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IZMIR INSTITUTE of TECHNOLOGY

CP401 URBAN DESIGN

GUZELBAHCE YALI DISTRICT

DESIGN GUIDELINE

AHMET COKELEK CEM DEMIR EYUP CAGDAS SAKALLI EYUP GOKHAN CIFTCI MERVE DADAS


index

PUBLIC SPACE WATERFRONT

PROMENADE PIERS, PORTS and DECKS

5

SQUARES and PUBLIC GREEN PUBLIC SPACE INTERFACE

16

SIDEWALKS

35

STREET TYPES

42

INTERSECTIONS PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION CYCLE FACILITIES

51

TRANSITION BETWEEN PUBLIC and PRIVATE TRANSITION BETWEEN PUBLIC and SEMI-PUBLIC

MOVEMENT FREEWAYS AVENUES LOCAL STREETS

29

58 60


public space

public space

PUBLIC SPACE


public space

public space

4

Open spaces are main activity elements of urban environments. Organizing all open space activities is related to other activity and users. Integrating these activity elements results in increasing contiunity and viability of public realm. New public parks, promenades, streetscape improvements and privately owned parkettes should be combined to form a coherent, publicly accessible pedestrian and bicycle green space system. Improved pedestrian and visual connections from the inner parts and MithatpaĹ&#x;a Street to the waterfront is the most important issue in GĂźzelbahçe.


public space

waterfront 5

WATERFRONT


public space

waterfront

6

WATERFRONT As a public space seafront is the most important part of the Yal覺 District. Intensive public use should be concentrated along important marks relevant to town planning along a connecting esplanade.

objectives of waterfront Provide a wiev onto the sea and a barrier-free access to the beach. Interspersed functions and themes along the continious coastline. Invite users to stay and offers various spaces for different activities such as fishing, swimming etc. Transform waterfront as an inviting, user friendly environment, oriented towards nature and leisure. Design in order or demolish building masses on the coastline to provide visual, barrier free access. Provide the large expanse of the coastline and make better use of the waterfront, some parts of the waterfront could be carry over the decks. Public activities, transportation, commercial use and fish production located over the sea.


public space/waterfront

promenade PROMENADE

7

objectives of promenade Recalling the rustic charecter of old Gßzelbahçe with direct access and convenient movement areas along the coastline. Ensure maximum human comfort, use and enjoyment on the promenade.

design features of promenade Consider opportunities for special paving, street trees, pedestrian scaled lighting, weather protection, public art, clocks, information signage and well-designed street furniture. Sustainable and drought resistant landscape elements should be provided with variation to improve disease tolerance and reduce urban heat effect. Coordinate spacing and height of luminaries with landscaping to Encourage white lights to improve visibility and discourage lights which distort colour. Promenade furnishings should not obstruct the sidewalk. Promenade furnishings should be carefully located relative to other features such as trees, landscaping, adjacent land uses, and signs. Promenade lighting should be design to reduce and minimize light pollution and glare. Provide uniform lighting without sudden light to dark transitions. Ensure lighting coverage is not interrupted by trees or canopies.


public space/waterfront 8

lighting application in overall promenade

When lighting elements are located interruption by trees or canopies considered correctly.

application of seats in overall promenade Sitting benches and other functions are located in amenity spaces.Between 2 entry points, minimum 10% of total floor area must be designed as a sitting bench space. In points of entry areas, different functional units and bicycle wrecks located.

promenade


public space/waterfront

promenade 9

general dimension of promenade The width of the coastline could be change in someparts so dimensions given by “k� rate.

2k

amenity space

k

cycle lane

4k

amenity space

3k

walkway


public space/waterfront 10

Waterfront and promenade should be examined under 5 regions

promenade


public space/waterfront

promenade 11

Promenade connect with activity decks. (fishing, swimming...) Promenade act as a amenity space. Kiosks and playgrounds are located for people that use there for amenity or sightseeing. region 1 Standart promenade section and materials are applied.

Promenade connect with transportation pier. Promenade act as a square with different amenity spaces and pavement. Kiosks are located for people that use transportation pier. Pavement should be hard floor material to walk easily. region 2 Promenade connect with old fishing port. Promenade and old fishing port act as a gathering space, square and amenity space. Kiosk and playgrounds are located. Pavement should be hard and soft floor material. region 3 Promenade connect with new fishing port. Promenade act as a commercial space and eating space. Eating facilities and fish stores are located. Pavement should be hard and soft floor material. region 4

region 5

Promenade connect with activity decks. (fishing, swimming...) Promenade act as a amenity space. Kiosks and playgrounds are located for people that use there for amenity or sightseeing. Standart promenade section an materials are applied.


public space/waterfront

piers,ports and decks

12

PIERS, PORTS and DECKS

objectives Create piers and decks to provide continiuety and more public use. Avoid from non-accessible waterfront. Provide direct access to the sea and facilities on it. features The piers and decks should be located homogeneously along the waterfront and categorized simply such as transportation, yatching, fishing, swimming or commercial. Lighting, special paving, pedestrian scale of the components, weather protection and well-design urban furnitures should be considered.


public space/waterfront

piers,ports and decks 13

In region 1 and 5 Swimming and fishing decks should be located in the region 2 and 5. Fishing and swimming decks must be seperated. Swimming decks must be circled with pontooms. Fishing and swimming decks must be located 15 meters away between each other. Swimming decks must have a servant space such as shower, changing room, toilets in amenity zone. Fishermens need large space to prepare their tools. Fishing decks must be wide enough for not to disturb other people. Urban furnitures must be provided for fishermens. Up to density more than one swimming deck could be located.


public space/waterfront

piers,ports and decks

14

In region 2 Transportation pier should be located on the region 1. Transportation pier should locate the coastline without any other function on it. Provide people to move around and reach it easily on foot and by bicycle. This alternative transportation encourage people to use it with its easy accessibility and visibility.


public space/waterfront

piers,ports and decks 15

In region 3 Old fishing port should be transformed to gathering space and amenity zone. Activities such as street performance, sight seeing, playgrounds could be located. Connectedness with sea and coast must be provided. Maximum human freedom, comfort must be provided. Only for public use. None of commrcial place or units could be located. Fishing or swimming shouldnt be allowed. Some urban furnitures should be located.


public space 16

squares and public green

SQUARES and PUBLIC GREEN objectives Provide variations and achieve a level of hierarchy of public open spaces. Surmount the linear open space system to achieve a quality of public space system. Design open spaces as functioning parts of a network of pedestrian routes, providing for the needs of all users including disabled and elderly people. Public open - spaces should be integrated with surrounding land uses. design features In Yal覺 district, a linear open-space system exists. However, a system and hierarchy of open-spaces should be developed. The waterfront is taken as main public space for Yal覺. A system of open spaces with pedestrian connections should take the waterfront in the first place. Providing vertical connections will help to surmount the linearity of the open space system.


public space

squares and public green 17

The existing open-spaces should be linked together by improving pedestrian and cycling connections between. The connections should be designed as the extensions of open spaces. They should be differentiated from the sample local street structure. (see Sidewalk section) The canals which are useless as greenery at present, must be transformed into major urban green and used as recreational amenities. Also, new public spaces should be seeked in the void areas to strenghten the public space system with additions of micro-open spaces.

Potential or existing open spaces should be categorized in order to achieve a level of hierarchy. Public open spaces in Yal覺 may be characterized as firstly; Squares and gathering spaces (mainly hard surfaces) and public green & parks. (mainly soft surfaces and greenery)


public space

squares and public green

18

Before moving on defining the public space types, first we should define the characteristics of a space according to human activities: As walking and movement activities; Pass through, meandering, wandering and with attraction spaces. From left to right, the length of stay and the popularity of the place increase.*1 Staying and activity based activities such as gathering, relaxing, playing or just spontaneous socializing. Yal覺 District may have all types of open spaces, but spaces with attractions should be encourgaed.

*1.The conceptions are originated from: Public Open Space in Private Developments Design and Management Guidelines, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.


public space

squares and minor gathering spaces 19

Squares and minor gathering spaces Gathering spaces and major public open spaces contains a level of central functions according to their hierarchy level. They contain the most of the functions above. Square has the function of gathering, wandering, meandering, socializing activities with attraction. Minor gathering spaces are mostly hard surfaced open spaces including the functions of gathering, meandering, socializing, pass-through with attractions. features Locate the square centrally located on the waterfront, connecting and intersecting the activities of all public spaces The minor gathering spaces, square or the paths leading to them should be connected to and visible from the street, so that pedestrians will be encouraged to explore.

Ensure that potential crowd generator proposals (like transportation pier) are supported by large-scale gathering spaces. Permeability of the spaces should be provided.

Tranportation pier as a crowd gereator


public space

squares and minor gathering spaces

20

features Squares and minor gathering spaces should be surrounded by commercial land uses. At least 1 side of a square should include ground floor commercial activity. Moveable kiosks also can be applied on the open spaces, providing not to obstacle pedestrian flow.

features Ensure that squares have no strictly defined borders. They should be integrated with surrounding elements.

(X)

(suggested)


public space

squares and minor gathering spaces 21

application Potential gathering spaces on the waterfront should have 1 sides completely open to the sea. The 2 sides on promenade, should be enclosed by variety of architectural elements like commercial frontage buildings, kiosks, greenery, lighting and furnishing elements. The minor gathering space must provide direct and clear access to Mithatpasa Avenue. The side on the avenue must have no obstacles to prevent pedestrian flow.


public space

major and minor gathering spaces

22

*2

Major and minor public green Urban greenery areas include minor parks, playfields, playgrounds and a variety of other green-based soft surface spaces. In Yal覺, public green is to be seperated minor and major public green areas.

*3

Minor public green areas are local parks and playgrounds which pass-through, meandering, playing or relaxing activities are dominant. They do not contain city-scale attractions. However they might be used for local and street scale social activities. Major public green corridors are to be created on the canal banks, providing a vertical movement and recreational amenity for the city. Pedestrian and cycling routes must be contained in this green corridors, haul people to and from the seafront. Also, adequate irrigation arrangements need to be provided, in these corridors. In major green, wandering, relaxing, playing, socializing activities are included.

*2.The images used and conceptions originated from: Morden Design Guidelines, Hilderman Thomas Frank Cram Landscape Architecture Planning, November 2005. *3.The image used from: http://www.lakecushmanmc.com/amenity.asp?id=1


public space

major and minor gathering spaces 23

Design features and application for all gathering spaces and public green *4 Use Radius of attraction Collective activities of walk- Visitors from outside, ing and gathering local residents of GüzelSocializing bahçe

Amenities Extensive hard surface Kiosks, focal attraction points Passive recreation Squares Seating Extensive lighting to attract at nights Individual or collective ac- Local residents, visitors Extensive hard surface Minor tivities of walking and gath- from outside, as well Various seating gathering as from the immediate Commercial frontage when necering Occasionally with small neighborhood. essary spaces scale programmed events Individual activities of walk- Visitors from outside, Cycle and footpath routes ing and relaxing local residents of Güzel- Extensive greenery Major Leisure, relaxation and a bahçe Leisure, sport facilities public breathing space Combination of refreshment kigreen osks as well as seating, tables, trees, etc.

*4.The conceptions are originated from: Public Open Space in Private Developments Design and Management Guidelines, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.


public space

major and minor gathering spaces

24

features Create open spaces well overlooked to avoid producing places where people feel unsafe.

application Contain open space along a minimum percentage of its perimeter by building and/or architectural features as follows: Open Space Type

Minimum Containment

Squares

2 sides if possible

Minor gathering spaces

2 sides

Major public green

none

Minor public green

1 sides if possible


public space

major and minor gathering spaces 25

application Existing square & gathering spaces that has streets on 4 sides with carriageways should be modified as application guidelines above refers. The carriageway between closest adjacent block and the park should be modified as pedestrian path, and merged with the area.


public space

major and minor gathering spaces

26

application Points of entries should be oriented according to pedestrian and cycling routes. Provide clear and direct gateways to cycle paths and walkways. Gateways which force people to extend their routes are not preferred.

Provide landscaping, seating and lighting in each open space type as Open Space Type Mininmum GreenCoverage Squares 10% Minor gathering 20% sp. Major public 70% green Minor public 50% green

Preferred Green Coverage 25% 30%

Minimum Seating 1 seat per 40 sqm 1 seat per 40 sqm

80%

1 seat per 150 100 sqm sqm 1 seat per 40 sqm 20 sqm

70%

Preffered Seating 30 sqm 30 sqm

Lighting Intensive Intensive Scattered Normal


public space

major and minor gathering spaces 27

Use vegetation to create quiet spaces. Provide shade from the south summer sun with deciduous trees Screen northwest and south prevailing winter winds with mixed deciduous and coniferous trees to make the spaces more comfortable in the fall, winter and spring. Screen undesirable views with coniferous trees such as spruce.*5

Provide pedestrian-scale lighting that complements the surrounding built and natural environment. When determining the proper level of illumination for a gathering space or public green, it is important to consider the quality of light versus the quantity of light. The lighting should be subtle and avoid overlighting while being bright enough to provide security and make the areas attractive for evening use. Consider a variety of lighting types, including footlighting, indirect lighting (wall washing), and overhead lamps.

*5.The images used and conceptions originated from: Morden Design Guidelines, Hilderman Thomas Frank Cram Landscape Architecture Planning, November 2005.


public space

major and minor gathering spaces

28

application The position or orientation of the seating at various locations determines the view. It is ideal to have views without any blockage. Seating should be placed with consideration to noontime sun and shade; deciduous trees should be planted as the most effective means of providing comfortable access to sun and shade.

application Moveable tables and chairs could provide flexibility; linear benches or ledges and circular benches could achieve different design effects; and a combination of varied forms allow people to define their own social seating. Seek for possibilities for creating of a square or public green space if two of the following functions exist in an area of 400 meters perimeter. School, religious buildings, marketplace, banks, malls or concentrated shopping areas. Local parks shouldn’t be smaller than 200 sqm area. There is no limitation of area on other open-spaces.


public space interface

transition between private and public

PUBLIC SPACE INTERFACE

29

TRANSITION BETWEEN PRIVATE and PUBLIC Strong relationship between public space and private space should be established by streets, so that visibility and integration from private space to public space should be more permeable. Also public space and private space clearly be separated from each other by incorporation between setbacks, walls & fences, and entrances.

Gated sites should encourage courtyards, providing common gardens or other uses. Instead of having a single common courtyard, it must be provided multiple common courtyards or gardens. This will improve the quality of intersection between the street and the residents, while providing privacy for residents.

Existing (single courtyard) close to street

Suggested (courtyards and gardens) interaction with street


public space interface

transition between private and public

30

Detached houses and gated sites must provide gates n walls or fences over 20 meters in length between public streets or open spaces and public or semi-public areas.

These walls or fences should be no more than 140 cm height.

Detached houses, which will be build should provide the setback of the new residential buildings from the street should be equal to the average of the two adjacent buildings


public space interface

transition between private and public

31

Apartment blocks with a little or no front yard should include creative use of landscaping, or window placement and treatment to provide privacy. Recessed entries can be used to provide security and/or weather protection. *1

Parks should face the balconies of surrounding sites or apartment blocks to provide fell of safe for both children and parents. It will help to convert the deserted parks into living parks.

*1.Design Review: Guidelines for Multifamily and Commercial Buildings ‘october1993-november1998’


public space interface

32

transition between private and public

TRANSITION BETWEEN PUBLIC and SEMI-PUBLIC Public and semi-public transition is another issue to deal with in YalÄą District. Especially seafront part should be considered with a great care. Mixed used buildings are approached as a subject of public-semi-public space and analysed in terms of setbacks, sidewalks and amenities.

At the ground floor level, any setback zone shall be treated as an extension of the public realm, to provide additional outdoor space, allow for at-grade uses to expand outdoors, and to encourage street animation.

The walkways in the sea front must provide full access to pedestrians. Seats of a commercial use shouldn’t interrupt the pedestrian flow but create an interaction.


public space interface

transition between private and public

33

Ground floors for retail commercial uses shall be universally accessible, articulated to respond to human scale and provide good visual connection between interior spaces and the public realm.

For mixed-use buildings with residential units over commercial ground floor uses, consider locating the primary residential entry on the side street rather than in the main commercial area. This maintains a continuous commercial storefront while increasing privacy for the residential units.*2

Entrances

Strofronts

*2.Design Review: Guidelines for Multifamily and Commercial Buildings ‘october1993-november1998’


public space interface

transition between private and public

34

Retail commercial uses in mixed used development will require a minimum ground floor height of 4.5 metres.

Possible public-semi public-private transition


public space

sidewalks

35

SIDEWALKS

Sidewalk is the most important element which connect movement and public space each other. Sidewalks are examined in two parts.First part is the sidewalks which connect public greens. The other part is general sidewalks. objectives Provide a continuous passage between public greens.


public space

sidewalks

36

to provide a continuous passage; The pavements are both same on sidewalks and on the ground of the public greens. Planting applied on sidewalks. The special cyclings areas must be applied both on sidewalks and public greens.


public space

sidewalks

37

Provide street trees at appropriate intervals to produce a desirable shade canopy for the sidewalk and visually narrow the street from the motorist’s perspective Canopy should be applied to create continuity and resting plave for pedestrians.

A minimum sidewalk width should be designed to be free of obstacles for safe passage by two wheelchairs. Sidewalk ramps and reasonable sidewalk grades for wheelchair accessibility should be incorporated into the design. The special pavement materials should be applied for the blind people.


public space

sidewalks

38

The second part is general sidewalks which except from the connective green sidewalks. objectives Create a safe, comfortable, and attractive pedestrian environment

Pedestrian safety and comfort are related to the width of the sidewalk, the amount of buffering from traffic, illumination, and amount of pedestrian activity.

Sidewalk paving should be continuous from the street curb to the property line, interrupted only by tree planting spaces and street furniture.


public space

sidewalks

39

The interface between building facades and the sidewalk also contributes to the pedestrian environment. The width of new sidewalks should be appropriate to the level and type of pedestrian traffic the sidewalk is expected to accommodate.

application

In carriageways vehicular way’s width should be more than 2,5 meter and a verge space should be located for trees. If there is on parking on street, İt should be divided by green verge part. If any local road has less than 6,5 meters width, no sidewalk will be applied. The road itself will be paving stone. Sidewalk paving should be continuous from the street curb to the property line, interrupted only by tree planting spaces and street furniture. Safety elements must be applied to the corner points to define pedestrian paths.


40

MOVEMENT


movement

movement

41

The movement design of Yal覺 neighborhood must provide direct, attractive connection between facilities to create more convenient and comfortable places. Every kind of movement activity is defined in comprehensive integrity and at the same time, the boundaries between them are clearly distinguished. Purpose of integrity is to maximize choices in how people move around means creating routes all of which are felt to be safe. The routes are not segregated for people on foot or cycles, not disturb the movement integrity. The streets should be designed for integral use, that pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles can mix safely. On the other hand, streets should be legible for users; direct and assist the users in finding their way around. The movement corridors also should be clearly understandable on their purpose. The characters of streets should be legible for users to adjust their behaviours. A walkable neighborhood. The aim should be to discourage the use of the car for local trips and to encourage walking and cycling between homes and the facilities residents need to visit regularly. Support walkability through sensitive design of the site, integrated with public spaces. People should be able to walk to the seafront easily and comfortably, since the scale of the neighborhood is suitable for the purpose. A clearly defined pedestrian realm that is identified separately from vehicular traffic areas; such as easily navigated, barrier-free sidewalks, open spaces, walkways and well-marked crosswalks. Continuous footpaths are essential for pedestrian and vehicular dominated streets.


42

STREET TYPES The purpose of street types is to achive fallowing: Safe Streets that passively manage vehicular behaviour through a holistic design approach and ‘shared space’ philosophy. Accessible Streets with a focus on the free movement of vulnerable users such as cyclists and pedestrians. Attractive Streets that enhance the areas sense of place and people’s enjoyment of the urban environment. Legible Streets that direct and assists the most casual of users in finding their way around. Effective Streets where materials, finishes and street furniture are rationally and strategically applied.

Freeways Avenues Local Streets Rural Roads


movement/street types

freeways

FREEWAY

43

These are the main routes for vehicle dominant movement. They should be designed to move large numbers of vehicles from one part of the city to another. Therefore, maintaining vehicular movement is a higher priority than avenues but pedestrians should still provided for in the design. Objectives of Freeway Reduce traffic congestion Reduce dangerous effects of high speed Minimising noise and air pollution Provide safety for pedestrians with disabilities Design Features of Freeway To minimise their negative effects on the area through which they pass apply setback to the adjacent land uses To allow their safe, pleasant and convenient use by pedestrians To reduce traffic congestion coused by public transportation ,provide bus pocket To provide safety for pedestrians passage highlight passage To reduce traffic congestion coused by interchanges use traffic signage To reduce reflection coused by spoiler use dwarf trees on the medians To reduce dangereous effects of high speed traffic on pedestrians Application of Freeway


movement/street types

freeways

44

Site Perspectives Provide direct access to public transport for pedestrians Use vehicular scale lighting

Freeway Zones

Sidewalk

Amenity

-pedestrian movement-traffic signage -bus stop -trees -utilities -street furniture -lighting

Parking

Bicycle Travel

Median

-no parking -no -movement of vehicles -restrict turn movebicycle ment -trees -refuge for pedestrian -the lighting


movement/street types

avenues

AVENUES

45

Avenues serve an important function in providing transportation choices, because they are designed to provide a balance of service for all modes of transport. They include high-quality pedestrian access, high levels of transit accessibility, and bicycle accommodations such as bike lanes, yet they also may carry highvolumes of traffic. They are the principle means of access and circulation. They are also important areas of convergence where shopping and commercial uses are located and where public transport is accessed. of service for all modes of transport. Objectives of Avenues

Optimize the commercial activity Reduce design speed of the vehicular traffic Provide safety for pedestrians and cyclist Emphaseize on pedestrian scale Reduce traffic congestion Reduce noise and air pollution Make walking joyful Emphaseize on disabilities Design Features of Avenues

To reduce design speed of the vehicular traffic apply traffic calming To optimize the commercial activity increase parking lots Maximise footway width for pedestrians, trees and street furniture. use trees to reduce noise and air pollution To provide safety for pedestrians and cyclists use build outs on pedestrian crossings use same material with sidewalk for pedestrian crossing put cyclist signage on road lane To emphasis on pedestrian scale use short lighting reduce street width To reduce traffic congestion create public transporatation pockets put traffic signage


movement/street types

avenues

46

To reduce noise and air pollution seperate vehicular and pedestrian traffic by trees and car lots To make walking joyful use trees, amenities, street furnishing To emphasis on disabilities use ramps on pedestrian crossings use pavement materials for blinds Application of Avenues

Plan of Avenues

put bicycle parking on bus stops use human scale lighting

Site perspectives


movement/street types

avenues

47

Avenue Zones

Sidewalk

Amenity

-pedestrian movement -traffic signage -business interface -bus stop -signage -trees -utilities -street furniture -clear zone for parked cars -commercial units -bicycle parking -lighting

Parking

Bicycle Travel

Median

-sharrow -movement of vehicles -no median -on street parking lane -bulb outs -(no parking on bus tops)


movement/street types

local streets

48

LOCAL STREETS Local streets provide access to small groups of residential dwellings, service access to commercial development and mid block links. They carry low levels of all types of traffic. Objectives of Local Streets Highlight the pedestrian dominancy Emphasis on pedestrian scale Reduce design speed of the carriageway Make walking joyful Provide safe and comfortable access for people with disabilities Design Features of Local Streets To highlight the pedestrian dominancy apply same material with sidewalk material to the carriageway don’t seperate the sidewalk from carriageway To emphasis on the pedestrian scale use short lighting and plant materials To reduce design speed of the carriageway use carparking lots use street furnitures To make walking joyful use trees as canopies with street furniture To provide accessibility for disabilities don’t make height differences on street


movement/street types

local streets

49

Application of Local streets

Plan of Local Streets

Perspective of Local Streets


movement/street types

local streets

50

Local Streets Zones

Sidewalk

Amenity

-pedestrian movementstreet furnishing trees utilities trafic signature bicycle parking lighting

Parking

Bicycle Travel

Median

-on street -sharrow -movement of vehicles -no median parking lane -bulb outs -(for narrower streets trees bicycle parking)


movement

intersections

51

INTERSECTIONS Intersections are the most important issue that effects the traffic contidion and safety.Because street types has different character like design speed,right of way and scale so that before designing these intersection we have to consider some issues like :pedestrian access, bike lane crossing, handicapped accesibility, traffic signage and mobility. Objectives of Intersection

Emphasis on pedestrian safety Reduce traffic congestion that sourced by wrong settlement of street elements(parking ,bus stop) Care about hierarchy of road Provide access for disabilities Highlight the bike crossing Provide fluent traffic on carriageway

Freeways Avenues Local Streets Rural Roads


movement/intersections

avenues and freeways

52

INTERSECTION BETWEEN AVENUE AND FREEWAY Objcetives of Intersecion Between Avenue and Freeway Provide safety for pedestrians with disabilities Provide access for bicyles Provide fluent and safe traffic on carriageway Design Features of Intersecion Between Avenue and Freeway To provide safety for pedestrians with disabilities (highlight pedestrian crossing) divide pedestrian crossing from bcycle crossing use traffic signage to reduce traffic speed use same material with sidewalk use ramps on crossing point use overbridges or underpass if it is necessary To provide fluent traffic on carriageway manage traffic condition with traffic signage remove on parking layout before intersection remove bus stops before intersection To provide access for bicycles divide and highlight the cyclist lane from pedestrians and cariiageway


movement/intersections

avenues and freeways

53

Application of Intersecion Between Avenue and Freeway

Minimum Pedestrian crossing is 3 meters Minimum bicycle crossing is 1.5 meters Maximum slope of the handicapped ramps is %10 Maximum approach distance of car parking and bus stop is 20 meters from intersections Dont use trees on intersection for farsight of cars


movement/intersections

local streets and freeways

54

INTERSECTION BETWEEN LOCAL STREET AND FREEWAY Design speed of these street tpes is uncompetible to intersect Objectives of Intersection Between Local Street and Freeway Reduce traffic congestion Provide savety on carriageway Move away freeway from residential areas

Design Features of Intersection Between Local Street and Freeway To provide traffic congestion reduce intersection between freeway and local streets To provide savety on carriageway add collectors on locals streets intersection To move away freeway from residential areas use collectors as an buffert


movement/intersections

local streets and freeways

55

Application Of Intersection Between Local Street and Freeway

Local streets should not seperate the freeway directly because design speed of the freeway is not competibe with local street and frequently intersection may create traffic congestion in addition negative effects of freeway (noise an air pollution) may directly effect residetial areas.So that after linking local streets to the collectors traffic congestion and negative effects of freeway could be reduced.

existing

suggested


movement/intersections

avenues and local streets

56

INTERSECTION BETWEEN AVENUE AND LOCAL STREET These intersections covers the linkage between residetial areas to commercial areas so that pedestrian(handicapped) and cyclist movement is most importan thing that must be cared for

Objectives of Intersection Between Avenue and Local Street Highlight pedestrian dominacy Avoid street elements that result in traffic congestion(bus stop,car parking, Provide access for hadicapped Provide safety for pedestrians and cyclist

Design Features of Intersection Between Avenue and Local Street To highlight pedestrian dominancy apply same material with sidewalk apply traffic calming on local street entrance To avoid street elements that results in traffic congestion move away bus stop and car parking from intersection To provide access for handicapped, use ramps To provide safety for pedestrians and cyclist seperate bike and cycle crossing from each other To avoid street intersection that results in traffic congestion reduce frequent intersection.


movement/intersections

avenues and local streets

57

Application of Intersection Between Avenue and Local Street

Minimum Pedestrian crossing is 3 meters Minimum bicycle crossing is 1.5 meters Maximum slope of the handicapped ramps is %10 Maximum approach distance of car parking and bus stop is 20 meters from intersections

existing In Mithatpasa avenue ,frequenly intersection local streets creates traffic congestion and make vehicular movement unsafety for pedestrians and cyclists so that some local streets entrance must be closed.In addition they can be benefitial for commercial activity by using these local streets as on street parking areas like cul-de-sacs. suggested


movement

public transport

58

PUBLIC TRANSPORT The layout requires the approach to the bus stop to be kept permanently clear of parked vehicles. The carriage way of a bus route shouldn’t be less then 6 meters wide. At each bus stop, the width of the footway would need to increased locally to achieve the appropriate dimension. Bus shelters should be provided where appropriate but always where the stop is intended to be pick up point rather than purely a dropping point. Bus stops shouldnt be impeded by adjacent street furniture such as dispensers, vending machines, waste boxes, planters, posts signs, guide wires and bike wrecks. Bus shelters should be visible to pedestrians, incorporate clear signage, and be well lighted. They should be made of finished, durable materials with unbreakable transparent side walls.


movement

public transport

59

Bus stop locations


movement

cycle facilities

60

CYCLE FACILITIES

objectives Ensure bicycle routes are direct, continuous and well lit, and that appropriate street crossings are provided. Provide safety of cycle facilities, avoid any dangerous conflicts for bicyclists.

features On freeways, no bicycle lanes are provided. On avenues, bicycle lanes are seperated from pedestrian and carriageways. In local streets, no seperate cycle lanes are provided. The carriageways are assigned for both cars and bicycles. (see. Street Types) Provide bicycle parking along all routes on development sites and at major transit facilities.

Street Types Freeways Avenues Local Streets

Bicycle Accomodation Shared lines or on parallel route Seperated bicycle lane Mixed & shared lines (Sharrows)


movement

cycle facilities

61

application If separate cycle paths are provided indicate them with street markings or by clearly displayed and well-designed signage. On local streets, sharrows (in-lane pavement markings) must be implemented. Sharrows let motorists know to expect bicyclists on the street, and remind them to give bicyclists adequate room when passing. Sharrows also show bicyclists where to ride in the lane and remind them not to ride too close to parked cars. The parking lane should be defined by a solid painted line to ensure an orderly alignment of cars when adjacent to a bicycle facility.

Provide bicycle facilities without gaps to special destinations such as schools, parks and commercial areas. Where there is adequate room within the intersection to continue a bicycle facility use consistent markings through intersection, i.e. if sharrow used on roadway, then sharrow should be continued across intersection


Design guideline 26 10 2012