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‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫‪Signals in communications‬‬

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‫‪/0‬ــــم ﺱ ‪,‬ـــــــن ذـــــب‬ ‫‪23  4,‬ل ‪50‬م ا ‪6‬ﺱت‬

‫  ااع  دار ا  وا  ا ا  اد ‪٢٠١١ "# ٢١٩٨‬‬ ‫‪١‬‬ ‫‪Email: issam_art4@yahoo.com‬‬


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2<  -; 5Analog Signal)(mmm !/  -;     -      > /   / Continous . ' !  < -; " ] ....... "   "  < # 2   !,   ("    Discrete . '    - $  2        2<   ?/ , # 2   !, 7 , < -  !/  -; :  ,  Analog to Digital Converter !/  -; '  5 SamplingS1    2   -; 2 8" 2# " 2 QuantizationS2  @ !, Quantization Levels    %, ./?/ "   # #  (  8Quantize  1 "0 5 Digits   ,  - '3 "DigitizationS3 7 , !/ -  < -  # Digital to Analog converter +   Â&#x2020;- - 2< ,   5(Analog Signal)m !/  -;     # :5 +3    +   /  ] ŮĄŮĄ


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2< ,   2   (sampling)   .  $ ?(    2H D $ (binary codes) &/ 2<"   (quantization) - (modulation) /  7  ,  %C$ *   - /  Digital< Digital language ) ,- E5 S  ,H - 2< ,   5 (Digital Signal)< -;  /  <  +  O  :3   /  A3  ,9 Â&#x2021; 2 (   #5  ;       Â&#x2020;1  # # $ Â&#x201D;SÂ&#x201C;   ,9 !, !     9 Analog signal ,   - 65 .1!  - " ! Analog image    Â&#x2013;   *6&#   6$ +  @"    6   1 -C$ . 5  # 2 6  5  " 7  F *   +  - 65 Bick up tube # ' * % # 2 ( #    8  ' -  % ; analog signals ,   - 65  1 - 2  

7 , 5 2  Digital signals . < - 6 ! # :   F  *       !! 6 - ! <    !! 6 2 6 ! 2  #  . 8(9 ŮĄŮŁ


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.1!  1 '   #; - 6&/  2   , 6 ! ! #  " '  5 $ . . ' " On/Off     6&# & 7 ,  @,?  &/ 2<" Switches. 65 bit  6 ( "Â&#x201C;" " "R" ) 8" Individual signal &. - ٥٤


  # " ' Binary digit , &/ 2<9 6$   +" 6/ E5   " bytes" 6  eight bits . 6/  !#   # ." ' 1! ( < TÂ&#x;  45 Eight bits ,  * < >1 6$ <9 6!, Eight bits ,  6/  # % F parallel transmission . G.   6  5 ) 0 10   0 2 34 analog wave   - #-  " M!(" " ' " #5 6&. 7 , 2  digital signal , < - 6 form signal    * / 6$   , analog signal   -sampling " sampling rata"6&.    6!, <  1 - , : G  61$ . " / 6$  ! RT  /#" 5 6&.    " C$ , < !# 6 2  " @ 5  8  C$ - J.  # < !# # . ! #  bit digital word ÂĄ  ÂĄ  #  * TÂ&#x;     brightness level  8  < ,  E5 6$

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The forms of digital video signals: ) 35 0  

:<  1 - #-"  !#- 45 Composite

digital

signal< # - S"

 ! Color information , ! ! 3 65 6$ F  !/  . brightness or luminance information 2  4 Composite analog signal . #    1 -

. #   -   # < - 6!,  Component digital signal< !1 - S@ ! , Color information ! !  # 1 $ !! 45 # " @ 4luminance information ,   # * 9 ! Separate series of bits   !1 *9 ! @! sampling rate 6&.    # " # luminance   @!  6&.     <" Component . : 1) 3  >? 35 0   5  D " !, < - '    !, D  6  analog    1 - ( ! 1# 2/    1# 6$ the analog to digital converter .  6 video signal  65 digital signal , < - 6 ! 2   ( ŮĄŮŚ


6&- F #   % :< # 8 -   frame store  # .( #-random access memory RAM 7 ,  1 - # 2    A # E5network . " reading "out put , : ! :< , * @  + .# 6$ " in put " writing  #  6 8("  ( " #  !  2 6  - E5 6 G("  ! 2  the analog to digital converter , 6#, *  $ - 6!, ! #   analog signal ,   -

.: !,  "  5-   A ! 2/  @,?  .(  < - 6   -    .  - 6 G("  < - &$ S@ Advantages digital signal analog   -    6$  5 # 2  D - 6 G("    2/ digital signal < - 6 signal analog signal .   analog signalSSSSSSSSSSS digital signalSSSSSSSSSanalog signal : 5   6   &1 " ;" D " @ ١٧


digital < -    " E- "   O  : ;" $ 2   #$ analog signal .   - 6$ F  #signal , 6!, $3noise _-  # .   -   ,

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 #    1 @,?     # < - : //   C$ analog signal .   - 2 (      " #  digital video effects DVE units <  1 /L 2!1   ; 51 # ; @< < 6 # *  $ /L Â&#x2013;  Optical printerG '  = 6&  > 6  m(t) - signal modulation -     b \  -   s(t) -  modulating V  -   7$   #  .  & #  modulated .V  -0 ) 2 \  -0 . 2  $ analog modulation 6!/    

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     N <?  6!/      

:<? $ carrier 

! -  5 f0 F ' !

 " A   + !,    !, 2 

.(RS #-) s(t) - !, 4  m(t)    linear modulation 6 (    R  - 6$ 4 N  (  ?   "  ( ?   # :65 2 ( ; &- " 6 (     ,   .-  amplitude modualtion (AM) 6      " : -      5 

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N / T #-  -  *Ac   ! -  # !, ; 6$  6  .  \  - *(V ) m(t)  , . .baseband  , . - envelope $?O '  . &/ H E5     D  - D 9 double-side band with carrier (DSB) .(U #-) ! N $3 !, 8("   .  #  \  .

5 \  - . I, C$ 2¤/ 

: []6, F  " 6$ /#      5 2 (  .!  "   "  Â&#x2122;9 double-side band    . 6&/     @ suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC) . : !,    ."  F     " " 5 -    .G    6$  , . - D    :<? Y 

.BW=2fm <? N 3" 5 Y  - . I,   ٢٢


2 6  3 : /  !, E5     2 (   .stereophonic single-side band modulation  . G "     Â&#x2122; (SSB) - D 6$    . 8  D !,   G 65 .BW=fm A \  - . I, C$ 2¤/  *! . . I, F  N   < /#9    

G   multiplexing 3   >" E5       .5O  # ; ; D  6$  (  vestigial-side band . (  .     modulation ٢٣


SSB  . G "     N  ? N    E5   !, "    .DSB-SC     . 6&/    !# %- 6/    ,       . 8  

*(0<K<1 F) Kfm E  8(9 .  . ( :.  N $3

.BW=(1+K)fm 0 2.? . I, #$ ..1!   1 -  6$ ? N /   E5 2 ( W  angle modulation G b .    T   - D    . : N " 5    

.  - !, ! *(  ) fc     :3

:    $ ' :6)   

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phase modulation (PM) G      " :<? D *G.    " "  G     

- , # 2¤/  .rd/volt $/  %  kp F :N  \ 

frequency modulation (FM) G       @ 6$ +  m(t) X  - +     5 6$ 2  # .  6  3 .  -0 Fi(t) 6)   :    , 6 (  

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- , # 2¤/  .Hz/volt $/. 5 %  Kf F :N   \ 

(Â&#x2122;) N    (@) N    - , ; N / Â&#x2021; #-  .(") 6$   m(t) -0

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G   G     6  6$ - #- (Â&#x2021;) #- -0 G       6$ \  - . I,   :<?  m(t)

D;  â&#x2C6;&#x2020;f *X  - . I,  b . F .Carson #  ,<   !, 7!  *6)  ! 2 ,9 !, ! 6, F ? 2  6$    5 2 (  .G      pulse modulation 63        65 6!/  63   ! " " /?/ 45 .position 3 " width 3, " amplitude 3 sampling  ("   R   . I,  m(t)  , . -   #     $ , m(t) - 2< (H *fm   !," # F F Ts .H  , 

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 E5   ./ Ts # N  - , (" %" $  , # 2¤/  *.b  #- - *6 , n F *m (nTs)  2 Ts !, 7!  .%- G"    4!  - : . (" pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) 3     T   3  F 63   -  !/ -  5 :5 - E5  1  .!/  ! 3 .natural 6   ("  "

  (" 6  - # F "  5 Â&#x; #-  #- '     < +     3  !!  .m(t) \  - 

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flat-top  A   ("  @   3! # F *   3 "    #-   5 .  .3   (   6$ - , < E  / (" !, 6$  (   #   2  %H % , . Pulse-Time Modulation (PTM) 3 .   U

3! . . I +   , . - 2 5 :5 " 1  .  . slot 3$ ( ' 6  Pulse-Duration Modulation (PDM) 3      " ٢٩


  # , 3   2  #- m(t) -  E5 '   , . -C - \  3, # /    '  .(§ #-) Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM) 3 '3    @ !# " 3! , "  D  < 6$ 5    /  / 3, / 3   " 7 #- 6$ ? .  ¨ .3 '3    m(t) - 2  6$

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digital modulation â&#x20AC;Ťďş?ďť&#x;ďş&#x2DC;ďť&#x152;ﺪďť&#x17E; ďş?ďť&#x;ﺎďť&#x2014;â&#x20AC;Ź   $ *!/  " H      " D E5 6$ " . . "     #- +    3 " - %$ # 6!/ , N 3, 6<     7 $ 1 . < . < quantization 2#  R :-C m(t)  , . -  N <?  A 6  ! 65 E5 "  ÂĄ #-  .!9 -0 @ 65 Mq(t)    -

.! %( " *2# ( !,   - 65 vi - " F 2# Â&#x2122;( #  $ Â&#x2122;( - / m(t)  6 *Vo $ Â&#x2013;3 2 Mq(t) mŮ&#x17D; (t)  71 !, 7!  *(  ;  N  ( *> >1  ( ' #  2  %" 2#  ,  .2#  .2  O $ ;  pulse code modulation (PCM) . 63    T

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! %$ /W M(   6< /6!/   N " 5  < #- !, < !# *!/ - )  ( 3  .6!! bits   " !, F?/ :C . 63    -  2  ..  2#   (" :65   -  N , . 63    - !,  !#  # , < # encoding .  # 3   . 2<  - #   , N 3, 2¤/  .< G" 6&/ @  % < . <   N O .7$ #- !, .! 6&/ /  2<   .T  >" 7$ @  .. 63    2    5 !, 7!   *3 .6&/     9  Â&#x201D; #-

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differential pulse code 6!31  . 63    U modulation (DPCM)  #  N O  1 "   - '  2    .  /#  2¤/  * >1  <   . I, 6$ 3 4 , 2 *- , 6$ redundancy  2<    , . 63    2  6   . . 

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  9 E     . I1(  A 6  7  8   . 63    -  65 *. I, M 2¤/ 63    !, 7!  *   2<  71! $ .prediction L A- 2 (  !,   G *6!31  . delta modulation (DM)      Â&#x2021;   3 6!31  . 63     (  5  *!/ /< " </!/ ;  2 (  @! ; .2#      5 " ; .1!# <" "   ! .?  #   C$ 2¤/ slope    . Â&#x2013;3 9 2#  H (  , '3( .RÂ&#x201C; #-  5 # granular 6 Â&#x2013;3 overload

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adaptive delta modulation (ADM) D#       Â&#x; '  9      . Â&#x2013;3 I1(  A G .6 Â&#x2013;3!  2< !,  $

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+ ' .! ' #  ( >< + !,   "    .(  -

keying 1< 7   < . ' 7$  !  !, < -  65 -   ,    5 .    5 2 (  * amplitude-shiift   .C :1! ( 1< 7 45  .!/  .C phase-shift keying (PSK)   .C keying (ASK)   .C differential -shiift keying (DPSK) 6!31     F 6$ !1 65 frequency-shiift keying (FSK) . 

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‫‪D  ' - : ; 7 , 2 -   ; !,‬‬ ‫;(  ‪5 *%   #   7 , " -; 2?#‬‬ ‫! ‪. (G !   ;) D‬‬ ‫ ‪2  *  !   ; , D !(  ; !$ 5  6$‬‬ ‫‪@  .1!   D  7 , 2  ; !,‬‬ ‫); (* ‪.; 2 (  6  *(; ; !# )@ D  5‬‬ ‫‪٣٧‬‬


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#$ 6  " 31(  <  E5  *! &.1 M&(      <  .   !,   <  5  M&( <?,  !  *  .   C$ D  6$ !,"  '1  !#  C$    . !#$ *   !,   - . /#"   !,  < A  +#

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. :  -9- 3 6$ " + ! #- 6$  , #! & 2 (  . #!?  #! &  , 2 (  $  #-    7  #!? & 2 (  #  # . ! #-    # : 3   : "   !, /L 6   , . @#    , - 1 . F 7   8 - 2 attenuation. - D3 " 5 - 3 immunity from 6 +# (    ,- 4 electromagnetic interference.  %   % , 1  ' '1    1!# C$ 2, #- . %" 8   '  6   hertz (HZ) .      8  ,  bandwidth. F 7     &.$  

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 +#   +#  " :  +#  " I 6! $ Visible Light 6& :3 Micro Waves <   Infrared Waves:   Cosmic Rays. # -9 X - Rays  -9 Ultraviolet Rays 1 7$ -9 g - Rays  -" (L  ,  +#   5O 9 E5 # 

: @   Z#-   1,3  @ #- # .  9  ' 8   6 +# D  #  8  ( % ) .  6 +# D  6$ ,- <  #-"  % M(   9  

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B> ) B  6 +# D  6$ ,- < ! 1! ( #-9 " C$   9 6$ 1  5  2O !, * 1! (   " F /2# UÂ&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C; G , E5 ¬1 6$ , >1    . F/ R¡ Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C; " .

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1  C3 W  *  1! ( "  #  6 +# D  "   # # 1! ( :H ,- <   1! ( 9 6 +# D   N:. #- -9 / -9   +# D  # I " D# /   () I O -"     A3 D3 E>? 6$  #; .. 5 ,    H- :   - 1 #  (  A3 (      YW 6& 9 "  #   (  1# .1! ! "  ! '  %H .     5 :    !  -2 6$         ." # F ?    " . 9 I1(" Very High Frequency Waves VHF 6    - 3 .           " 6$ 2 ( 

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Ultra High Frequency Waves UHF ! 7&$    - 4

?   N   ;  E5 . .1!  6$  E5 2 (  6&5 #  ;     !,  '  ; 4C$ 4 . . ;    2  7 !,  " .1!    <    65 Micro Waves : <  - 5 # (   ÂĄRÂ&#x201C; Ă&#x2014; U    ­ RÂ&#x201C; )   d  6 C$ 6   . (  # ."   5    ?   .1!  6$ 6, F  " 6$ /  !   .  D  ." /  ; ;  " 6. ]  !, L  D# $" N 3"  E . < < Infrared Waves : :  -6 29 # C$  6$ . -   5  29 7! , - 5 Â&#x2013;  F  1  @ :  -9 7!   C$ 2   . !# . ' &. .. 5 <" A :

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Ultraviolet Rays : 1 7$ -7  2O !, 1 7$ ,-; , D-#  '  ; L 5 -9   5 . >- -; 6$ /# 5$ 7$ ,-? /# I  # . E G ! 4 ! ! ,  !, # 3 2 6$ 7  G L 1 7! C$ 61 7$ -; M   , &#  I ] 6,- ; " ] !1" Â&#x2013;  5  D  5 . :3 F * + 7 "I9 !  N 3 /#9 "  5 5 . A  . >- ,   1 7$   E5 M  <  3 /#"   >?   N ,- /#" 4  X - Rays :  -9-8  #; D F    5 Â&#x2122; ; M( @" 2 (   < -" 7?  %, Â&#x2013;   6  D 5 !, N   ,  ; -9 E5 '   . 7 (; !, ,   .  -Š 6   # !# . M / $/# ,  2! 7 (; 2 (  & , 7 (; !,   < Z!< !# N#   C$ 4 . 2  7 ( '  ; #  2 (

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" ' . %3 2     -9 2 (   2 6$  ?( D! " F 3  -9 g- Rays :  -"-9 !,   /=  N  , <    ,  +#  .   29 ย™? @  6$ 2 (    ?( 9 9 E5   ,   6$ - ! - 9 ,    ; '3  ย–    .#  .   ; .&#  / .# , 5 2!#  : 65 ; . ( +#  ) -    -1 :(6#!? 6#! )  ; <-2 : 6#!cable ?#  I 3 , . 4?;  , , , # .  D?O 6$  '3 . 

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. 63? d ?    !# Â&#x;Â&#x201C; 6   $ # - 2 . M  Â&#x2122; !,  & Â&#x2122;; # - 3 .  6$FM)frequancy modulation) @! 2 ( - 4 Electromagnetic :.!)  +#  6  -  #- (H 5 65 *(EMR)  ( "  (radiation  5 * " ,  #  .  " ÂŹ1 6$ ! I 3 !, G , #-   *6 + (= 6&# "  ,   +#  D . E  !,    :(6   6$    . @)  P   @ :  -" . 5 -" +     .O -"  $3  -" 1 7$ -" 6& D  5 * &# ,"  >      + $ 45 .:3 " 6& D     A3  Â&#x2122;9 -  = @ ; $   ; 6  J  25"   !, %  # G Huygens .+5 "     # :6  

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Â&#x201C; = R + R " G" *I 3 :+C 2 " (Â&#x2122;© 6

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$     7  6$ G  8 ! ! #-! #! 7  '  8(  , . 2 (  4 4   8     ¡¡  FM  !, ' 6  ,;  ! 4# *  ; .. 5 R“¡ ٦٠


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 $ #5 Â&#x;+ RÂ&#x;+ RÂ&#x;+ RÂ&#x;+ RÂ&#x;+ RÂ&#x;+ RÂ&#x;+ Â&#x;+  ;#  0 , 1&.$  / 2  #5  8   O 

$     6 modulation AM Amplitude A!  < $     6 frequency modulation FM A!    :9  G   7  .   !#RÂ&#x2021;ÂĄ  <  I, longwaveLW !  * AM    (  (  @ 7  I, + ) . 5!# TÂĄU  <  I, Medium Wave MW    * AM   2 (  N  !# R Â&#x201C;    !#Â&#x;T  !#UÂ&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C;  <  I,ShortwaveSW  * 2 (  . 5  UÂ&#x201C;    U  G" . 5!# UÂ&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C;   /#" 1! !,  %$ 5 SW2 " SW1 '.  AM   3$"  &  ÂĄÂĄ  <  I, frequency modulation FM *   2    , < (  @ I + )  RÂ&#x201C;ÂĄ   :   G"  2 (  #,   <  <  E5 FM FM " AM ٌ٢


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+  2  $ " FM "       , 2  6   "  @ !, : " Carrier " !  M(    !9 -; 2 (  /  !$ * M( % (  ,  #  2   -  6$ " AM modulation "  , 2 6  !, .1!  -  6$ 2 (  $ " FM modulation "  , 2 6   !, .1!  2  

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H 1M H? @P R :  D9 ; ;   # .1- &3 - (Transmitter):  .ď&#x20AC;  â&#x20AC;˘  !, D9 E5  ( Optical Fibers):  D9ď&#x20AC;  â&#x20AC;˘ .! $ &3 -C# !  5(Optical Regenerator): &3 - .. " ď&#x20AC;  â&#x20AC;˘ ?( -?  D3 ;      - ..  G3 . ?# , !   !  &3 -  (Receiver):  ; .ď&#x20AC;  â&#x20AC;˘ .51- 3  !! 6   .9  %$ (Transmitter) . .!&3 - " 1-  6  <  &3 (Optical Regenerator): G3L  SS> D3 " 1 6  &3 -  N 3 45 " N  # #     ?# 6$ F  G# ! $   , ( *+ 1  ; ; IO" 6$ 2 (  6   A   !,  - E ..  ?# E5 Â&#x2013; 6  ٌ٧


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: 4 $ â&#x20AC;¢ " .  4?9  <  $ H  D9 . ?# 6$   2. 6$    ' # %C$ $ D9 E5 .> 4?" ' %!, #; 5 + 5 <" :,  :1#ï&#x20AC;  â&#x20AC;¢ 4?9  D3 " 1 6  &3 -  $ ! 4$ .  :!  &3 - 2 (  â&#x20AC;¢ 4?9 >#, !,  D9 , &3 -C# !   6$  &3 - E5 # - 2 (  6   >1 6$    8(9 D9 - ' ( ; D9 " 1  /  ?(  ( ( 2 , 6 5*# ( . .6 A3  # F :< -  ï&#x20AC;  â&#x20AC;¢ 6$  (  < -  &? /  D9  . # #:7& 3 " â&#x20AC;¢ ٦٩


 = !   4*# - G" &3 D9 2 (  ; 3"  D(  ! $ &3 - ! .# - ,  7& :. 11( â&#x20AC;˘   " #*> 4?H  . 11(  D9   !  6  #   I9  5   , +  .  4?9 ?# :,  ď&#x20AC;  â&#x20AC;˘ < # 6$ 2 (  6$ 4  "  D9 .  :  IOŠ 1! (   6$  (  7 ,     ; (endoscope , laparoscope and bronchoscope.  &  # @" 6$ 2! !, M1 .5 O..] 4?" ; ; 6$ N ,  D9 2 (  31 4  #  (

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- " (  )!/ -   + 8  (H " # ! .(%  )%< :Modulation !   , &- 69 G   7  - 2  

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  ,  #   65 !  6   65 !9  M?(  !,      # 6  @ 6  5  !  4  !! !  ٧٢


.Demodulation   6     ,  - , , 65 !  E5 , 5 @   2< 6$    63 @ 7

$ G+ 6   Â&#x2122;( ,   Â&#x2013;  6   % # & , .     (  ,  6$ 3  - !, 7!  6   ! -   Modulation   " %/?/ 45 "  #    "   S:65 S:Amplitude Modulation (AM )  SR    -   !   "  + , , 5    , $    "    - ' @    .% !! !  65 : S(t coswct %  #  !  65 :G(t coswct = s(t)coswct * (S(t 5 Â&#x2122;( #$ :(Frequancy modulation (FM G      ST      -   !     , , 5 ,    "    - !, "  G +  ' @  ٧٣


.      S:PM) Phase Mpdulation)     SU      -   !   6$   , , 5 ,    " 1    - 6$  +  ' @  .        - "  2< 6$ 2    !, " !, %  " Modulation )    !, 7!  " # 6      !, (H " C$ 5# 7 6  /?/ 9 8  # " #  (Wave  2< 6$ 2 G     @ PM " FM " AM + - 6, 6$   2<  Â&#x2122;( 6  - " .(emodulation Signal)!(  Â&#x2030; Modulation    !,  %1 d    2 L 45 I _< D 0 4 Â&#x2030; ;  6$ 3 !, 65 5 S:65     !  @9 Ease Of Radiation -  SR # " @ 6&  C$ &1#  +  F 2  6# -  /#   .! -   %RÂ&#x201C;   6$ # #    C$ ( ! - ) 69 G   7  C$ /# . 2<9 . !  & " "     ٧٤


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- 

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Y 2 C D3

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7     ,    ; 7  '  * 6 %,1 ;   . $      '  G #! $?(    G Echo 1  # ;? 6, <  :, <; # 2 G Passive 1 O    5 # *RÂ&#x201D; Â&#x201C; 2, 7!  .  #; -? >#, , , #  * # & G G #  , , RÂ&#x201D; Â&#x2021; 2, 6$ 7!  G Echo 2   5 2<  R RÂ&#x201C; 1  I;    # * 2; 7&<  + *  UT    !  ># . 6  6  ;$  . # G / .2#  # *   -; >#,  # <; E5 $ * . I1( E5  6$ 1 O <; 2 (   2 * /# !#- &   : Active Satellites 1 , <;3    -   2 *    , ,  E5 2 (  2; E5 6$ G( 3"   E    2/ 5#   . 2   .1!  -;  <; E5 : BH ) -

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/ *: ; ( 7$ , ,1  !,  6  , <; J ., <  - @!  5 * -;   @ 6  # $    , -;    6. (  45 4  $3; . /  E < (H 45 */ 6$ 2# UÂ&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C;Â&#x201C; ,  2! 5 # -;$  3;    $ '  2.? . 5 / 6! RTÂ&#x201C; $ #  / R   . 5  ; I 6$ *6,   G(     1 5 # : , ?/ .  # ,  . 6. (   - $ , <; , ; ? , < !! 7?  6 $  ; 2< G(   RT # I;  , !5   6$  65 Molniya 2  . , . #-  E $ * 6&   6$  #  !, 3, , ¡ 6 6,  63 4 6 $   63 7$ Â&#x2122;; . 6 $  ; 7$ : BH ) Q  4 I; A   <  6, <; &5 % # %1    6,  2  4 2  .E  6$ .  6, ' G.  #- (    E  & %  # 5 * / # 

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2 F - <    <; E5 6$  #; .; + 2  6&#   !  - ?( : L 4!, 6&  .   E5 2  , 3;   ,  . $# 6$ %# # 6& 5   UÂ&#x201C;  E <   #5 ; 6  #!? -;    !, 3;   2   . .1!  <; 1  #       , 2  , <; , ; ; . . G   , ?#  '  * G G ,     $;    /# .,    6( 2 . 6$ ( &5  ,   - F 2 (  2 ; .3;      6,   - G   # F : 3 A3 ?  , 2?# M( #- *  +#  , 2?# 2, #- * +#  # 1# , 2?#mircowave), )!  ) %,     (conductor)  !, @   7   ,

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G ) @  > + 7   , *A ># *:31 6$(6 + *:31 6$ (6# ) %, Â&#x2013;  ( ( > +  < 4  !, G , (> + ) #   ?# 6$  ;  3 (attenna) .; 6$   5 * >#  (6# ) :   !,   ; ; 2   D   # & 65( transmitiom station): ;   -1 2/  * 6#   6#   {$# 7 ,(data){! 5 , *! $ ; !,  < #   Â&#x201C;     5 #  !, E   +#       5   M&(   4# .! )Š  # 5 (attenna) , . ( +#  *# & , , 3 65(receiver station):  ;  - 2 E (attenna) ,  7 ,  +#    !,      G E , * 6#  , 6 +  1 !       2  ! E5  *&  6$  .{, 7 ,}!

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!33 M  Q3 @33  SA 2B [? BH )P 2 A3 ?Q ? DISH \\? : 3 : 7 ; 1  L  #, ,     -; ' 5 7  1  .. 7  :- 5 ,  , 6!, 7 ;      7       :?  ( L E5 $ '   ; ' 7  L 7  2  < L $ 8 - O E  8 7   < ,   I+ 5 7  :- /  !$ ..  - <   /#   $  <        -; * .. 2 Ÿ“  < 7    A  dBW Ÿ“ 2.!     ‡U  UŸ   $ % - <   @, < * ..   # 2 R “ E < 7 2 (     $ -; < ; 2 ”“ E < 7 %.!  5 < * ..   ‡‡  ‡“

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. 7 ! #  <    . -; < $ , ? ]H R .. # >#, <  7  2(   #  7 ;   , 25   7  '  2 < *( E 5.  2; 5   3$  ! 5  2 ,  @   !-$ / % ; >?1 2( .>- - 2O ) #- )   O #    , 7 ; 4    .  ;   7 ; < >1 -; >#, !,   < I1( I  /#   ! 7  $ ( d 2 5   D! : ? ^?  ;  $ J  %1 '  #    7  ' 2( # < .. _-  D3   /# ; 7 ?   '  # , 45  2O S  ;   45 ; 4 , :1# 7 ; E5   $ /?/    ; #  2/  !, 7  ' 2    S / 1  5 ..  3 L  A    7  Â&#x2013;    <  '

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!, @#   ; $ 3  7  A  $ $ > 5 '  !$ > < :; ; E5 # 2 $ *   L $     2  ;   L !, ( 5 1 '3 ) '    7  . 13  -?   #   & -; : K  D3 # .. %!, @   $3; ; 5  7 ! :? G  I   < -; ># #  <  :?    45  65  # >#, !, , 4 P , <;      +# . 7  ?( @    -;  #  < : _\ \?  -; >#; % $ 8  _  , A  7  ,  D! (  -;  ?(    %  !, < -; 4! M  .. %1!( % / LNB     5# 5 $ '3 # ; F 4   LNB    #  @ Â&#x2021;Â&#x201C; ,  <    -;   ; % #   + 1  2 G) .(  

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! ` \LM ? O  # # .. 2 !, (;  3$ 7 ? '   # ; .. 7 ;   > .  ' #  S ' !  & : 25  $ 7 ; Â&#x2122;  ' 3$ , - ECC .  S ># LNB -- I1(   : / : 3 E5 43 5 3 , <;    -;   $ LNB    1  M(! /L -; LNB    %!1  .. .1!  A  !  .. --   ! $ !,  +# -  !,   -;   LNB    2       ! 2/ 5# 2/ &# - Microwave .. #  < <  ! E5 ?( -- # I1( '        .     LNB       !31 -; --    , ,) -- I1(    !, ..(   > * LNB   ( -; --   !(  LNB /  !$ .. 3$ #  5 I1( !# % $ @ dB .. Â&#x201C;,¡   4  3$   8dB Â&#x201C;,   Ku-Band LNB    !,  , @ # 8  5  3 2!  @ 4#

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 5 $      45 >!$ * ;   8 < >   D! ( 2< 5 $ 4  /#; .. ' >1  #    $ %# dB “,   # < RRTŸ“  $ %  * (   5   !, @ # 2< * ?/dB “,§ # D! ( RR ““  .. !       8  $ --      3$ :- 65 I  # -   @   A3  4   < --  ; # 4 'dB “,  I1(  LNB 5  # !  45 > dB .. “,¡     2 (  7   ) / O .     !,   # 8 1 > ;  !!. (; D U“ LNB : \ 43 @H . 2 ( ; &- & 1 F?/ 6 LNB    D # C-Band :- 43- 1 --  > C-band . $   -;     E5 !(     d K R‡ K R§ K T“ K TŸ 4$ 8   ; .   (     . 5 ‡,T  3.7   . !, IF   5 2< 5 . 5 R‡Ÿ“  950  d $ .. ŸRŸ“    2< >1 $ RF     ;

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$    + A  ; 4 # 5 $     E5 @# # . 5 1! ; 1  5  Ku-band :- 43- 2       $ # Ku-band . $   -;    ; .  &# - ™(  . 5 RR,§“  R“,”Ÿ  IF   5 5 . 5 R§““  ”Ÿ“    $    5 $ !,   E5 @# @ .. R““““ $3 2 $ RF    dB . “,  dB R  --  d  .. (&/  8 ) Wide Ku-Band :- 43- 3 . $   -;    8  3, LNB   !, 7!  RT,§Ÿ  R“,§“  d   !,     $ #Ku-band TRŸ“  ”Ÿ“  1 !        !  . 5 .. R“§Ÿ“ $3 2 $ RF    @  IF    . 5 0.6dB. dB “,”  --  d  :- 4 5H3 ..  $;    +  5 $ 2.!  5# 7 1  1) /  !,  LNB       ,  < .. 1! ( # (4 

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. -       $ 5 $ !, % -  5 .  .     2#  3      2  #  #    + 2  # ( 8 ! 1 I1( 8 ! (22  ; .. ( $? $ R¡  ! $ RÂ&#x2021;) +   ' I Â&#x2013;   Single LNB 8    5# 7 1  Quatro , Triple LNB /?/ Twin LNB &/  8( F?/    8.  LNB    >1  # LNB SMATV .. .# #-! A!   E5 . '  . M( : 4  $ .#  LNB  2 (  A < , ' . #     . ( Feedhorn 235 ) [, 3? :  

:- 235 5 3   !  7   # -; ' 5 5 1! ; 1   $ 83 O 5 1 $ 4 ..    ( ' LNB    $ 2#  '    4  LNB -- I1(     ; ( #   #)   LNB 2 (   $ # .. !(  . 5 1 , :+ ; '  :- 235 @H3 : 2< /?/  2 ( ; '&- 5 1 # 

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3 ' 5 1 5$ $  ! $3 4   5 1   ..  ; Â&#x2013; $ Â&#x201C;,U  !, 3 8 (  ) -; %   5 $   : F/ 2 * 1 $     !    @ -;  $ 2#    I S $ Â&#x;     " <   4?" U ?(  " . 3;    PULSE - @ :- 235 D3  5   @!  -;   5 1  1! (  45 : 65 ; E5 .. # 

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.. $   -   M( 8  5 $ * .. #   # . -   M( 8  5 $ * -   8 C,KU &/ 5 1 5 ,- /#;  * ..  #    . 5 1 /   . -  ; &/ 5 1   45* C,C &/ *   ! (; $;  ! 5  LNB / , @#  2 (  #- $  5   *   +  $   %.! ; 4 .  7      8 &31   ; :- 235 D3 2? -L5 F  4 # ..  -   ; 3$ $ 8 -       .. '  ( 45 >  ? $   $ &/ 5 1!  # ; /  !, 8 7 $ $  ; F .. (# , #  , 3$; 5) - 5 .   #  #  5 !, .$ 8 ; 5 1  + 2  F 5  O 5 1 @# A < , ( '  F . ,  @<  $3; 4  LNB     .   

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..  4  M( LNB ! 8  5 $ @#  1! $ 4 I !   D3 $ @  5 # !,   LNB @#  # . .. 1! (      1 ; 2 , $ @  E  5 1 '< Â&#x2020; ( @#   # D! ( 1 ?(    3  8$ 5 1 D&   8# .. (; .  $ 5(    + !,   < 2 , 5 1 @    ,;  # 2   -    ">#"   @ ' .. 4 , (   E+ @   $   @ ,  .. ?/ A$   ( Actuator 4 D[) 33 : >? 7  # D< $ @  .. #  2 ! ; #       < .. +  &  .1 7   8 L < @; ; .. O  <- 4) D   , 7  D<  %1  :  .. ( ) #   , 45

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.  ,; I : 4?  ?(  1 .      ; 4 $ :#   +  1  M2 / M1 ;* . O  <- 7    !,  1  !(  . 3; %! 2  F/ 4! *

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3 , @ 8 5 Sensor >   ' 4! * . .  @ # , D<     ! ! &# :- a 33     @#  : ( @ #       #- # <; '<  %, 2 ,  <; 4= !, 7   2 , $ @ E  (Elevation)  . < $ +  1 $ .( 7 ..$+ @ :- / @;    45  $#  '3 2 , @ !(    ; # O # * ../  # $    2 (  2 , @  ? !(  !  !(   ; #¨ * .. /  #     . #¨ @  (  E (  # * ..   @    ,;   ! ( !(   ;   ! +  <-  . @   @  , 45  , %, :# 1 -   (  F P 1 ?(  8  $ < - # $ * % 1     <    #  $  1    - #  4# < #   # . 4)  D   , 7      

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H/H :- 33 7$;      7  4 %;   #    3  8 (4) (L > ' 8  7 5 .. + 7$;  <- & D # 5 , # @+  7-  7  %!, 4  !, 1  7 !  .   5  R¡“ 8 .. $  Ÿ     $ !$ O 5 #  $

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References 1. ^ Requirements for IPv4 Routers,RFC 1812, F. Baker, June 1995 2. ^ Requirements for Separation of IP Control and Forwarding,RFC 3654, H. Khosravi & T. Anderson, November 2003 3. ^ Terminology for Benchmarking BGP Device Convergence in the Control Plane,RFC 4098, H. Berkowitz et al.,June 2005 4. ^ BGP/MPLS VPNs,RFC 2547, E. Rosen and Y. Rekhter, April 2004 5. ^ Davies, Shanks, Heart, Barker, Despres, Detwiler, and Riml, "Report of Subgroup 1 on Communication System", INWG Note #1. 6. ^ Vinton Cerf, Robert Kahn, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume 22, Issue 5, May 1974, pp. 637 648. 7. ^ David Boggs, John Shoch, Edward Taft, Robert Metcalfe, "Pup: An Internetwork Architecture", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume 28, Issue 4, April 1980, pp. 612624. 8. ^ Craig Partridge, S. Blumenthal, "Data networking at BBN"; IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 28, Issue 1; January–March 2006. 9. ^ Valley of the Nerds: Who Really Invented the Multiprotocol Router, and Why Should We Care?, Public Broadcasting Service, Accessed August 11, 2007. 10. ^ Router Man, NetworkWorld, Accessed June 22, 2007.

١٨٩


11. ^ David D. Clark, "M.I.T. Campus Network Implementation", CCNG-2, Campus Computer Network Group, M.I.T., Cambridge, 1982; pp. 26. 12. ^ Pete Carey, "A Start-Up's True Tale: Often-told story of Cisco's launch leaves out the drama, intrigue", San Jose Mercury News, December 1, 2001. 13. ^ Oppenheimer, Pr (2004). Top-Down Network Design. Indianapolis: Cisco Press. ISBN 1587

١٩٠


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