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LOCI TEAM Aditya Bhosle Lyudmyla Semenyshyn Ramzi Omar

STUDIO Shajay Bhooshan

TUTORS Theodore Spyropoulos - Course Director Shajay Bhooshan - Course Tutor

AA School Design Research Laboratory

Architectural Association School of Architecture


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 1 - 25 THESIS 1.1 Studio Brief 1.2 Thesis Statement 1.3 Research Objectives 1.4 Research Background CHAPTER 2 MATERIAL

26 - 111

02.1 Material Research 02.2 Material Behaviour 02.3 Programmable Material 02.4 Bending Strategies 02.5 Constraint Studies 02.6 Compression Network : Bracing CHAPTER 3 ROBOTIC FABRICATION 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

112 - 215

Introduction Robotic Studies Robotic End Effectors Robotic And Material Fabrication Test Robotic Fabrication Cell The Prototype Fabrication Process

CHAPTER 4 DESIGN PROCESS 4.1 Introduction and Case Studies 4.2 Design Methodology 4.3 Design Technique - Stacked Segments 4.4 Design Technique - Connection Strategies 4.5 Design Technique - Skin And Secondary Structure 4.6 Design Application

216 - 319


Thesis Chapter 01

01.1 Studio Brief 01.2 Thesis Statement 01.3 Research Objectives 01.4 Research Background


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CHAPTER l - THESIS 11

Studio Brief Chapter 01.1

The studio research agenda explores the use of combined technologies, robotic arms and 3d printing, in the architectural design. Nowadays, numerous investigations on materials and fabrication methods have been undertaken, in order to produce printed structures. The growing interest in material research and digital fabrication is challenging the conventional approach to architecture. This dissertation aims to analyze the possibilities and limitations of spatial 3d printing, through the use of robotic arms, to transform the way livable spaces are designed and produced. While the usual process is to print using horizontal build-up of material and requires the use of support structures that are removed after, spatial printing has a different approach. Along the lines of Joris Laarman studies, this dissertation is a research into geometric pattering and stable buildsequences to enable the production of complex architectural structures through spatial 3d printing. The main objective is to translate structurally motivated spatial networks into habitable dwellings. This can only be achieved by integrating digital fabrication into design and production. In this direction, the research will focus on two main areas of research and knowledge: First, the empirical analysis of humans, spaces and objects for the prototype design and secondly, the scientific understanding of methods and technology from the computer graphics to define the architectural process. Therefore, understanding the symbiotic relation between computer graphics, applied mathematics and architecture will be essential to develop an operative design process that ensures continuity between the stage of design, materialization and construction.

Autonomous Robotics: Shajay Bhooshan. AADRL


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CHAPTER l - THESIS 13

Thesis Statement Chapter 01.2

Investigations on materials and robotics are revolutionizing the conventional architectural and building processes. In this context, this research aims to formulate a new design and fabrication method that addresses formal and tectonic challenges with spatial extrusion using local rules developed through the understanding of the material’s behavior. This scaling up of the 3d printing technology results in a more effective fabrication method that has, as Gilles Resin explains, “huge potential time, labor and fabrication savings.” 3d printing is the creation of three-dimensional objects from a digital file; nowadays, this technology is based on the superimposition of thermoplastic (ABS/PLA) material. Though in this study PLA Plastic is still utilized due to its chemical and physical properties, the layer-by-layer printing method is replaced by spatial extrusion. In order to achieve this, it is essential to design a robotic 3d printer and define the external digital control system. This will be done through the customization of existing industrial robotic arm technology responding to the material’s properties in order to fulfil the spatial needs and requirements while optimizing the use of material. This research explores the possibilities and limitations of the PLA plastic to design an end effector and code, which can 3d print complex structures that ensure stability and strength, while offering the possibility of future expansion. In this direction, the process developed in this study is the extruding of PLA in space using a multi nozzle plastic filament extruder that allows the “twisting, bundling and bracing” of the material. Integrating this extrusion method to the robotic arm technology allows the design and construction of spaces that use the minimum material and temporary supports required. The potential application of this system to large scales envisions the transformation in the conception, design and construction of buildings. This research focuses on its applicability in the residential sector and the new concept of dwelling.


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CHAPTER l - THESIS 15

Research Frame Objectives Chapter 01.3

RESEARCH PROJECT: SUPPORT MINIMAL 3D PRINTING Material & geometry The technological – material and machine – research started with a simple yet clear idea: to 3D print or extrude material spatially as opposed to the usual method of layered printing. In finding that the material of choice – braided extrusions of PLA plastic - have much bending resistance and therefore that, the printing is more amenable to nonlinear geometries, which embarked on two possible trajectories of form-generation in particular Discrete funicular or membrane surfaces i.e. curved surfaces without any bending forces, constructed from straight lines Active bent structures produced by bending structures printed straight combined with rigidifying bracing structures printed in place. Both aspects show huge potential with regard to minimizing (printing) support structures, with the second being particularly novel way to expedite production of large-scale printed structures. However, both a venues are currently under-explored with regard demonstrating the range of geometric possibilities. This can be remedied easily by exploration of established and readily available form-finding techniques for each, subjecting them in both cases to the constraints of the robot in terms of reach, access, effort etc. Simulation of material & robot We have developed a digital environment that unifies simulation of (active bending) material with the kinematics of an industrial 6DOF robot. The fundamental principles – algorithmic and physics – used in the simulation of the material is informed which would be hugely beneficial to intuitively assimilate and creatively utilize the simulation environment to explore tectonic / geometric possibilities. Architectural Project: Expandable House The imminent architectural project have been used to clarify the following and mutually inform the further development of the technological aspects Critically situating proposed technology and attendant morphologies within the history of pre-fabricate housing Exploring the implications of using pre-fabrication technologies on the morphology of the house Demonstrating possible assembly sequences the structural skeleton and the skin of the house, speculating in both cases on how the proposed technology interfaces with existing /off-the shelf technologies / material.


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CHAPTER l - THESIS 17 THE MATERIAL

3D PRINTING FILAMENTS

IND TR

ING

US AR

SP

TIC

AT

BO

IAL

RO

PR

INT

IAL M

THE TOOL

THE DESIGN PROCESS

RESEARCH PROJECT: SUPPORT MINIMAL 3D PRINTING The studio research agenda explores the use of combined technologies, robotic arms and 3d printing, in the architectural design process. The main objective is to translate structurally motivated spatial networks into habitable dwellings. This can only be achieved by integrating digital fabrication into the design and production process. Along the lines of Joris Laarman studies, this dissertation analyses how spatial printing can define a new design and fabrication method that addresses new formal and tectonic challenges with spatial extrusion, through the understanding of the material behaviour. The conventional approach of layer-by-layer printing method is replaced by spatial extrusion. Thus, it is essential to design a 3d printer technology and define a particular external digital control system. This will be achieved through the customization of existing industrial robotic arm technology responding to the material’s properties.


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CHAPTER l - THESIS 19

THE MATERIAL

Thermoplastic / Composite material Phase-change Behaviour Scalability Recyclable material

3D PRINTING FILAMENTS

IND TR

ING

US AR

SP

TIC

AT

BO

IAL

RO

PR

INT

IAL M

THE TOOL

THE DESIGN PROCESS

OVERVIEW - THE MATERIAL First a research on material properties and behaviur will be developed. Focusing on existing 3d printing filaments in the market. A wide range of 3d printing filaments can be found, from thermoplastics to composite material. They are characterised by their phase-change behavior and scalability.


CHAPTER l - THESIS 21

Inherent control Issue of zero tolerence Precision vs. Material Intelligence Ingenious use of tool limitations

AT

AM

SP

EN

TS

INDUSTRIAL ROBOTIC ARM

FIL

IAL PR 3D

ING

INT

INT

ING

PR

THE DESIGN PROCESS

THE MATERIAL

OVERVIEW - THE TOOL After, industrial robotic arms will be studied, personalising them through the design of an end effector. The potential and limitations of this technology will be investigated to set up design strategies using spatial printing. Industrial Robotic arms have an inherent control that ensures precision and quality.


CHAPTER l - THESIS 23

Based on material behaviour Structural stability throughout the printing process Form-Finding process

AR

3D

M

SPATIAL PRINTING

RO

ING

BO

INT

TIC

PR TR US

EN TS

IND

AM

IAL

FIL

THE MATERIAL

THE TOOL

OVERVIEW - THE DESIGN PROCESS Finally, the design process will aim to find the optimum geometry based on material behaviour. These geometries should ensure the structural stability throughout the printing process, with the minimum use of temporal supports and material.


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Reference: http://www.frac-centre.fr/collection-art-architecture/lovag-antti/palais-bulle-espace-cardin-theoule-sur-mer-64.html?authID=116&ensembleID=323

Reference: http://en.tongji-caup.org/

Reference: http://www.dezeen.com/2013/05/17/mataerial-3d-printer-by-petr-novikov-sasa-jokic-and-joris-laarman-studio/


CHAPTER l - THESIS 25

Research Background Chapter 01.4

EXTRUDED STRUCTURES - IRIDESCENCE PRINT: Architecture and Digital Fabrication. Gramazio Kohler Research. ETH Zurich Department Architects. MATERIAL: ABS thermoplastic filaments EXTRUSION METHOD: Heating, extruding + cooling TECHNOLOGY: One Universal Robot UR5 Robotic Arm and custom built filament extruder. GEOMETRY: Printed mesh structures. From triangulated structure to combined multi-sided polygons. The findings of the Dissertation “Extruded structures” were incorporated to the design installation “Iridescence Print”.

ROBOTIC 6 AXIS 3D PRINTING: Summer Workshop at the College of Architecture and Urban Planning at Tongji University. MATERIAL: ABS thermoplastic filaments EXTRUSION METHOD: Heating, extruding + cooling TECHNOLOGY: KUKA robot + end-effector (tooling) with 3 print heads that move and one central fixed, with a turnplate that rotates to allow the oscillation of the printheads. GEOMETRY: “Biomimetic” geometry based on the spider thread. The linear material in the centre is reinforced with the sinusoidal wave shape of the material attached.

MATAERIAL: Collaborative research between Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia and Joris Laarman Studio. MATERIAL: Thermosetting Polymers EXTRUSION METHOD: Heating, extruding + chemical reaction TECHNOLOGY: Mataerial, is a robotic tool that takes the doodle pen concept to a larger scale. It is a robotic arm with a nozzle extruder and suppliers for the chemical reaction. GEOMETRY: “anti gravity object modelling” Print along any 3d curve following a virtual path. The thickness of the strand depends on the time of extrusion.


Material Chapter 02

02.1 Material Research 02.2 Material Behaviour 02.3 Programmable Material 02.4 Bending Strategies 02.5 Constraint Studies 02.6 Compression Network : Bracing


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 29

Material Research Chapter 02.1

In our research we investigated different phase changing materials that allow us to print spatially, at the basis of any material research it is important to understand the material behaviors which can be later translated into coded languages. In this section we investigated materials based on the case studies in the history of spatial Printing and robotic fabrication previously mentioned. UV-Resin, Clay, Axon Easymax and 3d printing filaments were tested keeping in mind different parameters such as preparation time, extrusion time, curing or cooling time as well as recyclability. As robotic fabrication is an integrated part of our research different end effectors are designed for their respective material. Conclusion of our material research is based on a comparative analysis of these material keeping in mind our aim of spatial printing.


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 31

UV - Resin The first material tested for extrusion was UV Resin, this material is sensitive towards UV light, it is available in liquid state and when exposed to UV light it solidifies within seconds, later the extruded material is treated with Isopropyl alcohol to remove any harmful chemicals.

left : Image of the final state of the experiment

A manual extruder was designed alongside to understand the method of deposition for this particular material, however after few test we realized that the process of deposition is very slow and it is difficult to control the material without wastage.

20ml syringe with needle for deposition

1 UV laser pen for resin to solidify

Isopropyl Alchohol for cleaning

Deposition method

UV-resin

End-Effector

End-Effector

right : basic steps of the material depositing extruder


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 33

Uv resin An end - effector was developed for UV - Resin, the system is built with a syringe used to deposit the material. 6 UV lasers are mounted using a distribution joint to focus at one single point. left : exploded image of end-effector to understand its components parts

With is end effector we were able to reduce the extrusion time to 3-4 seconds.

Syringe

Wedges

Plate

Distribution joints

Nuts & Bolts

Motion Joints

UV Laser pens


1 Level

2 Level

3 Level


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 35

Porcelain clay Porcelain powder is a natural material that when mixed with water and a catalyst, becomes a plastic material that can be extruded. Its workability and strength depend on the amount of water in the mixture; any small change in the content of water has a great impact in these properties. Thus, experiments were conducted to find the optimum mixture of porcelain powder, water and plastic. The diagrams below show the different combinations studied. The plasticity of the final product should allow its extrusion. This material has a longer curing time than UV Resin but with external heating the curing time can be reduced. Nonetheless, it allowed a higher control over the deposition of the material. 1st Step Measure Measuring Balance cup

Measuring cup

Spoon

Water 350ml 2nd Step Mixing Powder material

CLay

Plastic

Clay 1000gr Plastic Water 350ml

Measuring cup

3rd Step Pouring Water in the material

Clay 1000gr Plastic

Measuring Mixer cup

4th Step Pouring Water and mixing

Clay 1000gr Plastic

Mixer

5th Step Mixing the material 15 mins

Water 350ml Clay 1000gr Plastic Water 350ml

left : Image of the output using different mixtures.


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 37


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 39

PLA plastic PLA Plastic or Polylactic Acid is a thermoplastic derived from renewable resources. The increasing use of this material for 3d printing is due its malleability. This material can be easily repaired, and welded. Furthermore, it is environmentally friendly because it is biodegradable and it can be recycled. The extensive use of this material in 3d printing sets a new challenge: the use of it in architecture. Hence it is essential to have a clear understanding of the material properties and behaviour, in order to define the possibilities and limitations of it, in the construction process. Therefore, the following initial tests were undertaken: - Simply Supported Test - Cantiliver Test


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Cantiliver Test


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 41

Material Strength Simply supported test The target of this experiment was to define the strength of a material when simply supported. Trying to establish the breaking point of the material at a micro scale. This test showed that continous extruded strands work better under tension.

Cantiliver Test This experiment was carried out to understand the maximum load that the material can withstand. Initially a single cantilever strands of PLA was extruded, a constrant load was applied to the free end of the strand. The experiment shows the defection of the element. It was concluded that in order to avoid this deflection, bundling was required.

Simply supported test


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UV cured resin

Clay

Extrusion time

Extrusion time

Material used

Material used

Extrusion thickness

Extrusion thickness

Extrusion length

Extrusion length

Heating

Heating

Cooling

Cooling

Strength

Strength


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 43

Comparative Analysis Axson Easymax

PLA plastic

Extrusion time

Extrusion time

Material used

Material used

Extrusion thickness

Extrusion thickness

Extrusion length

Extrusion length

Heating

Heating

Cooling

Cooling

Strength

Strength


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 45

Material Behaviour Chapter 02.2


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Plate

Electrical Connection

Heat band

6mm THK copper pipe


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 47

Extrusion test Single nozzle extruder In this experiment the material was extruded using a single nozzle manual extruder along a vertical axis. The objective was to find out how to control the heating temperature, avoiding cooling agents. The yellow lines shows the time of extrusion required depending on the cooling agent employed. Higher extrusion time, with same cooling systems, resulted in thicker strands, as shown in the images below.

left : Image of single nozzle extruder

COOLING SYSTEM EXTRUSION TIME

1’30’’

1’00’’

1’00’’

0’20’’

1’17’’

SOLIDIFYING TIME

2’20’’

1’50’’

1’30’’

0’30’’

3’09’’

STRAND THICKNESS

4 mm

4 mm

6 mm

6 mm

6 mm


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 49

Resolution test Heat and rotation control In this experiment a multi nozzle manual extruder was used to find out how the resolution can be enhanced by twisting the material. As shown, the material output depends on the time of extrusion and the heat and rotation control. However, it was concluded that manual extruders do not allow an effective heat control. Therefore the outcome was not precise and did not ensure stability and strength.

Time

Heat

left : Image of multi nozzle extruder right : Image of the final state of twisting experiment


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 51

Programmable Material Chapter 02.3 Properties After understanding the material behaviour through extrusion and resolution tests, it was concluded that PLA plastic can be used for spatial printing. Next step was to define the properties of the achieved programmable material i.e an extruded strand with a good resolution.


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Frame :01

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04

Frame 05

Frame 06

Frame 07

Frame 08

Frame 09


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 53

Bending properties Single strand deformation test In this experiment, the deformation of a single strand of three filaments, was analysed by applying a compression force. It was concluded that this material has a low bending resistance and that the direction of deformation cannot be predicted. The images below portray the diagramatic representation of the experiment.

left : the sequence of bending deformation

Number of strands Number of filaments Thickness filament Initial height Final height Max expand Wire density

Before Bending

After Deformation

Direction of force

Varied Force at Anchor Points


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Frame 01

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04

Frame 05

Frame 06

Frame 07

Frame 08

Frame 09


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 55

Bending properties Single strand deformation test In this experiment, the deformation of a single strand of twelve filaments, was analysed by applying a compression force. Although the thickness of the material was increased, it still had a low bending resistance and even the direction of deformation could still not be predicted. The images below show the diagramatic representation of the experiment.

left : the sequence of bending deformation

Number of strands Number of filaments Thickness filament Initial height Final height Max expand Wire density

Before Bending

After Deformation

Direction of Force

Varied Force at Anchor Points


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Frame 01

Frame 04

Frame 07

Frame 02

Frame 05

Frame 08

Frame 03

Frame 06

Frame 09


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 57

Bending properties Three strands deformation test In this experiment, the deformation of three individual strands of three filaments each, was analysed by applying a compression force. The strands are connected at the extremes. the three strands bend in different directions. Repeated tests proved that the direction of bending cannot be predicted.

left : the sequence of bending deformation

Number of strands Number of filaments Thickness filament Initial height Final height Max expand Wire density

Before Bending

After Deformation

Direction of force

Varied Force at Anchor Points


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 59

Bending strategies Chapter 02.4

After studying the properties at a micro scale, it was proved the low bending resistance and random bending direction of the material. Nevertheless, material behaviour can be modified when the individual elements are part of a network. Therefore, the research continued at a macro scale, studying how a network of strands respond to different bending strategies, such as “active bending”, “gradual bend” and “brace and tension bending”, in order to obtain forms that respond to structural stability and aesthetic requirements.


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 61

Bending strategies Active bending Active Bending is the strategy used to reach structural stability by applying a force to a network of elements, which has been previously printed with a multi-nozzle extruder. After the force is applied, the resultant form is braced to create a stable structure. The bracing needed is established through simulations. The diagrams below show the digital speculation of the acting bending process. The colour red in the graph shows the areas that should be braced to achieve stability.

left : Image of the final state of the experiment

Initial height Move Z Deflection No. of primary 2 No. of constraints 4 Digital speculation

Physical model


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Zig zag bracing to stabilize the structure


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 63

Surface Printing along the curvature


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 65


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 67

Bending strategies Active bending In these experiments we continue to investigate the Active bending using a different network and changing the direction of the force applied. The bracing is always established through digital simulations as shown in diagram below.. The red in the graph conveys the parts that should be braced to get a stable result.

left : Image of the final state of the experiment

Initial height Move Z Move X Deflection No. of primary No. of constraints Digital speculation

Physical model

3 8


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 69


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 71

Junction between primary & secondary strands

Primary strands 2 strands 3 filaments x 2

Horizontal bracing between strands

Secondary strands 1 strand 3 filaments

Bifurcation


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 73

Bending strategies Active bending In this series of experiments we continue to investigate the Active bending. It involves printing primary and secondary members, adding force in X-axis and once the desired form is obtained Initial length Initial length Initial length the primary secondary members are braces to add stability and strength to the form. heightandheight height It is concluded that although Active Bending increases the stability of the network, it does not Deflection DeflectionDeflection reach the level required. Deflection can still be appreciated in the overall form. No. of primary No. of primary No. of primary No. of constraints No. of constraints No. of constraints

3 8

3 8

left : Image of the final state of the experiment

3 8

Initial height Move Z Deflection No. of primary No. of constraints

3 8

Digital speculation NetworkNetwork Network

PhysicalPhysical model model Physical model

Physical model

primary members

Primary membersmembers primary

Secondary members secondary

members


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Frame 01

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04

Frame 05

Frame 06

Frame 07

Frame 08

Frame 09

Frame 10

Frame 11

Frame 12


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 75

Bending strategies Active bending The sequence of images on the left show the process of active bending. It shows how the test was conducted an a printed network by applying a force. The images below show the unstable resultant form, even after bracing, and the amount of deflection after loading the form.

Frame 01

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04

Frame 05

Frame 06


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 77

Bending strategies Gradual bend & brace

In this series of experiments we continue to investigate different bending strategies. The Gradual Bend and Brace strategy involves printing every member, bending the individual item and once the desired form is obtained, this strand is braced to the one before. As a result, stable and strong structures are obtained. This method allows the creation of positive curvature forms, where the whole structure works under compression. Initial height Move Z Deflection No. of primary No. of constraints

16 0

Compression memebers Bracing (PLA)

Digital model - printing process

left : Image of the final state of the experiment right: the sequence of printing process


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 79

Bending strategies Gradual bend & brace This process allows to generate also negative curvature forms, as shown on the image of the left. These forms work mainly under tension, having a better structural response as PLA plastic works better under tension than compression, because of its tensile property. Controlling the bend direction is complicated using this method, and therefore requires of more bracing to achieve structural stability. Initial height Initial height Move Z Move Z Deflection

Deflection

No. of primary No. of constraints No. of primary

No. of constraints

16 0

16 0

Compression Bracing (PLA) Bracing (PLA) membersCompression memebers Negativespeculation curvature forms Digital

Physical model

Physical model - printing process

left : Image of the final state of the experiment right: the sequence of printing process


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 81

Bending strategies Tension bending In this experiment the Tension bending strategy is analysed to study the stability of the structure without any external force but by using the tensile property of the programmable material. The experiment also investigates how a network of constraints can control the negative curvature of the form.

left : Image of the final state of the experiment right: the sequence of printing process

Initial height Move Z Deflection No. of primary No. of constraints

Digital speculation

Physical model

16 0


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 83

Bending strategies Tension bending Tension bending is a bending strategy that sets a number of constraints to control the bending of the material. Also, optimising the tensile properties of this material, in order to improve the overall strength. Through simulations we estimate the required bracing. The bracing generates a compression network that improves the structural stability.

Initial height Move Z Deflection No. of primary No. of constraints

Digital speculation

Physical model - printing process

16 0


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Negative Curvature Forms Positive Curvature Forms Bracing required Deflection Robotic cherography

- Need to figure out the network before printing - More numbers of robots required - Highly dependent on bracing for stability - Unstable during built process

BENDING ACTIVE

DEFLECTION AND BRACING ANALYSIS

Bending Active Negative Curvature Forms. Positive Curvature Forms. Bracing required. • • • •

Need to figure out the network before printing More number of robots required. Highly dependent on bracing for stability. Unstable during built process

Negative Curvature Forms Positive Curvature Forms Bracing required Deflection Robotic cherography

- Difficult to predict or control the bend - More numbers of robots required - Highly dependent on bracing for stability - Unstable during built process

GRADUAL BEND AND BRACE

Gradual Bend and Brace

Negative Curvature Forms. Positive Curvature Forms. Bracing required. • • • •

Difficult to predict or control the bend. More number of robots required. Highly dependent on bracing for stability. Unstable during built process

Negative Curvature Forms Positive Curvature Forms Bracing required Deflection Robotic cherography

- Temporary constraints required during building process

TENSION BENDING


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 85

Comparative Analysis Bending process analysis The illustration shows the different bending strategies. While, the yellow line shows the level of deflection when loaded, the red shows the quantity of bracing needed and the blue line represents the complexity of the robotic choreography. Tension bending seems to be the most suitable to employ as it requires less robots, it is the most stable after and during the construction process and needs less bracing, and therefore less material. The bending of the different strands are easy to predict as constraints are established.

Deflection

Bracing

Robotic choreography


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Level of constraints Negative curvature Bracing required


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 87

Constraint Studies Digital analysis of tension bending Chapter 02.5

The number and position of the constraints for tension bending, should be studied in order to optimise the use of material and generate negative curvature forms. The digital studies show how the number and position of the constraints modify the curvature of the element, while the coloured graph shows the areas where a compression network should be added.


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Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 89

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature


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Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 91

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature

Level of constraints Negative curvature


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 93

Compresion Networks Bracing Chapter 02.6


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 95

Compression Network Bracing

Chapter 02.6

The negative curvature form enhance the tensile properties of the materials, resulting in an network that works well under tension. Nevertheless, when a force is applied some deflection is still appreciated and therefore it is essential to add a compression network, which improves the strength of the overall element. Bracing provides the required compression network. The tension and compression networks are fused due to the welding property of PLA plastic, obtaining an elements that works as a whole.


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 97

Bracing strategies Linear Bracing A compression network of linear bracing was printed on a negative curvature form. The capability of working as a whole network and strength of the element was tested by applying a series of load from 5 to 25 Kgs. The experiment sequence shows that the weakness of the structure lays in the nodes of the bracing.

left : Image of the final state right: the sequence of load test

Frame 01

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04

Frame 05

Frame 06


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Nodes Break


CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 99


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 101

Bracing strategies Continuous cross bracing The same experiment was repeated to test a negative curvature with a continuous cross bracing strategy. It was tested following the procedure explained above, the images below show that this elements has a higher overall resistance as the compression network does not break. This is due to the lack of nodes.

left : Image of the final state right: the sequence of loading test

Frame 01

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04

Frame 05

Frame 06


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 103

Bracing strategies Continuous spline Other bracing strategies were studied through digital simulations to study the amount of material required and the time of printing.

left : Image of the final state right: the sequence of printing process

Printing process

Frame 01

Digital simulation

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 105

Bracing strategies Mesh bracing Other bracing strategies were studied through digital simulations to study the amount of material required and the time of printing.

left : Image of the final state right: the sequence of printing process

Printing process

Frame 01

Digital simulation

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 107

Bracing strategies Branching Other bracing strategies were studied through digital simulations to study the amount of material required and the time of printing.

left : Image of the final state right: the sequence of printing process

Printing process

Frame 01

Digital simulation

Frame 02

Frame 03

Frame 04


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 109

Comparative Analysis Bracing strategies The graph compares different bracing strategies based on a series of parameters such as printing time, material required and deflection when loaded. The best solution is spline bracing, as it deforms less and requires less bracing and printing time.

Deflection

Bracing

Printing time


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CHAPTER 2 - MATERIAL ANALYSIS 111


Robotic Fabrication Chapter 03

03.1 03.2 03.3 03.4 03.5 03.6

Introduction Robotic Studies Robotic End Effectors Robotic And Material Fabrication Test Robotic Fabrication Cell The Prototype Fabrication Process


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Introduction Robots In Architecture Chapter 03.1

3D Printing and Robotic arm fabrication technologies has developed over the last decade leading to a new techniques in the field of construction and architecture. The development in the technology of robotic arms throughout its history in the Industrial sector has lead us to use it as a fabrication tool in the architecture. The user friendly softwares such as RobotStudio(ABB), KUKA Prc (KUKA), Nachi and some of these being based on GRASSHOPPER plugins for RHINO has made it is easy for Architects to use it in their research. Many companies such as ODICO, Gramazio & Kohler, etc have collaborated with researcher and architectural Schools to create complex structures based on the material behaviour and designing innovative end-effectors to make maximum use of this tool.

fig 001-ICD-ITKE-Research-Pavilion-2014-15

fig 002- ODICO hot wire foam cutting tool

After Visiting these firms and architectural schools such as ICD-ITKE Stuttgart, understanding and learning from the Researcher, the capabilities of the industrial robotic arm, we are able to apply the same in our thesis project. Exploring Different ways in which this tool can be used in our fabrication process.

fig 001-http://assets.inhabitat. com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/ files/2015/07/ICD-ITKE-ResearchPavilion-2014-15 fig 002-http://gxn.3xn.com/ img/6657/1600/1200/Crop/01_ factory


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Precedents The 2014-15 Research Pavilion Achim Menges The Research Pavilion was built by the Institue for Computaional Design (ICD) and the Institue of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) at the university of Stuttgart led by Achim Menges. This pavilion is fabricated using a process in which an industrial robot is placed within an air supported membrane envelope made of ETFE. This inflated soft shell is initially supported by air pressure, though, by robotically reinforcing the inside with carbon fiber, it is gradually stiffened into a self-supporting monocoque structure. The carbon fibers are only selectively applied where they are required for structural reinforcement, and the pneumatic formwork is simultaneously used as a functionally integrated building skin. This results in a resource efficient construction process. 1 At the beginning of the design and construction process, the shell geometry and main fiber bundle locations are generated by a computational form finding method, which integrates fabrication constraints and structural simulation. Corresponding to the adaptive computational design strategy, a prototypical robotic fabrication process was developed for carbon fiber reinforcement on the inside of a flexible membrane. The changing stiffness of the pneumatic formwork and the resulting fluctuations in deformation during the fiber placement process pose a particular challenge to the robot control. In order to adapt to these parameters during the production process the current position and contact force is recorded via an embedded sensor system and integrated into the robot control in real time. 2

fig 001 - ICD-ITKE_pavilion14-15_Process

fig 003 - http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/ icd-imagedb/ICD_WEB_Event_Invitation_ RP_2014-15.jpg fig 004 - http://images.adsttc.com/ media/images/55ac/ef92/e58e/ ce0f/5400/022b/slideshow/ICD-ITKE_RP1415_Process13.jpg?1437396869w

1 -Icd.uni-stuttgart.de,. "ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 ÂŤ Institute For Computational Design (ICD)". N.p., 2016. Web. 1 Feb. 2016. 2 - Icd.uni-stuttgart.de,. "ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 ÂŤ Institute For Computational Design (ICD)". N.p., 2016. Web. 1 Feb. 2016.

fig 002 - ICD-ITKE_pavilion14-15_Structural Analysis


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fig 003 - ICD-ITKE_pavilion14-15

The prototypical character of the fabrication process required the development of a custom made robot tool that allows placement of carbon fibers based on integrated sensor data. The technical development of this tool became an integral part of the architectural design process. This process also posed special challenges for the material system. ETFE was identified as a suitable material for the pneumatic formwork and integrated building envelope, since it is a durable facade material and its mechanical properties minimize plastic deformation during the fiber placement. A high degree of functional integration is achieved through the use of the ETFE film as pneumatic formwork and building envelope. This saves the material consumption of conventional formwork techniques as well as an additional façade installation. A composite adhesive provided a proper bond between the ETFE film and the carbon fibers. During production nine pre-impregnated carbon fiber rovings are placed in parallel. 45km of carbon roving were laid at an average speed of 0.6 m min on 5km of robot path. This additive process not only allows stress-oriented placement of the fiber composite material, but it also minimizes the construction waste associated with typically subtractive construction processes. 3 The ICD / ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 serves as a demonstrator for advanced computational design, simulation and manufacturing techniques and shows the innovative potential of interdisciplinary research and teaching. The prototypical building articulates the anisotropic character of the fiber composite material as an architectural quality and reflects the underlying processes in a novel texture and structure. The result is not only a particularly material-effective construction, but also an innovative and expressive architectural demonstrator. 4

fig 004 - ICD-ITKE_pavilion14-15

fig 006 - ICD-ITKE_pavilion14-15 fabrication process

fig 006 - ICD-ITKE_pavilion14-15 end-effector fig 003 , fig 004 , fig 005 , fig 006 - Icd. uni-stuttgart.de,. "ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 « Institute For Computational Design (ICD)". N.p., 2016. Web. 1 Feb. 2016.

3, 4 - Icd.uni-stuttgart.de,. "ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 « Institute For Computational Design (ICD)". N.p., 2016. Web. 1 Feb. 2016.


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Opportunities for Development Robotic Arm End-Effector and Cells Robotic arm in architectural research does not change the technology and mechanics of the arm instead how this tool can affect our fabrication process and built space. Robotic fabrication is thus used to address a system that is organised and entirely based on digital and material processes. Our proposal is to integrate robotic arm in our research which is based on 3D printing and material behaviour because of its inherent control, issue of zero tolerance and precision. Considering all the advantages and limitation of this tool we intend to find its purpose in the field of architectural automation, and therefore generating a structurally stable 3D printed geometries leading to a built space.

image showing ODICO Denmark ABB Robtic Arm http://www.odico.dk/technology.php

Digital Process

Spatial Process

Space


Robotic Studies Chapter 03.2


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Robotic Analysis Lynx Motion

IAAC / Cardiff

ODICO

Hardware

Software

AL5D Arm

RIOS SSC - 32 RobotIO

Axis 1 Axis 2 Axis 3 Axis 4 Axis 5 Axis 6

Payload = 300 - 400 gms - servo HS 485HB - servo HS 8055HB - servo HS 755HB - servo HS 645HB - servo HS 485HB - servo HS 485HB

Hardware

Software

KUKA KR 150-2

Axis 1 Axis 2 Axis 3 Axis 4 Axis 5 Axis 6

KUKA PRC

Payload = 150 kgms - 185O TO +185O - 120O TO +70O - 119O TO +155O - 350O TO +350O - 125O TO +125O - 350O TO +350O

Hardware

Software

ABB IRB 6400 150

Axis 1 Axis 2 Axis 3 Axis 4 Axis 5 Axis 6

Payload = 175 Kgms - 180O TO +180O - 70O TO +85O - 28O TO +10O - 300O TO +300O - 120O TO +120O - 300O TO +300O

Robot Studio Py Rapid


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Physical Robots Lynx Motion AL5D The initial studies with a desktop Lynx Motion AL5D Robot focusing on the robotic movement. A single nozzle extruder was mounted on the robotic arm as the pay load in less thus able to extrude plastic filaments. The software for this robot is based on the degree of Rotation of the axis servos the robotic control was not precise. With the help of RobotIO plugin for grasshopper we were able to study the reach of Lynx Motion and also gained a better control by digitally simulating its movements. Once tested digitally the GCode was then fed to the robot as seen in the sequence below. Printing and Robotic Control

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Robotic Choreography ABB Robot ODICO In a workshop conducted in ODICO Denmark we got our hands on an industrial robotic arm, ABB IRB 6400 with a pay load of 150kgs. With such an opportunity at hand we were excited to see the robot in action.

Image showing ABB Robtic Arm ODICO Denmark

Our first task was to study the arm choreography, the movement of all 6 - axis and the rotation limits on each of these axis. The ABB was choreographed to follow a path and light source was attached to it end effector which allowed us to capture the trail. The image on the right shows the geometric path that was fed to the robot using a Robot Studio and Py Rapid. The sequence of images below shows the motion of the robot. The image on the left show the light trail captured identical to the geometric path fed to the robot. Tool Path

Light Trail

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Physical Robots ABB Robot ODICO The end-effector connected to this robot was a hot wire foam cutting tool, with the help of RobotStudio we generated some simulation to cut a column out of foam. Image showing ABB Robtic Arm ODICO Denmark

In this test we had tackle the limitations of this robot, the size of the end effector, the positions of the robot, speed of the robot to get a smooth cut The images bellow show the tool path. The image on the left shows a smooth twisted column cut from a single piece of foam. Tool Paths

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Robotic Arm - Reach Map ABB Robot The Reach map analyses the reach of the robotic arm within an enclosed space, a point cloud helps us determine the points the arm can reach and which it cannot the reason being the rotation of each axis. The reach map is different of different robots and also varies with size of the robot. This study was conducted using a digital simulation, this study is be later used in our research design a space. The sequence of images in the following page show the singularity issue, out of reach and axis out of range of rotation. ABB IRB 6640

Reach Map

3M X 3M reach test

Reach Map


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Singularity

Out of reach

Axis out of range of rotation


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Robotic End-Effectors Chapter 03.3


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Designing the End-Effector A series of end effectors re designed through our research to automate the fabrication process based on the material behaviour and architectural intention For the customization of industrial robotic arm it is essential to design an end effector that allow the extrusion of the material following the requirements of resolution and time of printing previously explained in the material section. Furthermore, this robotic technology should be controlled through computational data. The material is meant to be extruded by the end effector also it should be able to print to at any angle. The images below show the design development of the end effector to achieve a fully automated and controlled printing tools.

Manual Extruder

Multi-nozzle Manual Extruder


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Multi-nozzle Extruder V 1.0

Multi-nozzle Extruder V 2.0


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Multi-nozzle Extruder V 2.0 PLA Plastic The multi-nozzle extruder is designed to print four filaments at the same time, it has a gear system which rotates the 4 nozzle to get a higher resolution output. The tool is designed to print at any angle in space, the print speed and the rotation to twist the material is controlled using Arduino board. The extruder has a possibility to mount filament spools, with this particular design we are able to print a 12 m long member with a resolution of four filaments. the extruder nozzle used are regular 3d printer nozzle and they are designed to maintain the hot end temperature at 180 0 -200 0, it has a heat sink which avoids transfer of heat throughout the nozzle instead restricting it to the hot end, tip of the extruder is heated using a heater block with a power supply of 24V and 10amp. These four nozzle are connected to a pneumatic pipe which helps navigate the filament to it. These pneumatic pipes are connected to the spine of the end effector with a tunnel at its core to pass the wires and four channels for the filaments. The lower part of the spine is a mechanical gear which is connected to the stepper motor resting on a fixed plate which controls the rotation speed. The central part of the spine is connected to a plate which hosts the four motor used to push the filament through the system. The last components are the spools which hold the filament. Except for the fixed plate this entire mechanism has to rotate along with the spools to avoid filaments getting stuck or tangled with each other, ball bearing were fixed to gain a smooth rotation at any angle. The system is powered by a 24V power supply and the motors are controlled using set of Microstep drivers and Arduino.


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Slip Ring

filament spools

the spine

stepper motors to push the filaments stepper motor connected to the gear ball bearing for smooth rotstion fixeed plate

pneumatic pipes

pneumatic connectors

3D Printer nozzle


Multi-nozzle Extruder V 2.0 Extrusion Analysis The End effector was first tested in Cardiff University, these test were conducted to see if the extruder is able to print a desired output which being four twisted filaments

the images show KUKA Robtic Arm Cardiff University tutor - Alicia Nahmad

We were not able to achieve the desired output, in some cases the nozzles were not heated properly, the filaments were not pushed through and so on. The images below show the tool path and the end effector extruding filaments. Spatial Extrusion

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Methods of Extrusion Free Flow Extrusion The extrusion method is analyzed based on different conditions. The first type being free flow extrusion. The free flow extrusion means extruding the material with no tension applied. As a result, a random twist is obtained with no strength or stability to allow spatial printing. Spatial Extrusion

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Extrusion Speed Rotation Tension No. Of Filaments No. Of Strands

4 1

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Methods of Extrusion Extrusion using Tension The second extrusion test conducted was extrusion under tension, in which the end-effector is moved faster along the tool path keeping the same print speed. Printing using this methodology, the 4 filaments are twisted together and the outcome is a single strand, with higher strength and stability. the images below show the consitancy in the printed strand. Spatial Extrusion

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Methods of Extrusion Linear Extrusion Last is the linear tension, which means extruding under tension but without twisting the nozzles. The different filaments can be identified, and it needs of a secondary structure to get the shape desired. The images below shows four linear filaments. While extruding under tension can be employed for the main members of the structure, the linear extrusion can be used for bracing or surface when it is required. Spatial Extrusion

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Robotic And Material Fabrication Test Chapter 03.4


Fabrication Test Tests were undertaken to understand how the robotic arm could be used to translate the virtual into physical models. 1.

2.

3.

At a micro scale, the printing speed was tested to define an accurate tension for printing that offered a good resolution of the material output. On the other hand, at a macro scale the printing process was examined. The sequence of printing should be established based on the networks for tension bending, to ensure the stability of the structure during the printing process. Physical and virtual models can differ due to the multiple factors that affect the printing process. The differences can be defined by scanning using a feedback loop.

ODICO Denmark ABB Robtic Arm

Cardiff University KUKA Robtic Arm tutor - Alicia Nahmad


Printing Speed Test (micro) A good resolution of Material output Accurate tension for printing

Printing Process (macro) Based on material behaviour Network of member for stability Sequence of printing Temporary supports

Scanning (Feedback) Feedback loop Connecting the digital and physical world


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Material Fabrication Printing Speed test (micro) Robotic arm is an integrated part of our fabrication system, printing speed is an important test to analyze the choreography of the Robot and the endeffector to get the anticipated material output. This test was conducted in ODICO Denmark. Multiple tool paths were set in the ABB software Robot studio and tested digitally. The simulations were checked for any singularity issues and also if the robot is able to reach the desired tool path. The Gcode was then fed to the Robot to print along those tool paths. The test was conducted twice and the speed at which the Robot move was input manually in the teach pendent.

ODICO Denmark ABB Robtic Arm


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Closeup of a free flow extrusion

Printing Speed test (micro) Speed 10 mm/s The printing speed can only be tested by keeping one of the parameters persistent i.e. the rotation. The rpm of the stepper motor was kept constant in both the test. After setting the angle of the end-effector at which it can print, the robot was moved along its given tool path. The speed of the robot was set manually to 10mm/sec on the teach pendent, with these settings the output that was achieved was a free flow extrusion. The output material had no strength and stability, the four filaments were not fused together. The images on the left show the sequence of the test along with the free flow extrusion. Extrusion Speed Rotation Tension

10 mm/s

No. Of Filaments No. Of Strands

4 1

ODICO Denmark ABB Robtic Arm


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Closeup of extrusion under tension

Printing Speed test (micro) Speed 30 mm/s The second printing speed test was conducted keeping the rotation constant. The rpm of the stepper motor was set to same value as the previous test. After setting the angle of the end-effector at which it can print, the robot was moved along its given tool path. The speed of the robot was set manually to 30mm/sec on the teach pendent, with these settings the output achieved was a strand extruded under tension. The output material had the required strength and stability and the four filaments were fused together. The images on the left show the sequence of the printing along with the desired material output. Extrusion Speed Rotation Tension

30 mm/s

No. Of Filaments No. Of Strands

4 1

ODICO Denmark ABB Robtic Arm


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Printing Speed test (micro) The speed test let us determine the exact speed of the robotic arm, the speed calculated was 30 mm/sec. A series of tool paths were then fed to robotic arm, as the material does not work under compression or has a low bending resistance, temporary supports were used to support the initial strands.

ODICO Denmark ABB Robtic Arm

The images below show the result of spatial printing sing temporary supports. Spatial Extrusion

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Material Fabrication Printing Process After testing the fabrication process at a micro level i.e. the printing speed and the resolution, our next step was to determing the material fabrication process at a lager scale. as explained in our material research, the programmable material has tensile properties therefore geometries were generated considering a network of primary members and sencondary constraints and the resultant being a negative curvature form. a digital simulation of such networks was studied and a geometry was finalised which can be used to test the printing process. The sequence of printing should be established based on the networks for tension bending, to ensure the stability of the structure during the printing process.

Cardiff University KUKA Robtic Arm tutor - Alicia Nahmad


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Material Fabrication Printing Process The material fabrication process was first simulated in Maya, layout the exact sequence in which the networks these stands can be printed. The simulation shows two robotic arm working together one for printing and the other to hold a temporary support.

Cardiff University KUKA Robtic Arm Alicia Nahmad

The same sequence was then executed with one robotic arm in Cardiff University and also set a formwork was designed to hold the temporary support on place. Printing Sequnce

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Material Fabrication Printing Process The material fabrication process was first simulated in Maya, layout the exact sequence in which the networks these stands can be printed. The simulation shows two robotic arm working together one for printing and the other to hold a temporary support. The same sequence was then executed with one robotic arm in Cardiff University and also set a formwork was designed to hold the temporary support on place

A network of primary members and constraints based on material Behaviour

temporary supports and archor points

Cardiff University KUKA Robtic Arm Alicia Nahmad


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Material Fabrication Scanning (Feedback Loop) The third test in material fabrication is adding a feedback loop to the system, as the physical and virtual models can differ due to multiple factors that affect the printing process. The differences can be defined by scanning. We used a basic ultrasonic proximity sensor for scanning the geometry, the idea of remapping the digital geometry based on the physical model, once the digital geometry is updated it can be used to add a compression network i.e. bracing to our system thus making the form stable. For this test we used a smaller Nachi robot, also designed a single nozzle extruder, where the printing is actuated using a sensor.

Nachi MZ07 Robtic Arm


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Scanning End-Effector Proximity Sensor A single nozzle end-effector was designed to operate on a sensor, the actuation of the printing is controlled by the proximity senor, the extruder only switches on when a strand within its scanning range. The nozzle is mounted with a proximity sensor, the sensor is controlled through an Arduino board, the distance values from the sensor and stored by the Arduino and based on particular range of value the nozzle is actuated. The LED at nozzle indicates the existence of a strand in from of the nozzle.

Nachi MZ07 Robtic Arm

The end-effector being connected to the robotic arm it is easy update the co-ordinates of the physical model based on a digital model.

Utrasonic Proximity Sensor

Extruder Nozzle LED Indicator Front Elevation

Arduino UNO

Extruder Nozzle LED Indicator Side Elevation


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Scanning - Digital Simulation After the material fabrication process the elements of the components are under tension and to make this network stable we need to add a compression network to make it stable. Bracing is one way of adding the compression network to this system. We did a digital simulation of how we can scan a physical model using a distance sensor and LED indicator and a robotic arm. The images on the left show the scanning process of a physical model, every time the end-effector senses a strand based on the digital co-ordinates and is indicated by the LED the co-ordinates of the last axis can be saved or in terms of IK setup the rotation of all 6 axis of the robotic arm can be stored thus being able to update the digital model, this being a feedback loop for our system. This updated geometry can be later used to print the compression network on the component.

ABB Robtic Arm Grasshoper


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Scanning - physical model The physical model was scanned based on the digital geometry, every point from the digital model was remapped using and LED indicator. The robot is fed with the list points extracted from the simulation and every point from the list is retraced on the physical models and the X,Y,Z coordinates of the last axis is stored. The images on the left show a sequence of scanning process, in this case the robot is moving along the point obtained from the digital simulation.

Digital model

Physical model

Nachi Robtic Arm


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Scanning - Remapping The points from the digital simulation are remapped based on the physical model and the digital model is updated. The updated points are again fed to robot to see if it coincides with the physical models, this can be easily checked with the help of a LED indicator as the LED stays on throughout its tool path. The figure on the left show the LED activated as the sensor detects the primary member within its proximity. Nachi Robtic Arm

In all the images below the LED is activated as the robot is moving through the points on the updated geometry Remapping using proximity sensor

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Scanning - Digital simulation of the network The digital simulation of a tension bending component, the red colour in the graph shows possible bracing areas of the strands.

Scanning - Printing A physical model being printed relocating the digital model, the position of the constraints to achieve a negative curvature.

Scanning - Remapping The Green points are extracted from the digital simulations and the red ones are the same points (z co-ordinate is constant) obtained from scanning.

Scanning - Displacement The lines show the displacement of every digital points to the points on the physical models and maximum displacement registered is 3-4 cm.


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Scanning - Printing Once the digital model is updated according to the physical model, this geometry can be then use to print the compression network i.e. bracing on the component. The same sensor based end-effector is used to brace the component. The material used for bracing is PLA same as the material used for the printed component. The images below show the compression network being printed using the sensor based single nozzle extruder.

Nachi Robtic Arm

Printing based on remapped geometry

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Robotic Fabrication Cell Chapter 03.5


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fig 001 - Fabrication cells for KUKA Robots

fig 002 - ODICO Denmark- ABB IRB 6400 on a rail.


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fig 003 - Multiple KUKA robots performing different task in an automotive industry

Designing a Fabrication cell References Robotic fabrication cells are designed based on the fabrication process, the position of the robot, robotic reach and the task of the robotic arm. In terms multiple robotic arms working together it is essential to study its choreography. With optimal process and reliability in mind, the system would offer maximum flexibility for the specific task required of the robotic arms. The study of fabrication cell is a stand-alone solution that meets the requirements of our system, it can be further customised to include the development of design parameters. Our study was strictly based on the reach map of a robotic arms, as show in the printing process before our system requires a minimum of two robots to perform the task of spatial printing with our programmable material. These parameters lead us to the design of a fabrication cell that fulfilled all the requirements of our system.

fig 001 - http://wakingupwisconsin.com/ it-begins-china-begins-development-of-allrobot-manufacturing-plant/ fig 002-http://gxn.3xn.com/ img/6657/1600/1200/Crop/01_factory fir 003 - http://www.automationworld.com/ simplifying-robot-configuration-productionthrough-diagnostics-kuka


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Cell Design Based on Reach Map Option 1 The first setup for the fabrication cell is 20m X 10 m working bed and the robots are hung upside down from two different gantries. The robots are able to move along X-axis of the bed due the rails on these gantries and the gantries are installed with another set of tracks enabling the robot to move along Y axis of the working bed thus adding two new axis to the robotic arms. In terms of robotic reach the robots are used to its full potential but consider the maximum height of the fabrication space it was restricted due to its reach map. Maya simulation KUKA Robtic Arm

The images below show the reach map of this particular setup and on the left is a series of images showing the choreography of the two robots in the fabrication cell.

Robot Base

Robotic Reach Map

Fabrication Cell Plan 20m X 10m

Elevation Showing the reach Map

Tracks


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Cell Design Based on Reach Map Option 2 The second setup for the fabrication cell is 20m X 10 m working bed and one of the robots is hung upside down from a gantry. The robots are able to move along X-axis of the bed due the rails on these gantries and the gantries are installed with another set of tracks enabling the robot to move along Y axis of the working bed thus adding two new axis to the robotic arms. In terms of robotic reach the robots are used to its full potential but because the two robots need to work in tandem with each other the robot on the working bed could not be used to its fullest. Maya simulation KUKA Robtic Arm

The images below show the reach map of this particular setup and on the left is a series of images showing the choreography of the two robots in the fabrication cell.

Robot Base

Robotic Reach Map

Cell Plan 20m X 10m

Elevation Showing the reach Map

Tracks

Tracks


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Cell Design Based on Reach Map Option 3 The third setup for the fabrication cell has 20m X 6 m working bed and the robots are held cantilever from two column on either side of the bed these robots are mounted on the rails attached to these columns adding a Z axis to the working bed. These columns can be move along Y axis of the bed using rails. The size of the bed is reduced to 6 m based on the reach map of the two robots facing each other. This particular setup reduced the size of the bed but it satisfied all the requirements of our fabrication process. Maya simulation KUKA Robtic Arm

The images below show the reach map of this particular setup and on the left is a series of images showing the choreography of the two robots in the fabrication cell.

Robot Base

Robotic Reach Map Tracks Cell Plan 20m X 6m

Elevation Showing the reach Map

Tracks


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KUKA Robots Base with wheels to mount the robot on rails

Rails along Z-axis

Base with wheels to move along Y-axis

Rails along X and Y-axis

Robotic Cell Working Platform

Robotic cell Safety fence

Robotic Cell Offset Platform

Flooring


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Fabrication Cell Components


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The Prototype Fabrication Process Chapter 03.4


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Designing the Prototype Taking into account all the previous research on material behaviour and robotic fabrication, a prototype was designed. certain tests were performed in order to test the concept of bending, the anchor point, the control points of the material, and principally, the material integrity itself. The initial test performed at a large scale meant to prove whether the material composition of the system could actually behave as hypothesized. The conclusion achieved was to further develop the material inorder to attain more strength and stability which could be achieved by bundling. Top to Bottom approach was performed.

image showing the network of the form and its complexity


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Digital Simulation For The Prototype The global deformation of the overall setup was predicted through a digital simulation in order to visualize the bending behaviour of the strands due to the relaxation of anchor points. A series of constraint studies were also performed inorder to achieve best reults at all possible junctions or diversions. A series of connection studies were looked at, to achieve the best possible stable junction. The colour coding of the strands depicts as follows, Red shows deeper the curve and less stable junction, where more bracing has to be introduced. These digital simulations and iterations helped to develop a series of strong and stable structures.


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Prototype Printing Process After testing individual strand set-ups, a scaled-up networked version of those was fabricated using individual robotic arms. More precisely the length of the strands was set at 1 to 1.5m for the base segments., the length of secondary strands were set at slightly longer which is 1.4m to 1.9m.. As the the prototype further expands the length of primary and secondary strands increases according to the length of every individual segment. The secondary strands determines the shape of the structure. The addition of bracing in this experiment was of crucial importance due to structural performance issues. Therefore the initial setup had to be reconfigured for the reach of the rotic arm inorder to brace all the secondary members to its nearest primary member.


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Step 1 Printing process Since most of the structural elements are linear, a particular robotic setup had to be created, a mobile table was introduced to rotate the table 360 degrees. The robots were on vertical rails to perform better and quick fabrication process. Simple scaffolding was introduced in order to anchor the points from bottom to top. Initially a set of primary strands were printed according to a certain length achieved digitally. These strands are then braced with secondary strands, these secondary strands determine the shape of the structure.. Once the structure is constrained it is braced with a different end effector as explained in earlier chapter. Bracing gives the stability to print the next segment on top which is often performed by bundling.

image showing the printing process of primary, secondary strands and bracing.


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Step 2 Bundling To Spanning As the first segment (Base segment) is printed with constraining and bracing, the structure is then stable enough to print the next segment which is performed by bundling. In this process the anchor points/scaffolding is shifted to the next level of printing from the existing printed structure. once the anchor points are set. the next segment primary strands are printed from the base following the path of the existing primary and secondary strands. The process is repeated as similar to that of the earlier printing process. The later is then braced for image showing the bundling process stability and the process continues till the whole component is printed. over the existing build structure


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Design Process Chapter 04

04.1 Introduction and Case Studies 04.2 Design Methodology 04.3 Design Technique - Stacked Segments 04.4 Design Technique - Connection Strategies 04.5 Design Technique - Skin And Secondary Structure 04.6 Design Application


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Design Process: Material Driven Form Finding Process Chapter 04.1

The fact that our research relies on an industrial robotic process and a composite material made it necessary to develop a tool that could be customized according to the needs of the fabrication process. Through the observation of the material behaviour, the research focused on active bending structures that perform in a similar manner. Active bending structures are unique in their performance and therefore cannot be predicted without the use of a form finding process. The process needs to be iterated and compared through a series of digital and physical prototypes. Moreover, in the development of the design methodology, essential role had the robotic arms’ constraints and possibilities, which gave feedback to it and indicated whether certain design rules for applications were feasible or not.

Left: Geometrically defined Structural network Right: Physical model of spatial deployment. Empirical approach of the design process


Design Methodology Chapter 04.2


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Segmented Structures - Stacking

Connection Strategies - Bundling

Structure and Skin studies

Negative curvature structures were studied further cause of its ability to withstand more load compared to positive segments.

Structural Strength Approach

Design Approach

The primary and secondary structure remains the same as that of the initial approach. The expansion of the structure is further carried out by bundling on top of the existing segment, to various directions depending on the material behaviour. Bundling is continued till the entire structure is made. Bundling gives more strength and stability compared to the previous approach.

Finally, the experience and knowledge gained from the aforementioned approaches were a factor of high importance in the the development of the third, Geometrical approach.

Initial Approach Segregation of Structure into Primary and secondary strands. Primary strands are given more resolution compared to the secondary strands for stability, Secondary strands are constrained to primary at certain height according to our physical studies and digital simulation. Secondary strands translate the shape of the structure globally. Expansion of these segments into columns and arches depending on the number of points it is extruded from. leading to stacking of these segments on top of the other at various angles to find various shapes. The terminating points are fused to each other since PLA plastic fuses well with the same material.

In this case, a procedural design strategy was generated, where the actual physical bending behaviour of the structure was approximated, based on observations made during the previous experimentation. In the earlier cases, material behavior and limitations were tested through physical models. This was an essential phase where design intuition was developed. Skin or surface strategies on different type of bundled structures were carried out to give definition to the final space.


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Physical Models Material Behaviour

Design Approach

Digital Simulation

Design Techniques Feedback on the process

Form Finding Geometrical Definition


Design Technique Chapter 04.3

Stacked Segmented Structures


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Design Process: Behaviour Based Design Strategy Chapter 04.3

In the earlier attempts to form a design process, several strategies that through trial and error formed the current design methodology were investigated. It is essential to point out the main goals of this research so as to make the concepts behind the current process more easily understood and also demonstrate the continuity of the research analysis. A series of physical models were generated, based on design intuition and observations on the material behavior. Starting from simple setups, the fundamental structural concept of bending active structures were studies, while the initial design concepts were being generated. Essential observations were made during this stage of the research. Such as the importance of the network in opposition to the structural behavior of single elements. In this phase, the use of experimental form finding methods led to the definition of the material constraints and liberations, as well as to the perception of the design potentials of the system. The latter formed the design tools that were used in the later research. The individual tension bending elements, previously explained, define a structure when they are printed together, using bundling. The first structural item that was studied was the arch, due to the fact that an aggregation of arches creates a space. The cross section of the individual elements will define the proportions and characteristics of the arch. And therefore the space.

Left: Physical model of spatial deployment. Empirical approach of the design process


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Center line for Geometry

Initial set of segments

Initial set of stacking

continuation of process

continuation of process

Finished Geometry

Finished Geometry


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Basic segmented Arch

4/4 Point Segments - 9 Segment Arch Length of primary strand Length of secondary strand Width of top points Width of base points Height of each segment Height of arch

80cms 100cms 20cms 20 cms 80cms 250cms

Base Condition 4 Base points

Initial condition constrained

Final Geometry after relaxation of anchor points

color coding evaluation of stable curvature


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Center line for Geometry

Initial set of segments

Initial set of stacking

continuation of process

continuation of process

Finished Geometry

Finished Geometry


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Broad Segmented Arch

12/12 Point Segments - 9 Segment Arch Length of primary strand Length of secondary strand Width of top points Width of base points Height of each segment Height of arch

80cms - 100cms 100cms - 110cms 20cms 20 cms 80cms 250cms

Base Condition 12 Base points

Initial condition constrained

Final Geometry after relaxation of anchor points

color coding evaluation of stable curvature


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Center line for Geometry

plan

Initial set of stacking

Initial Base Geometry

continuation of process

Finished Geometry

Finished Geometry


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Broad Base Arch

8/8 Point Segments - 9 Segment Arch Length of primary strand Length of secondary strand Width of top points Width of base points Height of each segment Height of arch Width bw top points of each second segment

80cms - 100cms 100cms - 110cms 20cms 20 cms 80cms 250cms 12.5cms - 5cms

Base Condition 8 base points

Initial condition constrained

Final Geometry after relaxation of anchor points

color coding evaluation of stable curvature

6 points

Initial condition constrained

Final Geometry after relaxation of anchor points

color coding evaluation of stable curvature

Top Condition


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Center line for Geometry

Initial Set of stacking

Finished Geometry

Broad base segment

Initial set of base geometry

continuation of process

Finished Geometry


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Broad Base Split Arch

8/12Point Segments - 9 Segment Arch Length of primary strand Length of secondary strand Width of top points Width of base points Height of each segment Height of arch

80cms - 100cms 100cms - 110cms 20cms 20 cms 80cms 250cms

Base Condition 8 base points

Initial condition constrained

Final Geometry after relaxation of anchor points

color coding evaluation of stable curvature

12 points

Initial condition constrained

Final Geometry after relaxation of anchor points

color coding evaluation of stable curvature

Top Condition


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In these set of spatial deployment, each of the segment is extruded from a particular set of points depending on the length and height of expansion. In order to have a stable base more number of points are deployed at the same time reducing the size of the segments as the structure steps high, according to the need of structural stability. The little change generates different spatial qualities and can provide control over the design according to specific intentions concerning the connectivity of the interior spaces.


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EARLY DESIGN PROCESS Spatial Deployment


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Reference studies: Surface Geometries & Proportions Antti Lovag Palais Bubble

Various Projects were referred to understand the geometry of circular spaces. one such study is the study of surface geometries and proportions of Antti Lovag Palais. the bubble-forms of the architecture have created the most visible and well-known structures of Antti Lovag. This explains Lovag’s interest in the complexity of spherical and spheroidal rooms that constitute Palais Bulles. To Lovag, the straight line is “an aggression against nature,” human nature to be more specific. Lovag’s point is that the motion of our arms and legs throughout space trace circles, similar to a circular field of vision. “Conviviality is a circular phenomenon. The spherical forms create sensuous interior spaces when they intersect. Another reason why the circle is so present in his architecture is because it “is the simplest construction; it has just one dimension, the radius.

Reference: http://www.frac-centre.fr/ collection-art-architecture/ lovag-antti/palais-bulleespace-cardin-theoule-surmer-64.html?authID=116&ensembleID=323


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Structural Components: Form finding process The individual tension bending elements, previously explained, define a structure when they are printed together, using bundling. The first structural item that was studied was the arch, due to the fact that an aggregation of arches creates a space. The cross section of the individual elements will define the proportions and characteristics of the arch. and therefore the space.


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Space Iteration Chapter 04.3

Looping Forms


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Form Finding: Looping Form Looping structures are another result of the aggregation of arches. As explained previously the dimensions, proportions and characteristics modify considerably the conditions of the indoor spaces. NO. OF UNITS: 8 KITCHEN+ DINING 13SQM

BEDROOM 13SQM

TOILET 5.5SQM

STORAGE 5.5SQM

FOYER 11SQM BEDROOM 13SQM

LIVING 13SQM

Open plan Radial divisions Dia of outer ring : 5m Dia of inner ring : 3m Off site printing


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BEDROOM 13SQM

NO. OF UNITS: 8

TOILET 5.5SQM

DINING 6SQM

FOYER 5.5SQM

BEDROOM 13SQM

KITCHEN 7SQM

FOYER 11SQM

LIVING 13SQM

Open plan Radial divisions Dia of outer ring : 5m Dia of inner ring : 3m Off site printing


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KITCHEN+ DINING 6SQM

NO. OF UNITS: 6 Open plan Radial divisions Dia of outer ring : 5m Dia of intermediate ring : 4m Dia of inner ring : 3m Off site printing

TOILET 4SQM

LIVING 10SQM BEDROOM 13SQM

FOYER 7SQM


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Space Generation: Fluid Networks This fluid networks presented are a result of aggregated arches. These networks when connected together can be used as a form finding process. Having in mind the knowledge and experience gained from the previous design methodologies, a different approach was attempted combining the latters’ characteristics. In this geometrical design technique, an analytical strategy was followed. Through procedural modelling, approximations of physical experiments were generated. Nevertheless, the accuracy of these approximations was of a high level, due to the fact that the initial input was based on the intuition gained, the observations from the digital simulations, as well as due to the use of mathematical equations on which the physics simulations are based on. From an overall perspective, this approach was efficient as it combined the advantages of the earlier research methodologies, while introducing the element of the design initiative.

Left: Geometrically generated structure


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Structure generation through manipulation of a low resolution control polygon. Initial condition from 2 plane of references.


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Low poly

Initial condition

Network

Form finding

GEOMETRICAL EVOLUTION Form-finding process In the first stage of the geometrical design approach, the basic volume of occupation is being defined, as well as the space separation. Then with the aid of a low resolution control polygons the main curves of the structure are extracted. The later consist of an approximation but are however based on physical simulation. From this curves the primary and secondary structures are generated, as well as the thermoformed surface.


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FLUID NETWORKS Form-finding process


Design Technique Chapter 04.4

Connection Strategies - Bundling


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Design Process: Structural Strength Approach Bundling Chapter 04.4

In this geometrical design technique, an analytical strategy was followed. Through procedural modelling, approximations of physical experiments were generated. Nevertheless, the accuracy of these approximations was of a high level, due to the fact that the initial input was based on the intuition gained, the observations from the digital simulations, as well as due to the use of mathematical equations on which the physics simulations are based on. A series of digital models were generated, based on design intuition and observations on the material behavior. Starting from simple setups, the fundamental structural concept of bending active structures were studies, while the initial design concepts were being generated. Essential observations were made during this stage of the research. Such as the importance of the network in opposition to the structural behavior of single elements. In this phase, the use of experimental form finding methods led to the definition of the material constraints and liberations, as well as to the perception of the design potentials of the system. The latter formed the design tools that were used in the later research. As shown in the prototype design, using bundling to span in different directions result in multiple branching options. The horizontal or spatial network of these structural connections can be used to define spaces. Some examples of this spatial solutions were developed.

Left: Digital model of spatial deployment. Bundling approach of the design process


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CONNECTION STRATEGIES Structure generation through accumulation of points in space. Extruding the material following a bottom up approach where the material is bundled to attain more strength. The points determine the extent of expansion which in turn gives out different directions leading to different connections


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3 point split structure

3 point split structure

4 point split structure

4 point split structure

6 point split structure

6 point split structure

4 point multiple split structure

4 point multiple split structure

9 point multiple split structure

9 point multiple split structure


Space Iteration Chapter 04.4

Segmented Forms


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SEGMENTED NETWORKS Form-finding process


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Low Poly

Linear Arrangement

Low Poly

Staggered Arrangement

Low Poly

Linear Arrangement

Low Poly

Staggered Arrangement

Low Poly

Linear Arrangement

Radial Arrangement

Radial Arrangement

Low Poly

Staggered Arrangement

Radial Arrangement


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SEGMENTED NETWORKS Shell structure


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SEGMENTED NETWORKS Shell structure


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SEGMENTED NETWORKS Shell structure


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Design Technique Chapter 04.5

Skin And Secondary Structure


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Space

Structure based on material behaviour

Surface


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Design Process: Skin & Secondary Structure Chapter 04.5

The following studies focus on the generation of skin and secondary structure. It explains the material used for surfacing and secondary structure and the rules of generation of the same. The secondary structure is made up of tensioned wires. Apart from the structural requirements, the secondary structure can also be reinforced into the primary structure on the logics of density, intersection and perforation.

Left: Digital model of spatial deployment. Skin & Structure

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Type 4

Type 5

Type 6

Surface Generation By Aggregation


Design Application Chapter 04.6

Case Studies And Form Evolution


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Planning & Interconnections

PASCAL HÄUSERMANN– Domobiles, 1971-1973

Modular Units

Monsanto house of future (1957) (Open Plan)


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Form Evolution: Case Studies Chapter 04.6

Various Case studies of early plastic architecture were referred to understand the planning and interconnections, Module types, expansion of each units and services. Expansion Of Units

SPATIAL STUDIES – Antti Lovag Palais Bubble

Services

living pod, David greene


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PLANNING & INTERCONNECTION

Cheneac– cellules amphores

S

ST

ICE

RU

RV

CT

SE

UR

E

Pascal häusermann – domobiles,

Cheneac – Cellules polyvalentes antti lovag palais bubble monsanto house of future

FORM

EXPANSION MODULAR UNITS

Design Application - Case Studies The target is to apply all the concepts developed through the material, robotic and computational design research, for the design of a dwelling. These case studies in the history of plastic architecture is looked upon how each of the units are built, connected and extended. Which allows a systematic way of expansion in the future. Open planning, Different type of interconnections and expansion are the key features for our design development.


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GEOMETRICAL E v o l v e d Fo r m


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Design Application: Geometrical Evolution Chapter 04.5

The process shows the geometric evolution and the form finding process. A sequence of steps developed to achieve the geometrical possibilities.

INITIAL CONDITIONS

BEVEL EDGES

SMOOTH MESH

LOW POLY MESH

EXTRUDE SURFACES

OPENINGS


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THE POD

STRUCTURAL BASED ON MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR

DEFLECTION ANALYSIS

SPACE

SURFACE

DEFLECTION ANALYSIS OF CLUSTEER

Design Application Using a unit as a form finding module. The images show how we can apply our structural system based on material behavior. The process of layer printing is used to create a surface as explained previously. The deflection analysis shows the area where the surface density need to be maximized. An aggregation of these individual modular unit results in the form finding process.


Fabrication Process Chapter 04.6

Prototype Printing


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Printing Process: Step 1 Primary & Secondary Structure

The Pictures depict the printing process and the assembly of a single modular unit. Considering all the points that were developed throughout the research. The structure based on tension bending property of the material The printing process using bundling The surface generation The flooring Initially the primary and secondary structures are printed using temporary scaffolding holding it in space using multiple robots and a turning table to complete a smooth printing process. The structure is then stabilised by bundling on top of the existing structure.

Left: Digital model showing primary and secondary strand printing


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Printing Process: Step 2 Wrapping Structure

As the Primary and secondary structure is printed a thin layer of strands are wrapped around in order to hold the entire segment in plcae. The wrapping of strands is also implemented in order to achieve an even surface layer to be printed over it.

Left: Digital model showing primary and secondary strand getting wrapped with another layer of pla strands


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Printing Process: Step 3 Surface

The secondary structure is made up of tensioned wires. Apart from the structural requirements, the secondary structure and surface are reinforced into the primary structure on the logics of density, intersection and perforation. Left: Digital model showing printing of surface over the wrapped structure


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Printing Process: Step 4 Assembly

After each component of a single unit has been printed one by one, they are assembled one by one to form a single unit. The unit is then send for post production where the floor is printed using a single nozzle extruder. Left: Digital model showing assembly of individual components by fusing and bundling


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Printing Process: Step 5 Floor

After a single component is completely printed with all the primary, secondary wrapping surfaced and assembled, the component is then fused with its numerically generated neighbour components using bundling process. once the unit has been generated out of these components the floor has been printed extracting the ideas of making a space frame.

Left: Digital model showing printing floor inside the fused compoents (single unit)


Design Application Chapter 04.6

House evolution


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Design Application: House Evolution

Further application of this system shows how an individual space is formed and different iterations of it. The forms are more singular and free flowing and also has the possibility of expansion as the openings are modular.

LOW POLY MESH

EXTRUDED SURFACE

FINAL GEOMETRY

LOW POLY MESH

EXTRUDED SURFACE

FINAL GEOMETRY

LOW POLY MESH

EXTRUDED SURFACE

FINAL GEOMETRY

LOW POLY MESH

EXTRUDED SURFACE

FINAL GEOMETRY


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS STUDIO MASTERS Theodore Spyropoulos(Director) | Patrik Schumacher(Founder) Shajay Bhooshan | Rob Stuart Smith TUTORS Vishu Bhooshan David Reeves STRUCTURAL CONSULTANTS AKT II | Albert Williamson Taylor | Ed Mosley STUDIO SUPPORT Alicia Nahmad | Asbjorn Sondergaard Alexander Dubor (ODICO) ROBOFOLD SPECIAL THANKS RIiya Thomas | Sheila Esteve Ganaus Phase 1 Federico Borello Pallavi Kumar Goutaman Prathaban Athreya Murali Albert Yen


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Master of Architecture (M.Arch.) Design Research Laboratory AADRL The studio research agenda explores the use of combined technologies, rob...

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