

A

A’

C

C’

B

SECOND FLOOR Scale 1/100


(PRO)JECT

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

A

A’

C

C’

B

ROOF Scale 1/100


(PRO)JECT

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

AIR VIEW


(PRO)JECT

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

PERSPECTIVE SECTION AA’


(PRO)JECT

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

PERSPECTIVE SECTION BB’


(PRO)JECT

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

SECTION CC’


(PRO)JECT

Design proposal: plans, sections, elevations

WEST ELEVATION


(PRO)JECT

Details and perspectives

Space between existing wall and new. Meeting point of old and new material.

Barazzas: Transition between public space and private house.


(PRO)JECT

Details and perspectives

New main building volume slides within the boundaries of the site.


(PRO)JECT

Details and perspectives

Public library Stromwater management system.


(PRO)JECT

Details and perspectives


(PRO)JECT Models

FINAL MODEL STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION: PROPOSAL REAL SCALE 1:100


(PRO)JECT Models


(PRO)JECT Models

FINAL MODEL STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION: EXISTING SITUATION REAL SCALE 1:200


(PRO)JECT Models


(AP)ENDICES :


(RE)FERENCES Projects

Restoration of the Museo Civico di Castelvecchio, Verona, Italy /Carlo Scarpa

Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, MĂŠrida, Spain / Rafael Moneo

S(ch)austall, Ramsen, Germany /Naumann arkitektur


(RE)FERENCES Projects

Post-tsunami housing for kirinda, sri lanka /Shigeru Ban

Ibaraki Kasugaoka Church, Ibaraki, Osaka /Tadao Ando

Renovation and Reconstruction of the Castle of Novara, Italy /Studio Zermani e Associati


(RE)FERENCES

Literature and web sources

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Cunningham Bissell, W. Urban Design, Chaos and Colonial Power in Zanzibar, Indiana University Press, USA, 2012. Davidson Basil, The Search for Africa – A history in the making, 1994. Dowden R., Africa, altered states ordinary miracles. Great Britain, 2008 Syversen Inger Lise, Intention and Reality in Architectural Heritage Management - Case: Zanzibar Stone Town. Chalmers 2007. Abdul Sheriff, The History & Conservation of Zanzibar Stone Town, Ohio University Press, 1995. Tony Steel & Stephen Battle, Conservation Guidelines for Zanzibar Stone Town, The Aga Khan Trust For Culture. STCDA, Zanzibar Stone Town: Strategic conservation Plan, June 2008. ICCROM Conservation Studies, Legal Frameworks for the protection of immovable Cultural Heritage in Africa, 2009. Francesco Siravo & Aga Khan Trust for Culture, Historic Cities Support Programme, Zanzibar, A plan for the His-toric Stone Town, Zanzibar, Gallery Publications, 1997 Saad Yahya, Rich Buildings, Poor Tenants - The Management of Public Housing in Zanzibar, Vol. 1-3, Stone Town, 2003. (Sida) Stephen Battle, Thomas Melin, Asa Forsman, Fighting poverty in historical cities: An example from Africa, Elander Berlings, 2006. Antony Sealey Dip Arch, Introduction to building climatology, 1979. Erich F. Meffert, Hygrothermal Comfort in Lamu Town, University of Nairobi. John D. Hoag, Islamic Architecture, Ed Electa Editrice, 1975. Kenneth Frampton, Charles Correa, David Robson, Modernity and Community: Architecture in the Islamic World, Thames & Hudson, 2002. Cynthia C. Davidson, Legacies for the future: Contemporary Architecture in Islamic Societies, Thames & Hudson, 1998. Monreal Luis, The Future of Historic Cities In The Aga Khan Historic Cities Programme: Strategies for Urban Rege- neration (Philip Jodido, ed.) Munich - Prestel, 2011. Aga Khan Cultural Services Zanzibar, Study case: House 2052/55 Kajificheni. Aga Khan Cultural Services Zanzibar, Study case: House 836 Nyumba ya Moshi, Malindi. Aga Khan Cultural Services Zanzibar, Study case: House 1783/84 Former Royalotel, Mnazi Mmuja. Jokilehto Jukka, A History of Architectural Conservation,1999. Orbasli Aylin, Architectural Conservation: Principles and Practice, 2004. Norberg-Schulz Christian, Genius Loci - Towards a Phenomenology of architecture, 1980. Munõz Viñas, Contemporary Theory of Conservation, 2005. Brand Stuart, How Buildings Learn, 1994. Lowenthal David, The Heritage Crusade and the Spoil of History, 1997. UNESCO, Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage,1972. ICOMOS, The Burra Charter for places of Significance, 1999. The Nara Document on Authenticity, 1994. Council of Europe: European Landscape Convention, 2000. UNESCO, World Heritage and Buffer Zones, 2008. ICOMOS, What is OUV, 2007. www.zanzibarstonetown.org / www.unesco.org / www.icomos.org / www.heritagecouncil.ie / www.wikipedia.org


(A)PENDIX 1 INTERVIEW Makame Juma Mtwana, Chief Executive Officer of

ZANZIBAR STONE TOWN HERITAGE SOCIETY (ZSTHS)

How do you promote awareness? Which are your strategies? What exactly you do with the children in preliminary schools? What about adults? And more specifically concerning conservation and maintenance of buildings? We arrange activity days in the preliminary schools of Stone Town. So far we have done this in 3-4 schools but our goal is to reach all the schools of Stone Town. Activities such as cleaning the beaches, planting trees, but also we are talking to them and explain why the preservation of our environment is an important issue. When the one day you involve for instance about 60 pupils, that live not only inside the Stone Town but also the surroundings, the next day you have spread the seed to their families and friends. We also ask from the children to draw pictures of the Stone Town or conduct competitions to motivate them. For the adults we basically work with our members. We arrange seminars, workshops and exhibitions in order to increase awareness and to make people understand and care about our heritage. We also give “Awards” to encourage well maintain properties, but it is difficult to make such thing annually, because sometimes you have to award the same building again and again...

“With the children is more effective to increase awareness„

Do you have any feedback from your efforts to increase awareness? Can you see any impact? Results? If you mean if I have any figures? No. But, I can see that something is happening. Some are already realized. We have a long way to go, yet... People cannot understand why. Even I for example, before I came to work here. I was walking in the street and I was wondering: “But, why the government doesn’t demolishing all these problematic and destroyed old buildings and built some new and modern?” It is very common to think that. With the children is more effective to increase awareness. They keep memories from our activities because it is something different and we hope that when they grow up, the will be more realized than us...

Monday 11th of March 2013

How do you fund your activities? Our Society has about 200 and something members. We are not many because we have an annual membership fee of 3,000 Ths. It is not much but people are not very willing to pay it. Moreover, the income from the membership fees is not enough to support us. But, we also own this building (Old Customs House) and we host some activities such as the Dhow Music Academy and other who they pay some rent to us. In the beginning we were funding from Sida (Swedish International Development and Cooperation Agency) and at that time we managed to do a lot of stuff. But now is very difficult. We are running a low season...


(A)PENDIX 1 iNTERVIEWS

Nowadays, When it comes to the realization of a project, we write a report with our proposal and then we search for funders. At the moment we are waiting for an answer to restore the roof of the cathedral church from the European Union. If we get a positive answer then we sign the contracts and we begin!

“we exchange knowledge: they learn traditional ways of coral and lime materials and we receive modern technical support„

How do you proceed with your projects? Well, when the work starts, we are acting more like “monitors”, the actual work is being done by professionals, either local or foreign (Sweden) that we invite. Sometimes training for our members, like workshops, have been done during restorations. We cooperate with the invited professionals, we exchange knowledge: they learn traditional ways of coral and lime materials and we receive modern technical support.

How new builders and craftsmen (carpenters etc.) are being trained at the moment? We have learning institutions in the island. Three: the Karume technical college, the Nikuguni training school and the JKU, Vocational technical college. They are all governmental. Free of admission fees. Do they include training in traditional ways of building? Uh-ha. This is a very problematic area... Very problematic. I don’t think they do. Young architects and builders and constructors, they don’t have a way to learn traditional techniques in the schools. But, they also want to learn modern techniques. To built modern constructions, because that is what makes the money... The traditional ways are being learned by the elder builders. They have young helpers that they follow them to work and they learn by experience. None of them have any official certificate that is a trained builder. They cannot moderate any project by themselves, they are usually hired by the supervisor architect or constructor. They know how to do their work very well... For our study project, we are thinking of proposing a place where traditional skills but also contemporary techniques could be transmit to the new generation of local builders, through the elder local builders and craftsmen. In your opinion, is this something that could work? Is it relevant or even required in Stone Town’s context? You see, there is a problem with that. Those people know how do built by experience. If you tell them to come to a “class” and teach, they might not be able to. It is very difficult for them to teach in theory. For instance, the cannot tell you how much soil and how much lime you need to make the good …... They can estimate in practice and along with them their apprentices learn by observing and practicing. Theoretical oriented training wouldn’t work. It needs to be practical oriented training.


(A)PENDIX 2 INTERVIEW Asha Ali Hassan

STONE TOWN CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (STCDA)

Who are the builders here? Ranz contractors, Salim contractors, Salcon contractors, Mazuri contractors: big contractors, in Stone Town, you know the capacity of them to rehabilitate, so you can announce to the tenders for the contractors to collect the proposal project from the Salim company, from Salcon company.... Stone Town, we decide to select one contractor and to get the project and to do and to do the supervision. So, it’s a company? Yes, STCDA knows the capacity of each contractors, each so if the contractor is against the rules, Stone town, we have to reject the panity of this contractor , write the letter to stop anyone to do in STCDA. But also other local and traditional worker because we have men. Training in STCDA for how to repair the Stone Town houses? If we help many … for the building, we have to commit....STCDA 5 renovations, 1 new construction soif the director see that it’s really complicated issue, maybe one issue will be go to the panity. The director decided that. One amount of the traditional builders are against the rule and the regulation of STCDA, he can write a letter . Same direction same directive.

(On the site) What was this before? Residential house. Ground, 1st and 2nd. Collapsed since 1998: remains small portion, collapsed 1995, 1996. After that, STCDA took the initiative to clean the blog. Now, the owner of this plot is WAKF. Any photos? Maybe Zanzibar municipality. What about the rules concerning the extensions? All the extension are allowed. STCDA allowed this extension. The building have no grade. Grade 1 and grade 2, any change is allowed. Modern material: normally not allowed, if extension, it should be made in sand brick; 3 inches block to minimize the louded into the wall. It seems that the house of stone town, to build a new construction, make sure To minimize the distraction of the house In stone town, you have to share common wall. You have to share together sometime. Mohammed or Rajiab. Now it’s repairing...

Thursday 14th of March 2013


(A)PENDIX 3 INTERVIEW Rajab Pandu Faki and Saleh Rashid Salum, head of the department of

WAKF COMMISSION

Thursday 14th of March 2013

What is WAKF commission? My name is Saleh Rashid Salum, I’m the head of the department of WAKF. WAKF Commission is a department itself that are divided in different small units. In WAKF unit, there is many different things; houses, lands, chambers. So why we have these things? Because the owners of these buildings, houses, lands kept them to attend to the Islamic religion, according to the,principles of the Islamic religion. That’s why they give their house to WAKF. And when we say WAKF, we mean to surrender immovable and movable properties. But, in our hands, we have immovable properties: houses, lands, chambers (accommodation). So, these owners, they surrender their houses to god. For them, it’s a way to get blessing. For instance, in the house n°1974, maybe the owner kept the house to WAKF in order to get blessing of god. Or an other example can be for someone that rent his house. The benefit that he makes or the rent which is produced by the one who has paid that house, that money can be used for the processing of the mosque or to the benefit of it but it can also be used to provide a better life to the children that have no guardians or relatives. The WAKF doesn’t choose how to distribute these donations but it’s the dedicator himself that says how he wants to use his properties. Within the testament, he said precisely how he wants to use the money that was produced after renting this house : For instance, it should all be used to take care of the children or only 50% should be used and the rest used for his own children or also 50% for up-keeping the mosque in specifying which mosque in particular. Sometimes, the owner says the money that is produced directly with this house will be for the benefits of my children, grand children, etc... and after the extinguish of this generation, this money will be spend for the up-keeping of the mosque. So, it exists many different types of will. In the case of WAKF, these wills are more specific in religious purpose.

“Now, because of the tourism industry, the city and its historical aspect, this district become very attractive„

What is the background of the site? Actually, this plot includes two numbers: n°1974 and n°1973 that creates one house. The dedicator (the owner who dedicates to WAKF Commission) was Mohammed Nassor Jindan. In 1990’s, the office had not enough money to maintain this building so, gradually, the house collapsed. At this time, this area was valueless. During many years, no one wanted this plot. Now, because of the tourism industry, the city and its historical aspect, this district become very attractive. Today, a lot of people (citizens of Zanzibar, individual interest) show their interest to this place and wants it for a lot of money. It’s the case of Mister Suleiman who negotiated with the office and agreed to clean that plot and build a new construction. We don’t know


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what kind of project it will be: it can be houses, hotels, offices. That is the future. In 2007, this person came to show his interest. After many meeting and discussion between the WAKF Commission and this person, now it’s almost time for the final agreement to solve this situation: give the plot and give the permission to do a new project. But in the beginning, the owner was supposed to be the office. Regarding of this, this person is now hesitating because he should invest more money. The negotiation should be clarify this problem and deals with the benefit of each parts. Now, he is trying to build an other house somewhere in order to have the support to do this project. He pays rent and the office gets money from it and this is the purpose of the dedicator of this house. Somehow, it’s the end of the road for this house. As one of the owner of the city, you play a role in the conservation of the architecture to Stone Town. Do you collaborate in any way with the SCTDA, ZSTHS or other organization that makes the city? We as a department, we are in connection with the ministry of the constitution. For somehow. SCTDA, to teach some people. Our people, the one who use this house, most of the time we teach them how to use the house properly, not to destroy it, we tell them the importance of this building. Father who keep the house so many years ago so you as a tenant, you should also take care of the house. It is our duty. But because, these area, stone Town, we have WAKF commission building, government building, individual building.... S commission our duty is to teach, to inform our tenants the importance of keeping and preserve the building. Other people, individual house, government house, they don’t reach them. Even today, the meeting they are our tenants: we call them to discuss about the matter, pay the rent, contract, maintenance, conservation. This is our program. In each week, you can have 5 up to 10 meetings on this subject. It’s very specific. But, link with that society, we linked for the conservation of this area. But everyone try to inform in this own way. Sometimes, we work together. Sometimes, we call the tenants to discuss the matter. In every meeting, they meet this society . So we are together.


(A)PENDIX 4 INTERVIEW Akbarali Y. Karimjee, Managing Director of

AZIM CONTRACTOR

How it works to built a new construction in Stone Town? What kind of trade corporations are involved? And who is in charge? If we say that you are a client and you want to built some building, so you need my profession. So, I do make a house in the site that you show me and how is it with workers and how is it with materials, what is the trucks and what is the glass... everything we can show you, like a book. Then, we cooperate with...(mobile phone)... So, who are these people that actually built the house? There are some people...4 years back, it was the Aga Khan foundation. It is taking the house for repairing in Stone Town. So, in Stone Town you get a tender, sometimes. Sometimes you don’t go with the tenders, but you go directly. If you are 65 to you, so he is calling to me and we are going with my team and we start. And also, there is supervision. They are coming, one person from Syriam(?) to look how the procedure is going, the job. And first the job giving to you, is the local people and you come in the middle. They are coming to check, from Geneva, everywhere they are coming to check you. And then you go to pass and they give you the money. And who is in your team? My team is the local people. And, we supervision the knowledge for long time. Since 1982. Have you studied? Yes. I was working with an indian firm (or fellow). In 1982 there was a lot of men, a lot of people here indian. So, we are a lot of here living. After the Revolution, all went out in India. So, these all building the buildings were indian people, from India. And the british was ruling at that time. So, he was left and I stayed. I had studied for 2 years with him, like a labour. And I learned. So, then I started my team, slowly-slowly, from local people. “This one is good, this one is good...” and now is 30 years. How do you choose your people? Do you have any new people in your team or everybody is since that time? There were old men given to me. There are “fundi” and there are labors... At least they know how to mix, materials.. at that time. Now it’s been 30 years I work. I was 25 when I studied. So, 1982 I was studying. I went Pemba, I went Doloma (?), I went Dar es Salaam...

Monday 11th of March 2013

And do you have young people in your team? Yes, yes. Young people we have also. I am taking two types of building. Old type of building and new type of building. New type of building I am working now in the Custom(?), Kilimanjaro. My one son is an apprentice and the other one is an architect.


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If I want to work in your company, what qualifications do I have to have? How do you hire your people? In the local people, either you have a certificate, or you have the knowledge. So, he knows the work. If you go to India, to brink a “fundi”, you know the “fundi” and labor: “kibarua”. Fundi, means the carpenter or electrician or technician. And the kibarua is the labor. Carpenter labors, electrician labors, construction labors.... So, kibarua don’t need to have any certificate? But fundi must have. Yes. But sometimes, you need for fundi. You see who is your fundi? Is he qualified? If he is from mainland, you know. But, if you bring from India, you don’t. You see, workers work 12 to 14 hours, indian people. But, local people work 6 to 8 hours. Because the morning they are coming to 8 o’clock and then they are going to pray, then in the afternoon again and then they finish. But, indian people, they are not going to pray. We prefer indian workers. All tanzania, now, is like this. If you have one indian or 3 african people, then one indian is enough. So, you give him a house and food and everything. Do you think that there is a need for further education for local inhabitants? Yes.! Do you know why we need knowledge? Because, no-one is up to him. You know, the chinese, they have the leader. The leader knows how to control how people live himself. Everywhere, even if you go to Sweden, someone is in a team. But, there is no team here, to follow. Interesting... In our student project we are about to propose a new construction that it will be built from people that wish to know how to built. We would like to include students, as a training procedure. Do you think is a good idea? To built a building and at the same time to learn how to built. Would something like this work? I went in Tanga(?) in a heritage building. It was a lady, now she’s left I think. It was refer to me to go and look the workers working every 15 days. At first I had transport, but then something happened and I did’n had transport. No problem! Myself, I was going for 6 months. Until it was finished. Every 15 days I was coming. Someone had to look from start to finish. How you are going to mix, how are you doing. You need to supervise. So it is not a problem for you to be present? If you have a job and the students are coming and you need to supervise, no problem! I do it free of charge! Is there any union of fundi’s? Do they have any network? No. They are by themselves. I tried to speak to him, once. “Why the chinese are coming to built here? why are the mainland people coming? Why are you not coming in one together?” and he said: “You know, I am asian, you are muizi, the other muakonde...(???)”. They don’t want. Like you are european, and there are a lot of european...German. So, no one can come together in one site. So, if you are like the sweden people, the committee of


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Sweden, they will come as one. All they know Swahili but not kiswahili. There is from Tanga, part of Tanga, from Bagamoyo, the people here, the makunduji(?) people... they not come as one. They are sitting together, but in a job together? no... Because everyone wants to become rich. I tried myself, a lot of times. “Why you are not coming with me to contract?” But they can’t.. they can’t. But you tried. You would like a network. Everybody to cooperate? Yes! I like, I like. Because if all the people, like the Stone Town people are working together, like one community, the work is coming good! No one get’s ….....(?). To use the cement... Like in Muanza. I was in Muanza, two days ago. It is very clean! Very clean. I went to Umbea(?) also, very clean. If you go to Moshi(?) also. I’ve built also in Arusha, one mosque in Arusha. And every year muansha(?) was taking care from the municipality. If you want to throw like this (throwing a piece of paper on the table) it is 15,000 Tsh fine. From the municipality. Here there is no municipality. If you go to Darajani now, it is dirty, because there is not possibility. People who are paying the municipality, they like the cleanness. But in Zanzibar... it is not working. Even, you becoming old when you are expecting...

“People... they not come as one. They are sitting together, but in a job together? no... because everyone wants to become rich„


(A)PENDIX 5 INTERVIEW Mohammed J Mugheiry, Chairperson of the Board of Directors,

ZANZIBAR STONE TOWN HERITAGE SOCIETY (ZSTHS)

Do you have any feedback from your efforts to increase awareness of the local inhabitants? Can you see any impact on their habits or perception of the Stone Town city? Results? Awareness in Stone Town to residents we have been doing but we are not satisfied as there is increasing use of the town from residents to visitors.Still we need more people to join us and hopefully we can evaluate the results. We met some challenges some people think we are wasting our time. When you have a project running, for instance the restoration of a building, who is coming to renovate it? Your members? Local contractors? Local workers? Students? In restoration activities our members and other invited stakeholders (from Gov’t Offices, contractors etc) participate. During the renovations you might invite young fundis to be trained. Where do you find them? How do you invite them? And how many people have taken part in your training workshops? During the renovation the fundis, mostly our members and some selected people outside our organization are being sent invitation to participate. Around 70 persons have taken part in workshops. Which types of people are more interesting or are more active in the ZSTHS? Men/ Women? Young/Elders? And what types of people you would like to include more? Both men and women (elders) are interested in ZSTHS activities. We also have  young members. Our plan now we are visiting schools to give information about our works. We are planning to have heritage clubs in schools. What are the main problems you have faced during these years of operation? What would you like to change? Is there anything you wished to had been done differently? The main problems we are facing during years of operation are as follows: - Lack of heritage policy in Zanzibar and Tanzania. - There is unsatisfactory recognition of heritage issues by politicians and some members of the community including business people. - Lack of funds to run the programmes. Could you share your thoughts concerning our student project ideas? Do you find it relevant? Would something like that succeed? Any suggestions? Ideas? Your proposal is good if it will be implemented and it will benefit many fundis and others.

Sunday 17th of March 2013



(KU)JENGA project