Program Document With special focus on Indoor Environmental Quality
Habitat for Humanity DEA 459 By: Anne Oswald, Jessica Mooney, Marta Mendez, Tom Hammer, Tracy Needles, Sacha Burn For: Habitat for Humanity
Today • Mission Statement & Our Process • Programming Issues • Alternate House Recommendations – – – – –
Space Requirements Goals & Performance Requirements Bubble Diagram Stacking Diagram Alternate House Floor Plan
• LEED Indoor Environmental Quality Program • Questions
Mission statement To program a LEED-certifiable home tailored to meet the needs of a family of four that is affordable in the immediate and long-term.
Our Process • • • • •
User Profile Questionnaire Interviews Environment-Behavior Research LEED Research Analysis and Synthesis of Recommendations
Summary of Programming IssuesAssumptions We Assume:
• a four-person family: 2 parents and 2 preadolescent children with no pets. • No immediate disabilities, but that the house should have flexibility for the future in case anyone becomes disabled in the future. • a low-income family.
Summary of Programming IssuesInterview Findings • • • • • •
Sustainability Social Interaction Comfort Maintenance/Cleanliness/Durability Ease of Use/Safety Space Requirements
Summary of Programming Issues- Cortland Site SITE
Alternate House Recommendations
Space Requirements Room Living room Kitchen Dining Room/Family Room Master Bedroom Bedroom
Size (sq.ft) 169 150 150 225 108
Total 1 1 1 1 2
169 150 150 225 216
910 x 0.4 (area factor)
Total Breakdown of Gross Area Factor Powder room + closet (convertible to ADA bathroom) Laundry Closet Bathroom Circulation
60 20 40
1 1 1 Total
60 20 40 244 364
Goal Statements •
Goal 1: Building materials, appliances, systems, and maintenance plans must be sustainable and comply with LEED requirements.
Goal 2**: The location of rooms should allow residents to regulate
Goal 3: The home and its physical structure must make the user feel comfortable within the spaces.
Goal 4: The home must be outfitted with features that provide ease-of-use for the owners and address major safety concerns such as flammability of materials and maintenance of smoke detectors.
Goal 5: Interior materials and finishes must be selected for their practicality.
Goal 6**: The first floor of the house must be flexible and
privacy by 1) minimizing acoustic flow between rooms, 2) optimizing family interactions, and 3) allowing household activities to coexist without negative interference.
accommodating to owners and visitors with disabilities.
2. Social Interaction Adjacencies Goal 2: The location of rooms and their acoustic properties should allow residents to regulate privacy, optimize family interactions, and allow household activities to coexist without negative interference. Pr 2.1- The kitchen should be visually accessible to the living areas.
Pr 2.2 - The house should provide optional separation between the kitchen and the living/dining area to allow families to cover up kitchen mess while entertaining.
2. Social Interaction - Adjacencies Pr 2.3- Bedrooms should be visually and acoustically separated from living areas because privacy, or the ability to regulate social interaction, is integral to residentâ€™s satisfaction. Pr 2.4- A powder room or a bathroom should be adjacent to both living and private areas. Because bathrooms may be used both by guests during the day and by residents at night, they must be near both public and private spaces.
2. Social Interaction - Adjacencies Pr 2.5- The entrance should not provide visual access to the bedrooms. This performance requirement supports the distinction between public and private spaces. Pr 2.6- Walls should have at least a STC rating of 40 to allow residents to regulate acoustic privacy in the home, providing spaces for solitary and social activities.
6. Flexibility - Disability Goal 6: The first floor of the house must be flexible to accommodate owners and visitors with disabilities. Pr 6.1- First floor circulation spaces should have a minimum width of 36 in.
Pr 6.2- The powder room on the first floor should have a minimum radio of 60 in.
6. Flexibility - Disability Pr 6.3- The powder room and the storage closet on the first floor should be physically adjacent to each other.
Pr 6.4- The laundry space should be located on the first floor.
6. Flexibility - Disability Pr 6.5- The living room should allow privacy and enclosure to be used as a bedroom at night.
Pr 6.6- The entry porch should have a ramp to facilitate entrance to the house by wheelchair.
Alternate House Floor Plan
Alternate House Floor Plan
LEED Indoor Environmental Quality Requirements
LEED Scorecard for IEQ Yes
Y Y @ Y
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) 1 ENERGY STAR with IAP Meets ENERGY STAR w/ Indoor Air Package (IAP) 2 Combustion Venting Space Heating and DHW Equip w/ Closed/Power-Exhaust; & CO Monitor 2 Fireplaces w/ Outside Air Supply and Closed Combustion 3 H umi di t yContr ol Ana l y ze eM Mo oi i stu ur r eL o a d ss AND nsta l lCe nt r a lSy ste m( wh e r eNe e de d) An a l y z st e L o a d AND I 4 OutdoorA i rVe nti la ti on Me e ts ASH RAESt d62. 2 4 De di ca te dOutdoorAi rSy ste m( w/ He a tRe cove r y ) 4 Th i r dPa r tyTe st i ngofOut doorAi rFl ow Ra tei ntoH ome 5 Loca lEx ha ust Me e ts ASH RAESt d62. 2 5 Ti me r/ Automa ti cCont r ol sf orBa th r oom Ex h a ustFa ns 5 Th i r dPa r tyTe st i ngofEx h a ustAi rFl ow Ra teOutofH ome rDi str i buti on 6 SupplyA i 6
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LEED Indoor Environmental Quality
IEQ 1. Energy Star Indoor Air Package Comprehensive set of IEQ features (EPA developed). • Categories: Moisture Control, radon resistant
construction, pest barriers, HVAC, combustion/garages, building materials, home commissioning.
• Advantages – – – –
Contributes to 11 LEED IEQ points. Stand-alone EPA certification and contributes to LEED. No need to purchase any special or expensive Energy Star products. Easy to understand, similar to LEED, but more specific.
• Disadvantages – Precludes credits 2, 3, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1, 9, 10.1. – Separate verification checklist and process.
Energy Star Checklist Address or Div/Lot#:
ENERGY STAR Qualified Home
Requirements (see IAP for details)
verification complete, including Thermal Bypass Checklist
¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Capillary break below concrete slabs ¨ (Ex.¨ see Spec) 1.3 ¨ Below grade walls damp-proofed (Ex. ¨ slab-on-grade) 1.4 ¨ ¨ Sump pump covers air sealed (Ex. no ¨ sump)¨ 1.5 ¨ Crawl spaces unvented, insulated, conditioned 1.6 ¨ ¨ (Ex. ¨ see Spec) No vapor barrier on inside of basement/crawlspace 1.7 ¨ ¨ ¨ walls Flashing system (or equivalent) at bottom of 1.8 ¨ wall¨ Water Managed Continuous drainage plane behind cladding ¨ ¨ Wall Assemblies 1.9 Air seal & align thermal/air barriers (E* TBC) 1.10 ¨ ¨ Fully flash windows and doors 1.11 ¨ ¨ Deck ledger board drainage system 1.12 ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Air seal & align thermal/air barriers (E* TBC) ¨ 1.13 Water Managed Step & "kickout" flashing ¨ ¨ Roof Assemblies1.14 Moisture Control Features Gutter system or equivalent (Ex. Dry)¨ 1.15 ¨ ¨ No. 30 roof felt underlayment 1.16 ¨ ¨ ¨ Drip edge at roof decking edges (Ex. 1.17 ¨ Dry) ¨ ¨ ¨ Bituminous membrane at valleys & penetrations (Ex. Dry) 1.18 ¨ ¨ ¨ Ice flashing at eaves (Ex. Zones 1-4) 1.19 ¨ ¨ ¨ Plumbing leak/damage protection 1.20 ¨ ¨ ¨ Plumbing Systems Surface water management system 1.1 Water Managed Drain tile system at all footings 1.2 Foundations
Radon resistent features required (EPA Zones 2.1 ¨ 1 &¨2 only) 2.2Provide 2 radon test kits (EPA Zones 1 & 2¨ only) Air seal foundation joints & penetrations (E* TBC)¨ 3.1
3.2Rodent & corrosion proof screens
3.3Termite measures ("Moderate to Heavy" ¨ or ¨above ¨only) areas ¨ only) 3.4Foam insulation restrictions ("Very Heavy" ¨ ¨
IEQ 2. Combustion Venting • Goal: to eliminate the leakage of combustion gases into the home. – MUST design and install space and water heating combustion equipment with closed combustion or power vented exhaust. – MUST install a carbon monoxide (CO) monitor on each floor. – MUST not install fireplaces, wood, and gas stoves. – MUST make sure the furnace and boilers are installed by a professional.
IEQ 3. Humidity Control • Goal: to control moisture levels in the home in order to provide optimal thermal comfort & increase material durability and decrease the chance of mold. – MUST install vapor barrier to keep foundation dry – MUST install double paned windows – SHOULD conduct detailed moisture load analysis (equals 1 point). – COULD install a heat recovery system for bathroom/kitchen exhaust fans.
IEQ 4. Outdoor Air Ventilation •
Goal 4: The residence must provide sufficient outdoor air ventilation to reduce occupant and visitor exposure to indoor pollutants. – Pr.1: A whole house ventilation system, that complies with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 – 2004, must be designed and installed to dilute unavoidable contaminant emissions from people, materials, and background processes. – Pr.2: A mechanical ventilation system, that complies with ASHRAE Standard 62.2, must be provided if the house has a non-ducted HVAC system. – Pr.3: A dedicated outdoor air supply system (DOAS), that complies with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 should be installed to enhance outdoor air ventilation. – Pr.4: A DOAS that provides for heat transfer between incoming outdoor air stream and exhaust air streams should be installed to enhance outdoor air ventilation. – Pr.5: A DOAS that has fully ducted supply and exhaust should be installed to enhance outdoor air ventilation. – Pr.6: A third-party testing should be performed to corroborate the flow rate of outdoor air brought into the home through the outdoor ventilation system
IEQ 4. Outdoor Air Ventilation – Mechanical ventilation-must: continuous or intermittent fan option. • Continuous fan-could • Intermittent fan-could - An intermittent running fan must run at least one hour out of every twelve to function properly. - A timer must be installed to assure the minimum run time necessary.
– Natural ventilation-must: - Operable openings must represent at least 4% of the floor area. - Every room within the residence must have a window or a local exhaust system.
IEQ 4. Outdoor Air Ventilation â€˘ Ventilation options
IEQ 5. Local Exhaust • Goal: to reduce the occupants exposure to indoor pollutants in the kitchen and in the bathrooms. – Local exhaust fans must be installed in both the kitchen and bathroom according to the ASHRAE standards – The exhaust system must remove air from inside the home directly to the outdoors. – Bathroom exhaust fan must be energy star rated. • Local exhaust systems are necessary to keep air in the house fresh and clean – Home is a “tight home” to be more energy efficient. – Can lead to air and the pollutants in the air being trapped inside and becoming dangerous to the occupants.
IEQ 6. Distribution Systems • Goal: Reduce energy consumption due to heat loss in non-ducted equipment. – Must use at least R-3 insulation around distribution pipes in unconditioned spaces (mandatory). – Should keep system (including boiler and distribution pipes) within conditioned envelope (2pts). – Must have a mechanical ventilation system that meet the requirements of ASHRAE standard 62.6 (mandatory). – Must design to meet heating and cooling loads in each room of home as calculated with ACCA Manual J (or equivalent) on a room by room basis (mandatory).
IEQ 7. Filters • Inadequate air filtration may have adverse health effects. Improved air filters will remove more particles from the supply air stream • Minimum Efficiency Rating Value (MERV): – The higher the MERV rating, the smaller the average particle size efficiency in microns (catches this percent of particles between these sizes). – Ex. MERV 13 = up to 75% of 0.3-1.0 microns, 90% or more of 1.0-3.0 microns
IEQ 7. Filters • Goal: Use the best air filters that are available within financial constraints. – MUST: Good filters: install air filters greater or equal to MERV 8 and ensure that air handlers can maintain adequate pressure (and air flow) in any mechanical ventilation systems (mandatory). – SHOULD: Better filters: If money allows, install air filters greater or equal to MERV 10 and maintain adequate pressure (and air flow) for any mechanical ventilation systems (2 pts). – COULD: Best Filters: If money allows, install air filters greater or equal to MERV 13 and maintain adequate pressure (and air flow) for any mechanical ventilation systems (3pts).
IEQ 9. Radon Protection •
Radon is a radioactive gas – You can’t see, taste, or smell radon, but it can be inhaled and ingested – Radon is a carcinogen and second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer. – Estimated to cause thousands of deaths in the US each year, but exposure to radon and signs of cancer may be years apart. – Radon is released by the breakdown of uranium in rock, soil, and water.
Radon enters the home through: • • • •
Cracks in solid floors, Construction joints Cracks in walls Gaps in suspended floors
•Gaps around service pipes •Cavities inside walls •The water supply
IEQ 9. Radon Protection • Goal: to maintain keep radon levels in the home as low as possible (4 pCi/L or less) – MUST: Install Radon Mitigation System if Home is Located in EPA Region 1 (mandatory) – SHOULD: Install Ground Contaminant Mitigation System (Outside of EPA Region 1) (1 point) – COULD: Implement preventative measures (such as not smoking in the house) regularly maintain radon-related filters, fans, etc. and replace as directed.
IEQ 9. Radon Protection
IEQ 9. Radon Protection •
Other techniques to reduce/control radon: – Sealing cracks and openings to limit the flow of radon – Use a fan to circulate air from living room, etc. into the basement to regulate air pressure – Hear Recovery ventilation (HRV)/ air-air heat exchanger: increases ventilation by bringing outside air inside. Most effective when used for only the basement. – Natural Ventilation: open doors and windows mix outdoor and indoor airreducing overall radon levels. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
LEED Scorecard for IEQ MUST
Space Heating and DHW Equip w/ Closed/Power-Exhaust; & CO Monitor Fireplaces w/ Outside Air Supply and Closed Combustion
Humidity Control Outdoor Air Ventilation
Meets ASHRAE Std 62.2
Design and install fireplace as per requirements in Exhibit IEQ2-A (see LEED Document (2)
Analyze Moisture Loads AND Install Central System (where Needed) (1) Dedicated Outdoor Air System (w/ Heat Recovery)
Third-Party Testing of Outdoor Air Flow Rate into Home (1)
Provides for heat transfer between the incoming outdoor air stream and exhaust air streams Has fully ducted supply (or trickle ventilators) and exhaust) (2) Local Exhaust
Meets ASHRAE Std 62.2
Supply Air Distribution
Meets ACCA Manual J
Supply Air Filtering
>/= 8 MER V Filters, w/Adequate System Air Flow
Timer /Automatic Controls for BathroomExhaust Fans (1)
>/= 10 MER V Filters, w/ Adequate System Air Flow (1)
Third-Party Testing of Exhaust Air Flow Rate Out of Home (1) Install non-ducted HVAC system with at least twodistinct zones with independent controls (2) >/= 12 MER V Filters, w/ Adequate System Air Flow (2)
Seal-Off Ducts During Construction
Third-Party Testing of Particulates and VOCs before Occupancy
Permanent Walk-Off Mats OR Central Vacuum (2)
Pre-Occupancy flush of home with fresh air continuously for one week (1)
Install Radon Mitigation System if Home is Located in EP A Region 1
Install GroundContaminant Mitigation System (Out side of EPA Region 1)(1)
Vehicle Emissions Protection
No Air Handling Equipment OR ReturnDucts in Garage
Tightly Seal Shared Surfaces between Garage and Home (1)
Detached Garage or No garage (3) Exhaust Fan in Garage (1) 14