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1877- First action photos 1840 - Daguerreotype Era Begins

1826- Frst Permanent image using the camera obscura 1861- First colour photograph

1839 - First photograph of a person using the Daguerre process.

1871 -Dry plate process invented

1850- First positive photographic prints on paper.

1888- First kodak Camera released


2000- J-phone, the first mobile phone to be integrated with a camera

1913- First 355mm still camera developed by Oskar Barnack

1957- First digital image produced on a computer by Russell Kirsch 1893Flash bulb invented

1907- First commercial colour film released

1986- Kodka invent the worlds first megapixel sensor 1948- Polaroid camera created by Edwin Land.

2008- Polaroid discontinues producing instant film


Narrative photography is a concept of basic photography. It is a concept, which tells you a story and is summed up in a single frame. There can be different types of narrative photography depending on what it is being photographed. Majority of photographs, whether you be a novice or expert, conveys some type of emotion and story which can be interpreted differently by those who view it. Photographic Journalism during wars have captured many iconic and emotional images which, without a doubt, everyone would have seen at least one in their lifetime. Each Image is historic and tells a story of the event and conveys the emotion of that very second in the very minuet, all captured by a photograph. I think these images are perfect for the task brief ‘ Frozen in time as part of a narrative structure’

While researching photography as a Narrative Story i came across this image on Flickr. Although the task which was set is to look at an image ‘frozen in time’ I believe this image is too powerful to be ignored. Its simple and effect and done in just 5 ‘frozen’/ still frames. The title of the image is called ‘My mum and I’. The series of images is a time lapse of still images which tells a story of a mother holding the hand of her offspring before the cycle of life comes to an end. The detail of the wrinkle in the hands and just simple use of black and white make this image moving and full of emotion. It tells a short story of how we all loose loved ones, however at some point of in our lives we are connected to that person.


Propaganda in WW2 was used to motivate and increase public opinion. War was not just about soldiers fighting on a battle field but the ideologies of different nations. To achieve support for the war, propaganda was used as a influential component. The definition of propaganda is information, ideas, or rumours deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person group, movement institution nation, etc. The Ministry of Information was responsible for the poster campaigns which encouraged people to join voluntary services, to work hard and contribute to the war effort in Britain. One campaign which was launched was the danger of 'Careless Talk'. The fear was that German spies were working in the country so the british citizens were told not to discuss the war in public. Another form of propaganda which was used was censorship.The government used censorship to control newspapers and other communication methods such as radio. They made sure that newspapers reported on the war positively, by highlighting the heroism of soldiers and rescuers instead of reporting about the injuries and death counts. This type of propaganda helped maintain a high moral among citizens.

Hitler with a poem stating, don’t tell them where they are going, when they are going etc‌ The basic message is clear and each propaganda poster is short, not overly detailed and easy to remember as these would be posted everywhere, such as, street corners, shops and public transport so it would often be seen by passers by who don’t have long to stand and stare


Photography in regard to social commentary focuses on integration of documentary photography, research, new technologies and concepts of social change. The idea of social commentary is so broad and so vast that it is not just one specific thing. It can be a story of somebodies life or a population. It could be the cause and effect of natural disasters, poverty, economic disasters and policies actioned by governments. Social commentary is the report, the story, the documentary of an action which has caused social change, the effect something has had. Social commentary could also be something which people do not agree with, or want to make a point of. It is a type of expression used to create awareness of such things as, injustice. It can be an opinion somebody has about a particular subject or society in general.

This image shows the economic difference between two different types of people. The image shows business and wealth VS. Poverty and making a living. This is a strong impacting image as it portrays wealthier men getting their shoes cleaned by those who are trying to earn what they can to stay alive. It shows two different work types, one which is everyday business working for companies as suggested by the men in suits, and another where the poorer men are cleaning the shoes for very little money to survive on what they earn. The image comments very strongly on the social society in which we live in today.

This is an image of a young man who is looking through his family photo album after the distruction of the tusnami had destroyed everything he owns, we can see this in the image as he is sat on his, literally, broken home. The tsunami had an overwhelming and distructive effect on everyone in the region. This image captures the emotion which was felt. The man is looking through the album and remembering all that he has lost and all that he had, it could be possible that some of his family had died or gone missing in the tsunami and is mourning their death.

Social comment and Banksy work together perfectly hand in hand. A prime example if this image of the Buddah beaten up. There are so many interpretations you can make about the image. The ideologies of Buddhism is about peace and to attain enlightenment. This is image is the complete opposite, it can be interpreted to show todays society is far from attaining peace and living in harmony amongst one and another. It makes the viewer stop and comment, which is what social commentary is all about, something that makes your question society. It may also be a political statement about the Chinese government attacking Tibet's monks.


This image has been painted on the security wall of Bethlehem. The symbolism of the dove is peace. The olive branch also suggested it is the Dove from the Christian story, Noah's ark. The irony is that the israel and surrounding areas are not peaceful hence the armed jacket and sniper shot, another political statement.

'One nation under CCTV' Banksy touches on political issues and this example suggests he is commenting on the UK's big brother style surveillance. An expression that we are constantly being watched by governing bodies and we have nowhere to hide. This is one of Banksy's larger pieces of work erected in London, mounted on the same wall, ironically, as a CCTV camera.


'A picture tells a thousand words'. Story telling through photography is a major part of photographic journalism, not only do you need a well written article but you also need a powerful image that tells the reader the entire story before even reading. Images can show a wide variety of emotions, moods, ideas, narratives and messages which allow a reader to visually see what is happening. An image doesn't only support a story but it is this story. Ever since humans have roamed this planet story telling has been a major part of society. The power of the image revolutionised social communications. Cave paintings dating back to 15,000 BC tells a stories to other hunter gathers. Tribes from remote parts of the world tell stories using masks to explain their origins and Egyptians used imagery as part of their language. Even in british history we have reported events through imagery such as The Bayeux Tapestry which tells a story of the Battle of Hastings.

When you compare the tapestry to the book of the dead and the cave paintings you can see that it is clearly a linear narrative. You see the story unfolding as you scan across the images and you begin to see what is going on visually and understand the meanings behind the stories.


This image shows the effect of hurricane Sandy as iconic New york taxi’s are submerged in sea water. This image tells a story of a city which is not used to this type of weather and the effect it had on the city and its taxi drivers. It shows New york, ‘The city that never sleeps’ at a stand still. I really like the use of colour in the image the bright yellow taxi’s against the dirty dark sea water. This photograph shows the story of the devastating fires which were caused in Queens, New York. The symbolism of the religious statue almost makes the image look post-apocolyptic. Almost like Judgement Day. The dark colours and the contrast make this image eye catching and breath taking.


I didnt want to find just one image but a series of images which show a story. I chose to focus on one of my all time favourite film, The wizard of Oz. The wizard of Oz is a coming of age story, a journey which a young girl must take to become a more confident and grown up young women. The journey she faces allows her to find her self a mind, a heart and courage. While researching the topic I came across a number of photographs which had been created by a ladie called Annie Leibovitz which tell all the key stages of the film. The photographs also include the actress keira knightley who is portraying the character Dorothy.


The Wizard Of Oz is a nostalgic tale of Dorothy, a young farm girl from Kansas, who is swept away to a magical land by a tornado. During her travels she encounters a number of characters, some good, some bad. The objective of her travels is to visit the Wizard of Oz in Emerald City so that she can go home. The film and story line may seem fun and imaginative. However the film itself has been inspired greatly by the great depression which hit america in the 1930′s. The depression saw most people in america live in poverty. Kansas, Dorothy’s home, was also victim to the Dust bowl. Most southern states had been effected by draught and windblown dust, which made it hard to farm. Due to this there was a agricultural decline which prolonged the depression. The opening scene to the film shows dorothy on the farm which is in the middle of the country surrounded by dry, unfarmable soil. The film is full of symbolisms. Dorothy - is believed to represent the American people and its values as she is loyal and resourceful. Toto- Dorothy’s small dog is the one to reveal what a fraud the wizard is thought to also represent the average Americans. Uncle Henry- which was the name of a famous farmer who was the editor of a farming magazine.

Tornado - is thought to represent the political upheaval. American farmers were suffering the effects of the economic turmoile as they were getting less money for their crops. Munchkins- are the little people who represent the common man. It can also be seen as representing child labour. Silver slippers – Unlike the film where the slippers a Ruby, in the original novel they were silver. Silver is related to the political issues which america was facing. Farmers wanted to have the value of the dollar at fixed ratio for silver and gold. Yellow brick road- Gold path leading to power. Wicked witch of the West - are the politicians who oppressed the farmers by supporting the free silver campaigns.

Good witch of the north - are the american people from the north and south of the country. These are those who battled against western american industries. Scare crow- symbolised the western farmers of america. Tin man- symbolised the industrial workers. The Tin Man was immobile and rusted which is the feelings the workers had as the great depression started to close down factories and businesses. Cowardly lion - is the politician William Jennings Bryan who supported the Free silver moment. some say he had a loud roar, but no power or bite. The Wizard of Oz is a journey of a young girl trying to find her way home. But the symbology behind the film is the journey and the struggle of the american people during the Great depression and the Dust Bowl.


What is the name of the work and who is the photographer? Russell Boyce – Road to WIgan pier. Describe what you can see. A black and white image of Tina, from Hull, smoking outside a second handshop with 3 children. Do you like the image? Yes, its a powerful and emotional image showing the everyday struggle. Tina is trying to make a living by selling scond hand clothing and dressing herself and her children in them. The image sends a very strong message of poverty within the UK as the economy began to stubble with the collapse of the docks in Hull. Consider the composition – where are things placed within the image? what effect does this have? The compsition of the image is ver interesting and unique. Although Tina and her children are the main focus, they are surrounded by clothing and dirt, which distracts the eye from the centre of the image and you find yourself looking all around. The compositions just another expression of Tina’s life and stubble, everything is everywhere. A mess. What is the point of view?where was the camera positioned? close up or far away? what does this imply? The positioning of the camera is quite close and within her personal space, it gives the viewer the impression that they are just walking past the shop and having a glance and Tina and her children. The image is very informal. What has been included in the image and what has been left out? The things that are included in the image are Tina, her children, second hand clothing and a cigarette. This shows all the things which would be important to Tina, her offspring and business, the two main factors which are key to her surviving and providing a living. The image does not show the docklands as the image is about Tina’s life. When interpreted it shows what effects the docklands closing down had on Hull and the economic turmoil which as forced Tina to live her life the way she is.

What type of light is present in he image? is it natural or artificial? What atmosphere / mood does this create? The image has used natural day light and is captured in black and white. This created a greater feeling of emotion. The use of black and white also helps convey Tina’s struggle. If colour was used it would be more vibrant and fun. In reality her life is dull and full of struggle. Are any relationships formed between the image and other works in the exhibition? is it part of a series? How does this effect the meaning? The image is part of a series, A journey of Tina’s every day life and the economic effects which has been created by the closing of the Docklands. Unemployment and survival. What associations does the work have for you? what does it make you thin about, how does it make you feel? What does it make you think about? The image to me generates a feeling of sadness and creates a sense of empathy for Tina. A mother and her 3 children struck by poverty due to economic struggle. Upsets me to think the government has allowed to put these people out of work by closing the docklands.


A traditional story, one concerning the early history of a people or explaining some natural A myth is a story that people tell to make sense of natural and social phenomena. It’s a way of communication, which is used to explain an event whether it is social or historical. The majority of the time a myth has lessons to be learned from, a moral meaning. Myths are sometimes alternatives answers to why things are the way they are for example, in Greek mythology bad things happen in the world due to Pandora opening the box which was full of the worlds evils. Myths are universal, every culture and civilisations have them, each telling a different story to make sense of the world. In real meaning it is a form of communication, an explanation. Myths are usually told to describe the origin and nature of the universe and may be told in conjunction with religion, social actions and values which are to be learned. The characteristics which are in myths, according to different traditions, stories that are or was, considered an explanation of the natural world and how it came to be, characters in myths are often non-human e.g. Gods/Goddesses, and super natural beings, often has interaction with different worlds or ‘realms.’, include actions which break the natural laws e.g. flying, being immortal, conveys social actions on how to live e.g. values, families, community, oneself.

Myths commonly seek to answers the questions of life, why are we here? Who are we? What is our purpose? Myths are distinctively distinguished from more common stories of folktales and legends as myths are referred to as stories from the ancient times. Myths are very metaphoric and over centuries are passed on by generations each time being told slightly differently from individual people but usually more common than not, all have the same moral meanings and guidance which help people live their life. In today’s society myths are not regarded as true as they may have been at one time in history as present society challenges the myths with science. Due to the absence of scientific information that ancient civilisations had, they instead devised myths to make sense of the world and the universe around them. Due to majority of civilisations being long distances apart each myth had different variables but some would also be very similar which taught social norms and values. Pandora’s box is an interesting myth as it gives a answers to a question, that even still, we do not know. Why do bad things happen? In the story of Pandora’s Box, which arrives from Greek mythology, it explains in a metaphoric way to why there is evil in the world such as illness and greed, etc. Myths are in essence a timeless guide on moral understanding and values to which, we as human-beings should learn from. Myths will always be passed on to the next generation and continue to teach as they have done today.


At one time the only mortals on the earth were men. Prometheus had made them, Athene had breathed life into them. The chief god Zeus did not like them.

One day Prometheus was trying to solve a quarrel that was raging between the gods and the men. At a festival the men were going to sacrifice a bull for the first time. They asked him which parts of the bull should be offered to the gods and which should be eaten by men. Prometheus decided to play a trick on Zeus. He killed the bull, skinned it and butchered it. He split it into two portions, in one he put the best, lean meat. In the second he put bones followed by a thick layer of fat. Prometheus offered both to Zeus to take his choice. Zeus looked at both portions, one looked good but was rather on the small side, the other was much larger and covered in a layer of fat which Zeus felt must cover the best, tastiest portion of meat. He chose that one. When Zeus realised that he had been tricked he was furious. He took fire away from man so that they could never cook their meat or feel warm again.

Zeus was pleased with what he saw, but he had made her as a trap. He named the woman Pandora and sent her as a gift to Epimetheus. Epimetheus had been warned by his brother Prometheus that he should never accept gifts from Zeus because there would always be a catch. Epimetheus ignored his brother's warning, fell in love with Pandora and married her. Zeus, pleased that his trap was working gave Pandora a wedding gift of a beautiful box. There was one condition however...that was that she never opened the box. For a while they were very happy. Pandora often wondered what was in the box but she was never left alone so she never opened it. Gradually over a while she began to wonder more and more what was in the box. She could not understand why someone would send her a box if she could not see what was in it. It got very important to find out what was hidden there.

Prometheus reacted immediately flying to the Isle of Lemnos where he knew the smith Hephaestus had fire. He carried a burning torch back to man. Zeus was enraged. He swore vengeance and started making an evil plan. Finally she could stand it no longer. One day when everyone was out she crept up to Zeus, set Hephaestos the task of creating a the box, took the huge key, fitted it carefully clay woman with a human voice. Hephaestos into the lock and turned it. She lifted the lid worked and worked and created a masterpiece. to peep in but before she realised it the Athene, goddess of wisdom and Zeus' daughter room was filled with terrible things: disease, liked the clay figure and she breathed life into it. despair, malice, greed, old age, death, She taught the woman how to weave and hatred, violence, cruelty and war. She clothed her. Aphrodite the goddess of love slammed the lid down and turned the key made her beautiful. The god Hermes taught her again...keeping only the spirit of hope to charm and deceive. inside.


Raoul Hausmann was a Czech born artist who was a founding member of the Berlin Dada. Hausmann was a photomonteur, painter, fashion designer, poet, and publisher. Hausmann claimed to have invented photomontage. During the Dada movement Hausmann created Photomontages along with his partner Hannah Hock. The Dada movement itself was a direct reaction to slaughter, propaganda and inanity of world war one. I Believe this image shows a lot of emotion, it is very loud and busy and in many ways a symbolism of the society of that time, a rebellion of governing structure. Hausmann himself said”…its contrast of structure and dimension, rough against smooth, aerial photograph against close-up, perspective against flat surface, the utmost technical flexibility and the most lucid formal dialectics are equally possible…The ability to manage the most striking contrasts, to the achievement of perfect states of equilibrium…ensures the medium a long and richly productive span of life…” which is from his article “Definition of Photomontage”. You can see all this in the image, each object has a different size and texture to it and the composition of the objects are abstract nothing is made to look flat, it looks slightly 3D. The contrast between the typewriter and the human body in the background are very different which is what the Hausmann was trying to achieve. All in all the image is very surreal everything in the image is a statement, a rebellion, objects are oddly placed and not what they seem to be, it’s a statement to society which fundamentally is the foundation of the Dada movement.


My name is Ajay Kumar a photographer from Leeds, West Yorkshire. I am a first year student at Leeds Metropolitan University studying Photographic Journalism. I have had a major interest in photography since beginning to study the subject at my sixth form college in 2009. Since then i have different experiences within the field.I took a gap year out and decided to focus on work and employment and in my spare time try make a quick buck or two in photography. During this time i tried wedding photography and got paid for it too! Im still trying to find myself as a photographer and find a niche which i like, but i have yet to discover this.

When it comes to photographic journalism i like to pay attention to detail, think about what I'm doing and be a perfectionist.


AjayKumarPhotography.Wordpress.Com Www.Flickr.Com/Ajay_Kumar_photography


Photographic Journalism