Page 1

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

THE WINNERS OF THE ARTICLE CONTEST HELD BY THE JOURNAL «SCIENCE AND INNOVATION» IN 2012


Science and Innovation

INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION AND ITS DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL The objective of the international scientific and technical cooperation has been identified by the President of the Republic of Belarus – to improve the quality and enhance the scientific and technical potential of the country and develop internationally competitive research products. In this interview, Professor Anatoly Rusetsky, Doctor of Engineering, Chairman of the NASB Presidium, expressed his opinion on the ways of addressing this global challenge by the academic community.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

I

2

t is quite clear that this challenge cannot be met without transition to innovative economy by Belarus. Undoubtedly, the international cooperation does promote this process. As regards technological and research priorities, they are stipulated by the Program «Strategy for Conducting Research for a Period up to 2015» approved as far back as in October 2009 by the NASB General Meeting. The entire academic community was unanimous in expressing the view that setting up new high-tech production facilities and an intensive technical modernization of the key sectors of the economy based on V-VI waves of innovation, namely, nanotechnology, photonics, alternative energy, cell and genetic engineering, bio-and CALS technologies are prerequisites for the innovative development of the country and enhancement of its global competitiveness. However, it is absolutely clear that the country cannot rely exclusively on its own resources – there is an urgent need of integrating efforts of the Belarusian researchers and developers with those of external R&D institutions and international organizations.

The «integration» is a key concept of a strategic scientific and innovative development, however, what is the content of it? The integration is a necessary tool to promote cooperation, firstly, with the real sector of the economy, secondly, with the education and state administration systems and, thirdly, with the world academic community and to provide a foothold in the external markets through offering research and development products/services. The tasks set are clear, but what are specific mechanisms to address them? The first two require commitment, consistency and coordination of actions. We seek to achieve the balance of interests and work out specific measures aimed at intensifying the cooperation with various industrial sectors, institutions of education and business. The Academy of Sciences makes its own contribution to building an infrastructure of the innovative economy covering all its aspects from the fundamental research to market/transfer/commercialization elements. While addressing the infrastructure-related problems, we realize that sectors, indeed, have potentialities and follow their own development plans, however, it is perfectly obvious that the science can help significantly enhance performance of the real sector of the economy. As regards the third target, i.e. integration into the global research area, I believe that there is a need to expand contacts in the sphere of proprietary R&D activities of multinational corporations, increase the scope of work


International Cooperation

Integration of the Belarusian science into the world research area implies involvement in the international division of labor, contests and receipt of grants and fellowships. Which of these four are preferable for the NASB? Grants are not least important component in the export structure of the NASB organizations. Such funds totaled USD3.7 mln in 2011. The research mix for which grants are allocated is diverse and covers an extensive range of research spheres such as the research into

the physical protection systems for accounting for and control of nuclear materials, research in the nuclear power engineering, medicine, optical physics and nanomaterials spheres. The grant funds received in the sphere of information technologies account for the substantial share. What is the level of cooperation between the NASB and foreign research centers and international corporations? The international scientific cooperation is primarily the export of knowledge-intensive products. Annually, the NASB organizations implement over 500 contracts. Currently, more than 60 agreements on cooperation with foreign research centers are in effect providing for development and implementation of joint research projects. The results of this work are evident. For example, while in 2002, the foreign exchange receipts amounted to USD5 mln, in 2011 – over USD30 mln, i.e. 6-fold increase. The cooperation with EU research centers is continuously expanding. 4 contests were held jointly with the National Center for Scientific Research of France following which 45 projects have been and are being implemented. The VIII Sitting of the Joint NASBNRS Committee was held in Paris in February 2011. While each country finances joint projects within the limits of its research, the results obtained are used for concluding contracts with French enterprises, for example, A.V. Lykov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute and Air Liquide, and also for preparing joint project requests for participation in the 7th EU Framework Program. The NASB has implemented more than 40 joint scientific and technological projects with the FRG Research Centers, of them, 8 – subject to the programs of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and 13 – subject to those of the German Research Society. The joint Program of NASB and German Society for Technical Cooperation financed by the FRG Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Devel-

opment is being implemented. At the start of the year, the Protocol on the Visit of the German KaHel International GmbH’s delegation to the NASB stipulating the parties’ intent to implement the joint project for a comprehensive improvement of ecological situation by restoring disturbed natural complexes was signed. Last March, the Joint Venture UE Scientific and Production Association «Tsentr» was established with the German Affiliate STRABAG (Austria). We use mechanisms of interacademy contacts on the platform of the European Association of Academies of Sciences. To intensify joining the consortia for preparation and implementation of projects of the 7th EU Framework Program and activities within the framework of the International Science and Technology Center, close cooperation with the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues was established. How could you characterize the NASB interstate cooperation? I would call it a multi-vector cooperation, including the Russian, European, Asian and Latin American vectors. A business-like cooperation was established with research organizations and researchers from 78 countries within the framework of bilateral agreements. For example, in Venezuela nearly USD2 mln-worth 5 projects are being implemented covering the most extensive range of research in the biotechnology sphere, including DNA technologies in the agricultural sector, genetic engineering, production of novel materials and geoinformation technologies. 8 contracts valuing over USD2.4 mln are being implemented jointly with the Defense Research and Development Organization (India). The NASB Ad Hoc Council coordinates activities for extension of multilateral contacts with China. In 2010, the export of the knowledge-intensive products by NASB to this country totaled USD0.8 mln and undoubtedly it is to be increased over time. Cooperation with the CIS countries holds great potential. Coordi-

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

through orders of non-residents and work out and implement a package of system actions aimed at exporting innovations. To meet this target, a document «Country Strategies for Development of Export of Knowledge-Intensive Products and Services by the NASB Organizations» was produced in 2011. Unfortunately, up to date, no inducements to attract foreign investments in the science sphere have been formalized in legislation. In addition, a problem of providing support to young scientists, including training abroad, needs to be solved. As is known, currently such training is either financed by the Belarusian party which is not a common practice or by the states hosting the Belarusian researchers. The experience shows that this problem may be solved through shared financing and exchange programs. There is a need to design mechanisms to stimulate targeted secondments of the researchers to the research centers worldwide which should be also systematic and primarily should promote the professional advancement of young researchers and not be considered as a reward for leading figures in the academic field. I believe that it is important to arrange involvement of the international expert community in examination of Belarusian projects that would help more stringently follow the principle of priority of implementation, import substitution and export based on the results of programs of different levels.

3


Science and Innovation

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

nation within the frameworks of the Union State needs to be furthered to form a common research and innovation area with the EurAsEC countries. Implementation of joint research programs and projects with the Russian partners is extremely supportive for building up the knowledge-intensive products export. Currently, 11 programs of this type are under implementation. The NASB and RAS plan to intensify activities to establish joint research and production facilities in the future. In recent years, the trend towards cooperation between the states based on common interests in the sphere of high technologies has been emerging. 7 projects are being implemented with Kazakhstan research and production associations and both parties jointly seek ways to commercialize R&D projects for production of LED equipment, pioneering agricultural technologies, high-tech medical equipment, etc. A technology transfer information support network established by the Republican Center for Technology Transfer helped establish relations with the US Technology Transfer Commercial Center having regional divisions in Great Britain and Japan, with the China Science and Technology Exchange Center, global UNIDO EXCHANGE network and other partners. As you may see, a significant progress has been achieved.

4

Do foreign counterparts finance R&D and operation of laboratories and centers? The NASB management signed 23 cooperation agreements with foreign research centers, research and production companies and international institutions. China-financed Joint Centers for Transfer of the NASB Technologies with permanent exhibitions were established in two Chinese Provinces – Heilongjiang and Shandong. Three joint laboratories and centers were set up in the PRC to implement contracts with the NASB organizations in the interests of the Chinese enterprises. A Joint Center of Excel-

lence for novel materials and power engineering of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology and NASB is efficiently operating. Since its establishment in 2008, 17 contracts totaling over USD11 mln have been and are being implemented. Two International Centers based on the laboratories for optical diagnostics and nonlinear optics were established in the B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics. The above Centers implemented a number of partner projects and direct contracts jointly with well-known research centers and companies such as Siemens, Q-sel and Airbus. Which factors, in your opinion, could promote the development of the Belarusian science? Multiple factors are available. The most important of these, in my opinion, include expansion of interacademic contacts on various platforms, be it ALLEA or IAP, participation in the Eastern Partnership programs, 7th Framework Program of the European Union for R&D, joint international laboratories for adaptation of local advanced technologies and their entry into foreign markets, establishment of enterprises of various forms of ownership within the NASB framework to commercialize their own developments, integration into the international corporations such as Finmeccanica and Honeywell, and setting up joint science-intensive production facilities. The export of intellectual services is an important sphere of the scientific and technical development. The scientific and technical cooperation implies buying and selling intellectual property rights. How matters stand in this sphere? It should be noted that a positive trend has emerged in the NASB in this sphere. During the last five-year period, 2,889 protective documents were granted, thereby exceeding 2-fold the figure of the preceding five-year period. In 2010, the NASB organizations submitted 53 international applications, of them, 35 patent applications and 13 utility model applications - to the

Russian Federation and 5 applications – to the Eurasian Patent Office. BYR 1,082 mln were earned under licensing agreements and agreements on the cession of industrial property rights. Unfortunately, the scope of activities in the sphere of cession of industrial property rights is still inadequate and it needs to be expanded. In addition, patent geographic coverage should be expanded, in particular, to such countries as the USA, China, EU member-states and to knowledge-intensive products exporting countries. The number of published papers in prestigious journals is considered to be an important criterion of efficiency of the science. To what extent are Belarusian scientists active in publishing their scientific papers? Achievements of the academic science are extensively covered in the scientific articles and papers published both in Belarus and abroad. In 2006-2010, the NASB researches published 35,870 scientific papers, of which every seventh paper was published abroad, 3,110 – in the CIS and 1,620 – in other countries. The publication activity abroad intensified in 2010. For example, 773 scientific papers were published in the CIS countries and 294 – in other countries. One of the forms of international cooperation is participation of scientists in congresses, conferences and seminars abroad… In this context, it is worth mentioning that at the year-end 2010 over 2 thousand researchers participated in the international forums in 60 countries worldwide. The Belarusian scientists most frequently visited the events in the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Poland, Germany and Lithuania. The most active were divisions of physical and technical, agrarian and also physical, mathematical and informatics sciences. Of specific importance are exhibition and fair events in which the NASB organizations annually participate demonstrating the latest developments in the sphere of science and technology. The Han-


International Cooperation participate in congresses, symposia and conferences. This activity needs to be continued as the Belarusian diaspora abroad may become a guide to promoting beneficial interests. Are there any barriers impeding a full-fledged cooperation with foreign companies and institutions? What is barring conversion of the accumulated knowledge to capital? The key forms of commercialization recognized worldwide include personal contracts, sale of licenses, patents or business. They are arranged in such a sequence not by accident, but by analogy with the following chain: «raw materials – processing – market». This is also referred to the science – you may sell the scientific raw materials or a finished product. The same laws apply: the higher processing sophistication, the higher is the cost. Applying this to science produces the following formula: the size of the capital to be attracted through a personal contract, R&D and sale of licenses and patents may differ several-fold, while the sale of finished products, a business or an enterprise - even by an order of magnitude greater. Therefore, this is the way we should follow in the future to avoid the loss of our profit. However, favorable conditions need to be established to promote and implement the outcomes of intellectual activity and sell finished forms of business, and also learn to pass all stages – from the R&D to a finished enterprise. Time is running out to be a slow starter. Still the trend persists subject to which the researchers are not programmed for the final outcome, implementation and commercialization of their ideas, so that their output generates the end-buyer’s demand. This process is also inhibited by the problems of ownership and by a range of other problems, including legal ones. Most of them are hard to solve and are perplexing at all for the foreign partners. How do you appraise a general situation in the international

technological innovations market in the short term? Forecasting scientific and technological discoveries is not an easy matter. However, it is absolutely obvious that the share of the innovation component in the majority of countries will be increasing. This factor needs to be thoroughly considered in the process of decision making subject to the Belarus’ development targets. In my opinion, the scientific priorities worldwide which will define the nature of the technological and then economic and social development would include nano-, bio-, information-and communication and space technologies, as well as hydrogen and other types of alternative energetics and novel materials. New global problems which may emerge among others include environmental protection, biodiversity conservation and, I would say, specific bioethical aspects of safeguarding human rights. What actions should take Belarus to hold strong positions in the world market of knowledge-intensive goods and services? The country’s top leadership has set a strategic target – to join an elite of world technological leaders. An enabling environment is in place, and this should not be considered as an obligation, but as an opportunity of self-realization of every citizen and the country as a whole. Thus, we’ll have the capacity to implement the most ambitious plans.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

nover International Industrial Fair, International TIBO, World of Metal and MILEX Exhibitions in which the NASB traditionally participates should be noted as most prestigious. The NASB also hosts international events and the list of such events is rather long. 68 scientific, scientific and technical, research and practice conferences and seminars were held last year alone, of them, 64 international and 4 republican. Next year, it is planned to hold 71 events, of them, 62 international and 9 republican. The NASB is a source of scientific manpower, however, it is not a secret that it was also affected by the brain drain. What is the scope of this brain drain and are the mechanisms available to keep young researchers in the country or at least to cooperate with them? It is, indeed, one of the resources to expand boundaries of the international cooperation. The international brain drain is a natural and objective process. It is quite obvious that concentration of capital creates the most enabling environment for the intellectual capital to progress. Unfortunately, we do not keep records on the number of emigrants – scientists and highly skilled specialists. This work is done by the NASB Institute of Sociology. It has established a database containing the data on researchers who left abroad for permanent residence since 2001. Currently, the database comprises the information about 62 scientists, of them, 2 Doctors of Sciences, 40 Candidates of Sciences and 20 specialists without an academic degree. Keeping the database is a time-intensive process. An encouraging trend is that 56 representatives of the Belarusian scientific diaspora from 15 countries cooperate with the NASB organizations and divisions. This cooperation includes the information exchange, joint research financed from scientific funds and training Belarusian scientists in the world leading scientific centers. Emigrated scientists are invited to give a course of lectures for students and post-graduate students in Belarus, including the remote instruction, to

Zanna KOMAROVA

5


Knowledge Synergy

BELARUS IN INTERNATIONAL RANKINGS OF INNOVATION SCIETIFIC TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

O

6

ne of the most topical priorities and economic challenges facing our country is improving its national competitiveness [3]. The objective assessment of it is far from being a trivial task, the solution of which in recent decades has been engaging various research centers, international organizations and scholars. One of the most widely used methods is making the cross-country rankings (CCR) based on calculation of the cumulative numerical indicator that summarizes various key figures (indices). While each of them separately enables to highlight a rather narrow profile slice of the problem, the macroeconomic indicator can provide for a comprehensive insight into the development of a country in one or another area. Not infrequently, the complexity and multiplicity of the subject of evaluation can give rise to CCR’s various options that use both different methodologies and data sources. Moreover, even for an individual ranking the calculation method often undergoes a continuous alternation and improvement. International rankings are currently the important source of information that allows evaluating the development and potential of the country in comparison with others. As CCRs identify both strengths and weaknesses, they are widely used by scientists, politi-

Aleksei Dick, Dr.Sc.Nat. Assistant Director for External Economic Activity, Belarus Institute of System Analysis and Information Support of Science and Technology

Yevgeny Gurinov, Junior Research Assistant, Belarus Institute of System Analysis and Information Support of Science and Technology

cians and businessmen. Such rankings are also used for emphasizing the competitive advantages of a country in one and the same region, which can play a key role for investors for making their choice of an area for business expansion. Notwithstanding that making the most significant rankings involves distinguished economists, international organizations and the world's leading research centers, one can’t fail to note the criticism of CCRs. For example, because of differences in the methodology used, the results of some competitiveness rankings cannot be adequately correlated with each other [6, 7]. In addition, the methodology of some leading CCRs is based on the western economic model that can produce a significant distortion in the ranking results for the countries with different economic structures [15]. Ranking in the main CCRs is an essential requirement for countries, which are seeking to find their niche in the world market. It is not incidentally that the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus has set the target for our country to climb up to a higher position in the leading international rankings by the year 2015 and, in particular, to enter the top thirty (30) of the Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum (WEF) [4]. It should be noted that a

similar task has been set by Nursultan Nazarbayev, the President of Kazakhstan [1]. This paper reviews the leading CCRs and indices that assess the innovation and technological development of countries or include these areas as components as well as the position of the Republic of Belarus therein (Fig. 1). Consideration will not be given to the regional or once-published rankings. The WEF Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) is published annually since 2004 [17]. Its main feature is its accounting for the opinion of business representatives on the state of a national economy inasmuch data are aggregated through questioning the top management of non-governmental enterprises. The summary indicator is calculated based on 111 indicators, of which only about 30% are related to international statistical information. All indicators are pooled into the twelve control summands, divided into the following three groups: basic factors: Quality of Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic Stability, Health and Primary Education; efficiency improvement factors: Higher Education and Training, Quality of Goods and Services Market, Quality of Labor Market, Maturity of Financial Market, Level of Technological Development, Scope of Domestic Market;


International Integration The P-IMD ranking or the World Competitiveness Yearbook is an annual analytical survey, which is carried out and issued by the International Institute of Management (IMD) since 1989 (up to 1996, jointly with WEF) [21]. This is one of the most comprehensive studies on the competitiveness issues. Being entered in it is a significant achievement on its own terms as that implies the recognition of a certain country as being important for the region’s economy. Therefore, as distinct from GCI, P-IMD reaches a relatively small number of states; over the past five years the number of them has not come over sixty. About 70% of the data required for estimating P-IMD consist of statistical information and questioning reports make up the rest 30%. Ranking is calculated based on 331 indicators that are grouped into 20 sub-factors. The latter, in their turn, are grouped into the four breakeven factors, which comprise the following five sub-factors each: Economic Activity (domestic economy, international trade, foreign investments, employment, prices); Competence of Government (state budget, tax policies, institu-

tions, business legislation, social system); Business Development (productivity, labor market, finance, management practices, attitudes and values); Infrastructure (basic production, technological, research and development infrastructures, health and environment, education). Belarus does not participate in the IMD ranking. It can be assumed that this is a consequence of a relatively small weight of our country’s economics when compared with that of its immediate neighbors; however, having Jordan on the medium-sized countries list suggests that Belarus has chances to be entered into P-IMD. The Innovation Union Scoreboard is calculated since 2010 and is a logical continuation of the European Innovation Scoreboard, the main task of which is provide a comparative evaluation of the innovative development in EU countries [9]. The work is being conducted within the framework of the EU initiative, undertaken in joint efforts with the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on formation of the innovation union. The ranking includes 27 countries of the EU

Fig. 1. Basic global rankings for estimating the innovation and technological development of countries *

Innovation Union Scoreboard (-)

World e-Government Ranking (61st out of 190)

Knowledge Index (45 of 142)

International Property Right Index (-)

WEF Global Competitiveness Index (-)

Knowledge Economy Index (-)

Global Innovation Index (78 of 114)

Global IT Industry Competitiveness Index (-)

Networked Readiness Index (-)

Patent Scorecard (global patent activity) (35 of 92)

ICT Development Index (52 of 152)

IMD Global Competitiveness Index (-)

* Arrows indicate a partial use of the ranking data for other rankings.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

innovation and development factors, which include: Business Competitiveness and Innovative Capacity. Depending on the GDP per capita and the share of raw materials export in total exports, all GCI participating countries are grouped subject to the following stages of development: factor-dependent; quality-dependent; innovation-dependent. Furthermore, within the ranking structure there are separated out the transient groups – from the first to the second and from the second to the third. When calculating GCI, each group of parameters is assigned the weighing coefficients that allow taking into account the specific features of a country’s national economy. WEF seeks to provide the worldwide analysis. For example, in 2012 the index was compiled for 144 countries: Switzerland has the lead, Russia is ranked on the 67th ranking position, and Ukraine and Kazakhstan are given the 73rd and 51st positions, respectively. Up to the present, Belarus has not participated in the ranking process yet.

7


SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Science and Innovation

8

plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia and Turkey. The Scoreboard is compiled on the basis of the overall innovation index, which includes three sub-indices, eight values and 25 indicators that take account of: opportunities (human resources, openness, R&D system success and attractiveness, funding and support); operation of companies (investment activity, interaction and entrepreneurship, intellectual assets); outcomes (innovating companies, economic effects). The Scoreboard calculations make use of the statistical data primarily provided by EUROSTAT and the United Nations. The summary innovation index is calculated as the average over all indicators, and on its basis the participating countries are divided into four groups: innovation leaders, followers, middle- and low-innovation level countries. Belarus is not included in the Innovation Union Scoreboard as far as it is not its member and does not participate in the program on formation of the European Innovation Union. Nevertheless, in 2012 the National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus included 16 indicators, identified by the European Innovation Scoreboard’s method, in the digest «Science and Innovation Activity in the Republic of Belarus» [2]. The Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) was developed in 2004 by the World Bank for assessing the competence of countries to develop, acquire and disseminate knowledge [13, 14]. This indicator is based on 109 structural and quantitative statistical indicators, which fall into four categories of indices: economic and institutional regime, education, innovations, information and communication technology. The last three categories constitute the Knowledge Index (KI), which characterizes the capacity of the country to build up the knowledge-based economy. This year, Sweden has taken the KEI lead out of 145 countries. Russia ranks 55th, Ukraine and

Kazakhstan - 56th and 73rd, respectively Belarus has been ranked 59th and, if compared with the year 2000, moved with 11 positions up. In general, such progress has been achieved due to high indices of education (33rd) and ICT (47th). In this regard, the innovation index of Belarus corresponds to the 60th position in the world and the major constraining factor is a low Index of economic and institutional regime (114th). It is noteworthy that Belarus is among the ten countries with a most dynamically developing knowledge economy. The main factors of growth in this case is the Index of Economic and Institutional Regime (+21 if compared with the year 2000), ICT Index (+20) and Innovation Index (+5), while the Education Index remained virtually unchanged (-1). The global patent activity is often regarded as one of the key indicators of a country’s innovative potential and technological development. Comparative analysis of such data is carried out and issued by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Reports are usually a year behind with publication as they require the international comparison to be carried out after publication of the data produced by national patent offices. The main indicator in such ranking (Patent Scorecard) is the number of patent applications in a country; the number of useful models, trademarks and production prototypes is also taken into account. The WIPO calculations are entirely based on statistical information and made in both absolute and relative values (for example, in terms of GDP and commonwealth). Based on the WIPO report data over the year 2011, the Internet Project «Human Technologies Center» has ranked 92 countries worldwide in terms of the filed patent applications [5, 24]. In this ranking USA was a world lead, Ukraine ranked 22nd, Belarus - 35th. It should be noted that in terms of the relative values the indicators of Belarus are much higher. For instance, by the number of patents in terms of $1 billion of GDP, the Republic of

Belarus has been in the top ten for several years (ranked 6th in 2008 and 2010), being behind only South Korea, Japan, China, USA and Germany. Until recently Belarus has been holding one of the leading positions (the 3rd place in 2007 and the 4th in 2009) by the number of patents per $1 million of R&D investments, making a lane for South Korea, Japan and China. Belarus is among the twenty leading countries by the useful model applications: ranked 14th in 2008 and 12th in 2010 [22-24]. It is noteworthy that in many rankings, such as GCI, for instance, calculating the patent activity does not take into account the WIPO data, but it considers the number of patents registered at The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) or the number of applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). Because of a number of objective reasons, Belarus is limited to registration of only three to seven USPTO patients a year; that number ranked it approximately 65th in the world, while the required value of this indicator for Belarus to be entered in the top 30 countries has to be about 70 USPTO patents a year. However, in terms of the number of PCT applications, Belarus has been already in the world’s fifth ten countries. The Information and Communication Technologies Index (ICT) is determined by the International Telecommunication Union, a specialized UN subdivision [16]. It accounts for 11 statistical indicators, including the number of fixed and mobile phones per 100 nationals, computer-possessing private households, number of Internet users, literacy rate, etc. All such indicators are grouped into three sub-indices of various weight: access to ICT (number of phone subscribers, Internet traffic volume, etc.; 40% of the overall index); ICT use (number of Internet, broadband networks users, etc; 40% of the overall index); ICT skills (literacy headcount, secondary and higher education headcount, 20% of the overall index).


Last year; South Korea came to the first position, Russia was ranked 47th , Ukraine – 62nd and Kazakhstan – 68th. In this case, Belarus demonstrates quite a good dynamics as it currently ranks 52nd , i.e. six points up than in 2008. The Global Innovation Index is evaluated annually by the method of the international business school INSEAD; it is based on two sub-indices that take into account 84 indicators: resources and innovation environment (institutions, human capital, etc.); practical outcomes of innovation [19]. The calculations make use of the statistics, provided by the World Bank, UNESCO, UN, IEA, IMF, etc. The World Bank Business Environment Survey, Patent Scoreboard (patent activity), GCI, ICT Development Index and Logistics Performance Index (LP), Press Freedom Index produced by Reporters Without Borders (RWB,) are also taken into account. The essential condition for a country to be entered in the Global Innovation Index is availability of at least 63% of data required for calculations as well as a present ability to work out at least two of the three parameters in each indicator of the sub-index. Belarus was for the first time included in the INSEAD ranking in 2012 and rated 78th out of 114 countries, having outstripped Kazakhstan (83rd), but made way to Ukraine (63rd) and Russia (51th). The most developed factors in Belarus are attributed to the following categories: Knowledge and Technologies Outputs (44th), Human Capital and Research (45th) and Infrastructure (66th). At the same time, ranked low such indicators as Business Comprehensiveness (105th), Institutions (the level of political, legal and business environment, 109th) and Creative Outcomes (117th). In general, Belarus was reckoned among the countries, which are seen as effective innovators. Networked Readiness Index (NRI) is calculated by the World Economic Forum in cooperation with INSEAD Business School since

2002 and is one of the most important complex indicators of the ICT development level and information society in some countries [18]. The authors believe that of all others namely ICT is playing a leading role in developing innovations, boosting productivity and competitiveness, giving impetus to economy and business activity. NRI is determined for 142 countries based on 53 indicators, arranged into three group, which describe: availability of conditions for the ICT development; preparedness of individuals, businesses and government agencies to use ICT; prevalence of ICT in the public, commercial and government sectors. The NRI calculation uses the statistics, provided by the UN, World Bank, International Telecommunication Union as well as information obtained from polling the managing staff of non-state enterprises. The NRI 2012 was participated by 142 countries, of which Sweden was the lead, Russian ranked 56th and Kazakhstan - 55th. Data for Belarus are not available because the country is not involved in the WEF survey of business structures. Ranking the countries in terms of the level of e-government (LEGD) is published in the United Nations E-Government Survey for 190 countries [20]. It estimates the preparedness and capability of government institutions to provide the ICT-based services to its public. LEGDP is calculated on the basis of a number of indicators, which are broken down into three sub-indices: scope and quality of Internet services; level of development of telecommunication infrastructure; human capital. According to the United Nations E-Government Survey 2012, the first place was taken by South Korea, Russia ranked 27th, Kazakhstan – 38th. Belarus ranked 61st (3 points up than in 2010); however, it is still below the average indicator for Eastern Europe. The structure of the

e-government development index of Belarus reveals some disproportions: its growth is mainly achieved due to the Human Capital indicator rather than by means of two other sub-indices, reflecting the level of development of Internet services and telecommunications. The IT Industry Competitiveness Index (ITCI) of the world’s countries is calculated by the analytical division of The Economist (British journal) under the auspices of the Software Alliance [7-8, 11]. It is based on six categories, including 25 qualitative and quantitative indicators, including Business Environment Rankings, which is calculated by The Economist’s experts on the basis of other rankings. A country is scored on each category and then the overall index is determined. The ITCI for the current year shows the lead gained by the United States, Russia has ranked 46th, Kazakhstan - 60th, Belarus has not been ranked. The International Property Right Index (IPRI) is an analytic survey, which is annually carried out by the Property Rights Alliance and covers 130 countries [11]. IPRI allows estimating a country's achievements in the area of protection of the private property and intellectual property rights. The index consists of ten indicators and three categories: the legal and political environment; rights for physical property; intellectual property rights. The indicators are based on the statistical data and results of other CCRs; the Alliance’s experts only provide information for calculating the Piracy Level. The IPRI 2012 ranked Finland 1st, Russia - 97th, Kazakhstan - 107th, Ukraine - 118th. Belarus did not participate in this ranking. As is evident from the above, Belarus is represented only in some of CCRs, which reflect the state of innovation and scientific- technological sphere such as knowledge index, knowledge economy index and index of ICT development, and in the ranking of the level of e-government development. The indicators for Belarus in those studies can be characterized as high

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

International Integration

9


SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Science and Innovation

10

on a global scale, above the average - for countries with economies in transition and below the average - in the Eastern Europe region. In whole, when compared with members of the European Union, Belarus is falling behind in the indicators related to development of innovation and scientific-technological areas. When comparing Belarus with the former Soviet Union countries such as Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan, one can say that the country is holding nearly the same positions as they are, and even outstripping its neighbors in such indicators as education and ICT use. The main positive factors are traditionally high indices of Belarus in the area of human capital, quality of secondary and higher education, availability of qualified personnel and generation of new knowledge. The falling-behind factors include implementation and use of the latest technologies (including ICT) and the level of development of economic and institutional regimes. Up to day, Belarus does not participate in the Networked Readiness Index, IT Industry Competitiveness Index and International Property Right Index. Moreover, it has not yet been represented in either of the two leading international rankings - WEF GCI and P-IMD. This is certainly a negative factor that has been impairing the possibility for assessing the development of Belarus through a direct comparison with other countries. Participation in the Global Competitiveness Index is important all the more because its individual indicators are used for some other CCRs. It is just the thing, which has prevented Belarus from entering into the above three rankings and also had a negative effect on the country's position in the Global Innovation Index: Belarus ranked only 78th largely because of lack of the data on 11 indicators, the five of which are taken from the WEF’s reports. In this regard, participation of Belarus in the maximum number of CCRs and primarily in WEF GCI is an important task for improving the international appearance and attractiveness of our country in the

innovation and science-technology areas. Getting into the GCI top 50 or 30 countries will enable Belarus to not only prove its high potential in the international arena, but also provide a boost to its positions in other comparative studies.

References 1. Nazarbayev N.A. Strategy of Kazakhstan on entering the world’s top 50 most competitive countries (Speech of Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan at the joint session of Parliament. Astana. Jan. 18, 2006) // Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Russian Federation. Electronic resource: http://kazembassy.ru/issue/?issueId=588.. 2. Science and Innovation in the Republic of Belarus: Statistical Yearbook / National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. – Minsk, 2012. 3. National Competitiveness of Belarus: Meeting the PresentDay Challenges // Ed. I. Pelipas. – Minsk, 2010. 4. Activity Program of the Government of the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015 // Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus [Electronic resource]. http://www.government.by/ru/ events_pdp_2011-2015. 5. World Patent Ranking // GT: Human Technologies Center [Electronic resource]. http://gtmarket.ru/rankings/rankingcountries-patents/info. 6. Araujo E., Bruno M. Competitiveness: an alternative approaches // Observatorio da Inovacao e Competitivade [Electronic Resource]. http://www.observatoriousp.pro.br/ wp-content/uploads/BrunoAraujo_03-10-2011.pdf. 7. Archibugi D. et al. The technological capabilities of nations: The state of the art of synthetic indicators // Technological Forecasting & Social Change. 2009. Vol. 76. No.7. P. 917-931. 8. Business environment rankings methodology /// Economist Intelligence Unit [Electronic resource]. http://graphics.eiu. com/files/ad_pdfs/CF_PDF.pdf. 9. Index Methodology and Definitions // IT Industry Competitiveness Index 2011 [Electronic resource]. http:// globalindex11.bsa.org/methoddogy/. 10. Innovation Union Scoreboard 2011. - European Union, in 2012. 11. International Property Rights Index 2012 [Electronic resource]. http://www.internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/. 12. IT Industry Competitiveness Index 2011 [Electronic resource]. http://globalindex11.bsa.org. 13. KEI and KI Indexes (KAM 2 012) // The World Bank [Electronic resource]. http://info.wordbank.org/etods/kam2/ KAM_page5.asp. 14. Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) 2012 Rankings//The Word Bank [Electronic resource].http://siteresources.wor1dbank. org/IN- TUNIKAM/Resources/2012.pdf .15. Lai, S. Competitiveness Indices and Developing Countries: An Economic Evaluation of the Global Competitiveness Report / / World Development. 2001. Vol. 29. No. 9. P. 1501-1525. 16. Measuring the Information Society, 2011. - Geneva, in 2011. 17. The Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013 / Ed. Klaus Schwab. - Geneva, in 2012. 18. The Global Information Technology Report 2012 // World Economic Forum [Electronic Resource]. http://www.weforum. org/issues/global-information-technology/gitr-2012-dataplatform. 19. The Global Innovation Index 2012: Stronger Innovation Linkages for Global Growth / Ed. S. Dutta. - Fontainebeau, 2012. 20. United Nations E-Government Survey 2012: E-Government for the People. - NY, 2012. 21. World Competitiveness Yearbook 2012 // IMD: Red World. Real Learning [Electronic Resource]. http://www.imd. org/research/publications/wcy/ World-CompetitivenessYearbook-Results/ 22. Word Intellectual Property Indicators 2009. - Geneva, in 2009. 23. Word Intellectual Property Indicators 2010. - Geneva, 2010 24. Word Intellectual Property Indicators 2011. - Geneva, in 2011.

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE SOCIAL CAPITAL OF SCIENCE Aleksandr Popovich, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Head of Laboratory, G.M.Dobrov Center for Scientific and Technological Potential and Science History Studies, NAS of Ukraine

Vyacheslav Scherbin, Cand.Sc. (Philology), Senior Researcher, Center for System Analysis and Strategic Studies, NAS of Belarus

W

e have not got used yet to a wide circulation of the term «social capital of science», though observing in recent decades a tendency to «capitalization of sociology», which is based on obviously undisguised entrainment of scientists by the term «capital». Just for instance: only in several books by Pierre Bourdieu, a distinguished French sociologist, one can find detailed descriptions of special features of at least dozens of new capital species such as incorporated scientific capital,


information capital, credibility capital, recognition capital, capital of business contacts, honor capital, capital of honor and prestige, commercial capital, cultural capital, material capital, religious capital, symbolic capital, social capital, technical capital, technological capital, trading capital, university capital, school capital, etc. [1-3]. Such tendency to «capitalization of sociology» has even provoked a certain annoyance on the part of some researchers. Specifically, Paul DiMaggio, American sociologist, referred to that tendency in the following manner: «The concept of the capital is being transformed from a powerful and accurate analysis tool in the meaningless figure of speech» [4]. In his turn, Aleksandr Buzgalin, Russian economist, has drawn a conclusion that «appearance in recent decades of a whole bunch of different types of new «capitals» (human, social, natural, cultural ...) suggests that in the context of the late capitalism there has been occurring the evolution of some new social relations and processes, which cannot fit well into its «classics» and theories describing it. Such relations (in particular, social capital) ... are actually not the capital in their contents; they are just procreating the simulacra of capital, the converted forms of basic social and post-capitalist relations» [5]. Nevertheless, we are deeply convinced that introducing the «social capital» concept and such its variation as the «social capital of science» into the scientific circulation and use has proved to be quite productive. The other thing, that having come to hand of sociologists, the original concept of the «capital» is increasingly changing its original content. Even when quoting the definitions of the capital, worded by Karl Marx and other classics of the economic theory, the sociological literature mostly points to the first part of such definitions, which refers to resources that can be used for gaining a profit, but it often ignores the second part of them, which states that the resources can be converted into the capital only

when used in the economic cycle. Theretofore, they are just a certain potential at best, but in no way the capital yet. The subject under consideration of this paper is the structure of the «social capital of science» concept,» the identification and use appropriateness of which has been pioneered and substantiated by already mentioned Pierre Bourdieu in the course of his looking into the interrelation of French scientists and professors or, in other words, the mechanisms of interdependence within the scientific community. In fact, he has qualified the social phenomenon, the existence of which we all are aware of only too well through our own experience, though, normally, we are not concerned with finding some specific terms to designate it. In our daily life we can’t but see how much the personal renown of a scholar or the prestige of the scientific school such scholar belongs to means for a chance to be awarded a grant, research project order or favourable appraisal of the obtained results; how important for a post-graduate student to have the research supervisor, who enjoys respect of his colleagues, and other similar things, which, on the one hand, we can’t readily measure and specify, while, on the other, can’t fail to recognize their great practical importance in reality. Bourdieu suggests to term all the above as the social capital of science, defining it as «a special type of a symbolic capital (which is known to be always based on acts of recognition and acceptance), which consists in the recognition (or credibility), conferred by a group of competitive colleagues within a certain scientific field (a good indicator of this will be the number of references in the citation index that may be completed with such signs of recognition and privity as availability of the Nobel Prize or, in the context of the national level, CNRS medal as well as translations into foreign languages)» [6]. All that can be only partially measured by the citation index or prizes as recognition seems as

though to be of a virtual nature. Indeed, how can one measure such things, which are referred to as the personal attitude, interrelationship climate or level of respect? At the same time, they constitute the «credibility capital», which has an ability to be embodied into real material valuables and resources (for example, in case of awarded orders and grants). Since it has been actually operating within the socio-economic mechanism of the innovative economic development, we have every reason to refer to it as the capital. In-depth analysis of the role and importance of the credibility among people has led us to understanding that the social capital concept can be efficiently used not only relative to the scientific community, but also in relation to economics as it is directly involved in creation of value as new, being a sufficiently serious factor of the economic process [7 - 9]. In our effort to follow the tendency of amplifying the content of this concept and making it to connotate a certain measure of involvement of a personality, social group, enterprise, scientific and research institute or scientific community of the country in the system of social relations and yet not to transgress the borderline, beyond which there begins the «meaningless figure of speech», we have proposed our understanding of the social capital of science. It boils down to interpreting it as being not only internal characteristic of the interrelation within the scientific community, but also as some measure of involvement of the image of scientific paradigm and the idea of the scientific potential of the country in the public mind [10-13]. Such approach enables to more expressively demonstrate the practical significance of what we sometimes call «the image of science and scientists» not only for development of science, but for prosperity of the country as well. The social capital of science as the concept in the public mind, its prestige in the eye of the society, traditions and experience of cooperation of scientists with the society

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Intellectual Capital

11


SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Science and Innovation

12

and state authorities can be regarded indeed as a capital, which can be transformed into real resources: budgetary allocations, research and development orders, innovation culture and, finally, the innovative economic growth. We believe that such interpretation has a great potential for the in-depth analysis of the interrelation between science and society and identification of socio-psychological factors that can influence the rates of the innovative development of the country. Taking into account the above transformations of the social capital of science, it is not difficult to realize that at present we have no right to consider the prestige of the science and scientists as an internal issue of the matter of someone's personal ambitions because such prestige is an integral part of the national wealth; moreover, it is an extremely valuable part as it determines the destiny of not only the science, but also that of the state as well as the future of nation. However, one has to turn attention to the fact that the above two definitions of the social capital of science are actually evidencing the presence in its structure of the two significantly different constituents: the internal constituent, being brought forth by the interrelation among scientists in the scientific community, and the external one that is being determined by the attitude of society to science and credibility to it of people, not directly involved in scientific activities. Such binary nature of the social capital is typical not only for science. Normal development and prosperity of any company would require the corporate solidarity, friendly assistance and mutual trust within its collective body, i.e. all those things which we call as the internal social capital. But the credit of customers and subcontractors, brand image that contribute to the external social capital of the corporation, would be of rather greater than lesser importance. For the purpose of increasing the value of these two constituents any company shall carry on the social policy of two

types: the internal policy, intended for its employees and thus limited by its scope, and the external one, which is oriented to available and potential users of such company’s products, the population in the territory, where the company or its individual enterprise is located, providing its close cooperation with local authorities. [16] It is essential to distinguish between these two constituents of the social capital when searching for the ways of a goal-oriented buildup of the social capital of science. Indeed, the possible mechanisms of such process for each of these constituents will be notably different. In particular, the buildup of the internal constituent of the social capital of science almost entirely depends on the scientists themselves: just how strictly they observe the ethics standards in science, how high is their culture of scholarly dispute, what is the level of democratization of the scientific life and activity of scientists in terms of their promoting and popularizing scientific achievements, and their direct participation in the processes of autonomous management of research teams. For example, early 90’s could see the prestige of the national science being heavily crippled by the so called «authority- going» of some individual scientists, their reckless actions and statements in mass media on the issues in those spheres (economic, political, diplomatic, military, construction and so on), where they could be hardly the experts because of their lacking appropriate professional knowledge. Those «Woe from Wit» scholars played off, as a rule, their quite subjective and largely nihilistic views they had on history, national symbols, relations with neighboring countries and so on as the common point of view maintained by the scientific community; the groundless criticism of any actions on the part of power structures was presented as the major function of the science and scientific community, thus contributing to formation of a negative image of the national science in the eye of public.

On the other hand, formation of the so-called «pro-government» science, which is ever prepared to provide «scientific basis» and justify retroactively any decisions and actions of the political power, can, by no means, contribute in the buildup of the value of the internal constituent of the social capital of science. As it was correctly remarked in this connection by Boris Malitsky, a known Ukrainian science theorist, «…political power must be necessarily supported by science. At the same time, science, however, has to develop on the principle of academic freedom. Its relative independence from political powers is the prerequisite for objectivity of scientific decisions and the pledge of strong and effective government. Such political power may rest upon the entire scientific community, i. e. be «pro-scientific», whilst science must be never «pro-government» and it cannot be such in principle» [17]. The prestige of the science is frequently undermined by gross violation of the science ethical standards by some individual «scholars», specifically, by their reports through mass media about numerous cases of plagiarism in scientific papers and dissertations [18], production of some banned products in some chemical profile academic institutes, misuse of budget funds and other similar facts. The growth of the internal constituent of the social capital of science is being notably slowed by the disunity of national scientists as the holdover of the Soviet times. The most obvious manifestation of the clanism and confrontation spirit was the notorious breakdown into «ins and outs» sciences, in which context the «physicists» were splitting the science into natural and unnatural (to the latter they attributed humanities and social sciences), while the «naturalists» in social and anti-social (natural and technical) sciences. Even those researchers, who do not share such obviously contrived classifications, have, nevertheless, assumed quite complacent and uncritical position to the «creators» of them. In opinion of Vladimir Backing, a Russian


parliamentary expert, it was exactly «the complacency and disunity of scientists that have led the science to its complete self-destruction» as an effective factor of the contemporary social life. [19] Finally, the staffing of the science management apparatus with the executives, who meet neither the competence nor innovation culture requirements, cannot but negatively affect the value of the internal constituent of the social capital of science. Such executives are bureaucratizing the research process to a wide extent, cutting down the low even without that level of the prestige of scientific work in the eyes of young people and reducing the innovative potential of science. As for the external constituent of the social capital of science, building it up depends, to a large extent, on the government policy in this area. In particular, the important role in formation of the science prestige and thereby that of its social capital is attributed to the level of the budget financing provided for research projects as well as the average rate of salary set by the government for scientific workers. Also, a very important factor for the growth of the external constituent is the targeted formation of a positive public opinion about science through the mass media; elements of such positive opinion are to be presented in the mass media coverage of large-scale scientific and technological achievements, technogenic catastrophes and other science-related challenges and achievements as well as their impact on the life of society. Regrettably, in practice, the process of this constituent buildup shows not much progress. On the one hand, in all post-Soviet states there has been observed a negative dynamics of such key indicator as the research intensity of the gross domestic product (GDP), which, on the average, approached 3% in the USSR while at present it has fallen down below 1% in most CIS countries. This affects the value of the social capital of science in a most negative way.

Substantial losses of the social capital of science are caused by apparently contemptuous attitude of mass media representatives, creative unions and organizations. The entirely science-minded and absorbed researches can hardly understand why some of the journalists are specializing on «debunking» the science. Unfortunately, the authors of negative publications about science are just lacking the awareness that the social capital of science is a national asset, which calls for an extremely delicate and cautious attitude, because the loss of even a part of it will have rather painful consequences for our descendants. For their part, theater, cinema and literature have also directly participated in formation of the social capital of science. If the science-fiction novels of the Soviet times were actively contributing in the buildup of its external constituent and galvanizing the interest of the young generation to science, the «fantasy» genre, currently prevailing and being the unfortunate preference of youngsters, is doing nothing but eroding the scientific view of the world and bringing to naught the prestige of the authentic scientific knowledge. Just for comparison: the conducted in the U.S. polls have indicated that of all social institutions of this country it is the science, which is most trusted by its public. The post-Soviet countries can’t boast they have had the same. Even among major politicians one can often come across those who are referring to science with an overt disregard. This is one of the weighty reasons that availability of the renown and even international recognition of a researcher or research team does not guarantee the support of their activities either by government or society in their homeland. This issue does not imply the lack of funds. The analysis of the policy, pursued in the post-Soviet states in relation to science, shows that science has almost fell out of the state's priorities and it is not longer considered as a factor that can produce a serious impact on the national socio-economic

development. Providing funds to the science needs is regarded as the «social burden on the budget», i.e. some kind of charity on the part of the state. Such attitude is the reason for oratory about redundancy of the overall scientific potential, created in Soviet times (which has been, incidentally, decreased by now to less than one-third) and that in present state of affairs the CIS countries cannot afford to maintain it (it was easier to maintain such potential during the years of postwar ruins, wasn’t it?!) etc. It is no wonder that curtailment of numerous scientific programs in the post-Soviet states has met neither serious protests on the part of the public in these countries, nor even sufficiently worded disapproval of the scientific community. Speeches for defense of science on the part of some most forward-looking scholars, their efforts to explain that new knowledge is becoming the main resource for economic development, are interpreted more often merely as attempts to protect the corporate interests and tear off the sweetest spot from the social pie in these hard days. When wondering why the level of public trust in science so sharply dropped down from late 80's to early 90's, why the public veneration of scientists and common admiration of science was suddenly changed to almost outright hostility on the part of the population in the post-Soviet countries, we cannot but have to draw attention to one question: what such attitude was based on? It was based on the faith in the omniscience and omnipotence of science. That was largely facilitated by the very principles of science popularization; the mass media and even scientific and popular publications were striving to take the readers fancy and admiration with «the marvels of science» rather than to transfer them a new scientific knowledge and view of the world. It was only too natural that the human factor-induced events like the Chernobyl disaster, numerous cases of technogenic pollution of the environment etc. have thoroughly undermined the public

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Intellectual Capital

13


Science and Innovation faith in the miraculous power of science. Therefore, one of the most important aspects of building the social capital of science up conscientiously, which is the most urgent task of the scientific community and all social forces, striving to implement the innovative development of our countries, is not just stirring up the popularization of science, but a radical reorientation of the popular science publications and programs. They are expected to provide the great masses of population with a new scientific knowledge and apprehension of the place of science in the civilization process, promote the public awareness of such obvious fact that science is the leading edge of the mankind's struggle for its place under the sun and the basis for further development. And when at the front as in any war, one has to be prepared both to victories and defeats. But without the persistent progression in this ongoing battle our civilization may lose both the

basis for its development and possibility to exist further. There is every reason to believe that the scientific community of the CIS countries is just underestimating the seriousness of the current situation in the CIS scientific and technical sphere. Otherwise one cannot explain those regularly observed intergroup «showdowns» on pages of the post-Soviet scientific periodicals, a sharp decline in their activity in promoting and popularizing the scientific achievements, the lack of real efforts on the part of the scientific community to achieve the required level of understanding with the state administration bodies, representatives of mass media and creative unions, business structures. In our view, time has come to turn on the self-organization mechanism of science so that it can fully exercise its social and political force, create and implement the program of its influence upon the public consciousness, directed for search of mutual understanding

between science and society, and finally find a common language with government and business structures as well as with mass media. This is the only possible way to increase the social capital of the national science and at the same time to restore its attractive image in the public consciousness in our countries. Otherwise, the predictions of Eugene Rosenstock-Huessy, the German philosopher, in relation to the future of the brainpower may well come true: «Either we find a common language or global cataclysm. We have to find out the unified basis for social thinking. Otherwise, masses can do without us, giving up our incomprehensible disunity» [20]. It is much hoped that the CIS countries researchers, totaling to 12% of the global intellectual potential, will not allow having this unhappy scenario realized. This work has been supported by the Belarus Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research and State Fund for Fundamental Research of Ukraine.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

References

14

1. Bourdieu P. Metascience / Translation from French. - Moscow., 1993. 2. Bourdieu P. Fundamentals /Translation from French. - Moscow, 1994. 3. Bourdieu P. Social Space: Fields and Practices / Translation from French. - Moscow, St. Petersburg., 2005. 4. DiMaggio P. Review Essay: On Pierre Bourdieu // American Journal of Sociology. 1979. Vol. 84. No.6. P. 1468. 5. Buzgalin A.V. Social Capital: the Glue for Stability of Late Capitalism or Cyclonite in its Foundation?// Social Sciences and Modernity. No. 3, 2011. P 160. 6. Bourdieu, P. Clinical Sociology of the Field of Science / / Pierre Bourdieu’s Socioanalysis. Yearbook of the Russian-French Centre of Sociology and Philosophy, Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences. - Moscow, St. Petersburg., 2001. P. 56. 7. Helliwell J.F., Putnam R.D. Economic Growth and Social Capital in Italy / / Eastern Economic Journal. 1995. Vol. 21.P. 295-307. 8. Dasgupta P. Economic Development and the Idea of Social Capital. - Cambridge, 1999. 9. Zuyev, A., Myasnikov l. Social Capital and Innovation Activities// RISK. 2004. Part 2. Pp. 47-53. 10. Dikusar A.I., A. Popovich A.S., Prokoshin V.I., Scherbin V. K. Particular Issues Associated with Transformation of the Social capital of Science in the Countries with Transitional Economy// Knowledge-Based Society: New challenges to Science and Scientists. - K., 2006. Pp. 226-234. 11. Popovich O.S . Putting a Stop to Devaluation of the Social Capital of Science// Herald of the National Academy of Sciences of Urkaine.No.2, 2007. Pp. 8-15. 12. Scherbin V. K. Social Capital of Science among Contiguous Concepts// Sociology. No.1, 2008. Pp. 35-42. 13. Scherbin V. K. Sources and Methods for Formation of the Social Capital of Science// Sociology. No.1, 2009. Pp. 59-72. 14. Popovich A., Prokoshin V. Dynamics of the Social Capital of Science in Ukraine and Belarus // Science and Innovation. No. 3, 2009. Pp. 59-62. 15. Scherbin V. K. Social Capital of the Belarus science and Mechanisms for its Buildup // Science and Science Studies.No.4, 2009. Pp. 98-113. 16. Kozlov V. Corporate social policy in Russia// Federalism. No.3, 2010. P. 203. 17. Malitsky B.A. Doctrine of State Power Has to be Based on the Vital Interests of Nation//Issues of Science. No. 12, 2002. Pp. 15-16. 18. E.g. see: Simonova O. A. Candidate for the Degree of Doctor of Philology Robbing a Student // New Herald of Philology. No.4, 2009.Pp. 149-151. 19. Babkin V.I. Academic Science and the Future of the Country // Free Thinking, No. 7, 2008. P. 57. 20. Rosenstock-Huessy E. Speech and Reality // Translation from English. - Moscow. 1994. P. 13.


Medicine

ISOLATED HEART PERFUSION METHOD tist Oscar Langendorff (1853–1908). He was a doctor and a physiologist known both for his experiments on the open heart and discoveries in respiration and peripheral nervous system research. In 1895 Langendorff first started working on preparations ex vivo. The experimental apparatus is shown in the engraving (Figure 1). Heart preparation functions were preserved by defibrinated blood. In his experiments Langendorff perfused coronary vessels via the aorta, thus, the blood flow was reversed (retrograde) which was sufficient to maintain prolonged functioning of the isolated organ. The technique was rather simple but therefore its imperfection ensued, as, since blood circulation was different from that in the body, it was not possible to obtain reliable data for pressure–volume indices. Hence, this technique only gave general information of coronary vessels hemodynamics. Nevertheless, with some modifications, it is still used nowadays (Figure 2).

Oscar Langendorff

In 1967 James Neely and Howard Morgan suggested another kind of the perfused heart model, the working heart model (Figure 3) that was characterized by anterograde perfusion: Perfusate was supplied to the heart through the left atrium, passed through the left ventricle and flew out of the aorta. This allowed physiological assessment of the ventricle function since the left ventricle contractile function was fully preserved. Later on, this model was altered according to different objectives of laboratories worldwide. At present, approaches to work with isolated animal heart are also based on proved techniques, but they have moved to a rather different qualitative level. It was largely due to the transition to a state-of-the-art instrumental facilities. Thus, IH-SR apparatus, located at the Radiobiology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, is intended for isolated small rodent heart perfusion (Figure 4). It is made as a program apparatus complex which makes it possible to perform experiments applying a wide range of experimental exposure in several working modes, including both Langendorff and working heart models. Experimental procedure. To achieve the optimum use of the perfused heart system, it is imperative that the experimenter give careful thought to the design of the experiment, the donor heart, its maintenance and instrumentation. The selection of the heart is often based on the typical or unique response of the donor organ to pharmacological or physiological stimuli or on selected metabolic or biochemical events. The most common donors are mice,

Alexadr Naumov, Director, Radiobiology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Doctor of Science (Biology), Assistant professor

Natalya Timohina, Vice-director for scientific research, Radiobiology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Candidate of Science (Biology)

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

A

ccording to the World Health Organization, about half of fatalities in well-developed countries are caused by cardiovascular diseases [1]. Thereby, great current importance lies in cardio-circulatory pathology research with modern methods and models application. Perfusion of isolated animal heart, mammalian in particular, is one of the main techniques available that exclude other internal interactions effects on the myocardium. The technique allows to study in detail cardiac function biomedical and physiological measurements, as well as the effects of various external factors, such as drug substances, thermal and electrical stimulation, etc. The researcher can select experimental conditions subject to research objectives which offers good opportunities along with in vivo hemodynamic studies. Method History. Heart tissue capability to get excited by their own impulses, which is now called automatism, was recorded as far back as the Renaissance. Thus, the founder of scientific anatomy Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) while performing postmortem examination registered sustaining vital activities of the heart, which, however lasted for a short time only. Tremendous upgrowth of medicine and physiology between 19th and 20th centuries made it possible for scientists to come to grips with principles of blood circulatory system functions. There was pressing need to study myocardial contractility ex vivo ( i.e. in artificial environment). The establishment of isolated heart perfusion method is connected with the name of the German scien-

Dmitry Stashkevich, Senior research assistant, Radiobiology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

15


Science and Innovation

Fig. 1. Engraving of Oscar Langendorff's original apparatus, 1895

Fig. 2. Langerdorff's isolated heart model

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Fig. 3. Working heart model

16

rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, polecats, and hamsters. Unless special measures are taken to sustain the isolated heart vital functions, it will stop contracting shortly and die. The immediate cause of paralysis, and consequent tissue downfall, will be congestion of intermediary metabolism products and related enzymatic systems disturbance and fine cardiac tissues structure derangement, as well as ischemia. To exclude these processes, buffer solutions as close as possible to blood plasma composition were developed. Standard solution for mammalian heart perfusion is Krebs–Henseleit buffer [3]. To

achieve physiological pH level (7.4) and oxygenation, carbogene-mixture of 95% oxygen and 5% carbonic acid is run through the solution. Besides Krebs–Henseleit solution, Ringer, Locke, and Tyrode solutions are sometimes used. Depending on the solution used, oxygen- carbonic acid proportion in the passed gas must be altered. Langendorff perfusion can be performed in the constant volume mode (when coronary flow passes with the same speed but automatic heart regulation is switched off). Thus, all the changes observed are related to external exposure. Herein a detailed description of the heart removal for which there are applicable manuals [4-6] will not be presented, but a brief operating procedure will be given for working with Langendorff model in the most common constant pressure mode. At the start of the experiment, the heart is surgically removed, then the experimenter locates the aorta and inserts a cannula. The next step is to connect the heart preparation to the system and start retrograde perfusion. In order to register intraventricular pressure measurements a balloon made of latex or other polymeric material on a special cannula is inserted into the left ventricular cavity, and the cannula is connected to a pressure transducer. During the preparation work adequate solution temperature and adequate pressure should be maintained (see Table). As mentioned above, in Langendorff perfusion model the perfusate flows down directly into the aorta (rather than out the left ventricle through the aorta, as blood does in situ) through a special cannula (retrogradely), thus obstructing the aortic valve. The perfusion solution gets into coronary arteries only. Passing through the myocardium vessels, the solution flows into the coronary sinus and then into the right auricle. Then it flows out of the heart either through the tricuspid valve, right ventricle and pulmonary artery, or through caval openings. The isolated heart perfusion technique allows to register the following measurements: left ventricular pressure (diastolic and

systolic), cardiac rate (CR), electrogram, volume coronary blood flow rate (CBF) when performing perfusion with constant pressure (as difference between the volume of the solution flowing into the aorta and the value of its ejection into the diverter system), or perfusion pressure (constant volume mode), maximum rates for intraventricular pressure rise and drop (+dP/dtmax and –dP/dtmax), and others. These measurements allow to characterize heart function biomechanics to a full extent [6]. Thus, heart rate describes functional status of heart automation nodes (pacemakers), sinoatrial in particular, and the conduction system. Systolic pressure reflects the rate of isovolumic contractions of the cardiac muscle, which mainly depends on the Са2+ ions concentration in cardiomyocytes and, therefore, on functional activity of enzymatic systems that regulate Са2+ levels, as well as on kinetic properties of myosin bridges. +dP/dtmax defines myofibril contraction rate which is conditioned by intensity of actin and myosin active centres interaction. The –dP/dtmax value characterizes cardiomyocytes relaxation rate which depends mainly on sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase activity which determines its cаlcium absorption rate. CBF allow to assess coronary vasculature reactive capacity. The Table presents expected values for some measurements in Langendorff's method of isolated heart perfusion. The values given are approximate and may vary

Fig. 4. IH-SR apparatus


Medicine

Animal Mouse

Body weight (g)

Heart weight (g) Cardiac rate (bpm)

Perfusion pressure (mmHg)

CBF (ml/min)

Perfusion solution type

25–35

0.14–0.18

250–400

50–60

1.6–2.9

K-H

Rat

200–300

0.8–1.2

260–450

70–80

7–10

K-H

Guinea pig

300–500

1.3–2.0

220–330

50–80

7–14

K-H

120

0,6

70–80

5–6

K-H

2.5 – 3.5 kg

9-14

120-150

70–80

20–40

K-H, Tyrode, blood

3 – 5 kg

15-18

110-240

70–80

25–29

K-H, Tyrode, blood

Hamster Rabbit Cat

lation mechanisms of the heart contractile function and coronary vessels tone which may underlie the pathogenesis of postradiational vegetative-vascular dystonia taking hyper- or hypotonic type, increased thrombosis probability, reduced the heart adaptive capabilities to hypoxia and other disturbing factors, which results in the increased risk of pre-pathologic and pathologic conditions (endothelium dysfunction, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction). To draw the line under this introductory article, it can be noted that isolated heart perfusion is a contemporary and innovative technique that can be applied in a number of biological science areas. It ensures well-reproducible measurements, the samples are easy to prepare, the studies are relatively low-cost and permit a wide spectrum of physiological, biochemical, pharmacological and morphological

measurements. All measurements are made nonregistering the impact of other organs and systems on the cardiac muscle function. The isolated heart perfusion method permits: experimental «agent concentration – heart response» studies with adding humoral, metabolic and pharmacological substances to the perfusate; studies of reoxygenation and reperfusion impact, as well as perfusate composition, in researching ischemia, hypoxia and reperfusion complications; heart contractile function studies using contraction transducers to assess heart pumping ability, and others. It is worth adding that State Scientific Establishment «Radiobiology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus» has all the equipment and staff required to perform these studies.

Table. Averaged measurements for Langendorff method of isolated heart perfusion for different animals

References: 1. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd_report_full_en.pdf 2. Minasyan С.М. Comparative study of hypothermia, ischemic preconditioning and modified cardioplegic solutions protective effect in isolated rate heart ischemia-reperfusion. / С.М. Minasyan [and colleagues] // Regional circulation and microcirculation. 2008. Vol. 7. No.2 (26). pp. 72–78. 3. Krebs H.A. Untersuchungen ueber die Harnstoffbildungim Tierkoerper / H.A. Krebs, K. Henseleit // Hoppe Seylers Z. Physi-ol. Chem. 1932. Vol. 210. P. 33–36. 4. Minasyan С.М. Isolated rat heart perfusion method. / С.М. Minasyan [and colleagues] // Regional circulation and microcirculation. 2009. Vol. 8. No.4 (32). pp. 54–59. 5. Determination of function in the isolated working mouse heart: Issues in experimental design. Gauthier, N.S., Matherne, G.P., Morrison, R.R. & Headrick, J.P. (1998). J Mol Cell Cardiol 30, 453–461. 6. Grupp J.L., Grupp G. Isolated heart preparations perfused or superfused with balanced salt solutions // Meth. Pharmacol.-1984. No.5. p. 111–128. 7. Doring H., Dehnert H.J. The Isolated Perfused Heart // English Edition, Biomesstechnik-Verlag March GMBH, ISBN3-924638-04-7. 1988. 8. Resume and prospects of cardiologic studies in Chernobyl disaster victims / V.I. Gayduk, V.G. Rusetskaya, D.G. Laziuk and collegues // Medicobiologic aspects of Chernobyl disaster. 1998, No.2. pp. 3–8. 9. Konoplya Е.F. Problems of ionizing radiation action. Radiobiological and radioecological Chernobyl disaster effects and solutions / Е.F. Konoplya, N.I. Timohina, А.N. Nikitin, А.D. Naumov and collegues. // Radiation and Chernobyl: immediate and long-term effects. (Radiation and Chernobyl. Vol. 4) / under the general editorship of academician Е.F. Konoplya. – Gomel, 2007. pp. 3–11. 10. Vorobyov Е.I., Stepanov R.P. Ionizing radiation and blood vessels. – М., 1985. 11. Lobanok L.М., Антоненко А.Н. Biomechanical cardiac function and its adrenergic regulation after long-term γ-irradiation exposure // Radiation biology. Radioecology. Vol. 40, No.3, 2000. pp 245–249. 12. Bakshaeva М.А., Kadukova Е.М., Stashkevich D.g., Naumov А.D. Study of irradiation injuries early therapy with L-arginine preparation possibilities // Sakharov Readings of 2012: Ecological Issues of the 21st Century: 12th International Scientific Conference materials, May, 17–18, 2012, Minsk. p. 229. 13. Antonenko А.N. The features of acute and prolonged low dose γ-irradiation effects on biomechanical cardiac function and its adrenergic regulation // Topical Issues of Dosimetry: International Symposium materials, Minsk, October, 27–29, 1999 – Мn., 1999. pp. 108–110. 14. Suvorava Т., Luksha L.S., Lobanok L.M. The effects of acute and chronic radiation on endothelium- and NO-dependent vascular reactivity // Cellular and Molecular Biology. 2005. Vol. 51. p. 321–327.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

according to experimental conditions, perfusion characteristics, and solution type. Application of the isolated heart perfusion method in radiobiological studies. After the accident at Chernobyl nuclear station a significant number of people in Belarus found themselves in a changed radio-ecological environment and were exposed to prolonged low intensity ionizing radiation. In the course of epidemiological observation over the citizens of the republic increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and fatalities induced by such was detected, in liquidators of Chernobyl disaster consequences in particular[8-9]. Traditionally, the heart and vessels were thought to be radio-resistant organs and were not considered critical, though by now it has been established that exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation leads to florid long-term sustained structural and functional disturbances [10]. It has also been shown that when exposed to relatively low doses of radiation, cardiovascular output and regulation mechanisms are subject to a specific anatomical and functional alteration[11]. Therefore, the objective to carry on studies of biological effects of exposure to relatively low ionizing radiation doses on the blood circulatory system becomes apparent. Such studied are ongoing at Radiobiology Institute, among others they include application of the isolated heart perfusion method. For instance, in rats, exposure to 1.0 Gy irradiation has been established to reduce systolic pressure in the left ventricle of the heart, and maximum rates of increase and drop have been determined. Total irradiation exposure disturbs biomechanical cardio output regulation. Following acute and prolonged irradiation inotropic myocardium response to M-cholinergic receptors, chronotropic and inotropic heart reactions to β-adrenergic stimulation are reduced, and basal NO synthesis in coronary vessels is increased [12-14]. The results of studies show that ionizing radiation in relatively low doses modifies regu-

17


Science and Innovation

UNIQUE OPERATION OF BELARUSIAN CARDIAC SURGEONS

P

eople over 60 years of age tend to suffer from an aneurysm of a distal arch and descending aorta (Fig. 1) which occurs in females - in 2.5% of cases and in males - in 5-8%. The average prevalence in the population is approximately 0.5-0.7%. The prognosis of this disease is rather unfavorable. According to some researchers, about 37.5% of patients die within three years and a little more than half of patients stay alive by the end of the 5th year. Actually, there is no effective conservative treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysm. In such cases an open surgical correction of a lesion is traditionally used. This method has been used in the world for over 40 years, is performed in different ways with many modifications, but generally is reduced to the resection of the affected area of the aorta by replacing a defect with an artificial prosthesis. However, this method has a number of serious negative aspects: a high injury rate of the intervention itself, a significant postoperative mortality, prolonged hospitalization, difficult and long rehabilitation period, etc.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

aneurysm of descending aorta

18

A modern way of treatment of aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is using a less traumatic endovascular method. During the operation stentgraft is introduced into an aorta through a puncture in the femoral artery which is fixed in unaffected areas of the aorta not only more distal, but also more proximal to the aneurysm. The stent-graft is a skeleton covered with material similar to vascular graft placed in the folded (compressed to the minimum diameter) state into a delivery device - a catheter. The skeleton is made of nitinol - a material that has shape memory. If released from a delivery device, it tends to return to its initial form and size as produced. This methodology provides a modified aortic remodeling by isolating the aneurysmal sac and has a number of advantages not only being fairly radical and gentle at the same time, but also being characterized by a lower frequency of postoperative complications and postoperative periods of hospital treatment. Compared to the standard surgical method, the endovascular method has reduced operative mortality and morbidity rates more than twice in terms of similar late survival data and comparable frequency of repeated interventions. However, even this method has specific technical difficulties and limitations imposed by anatomical and technical conditions. In particular, when an aneurysm is located in the origin zone of the brachiocephalic vessels, the use of joint replacement as an isolated method is impossible due to the risk of overlapping mouths of brachiocephalic arteries and circulatory disorders of the brain. A similar situation occurred in a specific clinical case.

A 34-year-old man, whose condition had been classified as severe, was delivered to the RSPC «Cardiology» with complains of pains in left chest and back. The day before, the patient was hospitalized in the community hospital because of hemoptysis (small pulmonary hemorrhage). It became clear from the anamnesis that when the patient was 11 years old, he was subjected to an operation - an indirect aorta istmoplastics - because of the congenital coarctation (narrowing) of the aorta, i.e. a correction of the narrowed area of the aorta through a longitudinal incision and subsequent transverse closure of the formed defect. Having suspected an aneurysm rupture of the thoracic aorta, the patient was examined using computed tomography (CT) by physicians. The CT results have confirmed the presence of a giant aneurysm (an abnormal enlargement) of the thoracic aorta in the area of the operation made before (Figs. 2, 3). In addition, the blood soaked surrounding tissues, including a left lung, served as an indication of a rupture of the aneurysm. Echocardiography, radiopaque aortography and ultrasound examination of the brachiocephalic arteries were urgently performed. The obtained data showed that the brachiocephalic vessels that feed the brain and upper extremities are dangerously close to the aneurysm and the left subclavian artery branches directly off from its cavity. That made a difficult task of the surgeons even more complicated. Without an emergency intervention the prognosis was clear – a progression of the rupture and death as a result.


Medicine

Vitaly Mikhnevich, Research Associate, Vascular Surgery Laboratory, RSPC «Cardiology»

Alex Smolyakov, Surgeon of the 1st Cardiac Surgery Department of RSPC «Cardiology»

Fig. 2, 3. Tomogram indicating the presence of an aneurysm (aorta diameter is marked by arrows, aneurism diameter – by braces

Fig. 4. Movement of mouths of brachiocephalic arteries into an ascending aorta

Fig. 5. Control CT-studies

was extubated after 6 hours. His condition was «stable» and corresponded to the available pathology and interventions performed, but due a number of reasons, including the actual absence of the left lung (which was constricted by aneurysm and soaked with blood), the patient developed a severe complication, i.e. respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Spontaneous respiration has become ineffective, therefore, a decision was made to use the hardware artificial oxygenation – veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation of blood (ECMO) through special cannulas introduced into the right atrium and inferior vena cava. Then, the patient developed an acute renal failure accompanied by the absence of urinary renal function. Due to this, prolonged renal replacement therapy was conducted in ultragemodiafiltration and hemodialysis regimes. In a month, a full recovery of renal function with normal levels of metabolites and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was achieved. The initial severity of the pathology

and a series of severe complications resulted in a prolonged 39-day treatment of the patient in the intensive care unit. Over that period, a system immunological response syndrome (SIRS) with symptoms of septicemia, which has been docked (eliminated) only on the 50th day, naturally developed. On the 66th day after the operation, the patient has been transferred to the Department of Rehabilitation in a satisfactory condition. Two months later after the operations, CT-control studies were conducted and their results proved the adequacy of surgical interventions (isolated aneurysm cavity), as well as the partial restoration of the structure and function of the left lung (Fig. 5). The patient was discharged from hospital in a satisfactory condition on the 90th day from the date of surgery. Therefore, a hybrid correction of complicated aneurysm arch and descending aorta with a preliminary movement of the brachiocephalic vessels was performed for the first time in Belarus.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Pavel Chernoglaz, Surgeon, X-Ray Endovascular Department, RSPC «Cardiology»

Traditional open surgical intervention, thoracic aortic prosthesis, was extremely risky in that case because of the possibility of uncontrolled intraoperative bleeding, as both an aneurysm rupture and a disruption of normal anatomy after a surgery performed in childhood mutually complicated each another. An endovascular intervention was also impossible due to the risk of stent-graft overlapping the vessels located in the zone of its installation and feeding the brain and upper limbs. A decision was made to perform a hybrid surgery consisting of surgical and endovascular stages. During the first phase, the surgeons surgically moved mouths (prosthetics using a bifurcation prosthesis) of brachiocephalic arteries - a brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid - into an ascending aorta through the mini-sternotomistic access, as well as moved the left subclavian artery mouth into the left common carotid to maintain the blood supply of the upper limb (Fig. 4). Performing that operation created the conditions for the successful endovascular treatment phase because the risk of overlapping the mouths of the brachiocephalic arteries was eliminated and the aortic stent platform needed for fixation of an endovascular prosthesis with no waste receptacles has been created. Then the patient was taken to the X-Ray operating room where three prostheses which had been isolated from the blood stream of the aneurysm cavity, thereby preventing further break, were consecutively installed into the arc area and the descending thoracic aorta. The need to use simultaneously three endovascular grafts was caused by huge size of the aneurysm and a great extent of pathologically altered portion of the aorta. A successful application of a hybrid technique has provided a reliable isolation of an aneurism cavity and prevented the progression of an aneurysm rupture with fatal bleeding. However, hardships were not over for the patient. After the operations performed, he regained consciousness and

19


Science and Innovation

GENETICAL PREDICTORS OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS UDC 616.379-008.64

S

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

ystemic osteoporosis and its related fractures go with the most widespread clinical implications of diabetic osteopathy. Osteoporosis is the disease caused by aggregate of genetic and external factors at that the contribution of the latter into the progression of the disease is 15-20%, whereas genetic cause accounts for more than 70% of total risk. Primary objective of advanced therapy for the control of osteoporosis is early disease detection carried out before first clinical signs onset. Detection of genetical predictors of osteoporosis is one of the focal areas of not only genetics but of total public health service. Identification of candidate genes which determine the state of bone mineral density (BMD) offers distinct possibilities for early preclinical determination of high-risk groups of both primary and secondary forms of osteoporosis. The goal of research was to assess the degree of incidence of

20

Table 1. Primer sequence, PCR conditions and restriction endonuclease used for genotyping assay

single nucleotide polymorphism OPG (-209G/A), OPG(-245T/G), COLIA1-Van91I (+1245G/T), Esr-Pvull (+397T/C), Esr-bal (+351A/G) and their interaction with the state of BMD in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Randomized cross-sectional trial was done in Endocrine Unit of Minsk City Public Clinical Hospital No. 1, Republican Center for Rehabilitation and Balneotherapeutics (RTzMRiB), Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of Belarusian Public Medical University, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences. 62 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included in the clinical trial. Comprehensive physical examination including assessment of anthropometric data (height, weight, body mass index, waist measurement), patient reported outcomes were done, in the course of which occurrence of osteoporosis risk factors was assessed. During the Restriction endonuclease used for genotyping assay

Polymorphisms

Primer sequence

COLIA1 (+1245G/T)

5-GGCATTGGCTGGCTTTGGG-3 5-GGGAGTGGCTTGCGTGGTA-3 94o C – 4 min., 35 cycles, 94o C – 1 min. 60 o C – 1min., 72o C – 1 min., 72 o C – 5 min.

PfIMI (Van91I)

Esr (+397T/C) Esr (+351A/G)

5-CCCATTTGCCATTCTTGAT-3 5-TACCTCTTGCCGTCTGTTG-3 94o C – 4 min., 35 cycles, 94o C – 1 min. 51 o C – 1min., 72o C – 1 min., 72 o C – 5 min.

PvuII XbaI

OPG (-209G/А) OPG (-245T/G)

5-CGAACCCTAGAGCAAAGTGC-3 5-TGTCTGATTGGCCCTAAAGC-3 94o C – 4 min., 35 cycles, 94o C – 1 min. 62 o C – 1min., 72o C – 1 min., 72 o C – 5 min.

Sequenation

process of examination the patients were not on calcium drugs. In order to verify the autoimmune component in the development of type1 diabetes mellitus the level of diabetes associated antibodies (IAA, GAD65, ICA-512) were evaluated by method of immunoenzymatic electrochemiluminescence assay with BRIO (Seac, Italy) automated equipment for immunoenzymatic assays in microplate using DRG (USA) agents. Among the indices of phosphoric calcium metabolism in blood serum total calcium (Ca total, n = 62), inorganic phosphorus (P, n = 62), alkaline phosphatase (ALP, n = 62) levels were registered. Inorganic phosphorus levels without deproteinization in blood serum were determined with CF-46 spectrophotometer at wave-length of 340 nm using Belarusian «Analysis X» agents. Total calcium in blood serum was determined by photometric method with glyoxal-bis (2-hydroxyaniline) using KFK-2 photocolorimeter (Russia) applying «Analysis X» agents. Activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood serum was determined at hydrolytic cleavage of p-nitrophenylphosphate with KFK-2 photocolorimeter using «Analysis X» agents. Reproductive sex hormones markers (estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, lactogenic hormone, interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, n = 2) in the blood serum taken on the


Medicine N

m

SD

M

Min

Max

LQ

UQ

Age, yeas

62

31,46

Male:female, n (%)

62

19,0

45,0

24,0

38,0

Height, cm

62

170,68

8,69

170,0

Weight, kg

62

69,09

10,92

69,5

152,0

188,0

164,0

176,0

48,0

110,0

60,0

76,0

Body mass index, kg/m2

62

23,41

3,0

Waist measurement, cm

62

80,74

9,52

23,0

17,5

33,10

21,0

25,1

79,0

68,0

97,0

72,0

90,0

62

13,40

7,41

12,0

5,0

35,0

9,0

20,0

62

18,11

7,77

17,0

4,0

35,0

13,0

22,0

43

55,82

15,45

57,0

24,0

96,0

46,0

66,0

Clinic anamnestic data

Duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus, years Age of type 1 diabetes mellitus onset, years Daily dose of insulin, u/day

8,55

30,5

26 (42):36 (58)

Table 2. Clinical profile of worked-up patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Laboratory findings HbA1c, %

46

8,25

0,95

8,2

6,5

11,0

7,6

8,7

Fasting glycemia, µmol/l

44

9,17

3,86

8,68

3,6

18,23

6,11

11,2

ICA 2 Screen, u/ml

60

167,92

177,79

61,56

3,56

450,0

24,93

374,36

Creatinine, µmol/l

34

77,58

17,93

72,0

50,0

130,0

65,0

90,0

GFR, ml/min per 1,73 m2

60

88,39

28,1

86,13

77,85

123,63

80,69

118,12

Total protein, g/l

39

70,49

6,13

69,95

53,0

83,0

67,0

74,0

Cholesterol, mmol/l

34

4,91

0,91

4,80

3,1

7,2

4,3

5,7

TRH hormone, mmol/L

49

1,24

0,7

1,09

0,32

3,88

0,79

1,56

Ca, mmol/L

62

2,3

0,26

2,34

1,56

2,79

2,16

2,5

P, mmol/L

62

1,22

0,37

1,24

0,61

1,89

0,9

1,54

ALP, mc kat/L

51

1,45

0,18

1,41

0,98

1,84

1,34

1,6

OPG, pmol/L

59

4,78

1,57

4,44

2,77

9,58

3,38

5,77

sRANKL, pmol/L

62

0,16

0,07

0,17

0,03

0,28

0,09

0,22

Testosterone, nM/L

62

7,25

8,94

2,19

0,7

25,0

1,3

13,0

Progsterone, nM/L

62

7,19

8,0

4,2

0,29

32,0

2,8

7,4

Estradiol, nM/L

62

0,65

1,19

0,29

0,12

9,2

0,19

0,8

Prolactin, ng/ml

62

10,09

4,03

9,7

3,7

20,0

7,2

12,8

Luteinizing hormone, I.U. per liter

58

10,73

13,23

5,69

0,52

60,0

2,2

12,0

FSH, I.U. per liter

60

13,51

20,87

5,4

1,2

93,0

1,6

11,5

Parathyroid hormone, pg/ml

60

16,7

13,26

14,02

1,09

65,02

5,27

24,54

Beta-CrossLaps, pm/ml

60

0,25

0,15

0,21

0,07

0,8

0,14

0,32

Osteocalcin, ng/ml

60

15,65

6,79

14,28

4,95

35,14

11,22

17,27

0,82

1,59

1,06

1,24

Investigations L1-L4, g/cm

62

1,14

0,15

1,15

Z-score (L1-L4)

62

-0,51

1,01

-0,4

-2,5

1,8

-1,3

0,2

Femoral neck, g/cm

61

0,92

0,16

0,9

0,48

1,25

0,83

1,0

Z-score (femoral neck)

61

-0,67

1,19

-0,6

-3,8

1,9

-1,4

-0,1

Proximal femur, g/cm

60

0,94

0,16

0,93

0,49

1,27

0,87

1,02

Z-score (proximal femur)

34

-0,7

1,2

-0,7

-3,9

1,9

-1,5

-0,05

Total BMD, g/cm2

34

1,10

0,15

1,09

0,79

1,35

1,03

1,24

Z-score (total)

62

-0,49

1,20

-0,45

-2,7

1,3

-1,3

0,7

25(OH)D, OPG, RANKL, bone marker findings was executed in clinicodiagnostic laboratory of RTsMPiB. The state of bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated on the basis

of axial skeleton dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) using Prodigy Lunar densitometer of General Electric medical Systems (USA) 2004 year of production. Absorbed radi-

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

5th-7th day of menstrual period of women of fertile age by radioassay (RIA) using GAMMA 5500 counting system of Beckman Coulter (USA) with application of agents provided by the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences, were studied. For evaluation of bone metabolic rate in blood serum osteogeny and bone resorption markers: N-MID osteocalcin (osteocalcin, n = 60), β-CTX (β-CrossLaps, n = 60), were evaluated by method of immunoenzymatic electrochemiluminescence assay with MODULAR E170 immunoenzymatic system of Roche Diagnostics (Germany) production using Roche Diagnostics agents. The levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG, n = 59), 25(OH)D (n = 59), somatomedin -1 (IGF-1, n = 54) in the blood serum were studied with BRIO (Seac, Italy) automated equipment for immunoenzymatic assays in microplate using DRG agents. The levels of RANKL (sRANKL, n = 59) in the blood serum were studied with BRIO (Seac, Italy) automated equipment for immunoenzymatic assays in microplate using Biomedica (Austria) agents. In accordance with the recommendations of American Diabetic Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2007 evaluation of carbohydrate metabolism compensation was made on the basis of glycosylated hemoglobin (HA1c) data. Study of HA1c values was performed by method of high-performance liquid chromatography using automated BIORAD D-10 Hemoglobin Chemistry Analyzer D10 (USA) for quantitative study of HbA1c, A2 and F hemoglobin fractions. Determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was performed with MDRD (the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) for males and females [19]. Study of phosphoric-calcium metabolism and reproductive sex hormones data was done in Central Laboratory at Belarusian Public Medical University, study of HbA1c levels was done in Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of Belarusian Medical Academy for Graduate Medical Education. Evaluation of

21


Science and Innovation Polymorphisms

n

Мо

Ме

LQ

UQ

OPG (-209 G/А)

51

1

1

1

1

OPG (-245 T/G)

51

1

1

1

1

COLIA1(+1245G/T)

62

1

1

1

2

Esr-PvuII (+397T/C)

62

2

2

1

2

Esr-XbaI (+351A/G)

62

2

2

2

2

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Table 3. Characteristic of discovered gene polymorphisms in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

22

Table 4. Genotype frequency of investigated polymorphisms in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

ation dose in one view is 0,04 µSv. BMD-bode mineral density (g/cm2); Z-score, T-score were investigated in lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur (femoral neck), upper neck, trochanter major, total hip. Z-score was used for quantitative evaluation and control of BMD in the examined patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus [20-23]. The patients with implicit diabetes complication stages, concomitant disease and concurrent conditions associated with BMD loss were not included in the investigation. For molecular and biological study the patients were drawn dark blood samples to sterile test glass treated with anticoagulant (Disodium EDTA) of Sarstedt AG&Co (Germany) production. DNA purification was performed according to protocol with QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen, USA). Each patient DNA sample was analyzed for relevant polymorphism by method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with further restriction enzyme digest analysis specific for each of gene polymorphism under study, and sequence analysis of specified gene segments. Primer sequence, amplification conditions and restriction enzymes for the polymorphisms being determined are shown in Table 1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in 30μl end-volume in buffer, containing 50mw of Tris-HCl, pH 8,6, 50 mw of KCl, 0,2 mw of each dNTP, 0,1% of Tween 20, 2,5 mw of MgCI2, 1 U Taq of DNA- polymerase (Fermentas, Lithuania) and 20 pmol of each Полиморфизмы

primer per reaction (oligonucleotides were synthesized by «Primetech» DLC). Following thermocycling for evaluation of COLIA1(+1245G/T), Esr (+397T/C), Esr (+351A/G) polymorphisms, 12 μl of Touchdown PCR products were subjected to endonucleases in accordance with formula (for each enzyme correspondingly) produced by Fermentas. The products of amplification and restriction enzyme digest analysis were divided electrophoreticaly in 2% agarose containing 2,5 µg/ml of ethydium bromide and visualized in ultraviolate light in transilluminator. Determination of amplification and restriction products length was performed in accordance with Fermentas DNA-markers. For evaluation of OPG (-209G/ A), OPG (-245T/G) polymorphisms the products of amplification were divided in 2% agarose containing 2,5 µg/ml of ethydium bromide. A DNA paragraph of 271 bps was cut in gel and further extracted from agarose using QIAEX II GEL extraction lit (Qiagen). Sequencing was performed using Applied Biosystems 3100 sequencer launch with the capillary length of 36 cm. Study of sequencing results was executed with the help of DNA Sequencing Analysis Software (Applied Biosystems, USA). Comparison of the resulting sequences and reference sequence from NCBI data base was performed using Vector NTI (Invitrogene, USA). Sequencing was done in the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences. Statistical processing of the results was executing with Statistica 6.0 Software with preliminary verification of conformity of variables under consideration with normal distribution to Shapiro-Wilk test statistics. Nonparametric Shapiro-Wilk test and Kruskal-Wallis test were

n

WW

%

WM

%

MM

%

OPG (-209 G/А)

51

41

80

10

20

OPG (-245 T/G)

51

41

80

10

20

COLIA1(+1245G/T)

62

38

61

23

37

1

2

Esr-PvuII (+397T/C)

62

20

32

27

44

15

24

Esr-XbaI (+351A/G)

62

53

85

9

15

applied to quantitative characters having distribution different from normal. For the comparison of two groups on grounds of qualitative binary feature of absolute frequency contingency rows or tables and used X2. The data are presented as mode (Mo), median (Me) and interquartile range [LQ; UQ]. Error-free forecast likelihood equal to 95% (p<0,05) was taken as critical level of statistical significance. Clinical profile of worked-up patients is shown in Table 2. Increase of diabetes associated antibodies (GAD, ICA, IIA) in worked-up patients with diabetes was noted that proves the presence of autoimmune component in the disease progression. Average age of worked-up patients was 31, 46 (from 19 to 45 years old), it enables to relate the patients to the juvenile age population. Average disease duration was 13,4 years (from 5 to 35 years), average age of onset was 18,11 years. Average HbA1c level amounted to 8,25 ±0,95%, which is the evidence of presence of carbohydrate metabolism decompensation in patients at the time of workup. In the course of biomolecular analysis an assessment of gene polymorphisms under study was made (see Table 3). Further absolute and relative genotype frequency of test polymorphisms were defined (see Table 4). In the result high prevalence rate of examined gene polymorphisms in worked-up patients was found out. Furthermore, the data presented in Table 4 prove that in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus the degree of incidence of homo- and heterozygous gene mutation in the examined positions varied from 2% to 85%. Other investigations confirm the implication of OPG (-209 G/A) and OPG (-245 T/G) polymorphisms in the determination of BMD. That way a negative correlation between OPG (-209 G/A) and OPG (-245 T/G) polymorphisms of this gene promoter site and BMD in vertebrarium area in Slovenian women of postmenopausal age was found out [32]. The authors of the article consider the presence of 209 GA/245


Medicine

Parameter

Subgroup I, n = 38

Subgroup II, n = 24

m

SD

m

SD

Mann — Whitney U-test

Clinic anamnestic data Age, years

30,7

8,13

32,65

9,22

0,43

Height, cm

170,42

8,09

171,08

9,74

0,817

Weight, kg

69,96

11,21

67,71

10,54

0,465

Body mass index, kg/m2

23,78

2,84

22,84

3,22

0,381

Waist measurement, cm

77,13

8,82

83,36

9,51

0,75

Duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus, years

13,09

7,57

13,90

7,29

0,612

Age of type 1 diabetes mellitus onset, years

17,71

7,46

18,75

8,34

0,326

Daily dose of insulin, u/day

55,18

16,37

56,45

14,83

0,817

Laboratory findings HbA1c, %

8,14

0,87

8,43

1,07

0,149

Creatinine, µmol/l

73,31

15,96

83,42

19,22

0,047

Total protein, g/l

71,56

6,21

69,28

6,01

0,881

Cholesterol, mmol/l

4,95

0,85

4,86

1,0

0,437

TRH hormone, mmol/L

1,04

0,6

1,47

0,76

0,527

Ca, mmol/L

2,28

0,25

2,33

0,27

0,515

P, mmol/L

1,23

0,36

1,19

0,39

0,573

ALP, mc kat/L

1,45

0,18

1,44

0,18

0,388

OPG, pmol/L

4,41

1,54

5,31

1,47

0,014

sRANKL, pmol/L

0,18

0,07

0,13

0,07

0,024

Testosterone, nM/L

6,06

8,09

9,14

10,03

0,172

Progsterone, nM/L

8,91

9,05

4,46

5,03

0,012

Estradiol, nM/L

0,65

0,51

0,66

1,83

0,005

Prolactin, ng/ml

11,02

4,24

8,62

3,24

0,025

Luteinizing hormone, I.U. per liter

7,67

8,57

15,58

17,49

0,065

FSH, I.U. per liter

7,34

12,11

23,61

27,67

0,070

17,42

13,96

15,61

12,35

0,613

Beta-CrossLaps, pm/ml

0,23

0,14

0,28

0,17

0,227

Osteocalcin, ng/ml

14,7

5,75

17,07

8,03

0,194

ICA 2 Screen, u/ml

186,38

172,4

140,24

185,8

0,124

Parathyroid hormone, pg/ml

Investigations L1-L4, g/cm

1,21

0,1

1,02

0,12

0,008

Z-score (L1-L4)

0,03

0,7

-1,37

0,81

<0,001

1,0

0,12

0,79

0,12

<0,001

Z-score (femoral neck)

Femoral neck, g/cm

0,03

0,81

-1,75

0,81

<0,001

Proximal femur, g/cm

1,02

0,12

0,81

0,13

<0,001

Z-score (proximal femur)

0,01

0,83

-1,75

0,83

<0,001

1,2

0,1

0,99

0,13

<0,001

0,38

0,76

-1,48

0,75

<0,001

Total BMD, g/cm2

Z-score (total)

polymorphisms with the state of axial skeleton BMD in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus stratified randomization with account for BMD parameters (Z-score) was done which resulted in identification of the subgroups: subgroup I of the patients with healthy BMD values (Z-score is more than -1,5); subgroup II of the patients with reduced BMD values (Z-score is less than -1,5) (see Table 5). Determination of absolute and relative frequencies (degree of occurrence) of the examined gene pol-

ymorphisms was performed in the identified subgroups. Further the comparison of absolute frequencies of the examined polymorphisms genotype in subgroups I and II was done using X2 (see Table 6). The results of the comparison of absolute frequencies of the examined polymorphisms genotype in subgroups I and II confirm the presence of significant difference in the distribution of the degree of incidence of OPG (-209G/A), OPG (-245T/G), COL1A1 (+1245G/T), Esr-

Table 5. Clinical profile of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in pointed out subgroups SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

TG haplotype to be the risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis. High frequency of A63G and Y245G single nucleotide polymorphisms of OPG gene in patients with vertebral fracture was determined [33]. Based on the data obtained by another group of scientists, Esr-Xbal and Esr-Pvull polymorphisms are associated with low values of BMD in all investigated areas [28]. The authors offer to use these polymorphisms as predictor of high risk of osteoporosis in women. It is also stated that postmenopausal women of PP and XX genotype were characterized by low speed of bony tissue remodeling and they are more responsive to hormonal replacement therapy [29]. However, BMD in the vertebrarium area in those of pp hypotype was 6,4% lower than in women of PP genotype [30]. Researchers investigating cohort of Slovenian women of postmenopausal age detected correlation of mutation in codon 85 of ESR1 gene (CCC->CCG; P325P) with BMD variation. Femoral neck average BMD was definitely lower in women of GG genotype than in women of CC genotype (the most abundant genotype) [31]. Therefore, frequency of heterozygous variations of polymorphisms in patients of type 1 diabetes mellitus is as follows: EsrPvull – 43,55% of cases; Esr-Xbal – 85,48% of cases; COLIA1-Van91I – 37,1% of cases; OPG   – 19,61% of cases; OPG (-245 T/G) – 19,61% of cases. Homozygotic variation of Esr-Pvull polymorphism was found in 24% of cases; Esr-Xbal in 15%; COLIA1-Van91I in 2% of cases. Coupling of two heterozygous variations of Esr- Pvull and Esr-Xbal polymorphisms was found in 40% of cases; OPG (-209 G/A) and OPG (-245 T/G) in 20% of worked-up patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Coupling of two homozygous variations of Esr- Pvull and Esr-Xbal polymorphisms was found in 13% of patients. Interrelation of BMD and osteoprotegerin gene polymorphisms, estrogen receptors, α1 of type 1 collagen chain. For the purpose of investigation of potential association of examined

23


Science and Innovation

TT TC CC

12 (32) 16 (42) 10 (26)

AA AG GG

0 33 (87) 5 (13)

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Table 6. Contingency table of features of identified genotype and BMD in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in subgroups I and II

24

Esr-PvuII

Esr-XbaI

Median

25–75%

1,2 1,1

<0,001

16 (67) 8 (33) 0

0,015

8 (33) 11 (46) 5 (21)

0,01

Min-Max

1,0

femoral neck, g/cm

1,3

1

1,0 25–75%

0,9 0,8

Min-Max

0,7 0,6 1

2 OPG209 G/A: GG - 1; GA - 2

Median

1,1 1,0

25–75%

0,9 0,8

Min-Max

0,7 0,6 0,5

2 OPG209 G/A: GG - 1; GA - 2

Fig. 3. BMD markers (proximal femur), g/cm2 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and presence of GG or GA genotype of OPG (-209 G/A) polymorphism, P = 0,044

1

2 OPG245 Т/G: ТТ - 1; ТG - 2

Fig. 4. BMD markers (proximal femur), in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and presence of TT or TG genotype of OPG (-245 T/G) polymorphism, P = 0,044

1,7

1,3

1,6

1,2

1,5

Median

1,3

25–75%

1,2 1,1

Min-Max

1,0

Median

1,1

1,4

1,0 25–75%

0,9 0,8

Min-Max

0,7 0,6

0,9 1

0,5

2 OPG245 Т/G: ТТ - 1; ТG - 2

Fig. 5. BMD markers (LI – LIV), g/cm2 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and presence of TT or TG genotype of OPG (-245 T/G) polymorphism, P = 0,021

1

2 OPG245 Т/G: ТТ - 1; ТG - 2

Fig. 6. BMD markers (femoral neck), g/cm2 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and presence of TT or TG genotype of OPG (-245 T/G) polymorphism, P = 0,044

9

9 8

8 Median

7 6

25–75%

5 4

Min-Max

Median

7 6

25–75%

5 4

Min-Max

3

3 2

1

1,2 Median

1,1

0,8

Min-Max

0,7

1,3

1,2

0,5

0,8

Fig. 2. BMD markers (femoral neck), g/cm2 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and presence of GG or GA genotype of OPG (-209 G/A) polymorphism, P = 0,035

1,3

Pvull (+397T/C), Esr-Xbal (+351A/G) single nucleotide polymorphism in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus with healthy and reduced BMD values of axial skeleton. The patients with OPG (-209G/ A) polymorphism GA genotype and OPG (-245T/G) polymorphism TG genotype showed significant lower values of BMD in vertebral column zone, femoral neck and proximal femur compared to GG genotype (Pictures 1 through 6). Furthermore heterozygous carriers of OPG (-209G/A) and OPG (-245T/G) polymorphisms (GA and TG), carriers of GA haplotype of OPG (-209G/A) polymorphism and TG haplotype of OPG (-245T/G) polymorphism significantly higher level of OPG in the blood serum was determined (see Pictures 7 and 8). For the purpose of evaluation of interrelation of OPG markers in blood serum and OPH gene polymorphisms correlation analysis was performed which results show that there is moderate negative correlation (R = 0,31, p <0,05) with both OPG (-209G/A) and OPG (-245T/G) polymorphisms. This proves the influence of OPG (-209G/A), OPG (-245T/G) gene polymorphisms to the level of OPG in blood serum in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Besides, in the course of correlation analysis moderate positive correlation (R = 0,29, p <0,05) between estradiol values in blood serum and Esr-Pvull polymorphism was determined.

25–75%

0,9

0,5

2 OPG209 G/A: GG - 1; GA - 2

Fig. 1. BMD markers (LI – LIV), g/cm2 in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and presence of GG or GA genotype of OPG (-209 G/A) polymorphism, P = 0,021

0,013

1,0

0,6

0,9 0,8

Median

1,1

1,4 LI-LIV g/cm

<0,001

12 (67) 6 (33) 0

0 20 (83) 4 (17)

1,2

1,5

proximal femur, g/cm

22 (58) 15 (39) 1 (3)

COLIA1-Van91I

1,3

1,6

femoral neck, g/cm

GG GT TT

OPG (-245 T/G)

12 (67) 6 (33) 0

1,7

OPG, pmol/L

29 (88) 4 (12) 0

OPG (-209 G/А)

X2

proximal femur, g/cm

ТТ ТG GG

29 (88) 4 (12) 0

Group II, n (%)

LI-LIV g/cm

GG GA AA

Group I, n (%)

OPG, pmol/L

Genotype

1

2 OPG209 G/A: GG - 1; GA - 2

Fig. 7. Levels of OPG in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and presence of GG or GA genotype of OPG (-209 G/A) polymorphism, P = 0,035

2

1 2 OPG245 Т/G: ТТ - 1; ТG - 2

Fig. 8. Levels of OPG in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and presence of TT or TG genotype of OPG (-245 T/G) polymorphism, P = 0,035


Medicine

Date of article receipt: 10.12.2012

Alla Shepelkievich, Associated professor of 1st Internal Diseases Department of Belarusian State Medical University, Candidate of Medicine, associated professor Svietlana Marchiuk, Research scientist, Central Scientific and Research Laboratory of Belarusian State Medical University Natalia Kabak, Laboratory technician, Central Scientific and Research Laboratory of Belarusian State Medical University Sergey Korytsko, Chief Physician, Republican Center for Rehabilitation and Balneotherapeutics, Candidate of Medicine Olga Vodianova Doctor, CAD examination room, Republican Center for Rehabilitation and Balneotherapeutics Natalia Vasilieva Head doctor, CAD examination room, Republican Center for Rehabilitation and Balneotherapeutics

References: 1. Kanis J.A. Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health-care level / J.A. Kanis on behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group – University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, 2007. 2. Kholodova E.A. Endocrenous osteopathy: peculiarities of pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment. Practice guidelines for doctors / E.A. Kholodova, A.P. Shepielkievich, Z.V. Zabarovskaya. // Mn. – 2006. 3. Rizzoli R. Osteoporosis, genetics and hormones / R. Rizzole, J-P. Bonjor, S.L. Ferrari //J. Molecular Endocrinology. – 2011, №26, P. 79-94. 4. Familial resemblance of bone mineral density (BMD) and calcaneal ultrasonic attenuation: the BMD in mothers and daughters study / M.E. Danielson [et al.] //J Bone Miner Res. – 1999. N14. P. 102-110. 5. Ferrari S. Osteoporosis: a complex disorder of aging with multiple genetic and environmental determinants. In A. Simopoulos (ed.). Nutrition and fitness: mental health, aging, and the implementation of a healthy diet and physical activity lifestyle – Basel: Karger, 2005. P. 35-51. 6. Robust and comprehensive analysis of 20 osteoporosis candidate genes by very high-density single-nucleotide screen among 405 white nuclear families identified significant association and gene-gene interaction / D.H. Xiong [et al.] // J Bone Miner Res. – 2006, N21, Vol. 11. P. 1678-1695. 7. Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures: a genome-wide association study / J.B. Richards [et al.] // Lancet. – 2008, N371. P. 1505-1512. 8. Levey A.S. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. / A.S. Levey, L.A. Stevens, C.H. Schmidt [ey al.] CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) // Ann Intem Med. – 2009, N150, Suppl. 9. P. 604-12. 9. Ferrari S. Human genetics of osteoporosis // Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. – 2008, N5, Vol. 22. P. 723–735. 10. Keams A.E. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kB Ligand and Osteoprotegerin Regulation of Bone Remodeling in Health and Disease / A.E. Kerns [et al.] // Endocrine Reviews. – 2008, N29, Vol. 2. P. 155-192. 11. New sequence variants with bone mineral density / U. Styrkarsdottir [et al.] // Nat. Genet. – 2009, N41. P. 15-17. 12. Shepielkievich A.P. Present day understanding of OPG / RANKL / RANK system in health and disease / A.P. Shepielkievich. E.A. Kholodova, O.V. Zhukovskaya // Medical News. – 2009, N12. P. 4-9. 13. Khosia S. Estrogen and the male skeleton / S. Khosia, L.J. Melton, B.L. Riggs // J. Clin. Endocr. Metab. - 2002, N87. P. 1443-1450. 14. Estrogens maintain bone mass by regulating expression of genes controlling function and life span in mature osteoclasts / Y. Imai [et al.] // Ann. NY Acad. Sci. – 2009, N1173, Suppl. 1. P. E31-39. 15. Genetic polymorphisms of OPG, RANK, and ESR1 and bode mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women / J.Y. Choi [et al.] // Calcif. Tissue. Int. – 2005, N77, Vol. 3. P. 152-159. 16. Identification of novel RANK polymorphisms and their putative association with low BMD among postmenopausal women / J.-M Koh [et al.] // Osteoporos. Int. – 2007, N18. P.323-331. 17. OPG and RANK polymorphisms are both associated with cortical bone mineral density: findings from metaanalysis of the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children and Gothenburg osteoporosis and obesity determinant cohorts / L. Paternoster {et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2010, N95, Vol.8. P. 3940-3948. 18. Investigation of the genetic influence of the OPG, VDR (For1), and COLIA Sp1 polymorphisms on BMD in the Irish population / F. Wynne [et al.] // Calcif. Tissue Int. – 2002, N71. P. 26-35. 19. COL1A1 Sp1 binding site polymorphisms predisposes to osteoporotic fracture by affecting bone density and quality / V. Mann [et al.] // The Journal of Clinical Investigation. - 2001, N107, Vol. 7. P. 899-907. 20. Ralston S.H. Genetic Control of Susceptibility to Osteoporosis // J. Clin. Endocrinot. Metabol. – 2002, N87, Vo. 6. P. 2460-2466. 21. Relation of alleles of the collagentype lalpha 1 gene to bode density and the risk of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women / A.G. Uitterlinden [et al.] // The New England Journal of medicine. – 1998, N338, Vol. 15. P. 1016-1021. 22. Hip fracture risk and different gene polymorphisms in the Turkisj population / E. Dencel [et al.] // Clinics. – 2008, N63, Vol. 5. P.645-650. 23. Riggs B.L. Sex steroids and the construction and conservation of the adult skeleton / B.L. Riggs, S.Khosla, L.J. 3rd Melton // Endocr. Rev.– 2002, N23, Vo. 3. P. 279-302. 24. Control of estrogen receptor ligand binding by Hsp90 / A.E. Fliss [et al.] // J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. – 2000, N72, Vol. 5. P.223-230. 25. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta are differentially expressed in developing human bode / S. Nord [et al.] // Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2001, N86, Vol. 5 p. 2309-2314. 26. Estrogene Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and the Genetics of Osteoporosis: A HuGE Review / L. Gennari [et al.] // American Journal of Epidemiology. – 2005, N4, Vol. 161. P. 307-320. 27. Association of 5’ estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density, vertebral bode area and fracture risk / J. van Meurs [et al.] // Human Molecular Genetics. – 2003, N12. P. 1745-1754. 28. Pvull and Xbal polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor gene and bone mineral density ina Bulgarian population sample / J.T. Ivanova [et al.] // Hormones. – 2007, N6, Vol.1. P. 36-43. 29. Estrogen receptor aloha gene polymorphisms are associated with changes in bone remodeling markers and treatment response to estrogen / P.B. Rapuri [et al.] // Maturitas. – 2006, N53, Vol. 4, P. 371-379. 30. Bone mineral density and its change in white women: estrogen and vitamin D receptor genotypes and their interaction / M. Willing [et al.] // J.Bone Miner. Res. – 1998, N13. P. 695-705. 31. Codon 325 sequence polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor alpha gene and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women / S.Jurada [et al.] // J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. Biol. – 2001. N78, Vol. 1. p.15-20. 32. Sequence variations in the osteoprotegerin gene promoter in patients with postmenstrual osteoporosis / B. Arko [et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2002, N87. P. 4080-4084. 33. A TA repeat polymorphism in the estrogen receptor gene is associated with osteoporotic fractures but polymorphisms in the first exon and intron are not / B.L. Langdahl [et al.] // J. Bone Miner. Res. – 2000, N15, Vol. 11. P. 2222-2230. 34. Evidence of a linkage disequilibrium between polymorphisms in the human estrogen receptora gene and their relationship to bone mass variation in postmenopausal Italian women / L. Becherini [et al.] // hum. Mol. Genet. – 2000, N9. P. 2043-2050. 35. Association of a G2014A transition in exon 5 of estrogen receptor-a gene with postmenopausal oetsoporosis / B. Onhphiphadhanakul [et al.] // Osteoporosis Int. – 2001, N12. P. 1015-1019.

Summary The paper presents the results of the study of (OPG (-209 G/A), OPG (-245 T/G), COLIA1-Van91I, Esr- Pvull, Esr-Xbal) gene polymorphisms in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). The patients with type 1 DM showed a high frequency of heterozygous polymorphisms: Esr- Pvull in 44% of cases; Esr-Xbal – in 85% of cases; COLIA1-Van91I – in 37% of cases; OPG (-209 G/A) – in 20% of cases; OPG (-245 T/G) – in 20% of cases. Homozygous variant of Esr-Pvull polymorphism was detected in 24% of cases; Esr-Xbal – in 15% of cases; COLIA1-Van91I – in 2% of cases. The combination of two heterozygous variants of Esr-Pvull and Esr-Xbal polymorphisms was identified in 39% of cases; OPG (-209 G/A) and OPG (-245 T/G) in 20% of surveyed patients with type 1 DM. The combination of two Esr-Pvull and Esr-Xbal polymorphisms was determined in 13% of worked-up patients. In heterozygous patients with gene polymorphisms of OPG (-209 G/A) and OPG (-245 T/G) lower levels of BMD of the axial skeleton (lumbar spine, femoral neck, total femur) and higher levels of OPG in the serum were found.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Consequently, the patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus showed high degree of occurrence of heterozygous polymorphism variations: Esr-Pvull in 44% of cases, Esr-Xbal in 85% of cases, COLIA1-Van91I in 37% of cases, OPG (-209G/A) in 20% of cases, OPG (-245T/G) in 20% of cases. Homozygous variation of Esr-Pvull polymorphism was discovered in 24% of cases; Esr-Xbal – in 15% of cases; COLIA1-Van91I- in 2% of cases. Combination of two heterozygous polymorphism variations – Esr-Pvull and Esr-Xbal – was determined in 39% of worked-up patients; OPG (-209G/A), OPG (-245T/G) was discovered in 20% of the examined patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Combination of two homozygous polymorphisms – Esr-Pvull and Esr-Xbal – was determined in 13% of the patients. Homozygous patients with OPG (-209G/A), OPG (-245T/G) gene polymorphisms showed lower values of BMD of the axial skeleton (vertebral column zone, femoral neck and proximal femur) and higher OPG level in blood serum.

25


Science and Innovation

NEW-GENERATION MAGNETIC FIELD SENSORS Sergei Demyanov, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Head, Cryogenic Research Department, NASB Scientific and Practical Materials Research Center

Nikolai Kalanda, Leading Researcher, NASB Scientific and Practical Materials Research Center

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Egor Kanyukov, Junior Researcher, NASB Scientific and Practical Materials Research Center

26

N

anostructured materials have specific properties being not characteristic of materials with microscopic dimensions. Due to this, they are widely used in various spheres – biomedicine, chemistry, physics, electronics and materials science. Application of nanomaterials for developing structures sensitive to magnetic field variations arouses specific interest since this effect is used in many electronic devices. In medicine, for instance, they are used as meters of magnetic fields of biological objects to control magnetobiological responses, electric signals of a heart, skeletal muscles, eyes and background and induced brain activity. Sensors (pickups) are indispensable components in

the diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging technique. In security systems they may be used as movement-detecting sensors, in the motor industry – in anti-lock braking systems and engine control systems, in robotic engineering – to control linear-and-angular movement and find position of rotating components, in electronics – in new types of data storage systems and in the measuring equipment – in magnetometers and devices for measuring characteristics of the magnetic field and magnetic properties of materials. The use of these sensors is promising in such fields as geological exploration, seismology, archeology, astrophysics and in navigation instruments in the sea-going vessels, spaceships and airborne vehicles.

Si/SiO2 substrate

Latent ion tracks heavy ions irradiation

Metal deposition

Metal-filled pores

etching (HF) – etched ion tracks (pores)

Fig. 1. Flow diagram for producing Si/SiO2/metal using the ion track technology


Nanotechnologies Figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a formed structure. Results of the study of magnetoresistance of Si/SiO2 structures with nickel-filled pores over an extensive temperature range (4-300 K) in transverse magnetic fields up to 12 Tl have revealed that reducing temperature decreases conductivity of the Si/SiO2 /Ni system. From the point of view of sensor capabilities, a low-temperature interval is of the greatest interest: at T < 50 K, the magnetoresistive effect begins to show up to reach 1000% at T< 25 K. Such a value demonstrates that application of these structures in space instruments and apparatuses operating at temperatures of liquid hydrogen cooling is promising. To expand the temperature range for the magnetoresistive effect to show up, the research into the Si/SiO2 /metal structures was aimed at producing alternating ferromagnetic (nickel) and nonmagnetic (copper) layers in nanopores formed in the silicon oxide (Figure 4a). This configuration allows the magnetoresistive effect to show up at room temperatures reaching the value of ∼ 30% (Figure 4b), thereby providing evidence of perspectiveness of using the Si/SiO2 structure with alternating metal layers in pores as a magnetic-field-sensitive element of sensor devices operating both in the climatic range and in the low-temperature field. Applying multilayer structures in pores of silicon oxide on silicon expanded the temperature range of the magnetoresistive effect, however, an intermediate interval (50-200 K) remained inoperative. To eliminate the temperature gap, the TEMPOS technology was used (Figure 5a). While TEMPOS structures demonstrate properties similar to characteristics of MOS structure-based electronic devices, they have additional free parameters such as a form and density of etched tracks, a position, a height, a diameter and a type of the material implanted into tracks. This offers more opportunities for producing micro-and nanoelectronic devices.

Fig. 2. Si/SiO2/metal structure image: 1 – silicon oxide layer; 2 – silicon substrate; 3 – metal deposited into silicon oxide pores Fig. 3. Si/SiO2/Ni structure magnetoresistance-temperature relation in the transverse magnetic field (12 Tl)

Applying bias voltage of about 10 V to a TEMPOS structure control electrode produced the magnetoresistive effect in the interval from room to liquid hydrogen temperatures (Figure 5b). Investigation of the magnetoresistance at various bias voltage values demonstrated

а

Fig. 4. Schematic representation of the Si/SiO2 structure with alternating layers of copper and nickel clusters (a); Si/SiO2/(Cu-Ni) structure magnetoresistance-temperature relation (b)

b

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

The principle of operation of magnetosensitive elements is based on the four-point probe Hall effect measurement method. The sensors being developed based on the electric resistance-magnetic field relation, i.e. magnetoresistance, are more promising. Despite the apparent simplicity, this phenomenon is diverse by its nature and depends on the phase composition, a crystalline and magnetic structure of a magnetic field sensor, as well as such external factors as temperature, magnetic induction and magnetic field orientation. Let us consider two unique physical principles of producing magnetic field sensors the research into which are underway in the Cryogenic Research Department, NASB Scientific and Practical Materials Research Center, within the framework of the assignments being implemented under the Union State’s Scientific and Technical Program «Development of Nanotechnologies for Creation of Materials, Devices and Systems for Space Technology and Their Adaptation to Other Spheres of Technology and Mass Production». According to one of the principles, Si/SiO2 /metal nanostructures are produced using the fast heavy ions track technology. The principle is based on forming nanoscale systems by using porous matrices in which nanocompositions with targeted properties may be produced. Of specific interest are dielectric matrices on a semiconducting substrate, allowing adapting the nanostructures to be produced to the standard silicon technology. At the first stage of producing nanostructures, a dielectric silicon oxide layer on a substrate of commercially produced single-crystal wafers (KEF 4,5 grade) is irradiated with fast heavy ions (up to 350 Mev) using a linear accelerator. As a result, highly defective regions (latent tracks) are formed in the oxide layer. The process of producing the Si/SiO2/metal structure as a sensor element is terminated following the chemical etching down to the silicon substrate and filling pores with metals using a selective electrochemical deposition method (Figure 1).

27


Science and Innovation Fig. 5a. Schematic representation of TEMPOS structures: 1 – semiconducting substrate: 2 – dielectric layer; 3 – narrow tunnels filled with metal or metal layers in dielectric layer; 4 – electrical contacts on SiO2 surface; 5 – control contact

that the magnetoresistive effect values can be controlled. To develop the second-type sensors, complex metal oxide compounds having a high spin polarization were used. Innovative nanosized scale technologies underlain by fundamental principles of the quantum physics serve as a basis

Fig. 5b. TEMPOS structure magnetoresistancetemperature relation

for the spin electronics (spintronics). While the conventional electronics uses the motion of charge carriers in the electric field, in the spintronics the motion is characterized by a specific spin orientation. Here, the most promising are double

а

upper contact

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

lower contact

28

Fig. 6. Schematic representation (a) microstructure of multilayer Sr2FeMoO6±δ/Al2O3/ Sr2FeMoO6±δ film structure (b)

b

perovskite Sr2FeMoO6±δ magnetic semiconductors having high Curie temperature values (Tc ∼ 430 K) and high (∼ 100%) spin polarization. Such properties are most important when using perfect nanosized films, which are formed into multilayer structures and the principle of action of which is based on the tunnel magnetoresistance effect. The latter may be achieved on the structures similar to a spinbased insulated gate in which a thin insulator layer is used instead of a conductive non-magnetic interlayer. The resistance of this structure is dependent on a relative direction of magnetization of layers due to different probabilities of tunneling of carriers with opposite spin orientations through a tunneling barrier. In reality, the tunneling magnetoresistance is dependent on the magnetic field strength and orientation, temperature, material and dielectric layer depth and also on other multiple parameters. Aluminum oxide – Al2O3 – is most suitable as an insulating material layer. The layer should not exceed 5-10 nm since the probability of tunneling of an electron through the potential barrier depends on the depth and mutual orientation of magnetization vectors. The change in magnetoresistance in multilayer structures with a perpendicular geometry produces high effect (Figure 6a). This is related to the fact that all carriers experience spin-dependent scattering when crossing the interface between layers, and the shunting effect of current flowing through the non-magnetic interfacial layers is eliminated. Such multilayer magnetoresistive elements may reach the tunneling magnetoresistance value up to 30% at room temperature. One of the efficient methods of forming structurally perfect Sr2FeMoO6±δ films is the ion-beam method. It allows control of the deposition rate, temperature regimes of film annealing and energy of cations to be sputtered, thereby controlling their phase composition, structural perfection and physicochemical properties, respectively. A lower 1 µm Sr2FeMoO6±δ film was deposited at a rate under the

inert argon atmosphere. The 7 nm Al2O3 film was sputtered on a surface of the Sr2FeMoO6±δ layer in the gas atmosphere containing 70% Ar + 30% O2 at a rate of 7±0.5 nm/minute and at the substrate temperature of 930 K. The upper 1 µm Sr2FeMoO6±δ layer was sputtered on a surface of the Al2O3 layer under conditions similar to those of the lower film. Figure 6b shows the structure of the produced composition. Investigating sensory sensitivity of the structure to the magnetic field has revealed that when the magnetic field induction increases, the electrical resistance reduces, i.e. negative magnetoresistance is observed. The maximum change in magnetoresistance values occurs in the fields up to 0.3 Tl followed by attainment of saturation. In case of spin-polarized current flow, the probability of tunneling of electrons thermally activated above the energy barrier between Sr2FeMoO6±δ layers depends on the mutual orientation of magnetic moments of grains. They are randomly oriented in the absence of a magnetic field and according to the Slonchevsky model, tunneling current is minimal, i.e. a state with high electrical resistance is realized. A collinear magnetic structure forms in the external magnetic field resulting in the increased spin polarized current. These structures are rather attractive for application as magnetic field-sensitive elements of sensor devices operating in the region of both weak and strong magnetic fields in an extensive temperature range. Their application is supported by the fact that these structures are built on substrates, with magnetism being seamlessly adapted to the standard silicon technology.


Space Technologie

A. V. Lykov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer (IHMT) of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Belarus is the country's largest scientific institution, involved in development of the energy-efficient and environmentally friendly technologies and equipment, apparatus, instruments and materials for various purposes, including the aerospace applications. The Institute set upon its research projects in this particular subject area by carrying out theoretical and experimental studies of heat and mass transfer in the capillary porous media, which could be further applied for development of efficient thermal shields for space vehicles. The plasma jet or the arc-jet gas heater is that specific tool for carrying out experiments in this focus area. The first coaxial plasma jet was disposed to the Institute by the Central Research Institute of Machine Building, which was then the head organization in the space and missile industry sector of the Soviet Union. Early on thereafter, the IHMT scientific staff set about the development of in-house designed plasma jets to be used for testing more sophisticated thermal protection parameters. To that end, there had been set up the laboratories, the scientific focus area of which was closely associated with development of aviation equipment and space/missile technology; also there had been tested hundreds of various composites of glass-, asbestos-reinforced plastics, organic, carbon fiber-reinforced plastics, carbon-carbon composites, graphites, metals, ceramics and other materials. The subjects of research projects included the heat-protec-

tive materials for descent manned space vehicles, «Energiya-Buran» complex and other products related to the space and aircraft equipment. Owing to Professor Aleksey Lykov’s efforts, the scientific community was benefitted with the open and first in the Soviet Union publication of «Thermal Protection», written by Y. Polezhayev and F. Yurevich who presented results of the studies carried out at IHMT. Up to present this scientific tractate serves as a reference book for scientific, engineering and technical staff involved in projects on thermal protection of missile and space products The experimental capabilities, available for the Institute allow it to carry out investigations into the processes of heating, ablation and thermal decomposition of various class materials, to study their optical, thermal-strength and thermophysical properties in a wide range of temperatures and heat flows as well as their chemical composition, ambient pressures and heating rates, to simulate natural operation conditions for thermal protection components of the thermal protection shield of aircraft and space/ missile equipment. Significant results were obtained as early as in the Soviet era in the course of conducting studies on the radiative-convective heat transfer in hypersonic flow of axisymmetric blunt-nosed bodies, when creating the new types and designs of plasma jets and solving both stationary and non-stationary heat transfer problems during interaction of plasma flows with the surfaces of ablating materials; meaningful results were also produced during investigations into kinetics

Oleg Penyaz’kov, Director, A.V.Lykov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, NAS of Belarus, Corresponding Member

Svetlana Danilova-Tret’yak, Academic Secretary, A.V.Lykov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, NAS of Belarus, Cand.Sc. (Engineering)

of multistage processes of thermal decomposition of composite materials and their thermal properties as well as the studies of performance capacity and thermal protection of the transpiration-cooled walls designed for gas-phase nuclear engine. Over the last decade the aerospace industry has been steadily moving to its forefront. The in-depth exploration of the outer space however is calling for effective models of aviation and space equipment. The present day can see IHMT being involved in projects that are contributing to solving that task. As part of the Union State Scientific and Technical Program «Nanotechnology-US» the experimental capabilities of the Laboratory of Plasma Technologies have been used for carrying out tests of the heat shield composites; also, in joint efforts with S.A Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association (Russian Federation) there have been developed and tested a new material with improved properties. The works are currently in progress with regard to experimental determination of the fracture velocity, effective enthalpy, heating of the thermal protection materials under intensive thermal loads in non-stationary and quasi-stationary conditions of subsonic and supersonic flow. The studies are being carried out on ablation of different materials under simultaneous effect of the plasma flow and Al2O3, SiO2 and other abrasive particles; the Laboratory of Thermophysical Measurements has been providing its technical facilities for studying the thermophysical properties of heat-shielding composites. Experimental verification of the thermal protection in simulated

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

EXPLORING THE OUTLAYING SPACE

29


Science and Innovation

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Hall end-butt accelerator

30

full-scale conditions for a spacecraft entering into the atmosphere of Earth and other planets is being carried out on the powerful Hall accelerator (created as far as the 70's last century) in the IHMT Section of Plasmic Aerospace Technologies. The effective electromagnetic plasma acceleration mechanisms allow to obtain the discharge rates in the accelerator that considerably exceed such rates under conventional gas-dynamic expansion in the nozzle due to momentum transfer of the electromagnetic field to plasma charged particles. The results of studies, carried out on the IHMT plasma setups, on performance of the advanced heat-shielding materials are currently used for predicting and creating the thermal protection shields for aviation and space equipment. The Institute's projects, focused on the needs of the aerospace industry, are not limited just to testing the thermal-protective coatings. The range of IHTM research projects has been widen to include the development of thermal control systems, modeling of interaction between objects and radiated emissions with space vehicles, technologies for processing the optical parts and many other scientific and development efforts. As early as the 70â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s last century, the Laboratory of Porous Media developed and tested the heat transfer tubes as part of space vehicles. Such tubes are used for removing heat from some individual fuel elements and equipment, equalizing temperature in the extended structural elements, main-

Testing the thermal protection shield prototype taining the temperature regime of selected objects with a required accuracy, limiting the return heat flow, etc. One of the developments is the aluminum heat transfer axial grooved tubes that are intended to equalize the temperature of the Intercosmos-11 artificial satellite body frame. Further improvement of such tubes was applying the capillary pore structure coatings to the surface of coaxial grooves, having provided in this manner for the intensive heat removal from the heat-loaded surfaces of space vehicles. The heat exchange and moisture content monitoring system plays key role in development of astronaut's space suits. As one of the main ways to solve this problem, the IHMT researchers arranged the heat and mass transfer inside the exchanger to be based on the principle of microthermal tubes that had essentially simplified the heat exchanger design and drastically increased its thermodynamic efficiency. The subliminal heat exchanger was used for creation of the astronaut's space suit. Specialists of the Laboratory of Porous Media have developed, manufactured and tested a prototype of the system for thermal control of the Belarus spacecraft equipment. In the course of development there have been created the thermocouples that simulate the conditions of an orbital space mission, the test-bench based on the low-pressure chamber for exercising the technique for thermal vacuum tests of small satellites and optical-electronic equipment for space

application, calculated the cyclic graph (time history) of the control parameters in the system that imitates the external heat loads in the low-pressure chamber; proposed is the principal scheme of the thermal control system , which is able to provide for high thermal stability of the primary equipment optical devices and etc. For the non-pressurized satellites the Laboratory has been planning creation of the system for active thermal control of the experimental prototypes of the extended operational life microelectronic components and devices on the basis of nanostructured porous coatings and sorption thermal control systems. The last make use of both the solar energy and the energy of heat-generating components to maintain the required thermal conditions in the microsatellite non-pressurized modules that are exposed alternately to intense solar heating and cooling. For the purpose of exercising the non-pressurized spacecraft thermal control systems in the conditions of an orbital mission around the Earth, the Transfer Theory Laboratory has developed a universal software package, which is handed over to JSC ÂŤPelengÂť for trial operation. The package enabled to build up the calculation algorithms for determining the external radiant heat fluxes directed to the equipment components of space vehicles for both external surfaces and exposed cavities with allowance for shielding. The above software product is helpful for generating a three-dimensional geometric model of the vehicle, for producing the layout of its units and blocks,


setting the thermal properties of designed elements, parameters of the thermal regime control system and spacecraft heat-generating avionics, near-earth orbit and on-orbit orientation parameters, for calculating all required parameters of the mathematical thermal model and thereafter for calculating the unsteady-state thermal conditions of a space vehicle on the orbit based on such model. In connection with development of near-the-earth space with the use of microsatellites, there has been observed the increased interest to the laser-plasma engines that provide small moving pulses adjusted with great accuracy. Among the problems associated with creation of such engines is development of a compact and efficient laser system, the choice of optimal laser exposure regime, consumable material and the optimal construction of such engine. Parameters of the laser pulse and target material for the purpose of producing the maximal recoil impulse can be determined on the basis of a numerical experiment without carrying out costly experiments. Such numerical experiment was carried out by the Laboratory of Radiation Gas Dynamics in joint efforts with the Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, NAS of Belarus. As a result, detailed descriptions have been produced of the mechanisms of carry-over of the metal, graphite and composite material masses in the study range of laser irradiation flux densities and proposed the optimal modes of its impact on a number of materials that provide for an acceptable operational service life of the laser-plasma engine. As part of the international project there have been studied the processes that accompany the high-speed impact of micrometeorites upon protective shields of space vehicles. In practical terms, the only method applicable for investigating into such phenomena is a computer generated simulation. The analysis of the calculated results enables to evaluate the efficacy of the space vehicle protection, determine the shape and size of appearing craters

Elements of aluminum heat transfer tubes with axial grooves

Complex of vacuum systems in the Laboratory of Porous Media, IHMT NAS of Belarus; the complex is intended for testing various heat transfer tube designs used for space vehicles

and holes and investigate into the phase composition of disintegration products. The Laboratory of Rheophysics and Macrokinetics was the first, where the technology for a high-quality processing of optical and semiconductor components was developed; this technology is based on the locally controlled removal of material from surfaces by means of the magnetorheological polishing fluid under the effect of magnetic field. This technology is applicable to parts of any shape. Application of such final polishing to the laser mirror surfaces diminish the mean-square roughness of substrates by factor of four, while the scattering signature on the nannorelief improves by the factor from 16 to 19 in comparison with conventional methods. The Institute has brought into being the plant designed for final polishing of spherical, flat and aspheric optical components with a diameter of 200 mm. The resulting surface can reach A/100 and its quality - 0.2 1.0 nm. High-precision optical products can be used in space telescopes (large parabolic mirrors), aviation laser gyroscopes, missile and aircraft guidance units, radars, etc. Manufacturing the components for aviation and space equipment is calling for application of new materials, one of which is silicon carbide (SiC) that has a number of unique physical, chemical, mechanical and electrical properties. It is characterized by a very high wearing and heat resistance features under severe conditions of abrasive wear and high temperatures; these

features are provided due to combination of high hardness and thermal conductivity as well as low coefficient of thermal expansion. The above material is able to withstand the tens of thermal shocks of up to 1000-1300°C and used for manufacturing the telescope mirrors, engine components, protective coating of rubbing surface and for other applications in the aircraft industry. The IHMT Laboratory of Disperse Systems has been developing the technology of synthesis of silicon carbide in the electrothermal fluidized bed reactor, in which high temperatures (1400-1800°C) are achieved by heating the finegrained electrically conductive material when electric current is directly passed through it. The study results have showed a high yield of silicon carbide as the final product (up to 80%) and substantial reduction of the process time (up to several hours). As it comes from the above, the Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer can boast quite a large pool of developments in the field of aerospace technologies. However, the spanless cosmic spaces are still pointing out to it new perspectives to be pursued. Acknowledgement Authors gratefully acknowledge the kind assistance of V.A.Boroduly,Corr.Member, L.L.Vasil’yev,Dr.Sc.(Engineering), E.V.Korobko, M.S.Tret’yak , Cand.Sc. {Engineering}, Yu.A.Stankevich, Cand. Sc. (Physics and Mathematics), A.I.Shnip. V.S.Yermachenko in preparing this paper.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Space Technologie

31


Science and Innovation

LASER SPECTROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF ARTWORKS

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

T

32

he number of fakes, being declared authentic art works, grows with each coming year. Most frequently counterfeited are impressionists and avant-guardists of the end of XIX - beginning of XX century, as well as XIX-century Russian landscapists. It is to be regretted that positive expert conclusions for the copies of wellknown artists are issued by such authoritative institutions as Tretyakovskaya Gallery, Russian Museum, etc. In the second half of XX century John Myatt (Great Britain) painted about 300 fakes, copying Monet, Matisse, Picasso, Chagall, and quite successfully sold those products through Sotheby’s and Christie’s auction houses. This year Wolfgang Beltracchi (Germany) got a penalty of 6 years of imprisonment for falsification of pictures by Ernst, Campendonk, Pechstein, Kirchner, that passed art expert evaluation and were acknowledged authentic. Recently, to our country were brought several dozens of pictures of well-known masters of Belorussian origin – Chagall, Soutine, Kikoine and others – for the purpose of creating a new art gallery. The artworks were purchased at the European auctions, i.e. without expert evaluation, presumably, being non-obligatory for them. Although, one would think, the necessity of

Mikhail Bel'kov Deputy Director for Scientific Work of Physics Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Candidate of sciences (Physics-Mathematics)

Sergey Raikov Chief Research Assistant of Physics Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Doctor of sciences (Physics-Mathematics)

technique-technological analysis seems to be obvious. It is conducted for the purpose of studying, attribution, authentication, restoration and conservation of artistic works. Pieces of easel painting, water colors, graphics, icons, frescos, pigments on historic-artistic valuables can be investigated using routine chemical analysis, infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, etc. But only X-ray fluorescent analysis and laser spectroscopic microanalysis can be realized in a mobile version. It is of special importance for examination of unique objects which can not be transported, in particular of frescos, or while studying historic-artistic valuables of high insurance cost. At the present-day level, a stage of technique-technological examination of historic-artistic valuables can not be meant without spectroscopic methods of substance analysis. The most extended use have got X-ray fluorescent analysis (RFА), Raman scattering spectroscopy (RS), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy, laser spectroscopic microanalysis (LSMA). Studying IR- and RS-spectra it is possible to determine molecular structure of some organic (and inorganic) matters. RS-spectroscopy has advantages in studying of aqueous solutions in comparison

with IR-spectroscopy; however, its capabilities are limited in cases of black and deeply painted samples, and compounds showing strong fluorescence in the spectrum visible region. Routine methods of chemical analysis which are characterized by comparatively large time-, labor- and material-expenditures, though prevailing until now in physical-chemical laboratories of leading museums, are objectively and unavoidably displaced by express instrumental methods, among which – due to their parameters range – RFА and LSMA are predominant. RFA method is used to determine elementary composition of inorganic pigments (applied in easel oil painting, icons, graphics, artware), of metal bases, of precious metals in icon frames and miniature framings, in numismatic items, reward decorations, etc. Museum workers, however, are no longer enthusiastic about X-ray methods, as they have a number of serious drawbacks: information of material composition can be obtained only for a thin (mcm) surface layer (to proceed to the subsequent layer, it is necessary to remove the previous one), analysis results are strongly influenced by material matrix and by form of the sample under investigation. Furthermore, X-radiation


Laser Technologies Fig. 1. Mobile LSMA equipment of 2011 version during examination

Fig. 2. Investigated painting

most outstanding representatives of the Radzivill family – Nikolaj Radzivill (1515-1565) who in a number of historical documents is mentioned as Nikolaj «the Black» Radzivill. In autumn of 1547 he was missioned to Sejm in Augsburg in the lead of embassy of the King Sigismund II Augustus (1520-1572). Augsburg Sejm (or to be more precise – Reichstag) – the all-estate meeting of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation was opened on September 1-st 1547 and lasted till May 15 -th 1548. It was completed by signing of Augsburg Interim (an interim decree) connected with the attempts to secure the results of

the victory of the Empire in the war with Schmalkaldic League of 15461547. The picture depicts the scene of obtaining a title of prince of the Roman Empire by Nikolaj Radzivill at Sejm in Augsburg on December 10-th 1547. Thus becomes intelligible the sense of the genre scene reproduced on this canvas – awarding Nikolai Radzivill and his heirs of the appropriate title and coat of arms of Reichsfürsten of the Holy Roman Empire over Olyka (Ukraine) and Nesvizh. In the center of the left side of the picture there is a kneeled figure wearing a blue velvet mantle with rich and sumptuous fringing

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

is not completely nondestructive, since it stimulates processes of subsequent photo-destruction of pigment-coated layers of investigated objects. The latter factor is especially relevant for artwork pieces. The most optimal and up-todate technique is a laser method of spectroscopic analysis. Its major advantages are as follows: rapid analysis in modes of practically nondestructive control and of real time, in situ conditions; unnecessary or only minimal sample pre-preparation; fine localization, applicability of microanalysis; possibility of setting-up of mobile spectrometers for analyzing directly in the place where rarities are kept, without their transport to laboratory, etc. With the help of laser excitation, sources can be analyzed both conducting and dielectric materials, can be solved problems of local, surface, layered and dynamic analysis, carried out studies of materials uniformity and elements distribution (Fig. 1). Herein, we give an example of examination of the artwork – unique for the history and culture of Belarus – an ancient painting presenting a palace ceremony, the artwork of unknown author and with no certain creation date (Fig. 2). Historical examination was carried out by A.S. Dovnar-Zapolsky. For studying is important an inscription in the upper part of the canvas, made, probably, by the author himself in Latin: «ACAROLO V IMPERAT INSIGNIA DUCALIA INCO MITIIS IMPERII AUGUSTA VINDELICORUM NICOLAO IOANNIS FILIO TRANSFERUSTUR IN OLICAM ET NIESWIES DEFICIENTEPROLE MASCULA NICOLAI SECUDI A.M.D.X.L.V.», which is translated as «Emperor Charles V at the Augsburg Meeting creates Nikolaj, son of Jan, and his descendants hereditary Reichsfürsten to rule over Olyka and Nesvizh, being under the reign of Nikolaj since 1545». Using a number of historical sources it is possible to determine with high accuracy the date of this most important historical moment, namely the act of legitimization of his power authorities by one of the brightest and

33


Science and Innovation

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Fig. 3. Initial (left) and nowadays view of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk

34

of ermine fur, holding a coat-armor emblem in the right hand. This figure can be identified as Nikolaj «the Black» Radzivill image. Coat of arms in the center also reveals his belonging to the Radzivills family through a number of characteristic properties: chromatic constituent, images on heraldic field, helmets and crowns with crests, etc. The figure above, in the composition center, crowned with great imperial crown, wearing a mantle of dark-golden brocade, with a sword in the right hand, is the image of Charles V Habsburg, the Holy Roman Emperor (1500-1558). To the right and to the left of him there are seven figures that can be identified as the members of the so-called Board of Seven Electors (Kurfürsten). A man in the foreground at the right (wearing a red mantle, holding a coat-armor emblem in the right hand and some kind of scroll in the left hand) is, probably, Sebastian von Heusenstamm (1508-1555), the Archbishop (Kurfürst) of Mainz. However, identification of the persons of the most young-looking age, wearing red mantles, who are sitting in similar postures on both sides of the Emperor Charles V, should be set apart for a separate stage of this examination. Thus, one of the figures might be, by all appearances, the image of the Archbishop of Cologne Adolf von Shaumburg (1511-1556). As far as another figure is concerned, presumably, before us is the image of the Kurfürst of Brandenburg Joachim II Hohenzollern, known also as Hector (1505-1571). Obviously, it may be assumed that the author in process of painting

had no possibility to use real visual images of these already mature historical persons, still he could use their earlier images, for example, the portrait of Hector of 1520 by Lucas Cranach the Elder. As far as the information about the canvas itself is concerned, it appears to be rather meager. As a matter of fact it is known that in the inventory of Nesvizh castle dated 1834 this painting is mentioned under No. 1 as «Obtaining of Princedom by Nikolaj VI Radzivill from the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Charles in 1547». This document contains no information about the author or the time of the artwork creating. So, what are main results of technique-technological examination? Chemical composition analyses of all pigments and their identification are executed by LSMA method. It can be concluded that the artwork presented for examination is painted, following the traditions of classical painting school, on a flaxen coarse-grained (8x10 plies/см2) canvas of a linen weave. The canvas, preliminarily stretched over subframe, was treated with glue and primed. Prime coat is colored, two-layered; thereby its lower layer is of glue-oil and upper layer is oil-based. As a filler a brown iron-containing pigment mixed with black organic and white lead was used. In paint layers are discovered ultramarine, red and yellow ochre, brown iron-containing pigment, white lead, black organic pigment. The canvas repeatedly underwent restoration interferences. As a result the canvas edges were cut off, it was replicated onto a new substrate

and stretched over a new subframe. Replenishment of losses, prime recoating, layers repainting were carried out. Among the materials used in restoration were discovered mineral pigments, also colored lipid varnishes – due to them the colors turn out to be bright and saturated. As a film-forming material in the lipid varnishes serves sandarac resin. The artwork is screened with a thin layer of varnish which under ultraviolet radiation already shows a yellowish luminescence natural for aged material. Unfortunately, in this case it is impossible to determine whether the linen was of domestic or of manufactory produce. Nevertheless, its self-made artistic preparation may testify in favor of the opinion that the picture was painted before the end of XVIII century. As the second «dating marker» may be considered the use of ultramarine. Especially widely it was used in XIV - first half of XV century, and in Italy more frequently than in the north of Europe. At the end of XVI - XVII century the reduction in production of the most common dark-blue pigment lazurite brought an increased demand for expensive ultramarine. As far as prime coat is concerned, in this case by its features it is difficult to determine the painting time, as prime coats with admixtures of colored pigments were common in Europe in XVI - XVIII centuries. Thus, it is possible to assume that the artwork was created between XVI and XVIII centuries. Some more witnesses of the past – subframe with wedges, over which the picture was stretched after it was replicated onto a new substrate, and Berlin blue which was used for layers repainting. In the middle of XVIII century, Mobile pinned sub frames appeared. However, in XIX century painters turned back to primitive, rudely fabricated frames. Industrial production of Berlin blue was started in 1724; therefore, it may be assumed that the first restoration of the picture was carried out in the period between the middle of XVIII and XIX century. Summing up the results of the artistic work complex examination we may draw a conclusion that, in


Laser Technologies Fig. 4. Two-projection photomicrographs and material composition spectrogram of the blue-tone fresco segment

Fig. 5 Two-projection photomicrographs and material composition spectrogram of the red-tone fresco segment

ades ago by Russian specialists for study and to this day they remain in holdings of the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. Chemical composition of paint layers of the Polotsk Saint Sophia Cathedral frescos was determined with the help of LSMA method. In the Physics Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus is being developed the first in the world mobile laser spectrometer of new generation, featuring diode pumping, double-pulse mode and increased energy. It is lighter in weight, more compact, universal, versatile and functional than previous device. It is worth noting that, regardless of favorable organizational-scientific situation accompanying instrumental-methodical development and implementation of laser technologies in the sphere of preservation of historical-cultural heritage, applied works in this

direction are unlikely to become self-sustaining in the near future, the trend, however, being characteristic also of the other European countries. Nevertheless, economic circumstances in this case should not prevail over high social significance of application of modern technologies in studies and preservation of historical and artistic valuables of our country.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

spite of absence of precise data on authorship and artistic school, the picture is of great museum and historical value. Also extremely important for our country was technique-technological examination of the frescos of a national sanctuary – Polotsk Sophia. Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk founded between 1044 and 1066 may be considered as the first of the number of distinguished cultic buildings in the territory of nowadays Belarus. It is constructed of plinfa bricks (plinthos) using technique of the so-called concealed course of bricks. This monument reflected basic principles of local architectural school, which were manifested in centric-pyramidal composition of architectural forms. Polotsk Sophia, most probably, was built by kniaź Vseslav Briacheslavich on the place of fire-burnt wooden cathedral. Erection of Sophia Cathedral is connected with the growth of political role of the Polotsk city. Likewise Kiev and Novgorod Sophia cathedrals constructed only little earlier, Polotsk Sophia served as a main public building of the city. Unfortunately, the building was exploded by Russian troops at the time of war with Sweden. It is restored in a new style with partial preservation of walls (Fig. 3). All ancient parts of Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk carry remnants of frescos dated back to XI century, i.e. this building is one of the most ancient on the Eastern Slavic lands. According to the research of G.V. Shtykhov, Doctor of History, in the medial eastern apse the compositions of Eucharist are outlined. Ornamental motive of frescos is realized in style of Byzantine wall-painting, it resembles fresco paintings of Kiev. In the remained segments of the lower layer of frescos predominate greenish, dark-blue, grayish-brown and yellow tones (Fig. 4, 5). National Polotsk Historical-Cultural Reserve-Museum has got a collection of authentic segments of frescos and building materials of XI century. Large number (about 1500 pcs) of the most representative of them were brought out several dec-

35


Science and Innovation

DELICATE MATTER

W

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

«Small rain lays great dust», this sayingperfectly reflects the significance of special wear-/ corrosion-/erosion-resistant and other types of coatings applied to machine parts, tools and equipment. Igor POBOL, Director, Doctor of Engineering, is interviewed about the activities of one of the flagships in this engineering sphere – PlasmotegScientific and Engineering Center (SEC) of the NASB Physical-Technical Institute.

36

hat is the research focus area of the Plasmoteg SEC, in your opinion? I would certainly prioritize such a research area as coating application among the diverse scientific and practical problems the SEC deals with. The SEC was involved in that field of research even beforeofficial establishment in 1990 when it was affiliated to the Institute of Electronics and achieved significant progress in that endeavor. The Plasmoteg SEC is the leader in this sector not only within the framework of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, but also, probably, in the country. For instance, the SEC has developed innovative vacuum technologies for applying multi-layer multi-component nanostructured coatings, diamond-like layers with extremely high wear resistance, high chemical stability and corrosion resistance. They are used for hardening tools, machine-building parts and for applying optical coatings. Titanium-based oxide coatings, which, in particular, are used for fabricating implants, demonstrate extremely high results. The SEC methods allow the depth of coatings to be applied to be varied in a rather wide range – actually from monoatomic layers to several micrometers that cannot be achieved using conventional technologies. What is the core of your systems? One of the important assemblies of our units is a pulsed plasma accelerator. Surprisingly, initially such products were developed to be used in space applications. The research into the use of the flow of particles to control spaceships, i.e. orbital change, have been conducted. However, later the results of the research found use in more practical applications. For example, the SEC

has developed a unique arc-vacuum plasma source «EPITRON-S-M» which potentially may be used as a component of vernier engines. However, it may be also used for producing nanomaterials, applying diamond-like carbon, metal, oxide, nitride and carbide films, including super-hard and composite films. Graphite and actually all metals and their alloys may be used as a cathode material. I would like to note that the device is included into the list of perspective inventions of the Republic of Belarus. Where are the SEC developments used? Primarily, in the industry. For example, the wear of mould boxes and dies significantly reduces after treatment using our units and, in addition, their operation cycle increases several-fold compared to conventional equipment. This property is extremely useful for the tools since hardening nanostructured coatings increases their service life 2-5-fold. It is extremely important that costly, energy-intensive and ecologically harmful chrome-plating electrochemical processes may be replaced by the SEC-developed technology. In the near future, it is planned to put the equipment for applying thick metal coatings on different units and parts into operation, however, these processes are not related to the vacuum technology. The SEC coatings are likely to be used primarily in the industrial sector. Is it possible to use these coatings in other spheres? Our cooperation with the medical sector is rather actively progressing, specifically in the transplantology and prosthetics. The thing is that stainless steel/titanium and Co-Cr-Mo alloys transplants are being increasingly used to treat


Coating Technologies

Whichof the SEC’srecent developments could be characterized as innovative? In 2011, the SEC began to explore a new problem which was not actually dealt with, i.e. application of coatings, primarily, titanium, copper, chrome and silver on woven materials. In the process of conducting experiments, the material is secured to a cylinder and an arcjet method is used to deposit metal on it. Certainly, we had apprehension as to the probability of destruction of delicate materials when exposed to the deposition method, but despite some intricacies, that problem had been solved byadjustingoptimal parameters. Currently, we can treat actually all types of materials and we have conducted hundreds of tests with different materials-metals combinations. This innovative idea, to my mind, has been tapped through exploring the information about the fact that many metals possess excellent properties from the medical perspective. We have already achieved promising results

giving evidence that these innovative materials may be used in the future. We have specific perspective developments of applying noble metals, however, we encounter organizational problems – working with precious metals is difficult in Belarus.

Vacuum arcjet pulsed plasma source EPITRON-S-M

Where such material can be used? The sphere of application is actually unlimited and, for example, applying coatings on materials was identified as a separate sphere in the 7thEU Framework Program. We have found that coated fabrics may protect a human being or an object from electromagnetic radiation allowing the intensity to be reduced by 20 dB. The second sphere of practical application is to prevent fungi from growing. The increasingly growing use of multiple glass units contributed to the significant spread of fungi in our apartments since higher humidity and temperature create favorable conditions for their reproduction. Even in the international space station 200 fungi species were found following a thorough clean-up. One more sphere is veterinary. The SEC jointly with the Vitebsk State Technological University is involved in developing and improving materials to be used for operating animals. i.e., bandage and dressing materials, etc.

Spine endocorrectorfixator

Frequently, the researchers encounter a serious problem residing in commercialization of their developments and introduction of products to the market. On the other hand, research is not prioritized in the production-oriented scientific institutions. Do you manage to maintain the required balance between science and practice? I believe that the SEC is one of the unique institutions which manages to harmoniously balance the research and practice. As I mentioned above, the Plasmoteg SEC has been in the coating research for more than 20 years, and our institution carries out the research activities in this area in parallel with other scientific organizations and frequently we are

ahead of them. In general, the main areas of fundamental research in which the SEC is involved include the theory of interaction of low-temperature plasma, electron and ion beams and laser radiation with the surface of solids, thinfilm physics, theoretical foundations and methods of forming nanosized coating, producing thin-film materials, sensory elements and sensor devices – a rather wide spectrum of research problems. In addition, the SEC structure includes a Design Division as we need technically complex units, including plasma generators, for our research and development. This allows the SEC to produce equipment systems used in the industry and these activities are continuously conducted. For instance, over the period of the SEC operation, our systems were sold to Russia, USA, Finland, Germany, Czech Republic, Korea, Taiwan and Switzerland. Do you maintain exclusively commercial relations with foreign counterparts or you also carry out joint research? The scientific cooperation is very important for us. For instance, since 2000, we have implemented several projects within the framework of the Belarusian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research jointly with the RAS Siberian Branch. Primarily, this includes theoretical and experimental research in applying coatings and producing fusion splices of heterogeneous

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

various diseases, however, they are not always harmless for a human organism. The SEC has developed the technology for applying diamond-like carbon and also titanium oxide biocompatible, nanocomposite coatings. They are chemically stable, compatible with tissues of living organisms,non-allergenic and have been successfully used in traumatology, spinal surgery, cardiosurgery and orthopedics for some years. For example, currently, the SEC applies coatings on parts of the prosthetic cardiac valves produced by the Electronmash Plant of the Planar State Scientific Production Association and it should be noted that the coating quality is on par with the highest world standards. Surprisingly, it has been found that specific coatings most probably may help treat tumors and jointly with the Institute of Physiology the SEC has demonstrated – originally through animal experiments – that silver-doped diamond-like coatings produce an expressed inhibitory action suppressing the growth of a number of neoplasms.

37


Science and Innovation

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Electronic and mechanical system for diagnosing feet pathology

38

materials. The last area is of specific interest for us since ceramic-metal bonding is one of the biggest challenges of the theoretical and practical character. We have found a solution to this problem by using electron-beam heating and adhesive-active brazing alloys containing titanium, zirconium and other active elements. In general, nearly ten projects which were extremely highly appraised were implemented jointly with the Russian counterparts. In 2006, a team of researchers were awarded a Prize named after Academician V.A. Koptyugfor a number of research papers “Theoretical and Experimental Research, Development of Material Modification Technologies and Production of Compounds Using Concentrated Energy Fluxes”. It should be noted that our Russian counterparts are mainly involved in process simulation, while we carry out experiments. We try to expand our contacts primarily in the eastern region. Our progress in cooperation with China is still minor, while relations with Korea are very extensive. In addition, we cooperate with Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine and also submit our projects for approval and inclusion into the 7th Framework Program -to be true, the success is minor to date – the competition is extremely intense in this research area. Having entered the international market you began to compete with the most well-known companies. Doyou manage to outstripyourcompetitors? I would like to know that both

the quality of our systems and functional properties of coatings they produce are as high as those offered by our foreign competitors. However, there is a concept of the brand which substantially influences the sales, including high-tech units. We produce excellent equipment, but we don’t have a well-established trademark and, hence, our sales are low. This problem needs to be solved and it requires a proper approach from the range of those currently available. For example, many western companies which re-established their production facilities in the South-East Asia or have no them at all, but selling the equipment under their own brand are getting on to the fact that this is not always an ideal solution. To what extent are local enterprises interested in your technologies since frequently not difficulties of pioneering innovations, but the lack of motivation becomes an unsurmountable barrier for them? We have succeeded in establishing beneficial relations with organizations in a number of countries, including the worldknown 3M company (USA), but I am quite satisfied with the work which was finalized in 2010 – delivery of a system for applying hardening multilayer nanostructured coatings to the Belarusian enterprise «TormoznayaApparatura i Mekhanizmy» OJSC («Braking Equipment and Mechanisms»). And I am not ironic - unfortunately, the Belarusian enterprises are poorly receptive to innovations as a whole. For example, some years ago we initiated the development of a method of applying diamond-like coatings with an attractive black color on watchcases. This technology was offered for the Minsk Watch Plant, but the management refused under the pretext that there was no demand in the market. A few years later when Switzerland began selling black-coating watches we made the second attempt, but the response was the same. However, when «Frank Muller» (Switzerland) bought control of the plant, naturally, the question arose, «Why are the black case watches still not

manufactured by the plant?» And only recently we have unshelved the file and launched the project. Do you carry out non-specialized research and search for new niches which are beyond your main specialization? Undoubtedly, we are proud of some achievements. For example, in 2004-2006, the SEC jointly with Grodno Medical University developed an integrated system for functional diagnosis, prevention and orthopedic correction of feet pathology which is an electronic and mechanical system using strain-gauge sensing elements to measure pressure produced by a moving feet. While flat foot was examined earlier by inking a foot, currently a physician may display the pattern on the monitor screen in the form of visual and digital data. Our system increases the recovery rate of children by more than 20%. In addition, it is less expensive than foreign analogous systems available in the market and it may become widely used not only in the field of medicine, but also in the field of sports, for example, for measuring biomechanical parameters of sportsmen during training. Unlike systems of our competitors, a key advantage of our system is that it allows measurement of actual and not relative pressure. The second generation system is currently under development which is to be more perfect, flexible and presentable. Do you protect your intellectual property as there is a risk of copying and adopting a solution when selling high-tech systems abroad? We patent our developments in Belarus. However, the vacuum equipment produced worldwide in our field has been somewhat standardized as a whole, so, I am referring only to details or minor differences which may be effectively protected as know-how.

Pavel Dik


Innovative Materials

KNOWLEDGE CAST IN METAL

T

he Institute of Metal Technology of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus is the quintessence of advanced innovation infrastructure where a total innovation cycle is completed – from an idea generation up to manufacturing products thereunder. What is a basis of such efficient activities? This question is answered by Academician Mr. Eugeny MARUKOVICH. – Our success is primarily related to the selection of the directions of the Institute’s scientific and technical activities. Just the orientation of our investigations to solving technological problems of the real economy sector made it possible for our team to reach such high socio- economic indicators. Merely

during recent two years there have been created over 160 emerging technologies, including 16 advanced manufacturing technologies, over 100 agreements with Belarusian enterprises and 24 foreign contracts with Russia, the Republic of Korea and with other countries have been successfully completed. Over 190 scientific papers have been published. The Institute is successfully involved in completing basic and applied research works; it has developed the theoretical basis for controlling the processes of generating the structure and properties of metals and their alloys at crystallization and consolidation, upgraded and added to the foundry casting theory. There have been created new scientific schools: «Foundry thermo physics» and «Crystallization of multicomponent alloys at intensive heat abstraction». – In what way does the Institute respond to a problem of present interest faced by the science: «Who should be on the bit – the science or industry?» – The answer can be univocal. The science is becoming a part of industries. Each stage of its development reflects the knowledge included therein. These two branches have inosculated in a single vector so they cannot be considered separately. The science has been developing and will develop under the effect from the part of the community needs. As it was stated by F. Engels as early as in 1894, «if a community has a technical need it will advance science faster than a dozen of

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

The present-day engineering requires from metals ever new and new qualities major of which are strength and durability. Modern industries require new bearing materials possessing optimum properties which reduce the mass and specific quantity of metal per structure of products, improve relevant characteristics of machines and mechanisms. In connection with this, promising is a wide implementation of resource-conscious production technologies among which one can name continuous casting. A number of plants for implementing this process has been developed at one of the most successful institutions of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus - the Institute of Metal Technology. Although it was incorporated relatively recently – on the 1st of May 1992 –it has managed to rise to a firing line and now it is a paragon of a typical innovation enterprise creating high-quality products and in so doing solving such critical missions as import substitution and reduction of material costs. For the developing and implementing resource-saving environment –friendly and knowledge-intensive technologies the Institute was awarded with a Certificate of Merit of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus. In 2005 and 2007, it was the second and in 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, the first among scientific institutions and was placed in the Republican Honours Board. The employees of the Institute of Metal Technology were awarded with BSSR State Prize (1990). State Prize of the Republic of Belarus (2010), the Red Banner of Labor, Medal of Honor, medals of F. Skaryna, Certificates of Merit and acknowledgment of the Academy of Sciences, numerous bonuses. While solving the industrial sector’s tasks the Institute has been developing and manufacturing customized foundry equipment, mechanical engineering parts with improved physical and mechanical properties, conducting research works, opening new prospects for industrial customers. On the basis of utilizing the research results and developments an aggregate economic effect amounting to over BLR 1 bln was gained and the output of the import-substituting products reached BLR 4 bln.

39


Science and Innovation universities». The hydrostatics was called into existence by a need to control mountain torrents in Italy in XVI and XVII centuries. We became familiar with electricity only when its practical application was discovered. On the one hand engineering achievements assign objectives to the science and promote its development and on the other hand the process of production development is going when exposed to new grand challenges. This idea was expressed in due course by K.Marx: «The theory of friction appeared by the example of a mill and together with it there were conducted investigations of mathematical forms of gear transmission, gears, etc.» – How did such operational scheme originate at the Institute to become a classic innovation enterprise? – We’ve selected a failsafe alternative: all new solutions are put to an evaluation test under working conditions by employing our own experimental facilities. For instance, for creating stock material by continuous horizontal casting there have been developed a technology and facilities to manufacture cast iron and bronze blanks with homogeneous mechanical properties both in cross-section and along the whole length of a cast blank. They are applied in all mechanical engineering branches for manufacturing shop floor production parts and for repairing purposes. Such new processes, facilities and foundry goods have been implemented at various industrial enterprises of the

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

The team of the Contact Heat Exchange Laboratory.

40

Republic of Belarus, particularly at the Factories «Mogilevliftmash», «Centrolyt», «Universal-Lyt» Unitary Production Enterprise, at the Power Metallurgy Concern», BelTopElyt Ltd., «Cvetmet». Similar lines have been supplied to CIS countries and other states - to Lithuania for Centrolyt Kaunas Foundry, to the Ukraine –for Ukcrystalmet Private Enterprise, to Azerbaijan – for Baku Experimental Foundry, to the Republic of Korea, to Russian enterprises – Bakan Ltd; «Regional Association of Iron Founders», Seversplav Company, Prokat Scientific and Production Association and to many others. – The new processes developed at the Institute have a lot of advantages. What economic effect have they introduced in the country’s economy? – The casting methods and breakthrough technologies developed by the Institute made it possible to increase the product yield up to 90-92%, improve durability, wearability, hydrodensity of goods 1.5-2 times, reduce the capital expenditures, production floor, product costs 2-4 times. On the basis of the implemented developments the products manufactured for the tractor, machine tool, agricultural machinery, chemical and construction industries totaled to over USD 12 mln. Noteworthy is a brand new method of continuous cyclic casting by freezing-out for producing wear-resistant parts of special irons leading to a substantial economic

effect. In so doing a carte blanche was provided both to the manufacturers of products and consumers thereof. For the industrialists the advantage consisted in the fact that the operations of forming, cutting and cleaning casts were excluded from the production process, all technological wastes were completely utilized, the need in the primary charging material was halved and that in precious alloying elementsnickel, copper, chrome, manganese, silicon was reduced 3-5 times. In addition to it, the new method requires no casting heating. The water used for heating the facilities is utilized for heating the production floor area. A total reduction of energy consumption – electric power, heat, water – in the production prime cost reaches 6%. Among the technology’s advantages are: exclusion of burnishing and chromizing operations, increased productivity of casting and machining. The consumers of the products are also in the money due to replacing ex pensive alloy-treated steels and bronzes with cast iron, waiving import of components, reduction of the prime cost of the products, improved reliability and durability of critical parts 1.5-30 times, increased sales, including export ones. The technology greatly contributes to the country’s economic and social spheres due to environmentally safe production, absence of environmental emission of harmful substances, creation of highbrow high-paying jobs. A cumulative economic effect is amounting to one ruble per one ruble of economic output and over 6 billion rubles a year. As the practice suggests, a most valid mechanism for commercialization of scientific achievements is a small innovation enterprise incorporated within the framework of a scientific or educational institution. Indeed, who can better than a scholar himself- author of a scientific idea bring it to a real product …? – We’ve just followed this way and in 2007 incorporated Technolit Research and Production Enterprise employing this technology. It became


Innovative Materials

– What techniques do you use to sweep the market?

– As is well known the advance of scientific and technical achievements to the economy’s real sector is closely related to promotional activities. Therefore, every year we present our developments at various conferences, symposia, exhibitions, etc. A high-level achievements gained by our scholars has been commemorated by over 20 medals of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements, Moscow International Salon of Innovations and Investments, annual Exhibition-Congress «High Technologies. Innovations Investments. «European Quality», Belproenergo International Specialized Exhibition, 59 diplomas of international exhibitions. In addition to it «a green light» is given to our products by NIOKTR quality management system implemented pursuant to ISO 9001-2009 standard. It materially broadens the geography of our scientific, industrial and commercial relations. We have been actively cooperating with domestic and foreign organizations: Korean Institute of Industrial Technologies, Korea-EurAsia Center of Industrial Cooperation, Korean Institute of Machines and Materials, Cianjin Institute of Power Sources (China), High-Energy Ltd. (India), Iranian Institute of Science and Technologies, Institute of Casting (Poland), Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Physico-Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys (the Ukraine). The production and commercial contacts have been established with enterprises of Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, China, Korea, India. – In what way would you specify your Institute’s topical and strategic objectives? – Primarily, it is quest for new solutions to meet needs of the national economic complex. For instance, we are involved in developing a promising technology for producing aluminum-silicon alloys- silumins- with nanostructural eutectic silicon. Currently, phase constituents of the structure of castings are dispersed with the application of nucleation catalysts. This technology fails in the following: instable changes

in an alloy, metal hyper-tendency to gas pickup and the production process ecological insecurity, absence of nucleation catalyst versatility. The silumins with nanostructural inclusions are a brand new material possessing specific properties. As compared to best world analogues the new technology makes it possible to chop eutectic silicon crystals in castings of silumins 10 -15 times faster and produce stock material with high anti-friction and mechanical properties. The tests conducted at Optic Lida factory certified that the operational life of worm gears of reduction gearboxes of anti-friction silumin is 4 times longer as compared to those of bronze. A specific feature of the new material consists in the fact that it gives way to closed die forging. Similar works directed to fundamental research in the field of new materials and technologies in casting and metallurgical processes, as well as applied scientific works in respect to multifunctional and specialized materials will be continued at the Institute of Metal Technology. I’m quite confident that creation of science-intensive products will become inevitable for all scientific institutions striving for efficient operation.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

a visit card of our Institute. At the Institute on the basis of continuous cyclic casting by freezing-out there has been arranged waste-free output of import-substituting products for the automotive and tractor industries: cylinder sleeves and piston rings for Belarus tractor pneumatic compressors, packing rings of special gray pig iron with spherical graphite for pneumatic compressors and other parts. Along with a long operational life the cost of the products manufacture employing this technique is well below as compared to their imported analogues. Thus, Minsk Tractor Works and Borisov Aggregate Works when purchasing rings and bushings annually save in the difference in prices around USD 500 and 200 respectively and replacement of piston rings for Zvezda diesel engine saves almost USD 1,000 per one engine. The Enterprise is manufacturing over 700 different wear-resisting iron products which before had to be imported. Now we annually sell abroad over one million of various rings and bushings. The new casting method is applied when producing white pig iron used when making hollow calcareous bricks. The operational life of metal structures required for such operations increased 8-10 times as compared to their analogues. For the creation and implementation of a groundbreaking method of continuous cyclic casting by freezing-out of wear-resisting parts in 2010 a State Prize of the Republic of Belarus in the field of science and engineering was awarded to Academician E.I. Marukovich, Director of the Institute of Metal Technology, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) V.F. Bevze, Manager of the Laboratory of the Institute of Metal Technology and to Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) A. M. Bodyako. The results of their work have materially enriched the domestic and world science and engineering, significantly positively effected the development of the scientific and technological advance of mechanical engineering and improved the economy of the Republic of Belarus.

41


Science and Innovation

ECOLOGICAL MAPPING OF ENVIRONMENT УДК 581.526.35:502.45:912.43-12.13

Currently, generic and estimation maps are of paramount importance for the management of natural resources and environmental quality. Together with other natural maps they are necessary for the development of various economic projects and environmental impact assessment, and they are an important component of the environmental monitoring.

B

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

y the end of the past century, the potential of mapping research method significantly extended through the development and implementation of GIS technologies and free access to the remote sensing data. In case the adequate spatially distributed information throughout the region is available, their application allows for creation of actually unlimited number of virtual thematic maps and their analysis in various combinations. This article summarizes some of the results of our research on largescale vegetation mapping which was carried out using the data obtained through the remote and ground sensing. The scheme of our research comprised three stages (Fig. 1).

42

Pre-Field Cameral Stage The pre-field cameral stage includes: collection of data on the area of the object to be studied; selection of space imagery data from various satellite systems; processing of satellite images; automatic classification of object satellite images; preliminary classification and creation of digital pre-map. The preparatory work begins with an analysis of available data obtained based on the study of an area for the forest and land management projects and feasibility studies of economic and/or environmental activities, as well as with processing

of documents for the development of forest resources. The data contained in these documents are the baseline data for databases which were established through scanning, referencing management many-leaved and compartment boundaries, data vectorization and adding attributive information. To solve geobotanical and ecological mapping problems, the researchers use satellite images with a spatial resolution from 8-15 m to 30-50 m obtained using the following imaging systems: Landsat ETM + and TERRA / ASTER (USA), SPOT (France), ALOS (Japan ), etc. To assess the state of the vegetation cover, space systems with low spatial resolution (250-1,000 m) such as AVHRR (NOAA), MODIS (USA), etc. are used. Currently, space systems with super-high spatial resolution are being actively developed and in terms of their information content they are equal to aerial survey data and can replace them in the evaluation of vegetation state at the local level, or may be used selectively to characterize individual areas within the regional level. Among them, in our research satellite imagery QuickBird, IKONOS (USA) were used. The satellite imagery was processed using Scanex Image Processor software package and it included as follows: geo-projection of an image into a geographic coordinate system WGS84 of UTM projection;

adjustments of binding an image by reference points or exact coordinate-bind image; increase in the spatial resolution of multichannel (multispectral) images; creation of synthesized color images from a combination of spectral channels of a satellite image. The next stage of the pre-field stage included implementation of unsupervised automatic classification; in this case, with further interpretation of classes and map formation. Automatic classification was performed using specialized packages ENVI or Erdas Imagine. The number of classes in this processing ranged from 15 to 25 depending on the quality of the image and objectives set. After performing these procedures, pseudocolor image (electronic map or a pre-map) was obtained. It reflects the distribution patterns of a specific (preset) number of classes. Comparing the data of the visual interpretation of composite images and pre-map obtained by unsupervised classification allows for better identifying distribution patterns and diversity of vegetation of test area and thus more reasonable approach to the analysis of used materials. Field Research Stage The collected data allowed identifying location of the points for the collection of phytocenotic descrip-


Ecology

Mikhail Ilyuchyk, Ph.D in Agriculture, Head, Department of Reception and Processing of Space Data, RUE «Belgosles»

Natalia Zelenkevich, Research Associate, Department of Geobotany and Vegetation Cartography, V.F.Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

tions to more accurate interpretation of the classes obtained. The data on the vegetation state using geobotanical classical methods were collected, however, by applying the GPS-receiver for point snap descriptions and tracks of travel routes. In the process of doing this work, the preliminary results of the interpretation of satellite imagery were compared with the ground-based data. Depending on the results, the previously selected classes could be united or, vice versa, divided into several independent classes. The number of description points for each class could vary depending on the homogeneity or heterogeneity pattern of vegetation cover. The number of points was

increased for all new or difficult-to-interpret classes, with the aim to obtain sufficient quantity of benchmark pixels during the supervised automated classification. Post-Field Cameral Stage Processing of the field data comprised several stages. Processing of geobotanical descriptions. Summary tables of phytocenoses descriptions and their subsequent manual sorting were prepared in cameral conditions. In addition to the floristic composition and community structure, great attention was paid to the characteristics of the tree layer. This was necessary not only for typification of forest communities, but also for

Satellite image ALOS Avnir date 28/06/2010

Nikolai Voznyachuk, Research Associate, Department of Geobotany and Vegetation Cartography, V.F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

Pre-field stage (creation of automatic classification)

Dmitry Zhylinsky, Junior Research Associate, Department of Geobotany and Vegetation Cartography, V.F.Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

Post-field stage (processing phytocenotic descriptions, designing the legend, conducting controlled automatic classification)

Fig. 1. Scheme of work for making a map of vegetation using remote sensing data (case study: degraded bog «Zhady», Miorsky District, Vitebsk Region)

Pre-field stage (processing of satellite imagery)

Field research stage (geobotanical descriptions in the key areas)

Vegetation Map (fragment)

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Dmitry Grummo, Ph.D in Biology, Deputy Director, V.F.Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

43


Science and Innovation distinguishing them from the communities of forest swamps. Processing of geobotanical descriptions was conducted by a computer program JUICE, with the process including the following sequential steps: processing using the TWINSPAIN method; compilation of synoptic table with constancy and affection of species; analysis of column constant highlighting the groups of diagnostic, constant and dominant species; compilation of characterizes overview table of mapped syntaxa; calculation of phyto-indicator indices (light, moisture, acidity and trophicity of substrate) characterizing the ecology of habitats of the mapped units. Development of geobotanical map legend. The structure of the legend reflects the typological differentiation of vegetation cover. We used units of eco-phytocoenotic (dominant) classification in its drafting. Highest legend’s units match the types of vegetation (forest, marsh, meadow, coastal-water,

Fig. 2. The final stages of geobotanical map creation of degraded bog «Zhady» (A - ALOS Avnir image fragment and contours of vegetation specified after controlled automatic classification, B - vegetation map)

Fig. 3. The thematic clusters of ecological mapping of vegetation

ECOLOGICAL MAPPING Indication maps

Ecodynamic maps

Maps of sustainability

Functional maps

Map of anthropogenic impact factors

Map of direction of contemporary processes in ecosystems

Map of the dynamic stability

Maps of habitat assessment in terms of maintaining biological and landscape diversity of area

Map of the current state of vegetation

Map of change in moisture conditions indicated by vegetation succession

Maps of sustainability of natural ecosystems to fire

Maps of resource functions of vegetation

Maps of sustainability of natural ecosystems to the impact of recreation

Map of floristic diversity of landscapes

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Map of anthropogenic impact factors

44

Recommendation maps and activities for economic use of local area and protection of valuable objects

Map of ecological functions and environmental potential of vegetation


Ecology forest vegetation. Next, the separation of the legend of the forest vegetation was made subject to taxa corresponding to units of forest typological classification. Separation by type mire process (eutrophic, mesotrophic, oligotrophic) is the highest rank of mire vegetation. Complex communities (hummock-hollow, ridge-hollow, ridge-pool, hummock-carpet) are heterogeneous vegetation of transition mire and raised bogs. Creation of controlled automatic classification. Based on the peer review, the final controlled automatically classification is conducted and the information content of the data obtained is evaluated with respect to the totality of our knowledge (cartographic, field, literary materials) according to established standards (classes of vegetation). Analysis of the results and comparison with field data made it possible to correct the distribution of certain classes by increasing the number of standard pixels, required for classification.

Creation of cartographic model. A cartographic model of the area to be studied is created based on the systematization of classes (clusters) of the classified image obtained. Map creation is associated with the creation of the unified geographic information system (GIS) which includes an electronic photomap, a topographic base, satellite images-based processed data, a pre-map and a database (dbf format) of geobotanical descriptions. Analysis and design of map is carried out in the software medium ArcGIS. As an example of the final work, we present geobotanical map of degraded bog «Zhady» created on the basis of integrated study of vegetation in 2010-2011 (Fig. 1-2). At the same time the research was not limited to the creation of the current maps of vegetation. The necessity to «convert» the contents of geobotanical map in a series of application thematic maps was the most important stage of the work.

Fig. 4. Fragments of the vegetation map (A) of the protected sphagnum bog «Yuhovichsky Mokh» (Rossonsky District, Vitebsk Region) and applied thematic maps (B - direction of contemporary processes in wetland ecosystems; C - change in moisture mode; D - resistance to fire, E - cranberry productivity)

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

etc.). Typologically heterogeneous vegetation on the site of burnt and cuttings, conventionally called the «barren», and secondary smallleaved forest and scrub vegetation are independent sections. Forest vegetation type divided into classes of formations: coniferous, deciduous, small-leaved derivatives and secondary native forest on the mires. Mapped taxa of coniferous forests in the mires (mainly pine) are considered as gradations of these forests, native deciduous forests in the mires identified as a separate taxonomic highest rank category. This is conditioned by the intension to preserve the unity of the formational structure of forest vegetation. Deciduous forests in the mires - downy birch and alder - form independent and conjugated with each other formations, while the types of pine forests in the mires are a part of the eco-phytocoenotic series of pine forests. Formation (pine, spruce, aspen, alder, etc.) are sub-headings for the next rank of

45


Science and Innovation (waterlogging), decrease (drainage) and multidirectional processes in complex locations.

Fig. 5. Stages of monitoring ecological and economic impacts on forest areas damaged by fire (case study: forest-bog complex «Yelnya») Selection of satellite imagery of the investigated area

Linking satellite images with map data of forest management

Linking GIS Formap «Forest Resources» with separate vector layers to bring them to a common scale in a unified geographic coordinate system

Digital map of the extent of damage of forest-bog complex «Yelnya» by fires - as a basis for the assessment of environmental and economic consequences of fire

A summary statement of the extent of damage as a result of forest fires

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

A number of applications thematic maps (Fig. 3) was created on the basis of actual vegetation maps and the associated database.

46

Indication Maps A map of anthropogenic impact factors shows the effect of one (or two) of the most important factors for each sector of vegetation: full and selective logging of recent years, fire, mowing and grazing, inundation, etc. A map of the current state of vegetation reflects two processes – the degradation of vegetation due to anthropogenic factors and revegetation processes developing after these impacts. Four gradations of disturbances of vegetation are identified: mild-, medium-, strongly-dis-

turbed and completely destroyed vegetation. Phytoindication maps characterize the environmental regimes of habitat (moisture, acidity, trophicity, lighting) which are detected on the basis of the ecoscales of H. Ellenberg [1]. Ecodynamic Maps A map of direction of contemporary processes in the natural ecosystems shows the processes of change in environmental conditions which is displayed on the character of vegetation successions. A map of change in moisture conditions indicated by vegetation successions defines the four directions of changes in moisture conditions: stabilization, increase

Evaluation maps of Biological and Landscape Diversity A map of especially valuable plant communities reflects as follows: rare forest communities; natural etalons, the least modified of farming anthropogenic natural forests; used natural and planted forest of local forest formers of high productivity and targeted compliance; forest plant communities in the mires, around the lakes and at the springhead; rare complex bog communities; plant communities with rare plant species; resource areas; and experimental objects. A map of habitat assessment in terms of maintaining biological and landscape diversity is based on the separation of taxa protected under the EU Habitats Directive. A map of biodiversity based on the abundance of score evaluations calculated from the abundance of species per unit area. Maps of Sustainability Maps of sustainability of natural ecosystems: to fire – developed based on the standard scale of forest fire hazard; to the impact of recreation based on the existing allowable limits of recreational pressure on vegetation. Functional Maps Resource potential vegetation maps reflect information on biological resources (total stem volume of forest, cranberry productivity, stocks of medicinal plants, etc.). A map of the ecological functions of vegetation shows the ecological and landscape-protective potential of vegetation. Without going into detail in the methodological issues of environmental mapping which are quite detailed in our special edition [2], we present an example of the maps which we created in «Maps of Wetlands of the Belarusian Poozerie» (Fig. 4). Multifunctional and multilevel geographic information system (GIS) that provides compatibility


Ecology A derivative maps block obtained as a result of interpretation of aerospace imagery and spatial analysis of the above layers. A block of assessment and prediction maps obtained on the basis of estimates of vegetation cover or by modeling its dynamics. In addition to data input, output and storage, processing and analysis of spatial data using a set of procedures is an important GIS functionality. We have developed an original technique for determining the extent of the economic damage resulting from the affects of forestry catastrophic factors of natural and anthropogenic character using standard functions realized in the majority of current GIS (Fig. 5). Thus, development of thematic mapping of vegetation using the data obtained through remote sensing and GIS technology is a promising direction which can promote the development of both the fundamental research in the field of botany (vegetation classification, phytoindication) and modern applied research (monitoring technology, forecasting state of the environment, control over nature utilization and ecological security). The promising spheres of research are as follows: Creating a system to remotely monitor the quality of development of the forest fund which will help more promptly and effectively solve problems to identify illegal logging and control of the forest use. Creating corporate geographic information systems allowing simultaneous connection of users and editors via the Intranet/Internet networks (for example, «Forests of Belarus», «Wetlands of Belarus», «Biological Resources», etc.). Server GIS can be an example of innovative technologies in the field of research into and inventory of biodiversity (the so-called electronic «Chronicles of Nature») and also the management of protected natural objects. Creation of a number of applied research and technical developments is possible on GIS platform which are to be applied by a wide range of users in the economic and environmental spheres and which also will provide a free access to information

for educational, scientific, social and other purposes. One should also remember about the image character of such projects as they are pioneering projects not only in our country, but also in the world. Making a digital map of vegetation of Belarus. Development and implementation of this technology can be a real breakthrough in the formation of national content in the fields of science, culture and system of scientific and technical information. The printed maps of the vegetation of the country (M 1:1, 000 000, 1:600, 000) made in 1960-1970 have already become obsolete since they were created on the basis of the post-WWII data and with limited access to many areas (primarily military ranges). During this period, a number of large-scale socio-economic projects (reclamation of Polesie, industrial and agricultural development of the regions) was implemented in the country, the exclusion zone after the Chernobyl accident was delineated and human pressure on the natural environment has significantly increased. All this has led to substantial change in the pattern of vegetation cover on the territory of modern Belarus. These and other factors force us to start the work to develop a new version of the vegetation map of Belarus on a fundamentally new platform using GIS technologies and aerospace sensing data.

Summary The article discusses the experience of large-scale geobotanical and ecological mapping using remote and ground sensing.

References 1. Ellenberg H. Zeigerwerte der Geffasspflanzen Mitteleuropas. Gottingen, 1992. – 282 s. 2. Flora and Vegetation of the Landscape Reserve «Elnya» / D. Grumо, O. Sozinov, N. Zeliankevich [etc.], ed. N. Bambalov. Minsk: Minsktipproekt, 2010. - 200 p.

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

and aggregation of disparate data is the technical (hardware and software) basis for geobotanical and environmental mapping. A list of thematic clusters of model GIS in our research is as follows: A base block is designed for georeferencing and coordinating the spatial data. It includes: a layer with selected elements of topographic data and a layer of the hydrographic network. A remote data block (satellite images, materials of automatic classification) is used both for compiling or refining the base layer and for obtaining data on the characteristics of vegetation cover as a result of interpretation. A geomorphological block includes the following layers: hypsometric (figured contours from topographic maps); and a digital elevation model. A forest management activities data block comprises layers with as follows: the boundaries of forest compartments and subcompartments; forest inventory data (age, composition, height, diameter, density, timber reserve) of forest bogs and adjacent areas; and information on performed economic activities. A phytocoenotic block includes the following layers: stations of terrestrial field surveys of vegetation (geobotanical descriptions, accounting of populations of woody or herbaceous plants in the permanent sample plots, profiles and transects); areas of ecosystems occurrences of rare or valuable plants: and borders of subcompartments of a geobotanical map. An ecological block includes the following layers: instrumental measurements of environmental parameters of habitat (pH, electrical conductivity, water level, physical and chemical properties of soils); phytometric indices (moisture, acidity, trophicity, and lighting). An anthropogenic block includes: data on selection of protective areas for different purposes; data on forest fires; data on the state of vegetation and the impact of negative factors; and information about construction or operation of communications.

47


Science and Innovation

BIOGAS PRODUCTION USING ORGANIC RAW MATERIALS

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

T

48

he shortage of energy and environmental problems promoted the emergence of a new research and technological area – bioenergetics. The core of this area resides in producing and using fuel from renewable organic raw materials – plant biomass, agricultural, household and industrial waste – for energy generation. The environmental aspect is obvious in this case since processing these organic materials for energy production results in substantial environmental pollution reduction. Methods of producing energy and fuel from the plant biomass and waste are diverse, however, cost-efficient processes such as anaerobic digestion for the biogas production, bioconversion of biomass to ethanol and anaerobic fermentation to generate acetone, butanol and hydrogen arouse the greatest interest. The anaerobic digestion transforms waste organic materials into the biogas. Its composition and yield depend on the nature of the waste to be processed and are within rather wide range: CH4 – 55-80%; CO2 – 15-50%; N2 – up to 5%; O2 – up to 3% and H2S – up to 3%. The biogas energy potential is 20-27 MJ/Nm3 and density under normal conditions is 0.98-1.4 kg/m3. In terms of the calorific value 1 m3 of biogas is equivalent on the average to 0.6 dm3 of kerosene or 1.5 kg of coal and generates 2 kW.h of electric power.

Nikolai Ruchai, PhD in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Biotechnology and Bioecology Chair, Belarusian State Technological University

Ilya Kuznetsov, Master of Biological Science, Teaching Assistant, Biotechnology and Bioecology Chair, Belarusian State Technological University

Producing anaerobic conditions initiates organic waste fermentation without a special microbial inoculation through spontaneous growth of microorganisms being present in the waste and environment. The process of anaerobic conversion of the organic material to generate biogas includes four stages. Through hydrolysis, i.e. the first stage, complex biopolymer molecules (proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, etc.) are broken down into more simple compounds: amino acids, carbonhydrates, fatty acids, etc. The second stage – acidogenesis – results in further breakdown of the formed monomers into a number of simple compounds by fermentative bacteria: volatile fatty acids, alcohols, lactic acid, methanol, CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S. At the third stage of anaerobic digestion – acetogenesis – the formed products are further digested to produce acetate, H2 and CO2. The fourth stage – methanogenesis – at which the acetic and formic acids and also H2, CO2 and methanol are converted into methane and CO2. The biocenosis of microorganisms dominated by bacteria and being complex in terms of composition is responsible for the entire process of conversions. It should be noted that lignin contained in the plant tissues is actually not digested in anaerobic conditions. Only its small low-molecular

weight fragments may decompose to form CO2, CH4 and acetate. The hydrolysis stage is closely related to acidogenesis (digestion), there is no clear line to be drawn between them, since microorganisms having hydrolytic activity use the hydrolysis products to accumulate the biomass. Acetogenic bacteria decompose the acidogenesis stage products. They actually prepare the substrate suitable for activity of methane-producing bacteria finalizing a complex process of the organic material decomposition. Among the symbionts responsible for the anaerobic digestion, methanogenic bacteria are the most demanding group in terms of cultivation. They require stringent anaerobiosis, a neutral or faintly alkaline reaction of the medium (pH 6 or 8) and can use only 8 substrates as an energy/ carbon source: CO2 + H2, formate, carbon monoxide, methanol, acetate and mono-, di- and triethanolamine. The process of anaerobic conversion of the organic materials into methane is limited either by the rate of hydrolytic decomposition of biopolymers (if contained in a large quantity in the processed raw materials), or by the rate of converting acetate into methane. The last factor is associated with low methanogenic bacteria growth and reproductive rates. For example, the bacteria (Methanotrix genus) generation time (doubling of biomass) is 200-


Bioenergetics Value for: Indicator Milk cows

Poultry

Pigs

Yield per head/day: manure, kg

55

0,2

3,5

biogas, m3

1,62

0,02

0,32

biogas volume, m3/t of manure dry material

300

600

500

containing biologically decomposable organic material characterized by high moisture content (90-94%), neutral or near-neutral pH, absence of such toxic chemical compounds as antibiotics, synthetic surfactants and so forth in concentrationsthat could inhibit bacterial growth and reproduction. The organic materials primarily include livestock/poultry waste and wastewater sludge/industrial effluents (bulk ethanol production waste, etc.) at the treatment facilities. One of the main feedstocks for biogas production is manure. The anaerobic digestion is the most useful technique for processing manure to produce ecology friendly organic fertilizer and gaseous energy. This technique allows manure deodaration and dehelmintization, incapacitates weed seeds for germination and actually fully preserves important nutrients – nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. A biogas plant has two principle components: a digester tank equipped with heating and mixing devices and a tank for holding biogas - a gas holder. The digesters’ capacity ranges from ten to

several thousand cubic meters. The equipment should be airtight and provided with an efficient thermal insulation. Oval-shaped digesters are characterized by most favorable hydrodynamic conditions for mixing fluid. Cylindrical containers with cone-shaped lower and upper parts are more easily producible. Mixing of the digester content requires high specific energy consumption. Increasing temperature increases the substrate digestion rate. This requires higher thermal energy input to maintain the required temperature of the fermentative medium in the digester. It is estimated that an average of 15-25% and 35-50% of the generated biogas is consumed to stabilize mesophilic and thermophilic processes respectively. In processing manures, mixing the material to be digested is an essential condition for efficient fermentation. In this case, the degree of the organic material decomposition is 30-40% and a process takes 20-25 days. Preliminary dispersing solid inclusions by a grinder in a stream of manure being fed into the digester increases the biogas yield.

Table. Yield of Biogas from Manure

Bioreactor

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

300 hours. For comparison, the time of doubling of biomass of hydrolytic microorganisms is 10-20 hours and that of acidogenic bacteria – 1-10 hours. The total rate of the biogas generation is defined by the process temperature, feedstock chemical composition, bacterial association density and the degree of homogenization of the fermentative medium. The thermophilic process (40-50° C) proceeds 2-3 times faster than the mesophilic process (20-40° C). The activity of anaerobic biomass substantially reduces at a temperature below (20° C). If the fermentative medium contains only dissolved compounds, the methane generation is higher than in the media containing solid organic inclusions. Separating the process into two stages – acidogenic (pH 6.0 – 6.5) and methanogenic (pH 6.5 – 8) – to be implemented in two series-connected apparatuses – is economically justifiable. This technological solution required higher investments, however, due to the spatial localization of microorganisms, the total rate of a substrate anaerobic transformation increases nearly 1.5-fold. 300-600 m3 of biogas is generated per ton of the digested dry organic feedstock. The more reduced organic compounds the processed feedstock contains, the higher biogas concentration in methane. Anaerobically digesting 1 kg of carbohydrates may generate 0.8 m3 of biogas (methane content – 60%), 1 kg of protein – 0.7 m3 (methane content – 70%) and 1 kg of fat – about 1.2 m3 (methane content – 67%). The world quantity of biogas production is over 700 billion m3/year. The biogas industrial technologies are widely spread in China, India, USA, Canada, Germany, Great Britain and other countries. Such technologies are just beginning to emerge in Belarus. To date, the purchase of single biogas units abroad is in question, while the number of such units runs into millions in China and India. The raw materials for producing the biogas comprise waste

49


SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Science and Innovation

50

The most useful technology is a two-stage fermentation process with a combined thermal regime. The first acidogenic stage proceeds at 30-37° C, the second – methanogenic – at 50-57° C. This saves energy, while maintains high biogas generation rate (see Table). The municipal treatment facilities in Belarus annually produce over 190 thousand tons of dried slurry residues which are considered to be a burdensome unusable waste. Currently, nearly 40 million tons of such residues are accumulated at sludge drying beds and sludge grounds posing a serious threat for the environment. The sludge is mechanically dewatered and then concentrate is buried – the processes requiring large quantity of energy and reagents. The method of anaerobic digestion to produce biogas is the most promising. In the world practice, this process is most frequently carried out in the mesophilic regime. The Russian scientists developed a technology of a two-phase municipal wastewater sludge digestion based on the extra-thermophilic operating regime of the first-phase digesters (temperature - 65° C, process duration – 0.6 – 1 day) and mesophilic operating regime at the second phase (temperature - 30° C). This increases the sludge organic material decomposition degree 1.2-1.6-fold. The Belarusian State Technological University (BSTU) has developed a technology of fermentative and microbiological sludge processing in the intensive regime allowing 10-12 m3 of biogas to be produced from 1 ton of a primary sludge and surplus activated sludge mixture. The ethanol production from grain results in formation of a bulky waste - distiller's dried solubles. The quantity of this by-product totaling 1.3 million m3/year exceeds manifold that of the product and reaches 135-150 m3 per 1 m3 of ethanol. Due to high content of the organic material (6-8%), it cannot be treated at the biological treatment facilities, therefore, the waste needs to be recycled. The integrated technology for processing the distiller's dried solubles to produce a protein-con-

taining fodder product (50-55 kg/1 t of distiller's dried solubles) and biogas (12-13 m3/1 t) is the most costefficient. The BSTU has developed the pilot operating procedures for this process. A rapid development of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes is conditioned by substantial advantages of these processes over conventional techniques. The former consume small quantity of electric power, the increase in activated sludge biomass is insignificant and formed surplus anaerobic sludge is stable and may be stored without substantial loss in activity, which is extremely important for the discontinuous operation cycle enterprises. This is the only technique for treating wastewater (even highly concentrated) allowing for partially (in some cases even fully) compensating costs associated with the process management by generating biogas to be used as an energy source. 1 kg of the degraded waste generates 0.26-0.34 m3 of methane (or 0.3-0.45 m3 of biogas). State-of-the-art bioreactors require small installation footprint and maintain operability following a lengthy wastewater supply interruption intervals that allows cyclically operating enterprises to efficiently use them. However, the method has its disadvantages: it may be used for the wastewater pretreatment to reduce contamination level by 8090%, in addition, anaerobic bacteria, specifically methanogenic bacteria, grow very slowly, therefore, much time is needed (5-7 months) to start the bioreactor, if inoculum from similar plants is not available. The second-generation anaerobic reactor design allows retention of the anaerobic bacteria biomass in the reaction space using diverse engineering solutions. To treat wastewater, the European countries widely use a highly efficient Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors in which the wastewater flows upwards through a blanket of granulated anaerobic sludge. The activated sludge is retained in the bioreactor by using a gassludge separator integrated into the upper part of the plant. The

process turned out to be so effective that currently over 500 reactors integrated into the industrial wastewater treatment facilities of the food, pharmaceutical, alcohol, pulp-and-paper, chemical and other industries are in operation. The UASB reactors are characterized by a simple design and high performance, however, they also have some disadvantages: it takes 5-7 months to form the granulated activated sludge having a sufficiently high concentration. The start-up process of a bioreactor may be expedited by introducing particles of an inert material (for example, coal dust) into a fermentative medium to initiate formation of granules or by inoculating with the activated sludge from another anaerobic bioreactor. In the latter case, the time needed to start up the UASB reactor reduces to two weeks. The BSTU has developed, carried out a pilot-scale test and offered the anaerobic wastewater treatment technology at the milk-processing plants for industrial application. Subject to the calculations, a UASB reactor with a capacity of 30 m3 is required to treat 100 m3/day. The process will generate 90-95 m3/ day of biogas. In addition, the BSTU Biotechnology and Bioecology Chair has been conducting for more than 10 years the research into development of anaerobic technologies for processing organic waste, distiller’s dried solubles, wastewater sludge at municipal treatment facilities and treating effluents from milk-processing enterprises to produce the biogas.


THE EMERGENCE PARADIGM A NEW APPROACH TO THE CONSCIOUSNESS AND REALITY ANALYSIS To the category of fundamental questions of philosophy belongs the problem of nature of the source of man’s concepts of outworld, i.e. the problem of analysis of the consciousness and reality interaction. The importance of this topic for the world-view formation and for the science at large is well recognized, however, the understanding of its practical value has not yet come into public consciousness. To the point relate not only unsolved problems of physics, biology and other sciences, but also the most vital aspects for the support of safe and harmonious civilization development. Our ordinary consciousness is characterized by evidence of its rationales and concepts, that is, by confidence in the correctness arising from the evidence ensuing from direct experience. Scientific consciousness is also based on evidence, but of logical kind, in its turn arising from «elementary» logical conclusions appearing in various constructs and proofs, as well as from practical certainty, i.e. from what is commonly referred to as «experience-proven». Consciousness based on scientific knowledge achievements has proved to be deeper and, therefore, more correct as compared to the ordinary one not only because it has allowed to acquire a broader view of the world, but also because it has helped the man to see new reality – inaccessible to ordinary consciousness. As the most widely known, examples of scientific knowledge achievements may be given birth of heliocentric model, non-Euclidean geometries,

electromagnetic waves concept, special and general relativity, Mendeleev periodic system, quantum theory, and resulting modern physical and mathematical theories, that have actually changed and extended ordinary consciousness as such and have called into question the evidence factor. In turn, advances in molecular biology and, foremost, discovery of a code pattern of living matter structure and of a biologic man as such, raised hopes for possible progress in the understanding of origin of life. Nevertheless, if the fact of emergence of living matter (physiological matter) appears to be perfectly understandable as a really possible phenomenon, the formulation of the problem of decoding of emergence of consciousness and of its organization mechanism can only be described as a problem similar to parallel axiom proving, or like attempts to imagine an electron as a particle and a wave concurrently. Man’s inherent ability to comprehend the fact of the world observation gives rise to fundamental concept of the world of objects existing independently of observing man, who himself is one of these

Alexander Yegorov Chief Research Assistant of Mathematics Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Doctor of Science (PhysicsMathematics)

Ivan Yegorov Doctor of Science (Economics)

objects. Objectivation in people's consciousness serves as a «built-in» element of perception mechanism due to which they do not see the difference between observable world of objects and surrounding reality. This fact, playing a crucial role in man’s adaptation to reality and in cognitive process development, does not allow to see the mechanism of the individual’s participation in «reproduction» of objects of the observable world. Evidence of perception of the world of objects as existing – apart and independent of the individual’s observation – is inseparable from man in the same way as evidence of his perception of the world as a three-dimensional objected space complying with Euclidean geometry axioms. At due time the geometrical axioms system change led to emergence of non-Euclidean geometries not only as imaginary (theoretical) but also as placed in material world, the ones that have enhanced our concept of space geometry pattern. Similarly, the authors of this article, in order to describe the consciousness and reality interaction mechanism, are putting forward a new paradigm, called the Emergence Paradigm, which introduces a system of axioms designed to enhance our understanding of «space» of reality perception. It should be noted that by inserting a term emergence in the paradigm name we want from the very beginning to emphasize the importance of the associated notion as the main starting point and foundation for the new paradigm definition. It is the analysis of the emergence phenomenon that explicitly denotes the presence of observation process in forming of our reality concepts. To overcome from the very start, the contradiction between evident given realness of the world objects as man-independently existing, and the fact of comprehension of this realness as the result of its observation, in capacity of the analysis initial scheme is considered an abstract model, a brief description of which we shall present in what follows. There exists primary reality that lies beyond observable world

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Philosophy

51


SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Science and Innovation

52

of objects and is connected with the world observed by man through observation process. We should note that when we mention reality, we firstly mean its observation-independent occurrence, its existence as a source of everything the man deals with in his life. Accordingly, we do not review the issue of emergence of reality per se, as this issue lies beyond the paradigm framework. The entity that man treats as entitative is actually not a reality, but a factuality – caused by the nature of man’s contact with it (by his embeddedness in reality), defined as consciousness. Reality, as mathematicians would say, is an interval on which the function is defined (domain of the function), called consciousness. And the range of values of this function appears to be observable world. Man (or, more generally, observer), as a part of reality as such, performs the function of observation and carries the observable world of objects in himself, thus defining the nature (structure, mechanism) of the said function. In conformity with the paradigm thesis the observer is not a singular entity (and, accordingly, an object in observable world). In fact, there is an unlimited multitude of observers of various «capacity», which build a complicated system. An observer, at a minimum, is any animated object, also every person among these objects, and also complexes which have features of an animate object. Such are the objects belonging to widely different types, such as cells of a living organism, or various types of associations of people in socium, the very socium, and civilization in general. Observers arise, live and die, forming an interactive, interconnected, interdependent, continuously changing system (network) of observers. Totality of links and dialectics of relations of observers with objects and with each other are characterized by multiple levels of their organization, by overlapping and mutual embeddednesses that have not yet got adequate description in terms and models of exact sciences. Functioning of such interconnected in all directions and partially hierarchical

system of the observers’ worlds generates multiplicity (ambiguity) of setup of whatever objects, including observers themselves. The paradigm provides an answer to the question of nature of «fabrication» of objects of observable world by any individual observer. It is postulated that the process of observation (basing on memory) is effected pursuant to the law of Emergence. That is: in the course of comprehension of the fact of observation the objectal world appears before the observer by way of the process of emergence, existence and vanishing of the objects. The field on which the observer arranges his observed objects appears to be the totality of all the observable world objects fixed by the observer. Fixation itself is determinable and realizable due to the presence of long-living (of varying longevity) links in the process of interaction of the observer with the environment, and in this way the observer can (and it really happens) consider the observed objects as the objects of reality per se. Totality of what is fixed is no more than a basis for subsequent observations. Capability of the particular observer to create pictures of the world depends, of course, on capacity of his consciousness or «resolving power». Ways of formation of such a capability is one the most difficult problems of science. Nevertheless, it seams evident that the event that was of determinative value for buildup of appropriate mechanism is the emergence of the «ideal» objects space acting as the main linking and shape-generating force in the observer’s world. The ideal objects nature is such that it allows to «construct» new objects with an unlimited speed and in any combinations, thus forming a necessary basis for arising of the most important elements of phenomenon of consciousness. However, whatever information capacity of the observer’s setup would have not be able to provide him with the ability to follow reality if he did not possess a structured specific mechanism of following the environment within the model being construct-

ed by him, the model which is manifested in comprehension of his existence in the observable developing world. Being himself a part of reality in which he is localized, the observer uses a strategy of actuation (fixation) of the local coordinate system within the frame of which the objects of observable world arise spontaneously, and with this their nature is determined by coordinate system in a strictly unambiguous manner, since these objects are perceived by the observer as existing ones. The coordinate system change is realized pursuant to «harmony» principles inherent in the observer’s «construct» and in the nature of his embeddedness in reality. Hence it follows, in particular, that the model of entitative world of objects will always retain its adequacy in primary spheres of man’s life and activities (regardless of his participation in observation), likewise the concept of space-time structure of the world will always be an unalterable element of man’s consciousness. At the same time, extending horizons of consciousness within civilization evolution has led to upraise of new spheres of observable world, where the reflection of man interaction with reality occurs in the images of objects with lifetime too short to be captured by perception as elements of entitative world. Under conditions of rapid expansion of these horizons the formation of mechanism of – «harmonious» for man – change of coordinate systems can not keep up with objectivation process, and, therefore, the world reproduced by the mind appears as containing an increasing number of discrepancies with the images of the old world patterns. If we assume that the image of entitative world (independent of man) also in future will serve as basis for man’s concepts (and we have no reasons for different opinion), it is evident that the process of overcoming the said discrepancies by consciousness should provide actuation of such notions – crucial for the formation of the observable world image – as «materiality» and «being». With this regard in the emergence paradigm it is postulated


an extension of materiality notion, which becomes a parameter (a local characteristic) connected with the observer’s coordinate system setup. With the help of this parameter the observer fixes the existence of objects in the given coordinate system, as well as the inevitability of the extension of the consciousness operating principle over a new sphere of objects. Under the said principle it is postulated the impracticability of the observer’s interference in the formation of the structure of the world observable in the given coordinate system, and this structure, accordingly, is presented to consciousness as reality itself. It seems likely that one of the main factors that contributed to introduction of the considered paradigm became by now continuing efforts of «classical» (Euclidean) substantiation of quantum physics. Principles of special and general theory of relativity, dual nature of quantum objects, probabilistic structure of experiments and interpretations, and finally, the need to take account of all «possible» particles evolution trajectories have denoted the problem: how to combine it all in a unified «Euclidean» representation. The most exotic version of this representation is the idea of plurality of the worlds. We draw attention to the fact that here the «really» existing worlds are implied, not those observable by man. It is evident that from the emergence paradigm standpoint the problem of philosophical substantiation of quantum physics is a problem of objectification of the world of its objects, and therefore it will be solved when a coordinate system will be found in which this world will look as harmonious for man (i.e. as it follows from the foregoing, it will be for him distinctly «objectively existing»). Under accepted concepts of modern physics it is substantiated that when applied to large-scale entities (in the macrocosm), the non-Euclidean geometries are true. Perhaps it could be sufficient for recognition of the real existence of such geometries, although what is meant here are only scientific

experiments. But, fortunately, as was already noted, in a close to us three-dimensional space the geometrical bodies are available, on the surfaces of which the geometry of figures – similar to the figures on a plane, appears to be non-Euclidean. And so the question of reality of existence of such geometries, and, most importantly, of their practical use is solved without recourse to authoritative profound physical theories of observable Universe. In this regard the question arises whether in the world close to us exists a sphere of life in which the emergence paradigm effect could be as evident as in the case of the mentioned surfaces with reference to non-Euclidean geometry. To such spheres of direct applicability of the emergence paradigm belong situations of uncertainty, along with media of high-degree complexity, as well as studies of the consciousness formation principles. The closest and the most directly effecting the man's life sphere of this type is presented by socium. It is evident that objects in it are not of great longevity, incessantly coming into being and collapsing, thus affording opportunity for new objects to arise, and most importantly, they can be observed directly. It is clear that under these circumstances the disclosing of common structures and laws of formation of objects and of their interactions is not just a theoretical, but also a real problem actually being solved in this or that way. In socium separate individuals, families, groups associated on various grounds, nations, and states can be considered as concrete observers, available for studying and analyzing, the observers forming worlds observable in their coordinate systems, those worlds making a unified world of human civilization. There is no doubt that the sphere of action of the considered paradigm is the most versatile sphere, but yet the sphere materialized in sensations of the world of spirit. And if the elements of scientific analysis for sensual sphere are yet to be built, the situation in rational spirituality clearly confirms the verity of the emergence

paradigm thesis. Thus, dialectics laws, empiricism and trueness of which are verified only by practice, even though they are formulated as abstract categories and are of status no less convictive than e.g. of physics laws, present a real evidence in favor of nonexistence of common frame of reference in which the entire set of observers (consciousness) could reflect reality one-to-one in the context of observable world of objects. The described concept of the observable world makes evident the infeasibility of man's efforts to optimize his behavior in the environment without account for the particular observer influence, and leads to revision of the information perception and analysis process, to modification of decision-making strategy. Correct formulation of search task for problem-solving in view of aforesaid implies not only an aspect how to act in every specific situation, but a conscious account for the fact that emergence is connected with the observer definition and with the coordinate system choice. One of the trends in the analysis of structures generated by axioms of the considered paradigm is related to the search of the simplest «elements» from which those actions of the observer are derived that lead to the objectal nature of his perception of reality. As one of the main such elements in rationale of the observer’s and of the objectal world fixed by him appears to be the above mentioned inaccessibility for the observer to change the part of the objects fixed by him. I.e. the object formed in the observer’s world can not be changed by him or can be changed only in part. This is caused by many factors, including that of inevitable partial loss of information in its transmission process. Quantum leap in consciousness development, characterized by its becoming in contemporary form, was also accompanied by imparting the incapability for its higher component to «interfere» with the operation of the lower one and, thus, to higher consciousness the latter is presented as directly interacting with reality. Finally, it is easily

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Philosophy

53


SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Science and Innovation

54

seen that formation of the consciousness next level, which in our time is defined as «mind», also proceeds in the direction of buildup of the objects inaccessible for destruction by the consciousness dynamic component. As those objects act spiritual values, and their main task as objects of mind – regardless of their contents complexity – to reproduce the already achieved man’s self-identity in the process of extending the borders of consciousness and of existence in general. It is important to note that with the emergence paradigm introduction the aspects of consciousness and reality interaction, of nature of objects and of connexity laws of the observable world are put apart from the problem of origin and existence of reality per se. Transition to the new paradigm creates methodological premises for the search of new approaches to quantitative methods of analysis of social, mental and spiritual processes. Up to now, lasting efforts for these processes modeling, using mathematical methods, meet fundamental difficulties because of the lack of account for the factor of the observer endowed with consciousness. One of the main consequences of the introduction of the paradigm is the understanding that all previous conclusions on the nature of the consciousness and reality interaction relate not only to man, but to any observer, in capacity of which can act various natural or artificial objects to some extent having observer’s properties, as well as representatives of hypothetical extraterrestrial civilizations. It provides a necessary foundation for creation of a unified observation space for all mentioned objects and thus creates opportunities to expand the space of man’s existence. For more details on the Emergence paradigm, as well as on the problems related to interaction between objects in different spheres you may refer to our books «The Emergence Phenomenon. From Reality to Sense» (Moscow, 2009) and «The Emergence Space. Introduction to the Geometry of Consciousness» (Moscow, 2012).

PREMONITION OF FUTURE FROM THE POSITION OF THE TEMPORAL FEEDBACK


T

here exist quite a number of very interesting, full-fledged time concepts. Thus, the workers of the laboratory-c hair of practical philosophy of the Web-Institute of time nature in Moscow (the only one structural unit in the territory of CIS countries and one of two in the world involved in the problem of time and uniting actually all scholars of the postSoviet space working in this direction) – protagonists of the theory of a growing universum block. The developed concept has been named a temporal feedback theory (TFТ) and is one of the few ones of practical use.

Can we Control Time? We shall proceed from the assumption that the present has duration. It is the so called event space, which may occur, but not happen. For instance, death of Berlioz described by M.А. Bulgakov already happened, but not occurred yet, when he was talking with Voland. «Annushka has already bought butter, and not only bought, but also spilled it». The meeting with Voland which may be considered to be a night fantasy is actually an event warning. I call such warnings to be indices. They are not obligatory related to night fantasies. This category may include sudden fantasies occurring in vigilant state of a night fantasy type, suddenly rushed premonitions, suddenly listened in phrases. К.G. Yong adds up using special practices sort of I-Tsin hexagrams. If we travel by train with our back in the direction of its movement, then while looking thro» the window we see what we have just passed by. By the indices we have noticed we may try to guess what in front of us will be. For instance, by a coloured light-signal floated before our eyes we can judge that soon we’ll approach a railway station. Within the framework of a space an event already occurred, but not happened yet, is warning of itself in order to be avoided. Within the framework of such event a human being has a liberty to select provided he/she learned to calculate the indices.

Let us discuss a night fantasy of Alfred Mory (XIX- century French physician, author of the book «Dream-world and Night Fantasies») known in psychological literature, who was ill and was in bed. Mory saw in his dreams long series of events of the Great French revolution and terror. He was present at execution and at last he himself was arrested and appeared before a revolutionary tribunal. Here he saw Robespiere, Marat, Fouke-Tdecville and other personalities, answered their questions, argued with them and after this was sentenced to death and accompanied by a huge hordes of people in a cart was carried to the execution place. He is seen going up to the block, an executioner is pinioning his hands, guillotine is falling down and he even feels how his head is separated from his body …Here Alfred wakes up and sees that a sofa roller, where he was sleeping, is kicked back and the back of his head is resting on the sofa’s edge. And exact this momentary stimulating substance has become a reason of the preceding night fantasy. Let us pay our attention: here the reason, which has caused both an event and night fantasy, is postfixed as if completing thereof. It is not a commencement of an event as it would have been in our world customary for our wakeful conscience. It is seeming to finalize and attract it creating the whole interlinked set of elements. As a

Vladimir Polikarpov, Assistant professor of Psychology chair of Belarusian State University, Manager of the Laboratory-chair of practical time philosophy of the Web-Institute of Nature Research named after M.V. Lomonosov

Alexander Yankelevich, 4th course student of the Psychology section of the faculty of philosophy and social sciences

matter of principle such elements might have been. However, the reason which has caused thereof there exists in the present time. It applies any event, an absolute time of which turns to be final. In the TFT theory it corresponds to the inverse tendency. The point is that the absolute time is flowing in the direction from the future to the past, simply stated, first comes firing, and then, for it to happen, a hammer is cocked , and a final time is seeming to strive to come, by generating events , all varieties of things and phenomena. In the philosophy there exist the categories «common», «peculiar», «sporadic». Common means that which belongs to all objects of this class. For instance all people should sleep from time to time. Peculiar means that is specific to only this object, which distinct it from other objects of this class. For instance, you are sleeping like all other people, however your night fantasies belong only to you and to no other people . As far as your appearance is concerned, your identity: such human being never existed before and will not exist in future. And this peculiar feature is created by a final time. This means the reason itself (the attractor), causing an event, is at the end of such final time. The attractor is one of the central notions of synergetics, denoting active sustainable centers of potential ways of the system evolution, capable to attract and arrange the environment. By acting from the genesis world (from the absolute time world), it generates an event in the existence world (a final time). A main idea in the TFT theory consists in the fact that this process is impossible without a feedback. Otherwise its deviation from the attractor would generate chaos. Commencement of an event i.e. the occurrence and start-up of the attractor operation, and establishing temporal feedback is manifested in our world in the form of an index. An objective should exist in the present time in order to update the movement home and correct probable deviations. Its presence is the index making it possible to predict events. Their inclusion in the temporal feedback opens three opportunities

SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Philosophy

55


SCIENCE AND INNOVATION

Science and Innovation

56

for us. The first one consists in predicting future events. The second one means the destruction of future events by way of artificial feedback termination. The third one consists in creating an event by way of including in the temporal feedback and starting up a relevant attractor. How can a future event destruction look like? In psychotherapeutics it would mean, for instance, a release of a human being from dependence by way of blocking a relevant attractor . A temporal bomb attracts a greatest attention to our theory. In theory , if a temporal feedback is terminated, an event is disappeared. In this way all Drosophilidae can be destroyed. In so doing theoretically they should disappear at one in the whole planet concurrently, because a temporal bomb destroys objects not only in space, but also in time. On 6 January 2010 information was announced of massive blackbirds kill which concurrently fell to the ground dead in UAS and Scandinavia. In one place in America their number was 500 at once. The reason of the massive blackbirds kill has not been found out. It is assumed that it was a temporal bomb testing, since in this way it can operate. Probably, we witnessed testing a new type of arms , which can become a final one invented by the mankind. It will simply stop time and finally we’ll disappear. Can the temporal feedback be terminated? A temporal bomb will be let off in a place where a time flow is managed to be directed backwards in a parallel way with incoming flows. According to the theory of the universum growing block our Universe receives signals of the future from a parallel space. This means that it continuously pierced by some temporal flows. It is not hard to understand that such flows are in a parallel way with our world (otherwise they would have become confused) and are flowing from the future to the past, being, in this way, a time substance. But our world corresponds to a three-dimensional membrane separating the external world i.e. that from which temporal

flows are outgoing , and the internal world i.e. the one where they are going to while introducing amendments in the membrane. The TFT theory sees here a gravitation mechanism. Let us avail of an analogy. Let us take two parallel conductors. Let us pass current across them in one direction. Wires will start attract each other . Just in this way substationary flows attract each other. The massier a solid , the more substationary flows it would carry and a greater gravitation it would possess. If across one of the wires current is passed backwards the conductors will start to drive off each other . There will occur some kind of anti-gravitation. The temporal feedback termination will force one of them to flow backwards. Eventually repelling forces will occur and all in this event will break in flinders. As far as the creation of an event is concerned here the TTF theory is employing the notion «firing image». As a matter of fact we are constantly creating our future not noticing it although this process should be controlled. I’ll give one example. One friend of mine was eager to sell his house. His desire to get rid of it was so strong that he has created a firing image in which he clearly imagined the impossibility of selling the house. It became its headache. Finally, we agreed with him that he was obliged to love the house as his family nest, the cunabula of his childhood and feel how it was difficult to part with . In a month a realtor brought a buyer to him.

Experiments for Priming Recently the experiments by Darell Bem from Cornellian University became widely known. The experiments for priming were accepted as a basis. In their standard form they are carried out approximately in the following way: a testee is given primes, i.e. words, which should change a response time, and then stimulus words or images are demonstrated, which are required to

be identified or assessed depending on a procedure. A stimulus assessment is carried out faster if it is congruent to a prime and slower if it is disharmonized with it. In D.Blem’s investigations the procedure of a standard experiment was reversed in time, i.e. a testee at first selected a response to a question on an image and then was demonstrated the primes. The results are similar to standard priming investigations – stimulus images were identified faster if a word following them was congruent, i.e. a human being could hear «a prompting from the future». Our paper is a research a general objective of which was simulation of D.Brem’s experiment with a view to check his results a posteriori. The works initiated by Doctor J. Fontana from Trento University were carried out within the framework of the Program of the Laboratory-Chair of Research Web-Institute of time nature investigations under Moscow University employing the technical base of the psychology section of the Belarusian State University. 60 persons (31 men and 29 women) participated in the investigations. The harmony of the selective totality by gender and proximity by age interval and social status have made the sample group to be uniform. J. Fontana’s programmers have written a special computer program, which in Minsk was supplemented with a stimulus material and adapted for a Russian-speaking user. Visually it is presented by two empty grey squares. In it a random-number generator is built in (RNG). The Program arbitrarily varies a generation period and this makes it possible to speak of a random result. The priming was given to us in the specification to the investigations while warning the testees of what sort of images (indifferent or erotic ones) will be displayed at the given moment. The first ones had no affective colouring. For the purpose there have been selected quite banal images of nature in subdued tones. The empirical study included two sessions 36 tries each. In the majority of cases at first neutral images and then effectively-colour-


Philosophy ed ones were shown. Such separation was stipulated by a necessity to standardize the procedure and required in order to avoid the excitement caused by erotic images to effect selecting the neutral images. The data obtained in the course of the experiment were processed employing methods of mathematical statistics using SPSS program package, version 16. In the first turn there was examined the hypothesis of the fact that among the testees prevail those who guess effectively-intensive stimuli. 15 of 60 testees more frequently guessed neutral stimuli, 34 – effectively-intensive ones and 11- euqual parts. Taking into account the fact that the sampled population is small and interlinked (two samples per each participant), Vilcockson’s criterion was used. The result for those who guessed effectively-intensive images was 0,002 at ρ <= 0, 05. This proves the fact that

the selection of an effectively-intensive image was not random. Men guessed neutral images 17,16 times in average, effectively-intensive – 19,42 times, women – 16,17 and 17,34 times respectively. In general one can conclude that representatives of the sterner sex more frequently guessed effectively-intensive images . By means of the criterion of Mann-Whitney there was obtained a significance level for this sample equal to ρ <= 0, 05. The use of Vilcockson’s criterion for the neutral images gave 0,301, and for the effectively-coloured – 0,005. The first of the two values is too great, the second one is far less than an admissible one . This means that in the study men more frequently guessed effectively-intensive slides as compared to women. On the next stage of the analysis we tried to find a relation between the image age and type. We

used Kendall’s factor. Such relation has not been found. Then we used Vilcockson’s criterion to determine a signification of the obtained results by sex. For men the results distributed in the following way: the data are significant at the level 0,014 at admissible value ρ <= 0,05. In this way, for men a major hypothesis was confirmed i.e. one can state that they guess the positions of erotic images statistically more frequently as compared to the neutral ones. The same procedure can be applied for women. Vilcockson’s ctriterium result is 0,056. This means that for women the hypothesis was not confirmed. A difference in the degree of coincidence of the stimulus and neutral pictures depending on the priority was not separated. Thus, these results point to impossibility to obtain information from a near future.

Best Articles 2013  

Best Articles 2013 Science & Innovations Journal

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you