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The Stone Trail The Stone Artefacts Promotion Project The Government of Rajasthan undertook an ambitious project (entitled the ‘Stone Artefacts Promotion Project’) in early 2007 to address the problem of declining craftsmanship and to foster contemporary applications of stone in building. The project began under the aegis of the Stone Craft Foundation, a society established by the Government of Rajasthan and steered by the Indian Institute of Craft and Design (IICD), Jaipur.

In Rajasthan, the regions most rich in stone include the districts of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Dholpur, (rich in sandstone), Makrana, Pindwara, Kesariyaji and Rajasamand (known for their abundant marble reserves), Jalor (rich in granite) and the considerable reserves of grey stone in Kota. Besides these, there are several sources for a variety of stones used for atrefacts across Rajasthan in areas like Dungarpur, Jaipur, Bagru, Deeg, Hindon, Alwar, Thanagazi, Neem ka Thana, Kishori, Dausa etc.Given the diversity of stone types and their geographic distribution, it was important to identify focus areas for fieldwork in the first of the project. One prerequisite for identifying areas was that the areas in question need not just be rich in stone but should also show evidence of—or the potential to develop—stone craftsmanship. Although geographical areas with such concentrations of craft skills and resources are now known as clusters, a more precise definition is provided by UNIDO: “Clusters and networks are different yet linked phenomena. Clusters are agglomerations of interconnected companies and associated institutions. Firms in a cluster produce similar or related goods or services and are supported by a range of dedicated institutions located in spatial proximity, such as business associations or training and technical assistance providers. Vibrant clusters are home of innovation oriented firms that reap the benefits of an integrated support system and dynamic business networks.” Using the above definition as a guideline, pilot field surveys and initial research were conducted to arrive at a contextspecific of a ‘stone cluster’: A cluster implies a rural or urban concentration of craftspeople producing stone crafts on a seasonal or annual basis for a livelihood. By definition, it implies anything around the concentration that supports the production of stone crafts.


The Clusters

Dholpur Jaipur Jaisalmer Jalor Jodhpur Makrana Pindwara Sikandra Udaipur The Resource Directory- The Stone Crafts of Rajasthan is structured as per the nine stone craft clusters identified under the project. It provides quick references on each cluster; approach, history, available resources, products and a list of craftspersons with their contacts. It is a dynamic document that needs to be updated with subsequent addition of more clusters as well as inclusion of revision in craftspeople’s list for each cluster. www.aecworldxp.com offers highlights of the153 page compilation only. For details and to order please contact: IICD JAIPUR

Historically established clusters have existed for centuries, and are home to craftspeople who possess an inherited, indigenous knowledge of stone craft (for example, in Jaisalmer or Makrana), and who practise in the area. Recently constituted clusters are recently developed market-driven clusters comprising of newly trained craftspeople from other professions like agriculture (with no hereditary association to craft work), who tend to use more recent methodologies/ templates/ design patterns from trendy catalogues (e.g. Sikandra). A third possibility became evident in areas such as Kota, Bundi and Jalor, which have been identified as potential clusters where stone is available and stone crafts may be promoted to nurture or cultivate potential crafts clusters. The stone craft clusters of Rajasthan have been shortlisted based on the above definition and categories. above definition and categories. The stone craft clusters in Rajasthan considered for this project follow the definition and categorisation described above. As a result, the final list of clusters for the project has come to include Makrana, Udaipur, Pindwara, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer as established clusters, Sikandra and Dholpur as constituted clusters for building crafts, and two more, i.e., Jaipur (known for moorti making) and Jalor, as potential clusters for building crafts.


© Stone Craft Foundation

& IICD


About Dholpur •

District:

Dholpur

Region:

North-eastern Rajasthan

Location:

Distance:

Dholpur is a newly formed district of Rajasthan, carved out of Bharatpur district. It is bound on the north-east by Agra district of Uttar Pradesh, on the south by Morena district of Madhya Pradesh, on the west by Sawai Madhopur district and on the north by Bharatpur district of Rajasthan. The stone cluster of Dholpur comprises of sandstone quarries, supply and processing units and craft clusters in the towns of Bari, Barauli and Sir Muttra. Jaipur-230 kms, Delhi-203 kms, Agra-56 kms

Journey Time:

By road - 5 hrs from Jaipur, 5 hrs from Delhi, 1 hrs from Agra

History of Stone Dholpur is well known for its excellent sandstone. Historically, this red stone was used for building not just the local structures but also those of Delhi like the Red Fort. In fact, the architect of modern Delhi, Edward Lutyens, had a special liking for this stone, and the Rashtrapati Bhavan exemplifies the use of Dholpur stone in monumental architecture. Out of the 900 million tonnes sandstone produced in the state of Rajasthan, 71,166 tonnes comes from Dholpur (source: CDOS). The stone industry of Dholpur and the stone craftsperson continue to flourish even today. This stone craftspeople community had originally shifted from Agra and Delhi to Rajasthan with the decline in the Mughal economy in the early 19th century. The Hindu nobles in Rajasthan picked up the urge to build temples, and the craftsperson got employment again. It is ironic that now these Dholpur stone craftsperson are again employed today by organizations like the Archaeological Survey of India to carry restoration and conservation works in the capital. A segment of this community still works near the quarries and produces stone crafts products.


Types of Stone Three varieties of sandstone are available in Dholpur:

• Dholpur Beige, which is a neutral or buff coloured stone popularly used for cladding • Dholpur Red, which is a characteristic red coloured stone that lends itself to architectural elements of all kinds • ‘Chocolate’, which is a dark shade of sandstone

© Stone Craft Foundation & IICD


Stone Usage

For detailed listing of quaries and craftsmen contact Stone Craft Foundation & IICD

Š Stone Craft Foundation

& IICD


© Stone Craft Foundation

& IICD


About Jaipur District:

Jaipur

Region:

North-Eastern Rajasthan

Location:

Jaipur district is bound in the north by Sikar and Alwar, in South by Tonk, Ajmer and Sawai Madhopur, in the west by Nagaur, Sikar and Ajmer in the west and in east by Bharatpur and Dausa. It is well linked by air, rail and road since the city of Jaipur also the capital of Rajasthan. The craft cluster of Jaipur is primarily dedicated to the craft of idol carving as opposed to architectural elements or artefacts.

Distance:

New Delhi- 258 km

Journey Time:

By road 5 hrs from Delhi

History of Stone Jaipur is one of the largest centers for hand carved marble, especially for statue and idol work. Stone craft is primarily a family enterprise with the older generation of craftsperson training new craftspersons in an informal manner. Many craftsperson from other regions in Rajasthan have migrated to Jaipur purely because it offers good facilities, transportation and a better market for finished products. The stone idols and statues produced in Jaipur are even exported to the foreign markets in USA, UK, and the Middle East etc. Jaipur is primarily a cluster for sculpture making though few other artefacts are also available


Types of Stone

Process The processes and technology commonly used by the Jaipur craftspeople are associated with the carving, finishing, polishing and painting of idols. Most craftspeople work from small makeshift workshops combined with their residences. An entire family may be involved in the craft process. The scale of work undertaken often depends on the family size and economic condition. There are specialised craftspeople who may carve only a singular part of a complete idol. They work primarily from existing references and sometimes from drawings and photographs. They sell primarily to large dealers and suppliers but sometimes directly to the customer as well. Hand tools as well as machine tools are used for the carving and polishing process. Pricing depends upon the scale and intricacy of the product and also the finish required.

Š Stone Craft Foundation

& IICD


About Jaisalmer District:

Jaisalmer

Region:

West Rajasthan

Location:

Jaisalmer district is bounded on the north by Bikaner, on the west & south-west by Indian boarder, on the south by Barmer and Jodhpur, and on the east by Jodhpur and Bikaner Districts. The crafts cluster of Jaisalmer includes the surrounding areas of Moolsagar, Kahala etc.

Distance:

Jaipur-566 kms, Delhi-824 kms.

Journey Time:

By road 11 hrs from Jaipur and 17 hrs from Delhi

History of Stone According to one of the resident craftsperson “Stone speaks in Jaisalmer”. The skill and intricacy of craft that is evident in the havelis, palaces and forts of this town is unmatched anywhere else in the world. Each building element is chiseled to perfection in the yellow gold Jaisalmer stone. The tradition of stone crafts is alive and flourishing in Jaisalmer even today. As per the stone craftsperson in Jaisalmer, the stone crafts may be categorized in three styles: • Palival style • Mughal style • British style The British style is largely redundant today, it is the vernacular styles which have endured and are thriving; largely due to the patronage of the local residents who take great pride in the stone craft traditions of their town. The world famous Patwa Havelis of Jaisalmer


Types of Stones The Yellow limestone of Jaisalmer is a soft porous stone which lends itself to intricate carving. It ages well, and develops a golden sheen with time. The stone may be categorised based on the following: Based on the village or quarry: • Moolsagar, Jethwai, • Sipla, Khandupa Based on the texture/ colour: • Ita gold, Ibri Gold, • Flavri Gold, Teak Wood


Process A majority of the craftspeople work at crafts workshops and at the construction sites. However some are also employed in factories and large production units. For detailed listing of quaries and craftsmen contact Stone Craft Foundation & IICD


About Jalor District: Region: Location:

Distance: Journey Time:

Jalor South west Rajasthan Jalor district is surrounded by Barmer on the North-West, Sirohi on the South-East, Pali on the NorthEast and Banaskantha district of Gujarat on the South-Western part of Rajasthan. Jodhpur-121 km, Jaipur-450 km By road 2-3 hrs from Jodhpur, 7-8 hrs from Jaipur

History of Stone Jalor is the leading centre for granite in Rajasthan, with over 70 major quarries in the area. Granite quarried and processed here is supplied all over India and large quantities are also exported. A wide variety of granite is available in different colours and textures. There are no major craft workshops in Jalor since it is primarily a quarrying and processing area.


About Jodhpur District: Region: Location:

Distance: Journey Time:

Jodhpur West Rajasthan Jodhpur is bound by Nagaur in East, Jaisalmer in west, Bikaner in North and Barmer as well as Pali in the South. The cluster includes the nearby areas of areas like Mandore, Soorsagar and Osian. Jaipur-317 km, Delhi-597 km By road 7 hrs from Jaipur and 10 hrs from Delhi

History of Stone Jodhpur has a long and illustrious history, which is echoed in its magnificent monuments and temples crafted in the famous sandstone of the area. The history of stone crafts and quarrying in Jodhpur goes back more than 500 years. The famous temples of Osian and the Mehrangarh Fort stand testimony to the stone carving of Jodhpur. Important sources of sandstone are located around Jodhpur city, in areas like Mandore, Soorsagar, Kailana, Balesar, Chokri, Ratkudiya and Osian. Jodhpur is famous for its sandstone which is a coarse to medium grained stone. It is highly resistant to abrasion and lends it self to intricate carving.


Types of Stones The different varieties of Jodhpur sandstone are: • Jodhpur Pink: It is light coloured medium grained sandstone with a pinkish hue, used extensively in making architectural elements. • Jodhpur Red:

It is deep red-brown sandstone which has been used in the old temples and monuments in and around Jodhpur.

• Khatu:

It is fine grained, creamish-white in colour and is specially famous for carving and used for detailed work.

For detailed listing of quaries and craftsmen contact Stone Craft Foundation & IICD


Process The craft processes of Jodhpur include rough dressing and the carving of household products. All kinds of architectural elements such as intricate jaali work, balconies, chajjas, and elevation panels are in demand. Machine work is also done for production of tiles, cutting of slabs and for polishing. Majority of the craft work is done at the construction site itself and there are very few permanent workshops. Most of the craftspeople work either on a daily wage basis or on a labour contract basis. The craftspeople may also be sourced from Balsamund area and Pahadganj; or the nearby temples at Osian.


About Makrana District:

Nagaur

Region:

Central Rajasthan

Location:

The district is situated amidst seven districts namely Bikaner, Churu, Sikar, Jaipur, Ajmer, Pali, Jodhpur. Quarries are located throughout the district though the best quality white marble is found in Makrana

Distance: Journey Time:

Jaipur- 180 km, Delhi-440 km By road 3-4hrs from Jaipur and 8-9hrs from Delhi

History of Stone Makrana is renowned for the world famous white marble which has been used to create some of the world’s most beautiful architecture including the Taj Mahal. The quality of this marble is considered to be amongst the best in the world as it retains a high level of polish even after centuries. The best marble from this area has a translucent quality that is incomparable. Marble is found in Makrana in six bands over nearly 10 km. The total marble reserves in the existing mining areas which have been explored by the state government have been estimated to be about 55 million tonnes. Makrana marble is usually medium to coarse grained, but is chemically higher in silica.


Types of Stones Varieties of Makrana marble: • Pure white : The purest form of Makrana • Albeta : White with grey striations • Doongri : Grey / brown lines, patterns with less of white • Makrana Brown : This is a white or cream in colour with brown pigmentation • Adanga : Varies in colour from grey, brown or orange with no white colour • Khumari : Grey with patterns or striations • Makrana Pink : Pink marble The pure white variety is the most expensive and also the highest in demand especially abroad. Finegrained marble is priced higher than coarse grained even though there is no difference in quality.


Process The craftspeople of Makrana pride themselves on the intricacy that they achieve in their work. They are primarily involved in carving, whether it is of architectural elements, temple elements, landscape features, artefacts or sculptural work and idols of deities. Most of the craftspeople work at factories or family workshops. On site work is uncommon. Stone craft is primarily a family enterprise with the senior members training the younger generations. They work from drawings, architect or client specifications, catalogues and observations of existing designs. A few master craftspeople still use the traditional proportions and methods of marking on stone. The price ranges fluctuate widely depending upon the quality of stone used; the intricacy of work required; the transportation and royalties etc.

For detailed listing of quaries and craftsmen contact Stone Craft Foundation & IICD


About Pindwara District:

Sirohi

Region:

South Rajasthan

Location:

the of Naya

Pindwara is located in the Sirohi district bound by Pali and Udaipur in the east, Jalor in the West and Banaskantha, Gujarat in the South. The stone cluster of Pindwara includes neighbouring areas Sanwara, Jadoli, and Mundra.

Distance:

Jaipur-430 km, Delhi- 720 km

Journey Time:

By road 8 hrs from Jaipur and 1516 hrs from Delhi

History of Stone Pindwara is home to craftsperson belonging to the famous clan of Sompuras who have kept alive the legacy of stone crafts especially in temple architecture in the areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan. They fiercely guard their trade secrets and lay claim over some of the most exquisite stone work in temples in Western India.


Types of Stones The primary stone types available are: • Ambaji White:

A high quality medium to fine grained marble which is found primarily in Gujarat. Used for temple construction and idols

• Black Marble:

A medium to coarse grained stone used extensively for flooring/ cladding


Process The primary occupation of the stone craftsperson is the construction and execution of temples in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Work is done on site and there are few permanent workshops or factories. Stone craft in Pindwara is usually a family enterprise. All kinds of architectural and structural elements are produced. Work is done on a contract or daily wage basis. The designs for the stone temples are provided by the Sompuras or by architects Marble is the favoured stone in this area with Rajnagar and Ambaji being used extensively for temple elements.

For detailed listing of quaries and craftsmen contact Stone Craft Foundation & IICD


About Sikandra District:

Dausa

Region:

East Rajasthan

Location: crafts cluster,

Sikandra is a small town located in Dausa district situated in the eastern part of Rajasthan. It is bound in the north by Alwar district, in south by Sawai Madhopur district, in the west by Jaipur district and in the east by Bharatpur district. Sikandra itself is purely a there is no quarrying activity as such in this area.

Distance:

Jaipur-55 km, Delhi-317 km

Journey Time:

By road 1 hr from Jaipur and 5-6hrs from Delhi


History of Stone Sikandra has evolved recently as a crafts cluster with the Saini clan who were originally gardeners turning to stone carving as an alternative profession. Small workshops were set up initially along the highway in the early 1950’s. The town is a classic example of a market driven cluster. However the market demands and the lack of traditional know-how has had an impact on the quality of craftsmanship. There is no quarrying activity in Sikandra so stone is sourced from the surrounding areas of Dholpur, Khatu, Karauli and Bansi Paharpur. Raw stone is either finished into artefacts or sold as cladding or flooring tiles/slabs.


Process The various stone craft processes that have emerged in Sikandra include rough dressing of stone, carving of household artefacts and architectural elements by hand or by machines. Lathe work is also done. Majority of the craftsperson work in large workshops akin to factories. Pricing is done either on a daily wage basis or by the level of detail achieved in work.

For detailed listing of quaries and craftsmen contact Stone Craft Foundation & IICD


About Udaipur District:

Udaipur

Region:

South west Rajasthan

Location:

Udaipur district is situated in the southern tip of Rajasthan adjoining Gujarat. It is bound in the north by Rajsamand and Pali districts, in the south by Dungarpur and Banswara, in the east by Bhilwara and Chiittorgarh and on the west by Pali and Sirohi districts and Sabarkantha district of Gujarat. The stone cluster of Udaipur includes the areas of Udaipur, Rajsamand and Keasriyaji.

Distance:

Jaipur-405 km, Delhi-663 km

Journey Time:

By Road 8 hrs from Jaipur and 10 hrs from Delhi

History of Stone Use of stone in Udaipur region dates back to the Ahar civilization in the 200 BC though the exquisite stone craftsmanship is evidenced in monuments of later Jain and Rajput period. The architecture of the temples and palaces in and around Udaipur is a testimony to the skilled craftsperson and Sompuras from neighboring Gujarat. Inlay work was introduced in the Mughal period and it evolved into a Mewari art form. Today, Udaipur craftsperson are still renowned for their inlay work. Udaipur has around 1,000 craftsperson who do exquisitely intricate inlay work with lapis lazuli in Cuddappa stone in a local Mewari style that is different from that of Agra. Few Sompura families around Udaipur continue to promote the stone crafts for temple buildings.

Lake palace Udaipur


Types of Stones The various kinds of marble available in Udaipur are: • Agariya:

Medium to coarse grained white marble, used extensively for flooring and Cladding.

• Kesariyaji Green:

Green marble available in several shades of bottle green with grey/white/ black striations or pattern

• Forest Green:

Deep green marble with patterns or variations


Process Udaipur has some fine examples of stone architecture and crafts. The inlay work of this area is in high demand both in the local market as well as abroad. The craftsperson here are primarily involved in inlay work and carving of relief and sculptures. Most of them work at craft workshops though a few also work in factories and on construction sites. Inlay stones may vary from sandstone and marble sourced from nearby areas such as Jaisalmer yellow, Banswara Black marble etc. to semi precious stones like turquoise, lapis lazuli and jasper. The craftsperson usually sell their work to suppliers and dealers though they prefer to deal directly with the customer to ensure a better profit.


Rajasthan: Take a DeTOUR for a Stone Sejourn!