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Rethinking Biofuels Experiences from Emerging Science and Global Pilots

Navin Sharma Programme Director - Biofuels World Agroforestry Centre New Delhi


What will be covered today?

      

Status of Biofuels and Future Recent Global Initiatives : CFS, SDGs & SE4All Sustainable alternate biofuel models Emerging Science Biofuels in India and how to unlock the potential Lessons from successful Biofuel enterprises Way forward for India

Involving small holder farmers 2

Where are we in Biofuels ď ś Status of Biofuels and Future


Biofuels – Original Thinking • Excluding the land-use change, the first generation biofuels were projected to have a GHG saving between 10 and 90%. • Biofuels have been proposed to minimise the GHG reductions and a potential way to achieve 2 °C target (Mitigation) • To restrict global temperature increase to 2 °C – By 2030, biofuels to provide 9% of total transport fuel demand (126 EJ): current level 2.7% of the world's fuels for road transport (World Energy Outlook 2009; IEA 2009)

• Area under Biofuel crops - 1% of arable land, will occupy 2.5 – 3.8% by 2030 (IEA 2006) – By 2050 , 50% reduction in CO2 emissions, biofuels to provide 26% of total transport fuel (Blue map Scenario of Energy Technology Perspective, IEA 2008)

• Will need ~7.5 – 11.4% arable land? Can this be achieved with current biofuel crops without impacting climate change? 4 With LUC whether the Biofuel crops still be environmentally friendly? 375 – 750 Mha

Biofuel Production Trend

IEA 2011

• • • • • •

Driven by mandates and subsidies – independence in fossil fuel imports and reducing the climate foot prints Use of traditional first generation crops (food) Big Debate in EU on capping the use of food based biofuels Many countries faltering in implementing mandates and targets Need clear-cut policies and sustainable systems


Debate : Land-use Change (LUC) & Carbon Debt

o Long carbon paybacks if forests are converted to produce biofuels with traditional first generation biofuel crops

The Gallagher Review 2008


Water Foot Print

7 Gerbens-Leenes et al (2009) PNAS 106 : 10219-10223

LUC & Carbon Debt : Brazil 2020

Lapola D M et al. PNAS 2010;107:3388-3393

Projected Demand 8.0 Billion gallons (E20-25; B5)

Direct, indirect, and total LUC areas (A), carbon debt (B), and time to repay debt (C) for fulfilling Brazil’s biofuel (sugarcane 8 ethanol and soybean biodiesel) production targets for 2020.

Where does this leave us? o Need for rethinking on Biofuels that addresses current concerns: a system based approach rather than crop based!! o Position Biofuels for food security and livelihood improvements beyond solution for transport mix o Refresh national policies: based on solid science o Explore alternate models which avoids LUC and have positive carbon footprints / low carbon payback years o Develop active linkages with global initiatives especially from the UN o Learn from successful examples from across the globe and adopt for India o What are aviation industries doing?

Future: Link Biofuels to Food- Nutrition Security & Environment

Biofuels as renewable energy source Global Initiatives ď ś Recent Global Initiatives : CFS, SDGs & SE4All


Energy : Linkages with Health and Hunger


Energy : Linkages with Health and Hunger


Sustainable Development Goals


Goal 4 Universal clean energy: improve universal, affordable access to clean energy That minimises local pollution and health impacts and mitigates global warming


Sustainable Energy for ALL

Ban-Ki Moon Secretary General United Nations

Jim Yong Kim President World Bank

2030 SE4All Energy Goals ● Universal Access to Modern Energy Services ● Doubling the Rate of Improvement in Energy Efficiency

● Doubling the Share of Renewable Energy in Global Energy Mix

SE4ALL High Impact Opportunities

Sustainable Bioenergy HIO • Clean Cooking Solutions • Increased Agricultural Productivity • Energy from Municipal Solid Waste • Sustainable Aviation Biofuels • Cellulosic Ethanol HIOs will coordinate High-Impact Initiatives that will facilitate bioenergy project development and deployment.

Alternate Biofuel Models : The Future Requirements

ď ś Sustainable alternate biofuel models


What is it? To be Driven by Local Energy Provisions for Livelihoods, Use of Marginal Land Leading to National Mandates

 “Biofuel technologies must become more efficient in terms of net lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and be socially and environmentally sustainable.  Most first-generation biofuels, with the exception of sugarcane ethanol, will likely have a limited role in the future transport fuel mix”

Sustainable Production of SECOND -Generation Biofuels: Potential and perspectives in major economies and developing countries


February 2010

CFS: HLPE 2013 Recommendations o Adapt to change to global market driven dynamics o Address the land and water implications o Comprehensive food energy policy

o Promote R&D o Develop methods and guidelines for coordinated food, biofuel bioenergy policies

GBEP Indicators

Future Biofuels must fulfil these criteria


Emerging Science to Support Policy ď ś Emerging Science


GHG Emissions are Manageable

o o o o o


Malee + best practice


Australia Malee

Corn with best practice



Brazil Sugarcan - Prior land use sugarcane

Miscanthus - prior land use Miscanthus + Best practices

Miscanthus - prior land use forest


Prior Land Use Palm + Best Practices


Prior Land use Palm


Oil Palm - prior land use Forest




Sugarcan - Prior land use forest







GHG Emissions ( g CO2 eq MJ-1)


Swing Potential of biofuel Crops

Conventional Fuels


Oil Palm : If forests are not replaced and fronds and empty fruit bodies are recycled to soil Miscaranthus : if planted on previously cropped area instead of forest Sugarcane : if no pre harvest burning Corn : No tilling Mallee SRC : if full 4 years harvest rotation is practiced 22

Adopted from Davis et al (2013) GCB Bioenergy doi 10.1111 / gcbb. 12042

Science-Based Polices Are Needed to inform sustainable bioenergy landscape design.

o “The linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem services is dependent not only on the choice of bioenergy crop but also on its location relative to other habitats. o Careful design of bioenergy landscapes has the potential to enhance multiple services in food and energy crops, leading to important synergies that have not yet informed the ongoing bioenergy debate.�

Werling et al. (2014): PNAS


Use of Multiple Species LIHD Prairie System Various combinations of perennial herbaceous grassland species

Carbon Debt (Years) US

Abandoned Crop Land

Prairie Biomass Ethanol



Marginal Land

Prairie Biomass Ethanol


ď ś Have insignificant carbon debt and does not need many years to repay carbon debt compared to first generation biofuel crops ranging from 0 to 1 from marginal crop land to abandoned crop land.

Tilman et al (2006) Science 314 : 1598 - 1600Fargione et al (2008) Science 319(5867): 1235 - 1238


Use of Multiple Species  Mixed cropping with perennials better than monoculture o Generate higher energy yields, GHG reductions, less agrichemical pollution per hectare than first generation biofuel crops such as sugar cane ethanol or soybean biodiesel. o Give higher bioenergy yields (238% greater than monoculture yields). o Carbon negative: Net CO2 sequestration (4.4 megagram hectare–1 year–1 of CO2 in soil and roots).

Preserves Biodiversity Tilman et al (2006) Science 314 : 1598 - 1600

Fargione et al (2008) Science 319(5867): 1235 - 1238


Where does this lead to : India ď ś Biofuels in India and how to unlock the potential


Biofuels in India rethinking – refresh & recharge o The Government of India approved the National Policy on Biofuels in December 2009. o 20 percent biofuel blending (both bio-diesel and bio-ethanol) by 2017

o The Planning Commission of India had set an ambitious target covering 11.2 to 13.4 million hectares of land under Jatropha cultivation (Eucalyptus alone is grown in 8 million hectares) o The biodiesel industry in India is still in infancy o Biodiesel distribution channels are virtually non-existent as most of the biofuel produced is used either by the producing companies for self-use or by certain transport companies on a trial basis Over reliance on Jatropha, low grade waste land, no forward linkages No clearcut effort to engage smallholder farmers?


Unlocking the potential Feedstock costs represent 50-75% of the cost of producing biofuels

 Focus on marginal land – but explore in farm options  Value Chains not exploited  Over reliance on annual crops - Often Food Crops  Monoculture (LUC & iLUC) & Jatropha  Availability (seasonal, quality, consistency)  Agroforestry : suitable option 28

Unlocking the Potential o Agroforestry options (Bring in trees in the farm without affecting the productivity of annual crops) Potential – 25.36 million hectares o Use of marginal / underutilized land (3 million ha alone as bund) o Combine with other crops for sustainable production throughout the year, based on particular agroclimatic / ecosystem conditions o Cover the whole value chain : Landscape / System Approach • • • •

R&D Challenges Selection of Appropriate varieties (Ecosystem based) Quality planting material Short rotation crops Remunerative to small farmers 29

Agroforestry : Multiple Benefits • Less demanding in terms of inputs • Reduces erosion and improve soil properties • Animal feed and/or fertilizers as co-products • More energy per unit of land from these crop

• Brings in resilience in farming for food and nutritional security • Better micro climatic conditions for the growth of agricultural crops 30

Co-Products Enhance the Energy Value of a System

Hill et al 2006: PNAS 103: 11206-11210 31

Development of Alternate Biofuel Crops Selection of Case Studies

Biofuels for Livelihoods in the State of Karnataka

Integrated Food Energy System (Anne Bodanski, Olivier Dubois), GBEP – sustainability indicators (Maria Michela Morese)

Biofuel programme, Bioenergy, Oilseeds

Biofuels for Clean Energy in Mozambique: CleanStar Mozambique

Environment & Climate Change Division (Elwyn Grainger Jones), National Programs

Sustainable Biofuels involving small holder farmers in Brazil : EMBRAPA

Bottom-up approach, starting with the implementation of some projects that could help sustainable expansion of biofuels to new 32 areas, policy advocacy & identifying underlying cause of success.

Successful Biofuel Enterprises ď ś Lessons from successful Biofuel enterprises


South-South Cooperation with Brazil  Learn from the Brazilian experience with biodiesel: o Focus on Business development with social inclusion, environmental sustainability and promotion of regional development. • More than 100,000 smallholders. • Annual average household income increased twice. o Success due to Petrobras, Brazil's state-run energy giant, created its own biofuels division in 2008 - took over from the private firms running the government's biofuels production contracts with smallholder farmers. • farmers devote no more than 20% of their arable land to growing biofuel crops o Partner with Embrapa on the development of alternate feedstocks: • Agroforestry model on Pongamia, Jatropha, Macaúba Palm and others. • Agro-ecological zoning in process.


Local Energy provisions Technologies on the Horizon


Clean Star Mozambique Operational Targets for Achieving Profitability in late 2014 Farming


2000 smallholder farmers in central Mozambique (2 ha of cultivation each)

1000 ha of companyleased farms for R&D, multiplication, training

Supply inputs & technical support

Equipment for procurement & light processing

Multiple small community processing centres close to farmers


Main bio-processing plant off Beira Corridor in Dondo

Major bottling plant & warehouse

Parallel Ethanol Cooking Fuel, Diesel Fuel and Food processing lines

80,000 cookstoves customers buying fuel from our 30 shops and 250 resellers in Maputo

Wholesale and direct packaged food and feed sales

CleanStar is on track to achieve its goal of 2000 smallholder farmers supplying the company, and 80,000 households using its stoves by late 2014 36

Replacing Charcoal with Clean Fuel

“2 million early deaths per year from indoor air pollution� - World Health Organization 37

Aviation Biofuels: Integrated Seawater Energy and Agriculture System (ISEAS)

India : Way Forward • Agroforestry Policy : Aimed at increasing the tree cover to 33% – Recommendation 10: Promoting sustainable agroforestry for renewable energy

• Biofuels : Compulsory Activity under MNREGA • Follow Brazilian Model & set up a separate Company for Bioenergy • Feed stocks : Multiple and complimentary • R&D : Short rotation and survival rates at the farmer’s field • Foster Innovation in providing multiple avenues of clean energy • Links with global private partners – specifications for biofuels and processing technologies • Provide incentives / subsidy to be competitive to Crude

Alternative : Biofuels for local energy provisions and livelihoods 39

“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.�


Natcon mr navin sharma presentation mnre bangalore 22 feb 2014