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masterplanning a practitioner’s reflections

karen cadell AREA


3 strands of thinking: nature, culture, structure 5 masterplans: whitecross, dornoch north, carron den, an camas mòr and the expo


nature looking for clues in the landscape capturing the intrinsic qualities of place › topography and geology › flora and fauna › climate › shelter and material 5 contrasting landscapes: › a plateau › a valley › a forest › moorland › a man-made terrain


moorland: expo

trees + watercourses

topography + routes

settlement in the landscape

waterways as a defining element

The layout integrates natural and man-made landscape structures and patterns, responding to elements such as 18th century tree-lines, early roads, dykes, burns, gorges and remnant forest.


plateau: carron den, stonehaven


valley and esker: dornoch


STRATEGY FOR GROWTH: » » » » »

Connect with existing routes. Integrate with the grain and density Dornoch. Respond to topography. Retain the natural flood plain of the Dornoch Burn. Regenerate and add to woodland.

KEY

Higher density around meadow Medium density Lower density on steeper slopes

Existing and proposed woodland Parkland

Dornoch Burn flood plain Settlement form


DIAGRAM 1: CONNECTIONS

DIAGRAM 2: LANDSCAPE FRAMEWORK


man-made terrain: whitecross


Grangemouth

Bo’ness

Airngath Hill

Polmont Brightons Wallacestone

Rumford

Whitecross

Linlithgow

Maddiston Kendieshill

Cairsie Hill

Castlehill Bowden Hill Kipps Hill

Cockleroy

Cathlawhill Cairnpapple

WIDER LANDSCAPE WITH 50M CONTOURS AND ABSTRACTED CONTOURS OF VISIBLE LANDMARKS.

Riccarton Hills Beecraigs Hill


PRINCIPAL NATURAL STRUCTURES SIRR boundary

Substantial areas of historic or naturally regenerated woodland

Emb

Woodland / wildlife corridor associated with road or rail embankments

ent ankm

Haining Wood

Canal Corridor Aqueduct / Viaduct River Valley Corridor

Woo dlan d Bu ffer

Linear vegetation at boundaries

Developed Land

ankm ent

Ridges

Manuel Burn

Em b an km ent

Em b an km ent

A801

Emb

Former Works

WHITECROSS

A River

rla Crowne

nd Burn

b Em

t en m k an

Avo n Aq

ued uct

von


Element 4

North boundary woodland

Element 1

Almond Castle and Haining wood

Element 2 Stein’s Park

Element 3

Meadows Park

Element 4

Haining Valley, Woodland and Parkland

LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS /INTERVENTIONS Woodland Fringe woodland Meadow Grass lawn Community activity areas Existing meadow

Element 4

Strategic woodland planting

Element 4

South east edge planting


forested: an camas mòr


culture: communities and integration


designing sustainable places

› socio-economic vibility and regeneration


designing places for people

› creating humane habitable environments › streets and spaces


carron den

› intimate streets and wynds


4.5m

11.5m

5.5m shared space

3m front garden

1.5 storey house

Walled courtyard

6m

1.5 storey house

2m high garden walls

Minimum 18m to prevent overlooking

Street trees

Shared space

Close

Walled courtyard 2m high garden walls

3m front garden

5.5m shared space

Street trees 6m

Pinning wall Wynd

2 storey house

Hedge

5.5m shared space 5.5m

South facing gardens 4.1m

Park


Close South facing gardens 2m high garden walls Walled courtyard

6m

1.5 storey house

5.5m shared space including service strip

3m front garden

5.5m

4.1m

Street trees

11.5m

3m front garden

6m

4.5m

Wynd Walled courtyard

2 storey house

2 storey house

South facing gardens


an camas mòr

› contrasting streets - urban and rural

2.5-3.5 storey with retail/office space on ground floor to activate street with residential above

East Square with view to Lairig Ghru

Streetscape materials are extended across the High Street at squares and transitions as a visual cue to reduce drivers’ speed and increase their awareness of pedestrian priority


biotope

terraced house with pend

house faces south over the swale the landscape provides privacy whilst the large windows allow for passive solar gain

3m threshold space

the swale widens towards the landscape edge

5.5m shared space

4.1m shared space lane

3m threshold space with hedges or garden walls to define the boundary

terraced house with pend

street opens to views kitchens overlook of the wider landscape the street to ensure passive surveillance

home-work unit

private south facing garden

biotop


designing sustainable places for people

› resource efficient › creation of microclimate


engaging with communities › stakeholders › communities › information gathering and stories about place

School site A

School site B


structure characteristics of built form and movement patterns 5 contrasting urban grains: a post industrial landscape, a historic burgh, a planned town, a new settlement and urban expansion

Plockton

St Kilda

Ullapool


post industrial landscape: whitecross

Manuel Works

Whitecross

Union Canal

River Avon


ALMOND CASTLE

CANAL PLACE

VILLAGE CENTRE

STATION GATE OLD CENTRE

HAINING GATE

MANUEL GATE


historic burgh: dornoch north


Built form development Late 20th Century Early 20th Century development 1874 Figure ground


DIAGRAM 3: MOVEMENT STRUCTURE

DIAGRAM 4 : BUILT FORM


planned town: stonehaven

Hopeman, Aerial Photograph 2006

Town Plan of Johnstone, Renfrewshire, 1857 (Reproduced by permission of National Library of Scotland)

Inveraray, Argyll (Reproduced by permission of National Library of Scotland)


Town Plan of Stonehaven. Surveyed 1864. (Reproduced by permission of National Library of Scotland)

1st planned urban expansion. Town of Stonehaven. Surveyed 1823.


The ‘new town’ refers to the planned grid of the 18th and 19th century streets. Carron Water

Dunnottar Church Woods of Dunnottar

1864 FIGURE GROUND

Dunnottar Square

Stonehaven sits at the southern origin of an ancient causeway which connected the Bridge of Dee to Cowie Castle via Stonehaven’s central square.


Cowie Water

The primarily urban form of Stonehaven survived intact until the late 20th century.

so res e t t t Fe duc a i V

A

l wa Rai h t r e nP dee r e b

y Li

During the Victorian era many large stone walled villas were built.

ne

Carron Water

Dunnottar Church

Woods of Dunnottar

1902 FIGURE GROUND


20th century development in Stonehaven is in suburban cul-de-sac typology which does not respond to the historic townscape character, particularly the grid form and cohesiveness, of Stonehaven The A90 defines the edge of Stonehaven

Town centre

A90 Late C20th development creates a fragmented edge at Mill of Forest. Development that turns its back onto Carron Water.

Carron Water

Carron Den Woods of Dunnottar

Toucks Burn 20TH CENTURY GROWTH

Burn of Glaslaw

C19th buildings fronted onto Carron Water


DIAGRAM 1 Re-connecting a site, severed by the bypass, into Mill of Forest whilst connecting the existing community with the Dunnottar Woods. Connected by bridges the plateau avoids isolation from the neighbouring town.

DIAGRAM 2 Establishing straight roads, connected by cross paths, allowing views out from the plateau from all areas.


DIAGRAM 3 Distributing new public gardens integrated into a network of routes linking across the valley tops and down into the valley floor. The new housing is intended to open (at its edges) to the surrounding valleys and therefore to open these up as publicly accessible parkland.

DIAGRAM 4 A pattern of housing that prioritises the street as a device for composing the adjoining architecture, that is open ended and well connected. It enjoys the protected precinct condition (like Dunnottar Church) offered by the plateau. It also enjoys the exposed edge conditions offered by the adjoining river valleys.


Greener south facing front gardens.

Paved north facing front gardens.

Parapet gables to important street frontages. Timber cladding with lead roof

Beech hedge

Stone pinning wall

Street trees in the shared spaces

Slate roof with lead detail


a new settlement: an camas mòr Planted swales integral with shared spaces create a matrix of landscape connections Key open spaces celebrate topography and interconnect with swales and tree belts

B970 gateway

Gateway from Aviemore and community park

North south succession strips connect larger landscape elements

Play

Park

Park

School square

High street

Kettle hole

Woodland gateway

Principal vehicular access from Aviemore

East square Lairig Ghru gateway

Existing trees framed by high street

Kettle hole

Play

Play

Existing walking routes


Kettle hole

tr e e t a ry S d n o Sec

Proposed community park

Str e

et

Kettle hole

Pr inc ip

al

Kettle hole

et High Stre

Gateway from Aviemore

Woodland

Gateway from B970

Gateway from Lairig Ghru


urban expansion: expo

collectively the streets form a simple narrative of place:

› the two terraces - a frontage to the wider landscape - a gateway. › the avenue - tree lined - leads directly to the forest edge.


› the close - a sheltered location for home offices and studios. › bridges, paths and lanes - linking to neighbours - linking to the countryside. › the green - a central meeting place - with a surprise view to the firth and mountains.


reflections:

› aspration and vision paramount › complex process which takes time › design is a problem solving tool as well as place making › commitment required from all parties › interdisciplinary working from both design team and local authority › realitic ambitions for s75 if design quality is to be maintained › masterplanning is a process


Masterplans in practice - Karen Cadell Presentation Slides