1.origin : Botanical origin : the senna is dried leaflets and flowering plants of cassia acutifolia and cassia angustifolia in the legume family : leguminosae . graphical origin : In the tropical and subtropical regions of all continents except europe..most are indigenous to north,central,south Africa .
2.Synonoms : Alexandrian senna ,india senna, khartoum senna, Cathartocarpus (partim) Chamaefistula Diallobus Earleocassia Herpetica ,Isandrina ,Palmerocassia ,Pseudocassia سنا,
3.Plant part used: Leaves,fruits and flowers .
4.Official in British Pharmacopia French Pharmacopia 2007 5.Description of the plant : A) flower and fruit : flowers are yellow,occasionally white or pink,they are located in axillary or terminal positions on erect racemes,the calyx is deeply divided with a short tube and five regular,imbricate sepals . there are 5 layered petals . the 4 _10 stamens are often irregular & partialy sterile . the ovary is sessile or short stemmed with short or oblong style . the bud can be cylinderical or flat , angular or wingged , and often with horizontal walls between the seeds . the seeds are numerous and either horizontally or vertically comprised .
B) leaves , stems & root : the genus cassia comprises shrubs , sushurbs , and haerbaceous perennilas with paired-pinnate leaves.there are axes wih stem glands either between the leaflet or the petiole . the stipules have varying shapes . 6.Phytochemical constituents : Classes: free sugars Mucilage Polysaccharides Volatile oil Resins Anthraquinon free sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and pinitol), a mucilage (consisting of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid), and polysaccharides (in C. angustifolia); , flavonoids (isorhamnetin, kaempferol, etc.); a trace of volatile oil; and resins; among others.and small amounts of free anthraquinones (rhein, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, etc.) including dianthrone glycosides glycosides (1.5% to 3%), sennosides A and B (rhein dianthrones), and their O-glycosides and C-glycosides. The senna leaves contain 75 to 80 % dianthrone and 20 to 25 % anthrone, which are predominantly present as glycosides. Nearly 80 % of the sennosides are sennosides A, A1 and B, and 20 % are sennosides C and D. In the leaves tinnevellin glycoside is present at 0.4 %
Other Phytochemicals:sennoside C,sennoside D, rhein, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, kaempferol, myricyl alcohol, salicvlic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, isorhamnetin, barbaloin, kaempferol, Cathartic Acid,anthraquinone derivatives,etc
7.stanrdization of the plant :
A)Marker: sennodies A and sennosides B B)Percentage of marker: 80 % C)Method of stanrdization : A) HPLC analysis :
A simple high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for estimation of sennosides A and B in senna has been established. The aqueous extract of senna was directly injected and separated using reverse phase Shim pack CLC-CN column with UV detector monitoring at 220 nm. Compounds were well resolved when mixture of 20 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.5) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 9:1 was used as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The minimum detectable limit was 0.05 Âµg. The chemical analysis method supported the result. The present method is more suitable than the earlier reported HPLC method for routine analysis of sennosides. IDENTIFICATION A. Add 10 mL of water R and 2 mL of hydrochloric acid R to 5 mL of mother tincture. Heat on a water-bath for 15 min. Cool and shake with 40 mL of ether R. Separate the ether layer, dry it over anhydrous sodium sulfate R, then evaporate 5 mL of it to dryness. Add 5 mL of dilute ammonia R1 to the cooled residue. An orange colour develops. Heat on a water-bath for 2 min. A reddish-purple colour appears. B) Thin-layer chromatography : Test solution. Mother tincture. Reference solution. Dissolve 10 mg of senna extract CRS in 1 mL of a mixture of equal volumes of ethanol (96 per cent) R and water R (a tiny residue remains). Plate: TLC silica gel plate R. Mobile phase: glacial acetic acid R, water R, ethyl acetate R, propanol R (1:30:40:40 V/V/V/V). Application: 10 μL as bands. Development: over a path of 10 cm. Drying: in air. Detection: spray with a 20 per cent V/V solution of nitric acid R. Heat the plate at 120 °C for 10 min. Allow to cool. Spray with a 50 g/L solution of potassium hydroxide R in ethanol (50 per cent V/V) R
until zones occur. Examine in daylight. Results: see below the sequence of zones present in the chromatograms obtained with the reference solution and the test solution. Furthermore other faint zones may be present in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution.
Top of the plate : Sennoside C: a reddish-brown zone Sennoside D: a reddish-brown zone Sennoside A: a reddish-brown zone Sennoside B: a reddish-brown zone 8. Folk uses : A)constipation: Senna tinnevelly for constipation and for evacuation of the bowel prior to diagnostic tests of the GIT and colorectal area . B)Indian Medicine : The herb is used for constipation , liver diseases , jaundice , splenomegaly , anemia & typhoid fever .
9.Phytotherapeutic indications : laxative effect. Mechanism of action: senna is anthranoid stimulating laxative.the laxative effect is due to the action of sennosides and there active metabolite(rhein anthrone)in the
colon.the laxative effect is realized by by inhibition of water and electrolyte absorbtion from the large intestine which increase the volume and pressure of intestinal contents.this will stimulate colon motility resulting in propulsive contractions>
10.Reported side effects : General : spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints can occcur as a side effect to the drugâ€™s purgative effect or from overdosage . In rare cases prolonged use may lead to cardiac arrythmia , nepropathies , oedema and accelaerated bone detrioration . Senna abuse has also resulted in tetany , aspartiylglucosamine excetion , and hypogammaglobulinemia , electrolyte abnormlies , finger clubbing , cathartic colon , carcinogenesis , melanosis coli , occupational senstization and tissue damage
In cases of Intestinal obstruction,gastritis Not used in cases of: Pregnancy or nursing Pediatric use:not used by children under 2 years of age Eldery:eldery patients should initiallytake half of the normal prescribing dose.
12.Drug interactions :
Digitalis glycosides :
Prolonged use or abuse ,loss potassium may potentiatedigitalis toxicity.
Loss of potassium associated with prolonged use may potentiaten arrhythmia .
The serum level of estrogen is decreased when givenwith senna due to intestinal transit on the absorption of estrogen . D)
therapeutic effects induced by rhein anthrone also involve the calcium channel which can blocked by nifedipine,but not verapamil.
13.Dose& Administration :
Granules (15 mg sennosides per teaspoon)
Adults and children 12 years of age,administer 1 teaspoon once daily with the maximum of 2 teaspoons twice daily
Children 6 to 12 years of age,administer Âź teaspoon daily with a maximum of Â˝ teaspoon twice daily.