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Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank for

Neuman

Understanding Research prepared by

Stephen Kandeh University of Sciences and Arts of Oklahoma

Cris Wells GateWay Community College

Boston New York San Francisco Mexico City Montreal Toronto London Madrid Munich Paris Hong Kong Singapore Tokyo Cape Town Sydney


Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced with Understanding Research, by W. Lawrence Neuman, provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in any form for any other purpose without written permission from the copyright owner. To obtain permission(s) to use the material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Higher Education, Rights and Contracts Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116 or fax your request to 617-671-3447.

ISBN-13: 978-0-205-54882-8 ISBN-10: 0-205-54882-2 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

12 11 10 09 08


Instructor’s Manual Contents Preface

vii

Chapter 1: Why Do Research

1

Chapter 2: Planning a Study

9

Chapter 3: Becoming an Ethical Researcher

18

Chapter 4: Sampling: How to Select a Few to Represent the Many

27

Chapter 5: Measuring Social Life

35

Chapter 6: The Survey: Asking People Questions

43

Chapter 7: The Experiment

50

Chapter 8: Research with Nonreactive Measures

58

Chapter 9: Making Sense of Numbers

63

Chapter 10: Observing People in Natural Settings

71

Chapter 11: Looking at the Past and Across Cultures

78

Chapter 12: Writing a Research Report

84


Test Bank Contents

Chapter 1: Why Do Research

91

Chapter 2: Planning a Study

101

Chapter 3: Becoming an Ethical Researcher

111

Chapter 4: Sampling: How to Select a Few to Represent the Many

122

Chapter 5: Measuring Social Life

131

Chapter 6: The Survey: Asking People Questions

141

Chapter 7: The Experiment

152

Chapter 8: Research with Nonreactive Measures

162

Chapter 9: Making Sense of Numbers

172

Chapter 10: Observing People in Natural Settings

182

Chapter 11: Looking at the Past and Across Cultures

193

Chapter 12: Writing a Research Report

203


Preface This Instructor’s Manual is written to accompany Understanding Research by Lawrence Neuman. Instructors who adopt this text for teaching social research may find this manual useful in providing them a quick summary of and reference to material covered in the chapters as well as providing other resources that might be useful in enhancing teaching and student experience of social research. The manual also provides online and video resources that instructors may use to break the monotony of lecturing. Effort was made to make the examples and suggestions as general as possible to allow flexibility for class size, type of institution, as well as student background and interests. As such, instructors are invited to modify these teaching aids to suit their specific needs and circumstances. The manual is organized according to the chapter arrangement of the text. Each chapter of the manual contains the following teaching tools: x Chapter Summary x Learning Objectives x Chapter Outline x Key Terms x Teaching Suggestions ƒ Class Exercises and activities Provided in Text ƒ Additional Class Exercises and Activities not Included in Text x Video Resources x Online Resources x Suggested Readings Cited in the Text x Additional Readings Chapter Summary The chapter summary provides an overview of the entire chapter as a subject in teaching social research. Many of the summaries also provide ideas about the linkage of the chapter to other chapters in the text. The summary also provides a linkage among the various sections in the chapter, allowing the instructor to see the entire content of the chapter at a glance. Learning Objectives The learning objectives are provided to assist instructors in focusing student learning to specific outcomes. These objectives are targeted to selected information that is considered important for students who are reading the text in a first research course. Chapter Outline The chapter outline is tied into the summary section by providing detailed information about each section in the chapter. This section is intended to provide in-depth summaries of chapter sections provided in the text by Neuman. Key Terms The key terms are the same key terms provided in each chapter by the author. However, the manual provides aid to the instructor by providing the definitions and a page reference to more quickly direct students to important areas that require attention.


Teaching Suggestions Teaching suggestions for activities provide an opportunity for instructors and students to take a break from lectures and engage in fun and application activities that may further enhance understanding of the material. This section has two subsections. The first subsection provides exercises that Neuman provided in the text, making these useful instructional aids readily available in the manual. The second section provides additional exercises and class activities to increase choices available to the instructor. Video Resources Teaching research methods can be challenging. Video resources provide a visual aid to allow students to see and clearly imagine research activities in action for many of the chapters. The suggested video aid and web links makes searching for and acquiring these materials easier for the instructor. Video summaries are also made available for each suggested media. Online Resources Online resources help to provide further reading material that is readily available online for some important concepts and methods discussed in the chapter. Suggested Readings Cited in the Text Neuman provide a work cited page to each chapter. This is reproduced in the manual for convenience. Additional Readings The manual also provide additional readings that might illustrate important issues discussed in the chapter. A summary is provided for each additional reading provided to make it convenient for the instructor to select what might be more meaningful for the class.


CHAPTER

1 Why Do Research?

Chapter Summary The first chapter of the book achieves two broad objectives. The first objective is to enable the student to understand the special place of scientific research in the important task of knowledge acquisition and decision making. The second objective is to introduce the student to the technical aspects of research such as purposes of research, techniques used to obtain and analyze information, and processes of research that will be discussed in detail throughout the book. In the first three sections of the chapter, the author undertakes to establish research activities as important tasks for sound decision making and in understanding the world around us. He presents research as one among several other methods by which we acquire information. As a scientific process, however, research relies on principles and techniques that have to be mastered to produce good results. Other competing ways through which decision makers obtain information include common sense, word of friends, relatives, and people in authority, as well as cultural knowledge and religion. Even though ways of acquiring information, including research, are not flawless, the author emphasizes that research is a superior method of getting information primarily because it relies on critical thinking skills and empiricism. Following a discussion of the potential strengths and weakness of the research method, the author moves the chapter into a discussion of important dimensions of research such as data collection techniques, purposes of research, the uses of research as a tool of decision making, and the research process as series of logical steps in gathering information that also allows replication and verification by other researchers. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Understand that research is a reliable process for acquiring information that contributes to making good decisions. 2. Understand the role of critical thinking in the conduct of research and in the consumption of research knowledge and information. 3. Understand the nature of research as an empirical and evidence-based science that offers provisional knowledge which is subject to challenges, improvements, and change. 4. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research data. 5. Describe the different data collection techniques which researchers use such as experiments, surveys, content analysis, existing statistics, ethnographic field research, and historical-comparative techniques. 6. Distinguish between exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, and evaluation as the four major purposes of research. 7. Understand the orientations of basic and applied research. 8. Outline the seven interactive steps in the research process.

Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 1


INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL FOR UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH

Chapter Outline I. ON WHAT BASIS DO YOU MAKE DECISIONS Decisions can be trivial or important, and the basis for reaching decisions may include information from a variety of sources that include common sense, expert advice and the opinions of friends and family members, personal experience, religious sources, and guesses. Social research is an alternative method of gathering information for reaching decisions. It is a process that utilizes specific principles and skills to create knowledge, and its merits include enabling you to make better decisions, to better understand events in your world, and to decide on professional issues. II. HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT WE KNOW? A. Ways of Knowing Without Research Whereas the many varied sources of information lead to decisions that work out fine, the research process produces information that is less influenced by bias, misjudgments, and distortions. However, research reports are themselves plagued by disagreements and confusions, creating a sense of distrust and mystery about the research process. One source of this problem is that the term research is used by many to refer to various types of information that are not acquired through the standard rigorous scientific process of research. The author refers to the media “noise machine” as an example of information distortion that is frequently passed down as research. Other sources of the problem of distrust of research originate from fear of research because of conceived notions that research is strange and difficult, meant only for nerds or geeks. The author explains that although research is rigorous, it is also a creative and an exciting process like many other activities of life. Even though research is clearly a better alternative compared to other ways of acquiring information, other reason why the vast majority of people do not do research or reject research conclusions is because of ignorance, traditional orientations of understanding social life, and because research conclusions do not promise the comfort of perfect answers that many people seek. Research also competes with mythical presentation of information in the media and in entertainment even though these ideas may have no basis in facts. Many traditional ideas and misinformation continue to gain reinforcement in television and movies because it is easier for many people to obtain information that way instead of reading research reports. A good reason for understanding research is that you can engage in critical thinking and obtain reliable information for decision making that is closer to the truth. B. Developing Critical Thinking Skills Critical thinking, the practice of carefully examining and questioning ideas, is fundamental to the research process. Critical thinking allows us to avoid misconceptions and fallacies such as the gambler’s fallacy and the fundamental attribution error. It allows us to understand that important questions seldom have quick and simple answers. Critical thinking further teaches us to adopt multiple points of view and to uncover hidden assumptions and to test alternative assumptions and explanations rather than settling for the first quick fix. Critical thinking relies mostly on empirical evidence and systematic analysis rather than on moral, religious, or ideological reasoning. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 2


CHAPTER 1

III. WHAT IS EMPIRICAL SOCIAL RESEARCH? Empirical social research is the process of gathering information through studying and gaining deeper understanding of phenomena. This allows us to see underlying patterns, themes, and assumptions. As a complex process, empirical research also involves reading through academic journals, government publications, and other important sources. It also involves activities related to synthesizing findings and weighing evidence. Research also involves the application of acceptable techniques and orientations. Research provides provisional statements, theories, and conclusions in terms of probabilities rather than as absolutes. The provisional nature of research conclusions make them easily amenable to improvements over time. A. What Evidence? Research is an evidentiary science that relies on rules of evidence on how to collect and interpret evidence. Research evidence is empirical in nature and is carefully collected using standard and acceptable practices. Social research evidence comes in the forms of quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data is in the form of numbers while qualitative data is in the form of visual images, sounds, and words. Both forms of data are strong as long as they are collected carefully and systematically. B. Research is a Process that Results in a Product Research is an ongoing process in multiple steps and it is conducted according to specific guidelines. Research results in information that provides answers to questions and stimulates new ideas and new questions. C. Varieties of Social Research Social research is conducted using one or a combination of several techniques. The nature of the data and the question helps to determine the appropriate research technique. Quantitative data are usually collected using experiments, surveys, content analysis, and existing data. Qualitative data are more amenable to ethnological field research and historical-comparative research. In experiments, the researcher usually creates two groups of people and controls the setting by giving treatment to only one group and then measuring reactions in both groups. In survey, the researcher asks people numerous questions. In content analysis, the researcher records information from written or other symbolic forms. Existing statistical sources allows the researcher to collect and reorganize existing information in ways that answers the research question. Ethnographical field research dictates that the researcher spends time among a group and records his or her observations. Historical-comparative research examines phenomena across historical periods or cultures. IV. FIT THE QUESTION YOU WANT TO ANSWER WITH A TYPE OF SOCIAL RESEARCH A researcher determines the purpose of a research after clarifying the question that need to be answered. One purposes of research is the exploring of social issues. Exploratory research is the examination of a new issue that has not been previously studied and that involves answering the “what” question about an issue. Another purpose is describing social issues. This involves an examination of the details about the phenomenon under review and answering the who, when and how questions. Explanatory research, a purpose of research focused on providing an explanation of a phenomenon, answers the “why” question. Evaluation is focused on determining Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 3


INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL FOR UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH

the effectiveness of a policy or program. It answers questions about how the policy or program works, and whether it meets its intended goals at all. V. HOW TO USE RESEARCH Basic research and applied research describe orientations of researchers towards the subject of their inquiry. Basic research is more academic and detached orientation, with a focus on advancing fundamental knowledge. The primary consumers of basic research are researchers. Applied research, on the other hand, is an interventionist orientation in which the researcher addresses specific concerns with a view of providing practical solutions to social problems. VI. STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS The researcher process is outlined as an ongoing enterprise that builds on past research and informs future research. The process runs interactively in seven steps, with steps running into each other and influencing each other. The research process begins with the selection of a topic, followed by the development of research questions, designing of the research study, collection of data, analyzing of data, interpretation of data, through the final step of preparing a report and informing others who are interested. Key Terms Applied Research: research undertaken to answer a specific practical question and give usable answers in the short term. (p. 18) Basic Research: research undertaken to extend basic understanding and fundamental knowledge about the world by creating and testing theories. (p. 18) Critical Thinking: a highly aware perspective that tries to avoid fallacies, reveal assumptions, adopt multiple viewpoints, and keep an open mind while questioning simple solutions. (p. 6) Descriptive Research: research that presents a quantitative or qualitative picture of an event, activity, or group. (p. 13) Empirical Evidence: evidence of actual events occurring in the world that come from direct or indirect observations. (p. 7) Evaluation Research: applied research that is designed to learn whether a program, product, or policy does what it claims to do. (p. 15) Explanatory Research: research that attempts to test a theory or develop a new accounting of why activities, events, or relations occur as they do. (p. 14) Exploratory Research: research into a new topic to develop a general understanding and refining ideas for future research. (p. 13) Qualitative Data: evidence in the form of visual images, words, or sounds. (p. 10) Quantitative Data: evidence in the form of numbers. (p. 10)

Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 4


CHAPTER 1

Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 Go to the Web site Advocates for Youth, which provides a list of publications on the Web, both research studies showing that the programs do not work and reports by abstinence-only advocates. The Web site is http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/abstinenceonly/index.htm. Look through the sources. Now create two columns, one for abstinence-only programs and one for alternative programs. Under each column, list types of reasons and evidence given. Now explain on what basis each side is making its case. Activity 2 Contact your local police department or a local elementary school to see whether it has a D.A.R.E. program. Now locate a police officer who conducts D.A.R.E. sessions and a school official (principal, vice principal, teacher) where the program operates. Without telling them about all the research findings that show the program to be ineffective, ask what they think and whether they find the program valuable. Do they find it worthwhile? How do you reconcile the feelings and beliefs of local participants with the many studies and official reports? Activity 3 Contact management of any major company (that employs over 1000 people), any large hospital (with over 250 beds), or a large city government (a city of over 250,000), and identify a policy or decision area. Ask the organization’s management how they use research results in decision making. Additional Class Exercises and Activities not included in Text Activity 4- DARE According to the author of the text, evaluation research is done to demonstrate the effectiveness of a program, and that decision makers sometimes find ways to make evaluation research support their views. Ask your students to visit the official website of D.A.R.E at http://www.dare.com/home/default.asp and to read some articles about the effectiveness of this prevention program. A particularly interesting article is found at http://www.dare.com/home/Resources/documents/DAREpaper.doc. Compare the views and supports for this program provided in these papers to opposing views at the following websites: http://www.alcoholfacts.org/DARE.html, http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/dare6.htm, http://www.reconsider.org/issues/education/dare.htm, The following questions may be used to enhance student understanding of the chapter. 1. What conclusions can you make about the research and personal background of the claim makers in these papers? 2. After reading the subtopic “What is Empirical Social Research” in chapter one, can both sides of the D.A.R.E program debate claim that their positions are based in scientific research? 3. Which side uses more empirical evidence to make its case? 4. Identify evidence of other methods used to generate information about D.A.R.E effectiveness other than research? What are the potential disadvantages of these sources?

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 5


INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL FOR UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH

Activity 5- Descriptive and Exploratory Studies Use this activity to highlight the different research activities involved in exploratory research versus a descriptive research. Provide a list of general topics/issues with which your students are unlikely to be familiar. The list may include political and social conditions in remote countries in the world, such as the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh as well as familiar issues such as William Julius Wilson’s underclass theory in America or America’s war in Iraq. As you read the topics/issues, ask each student to select one topic with which they are totally unfamiliar and another that they have read about. Now, ask students to take ten minutes to write down questions they would like answered in connection to their selected familiar and unfamiliar topics. Now, ask students to examine their questions about the two topics. What are the differences between those questions on unfamiliar topics and those on familiar topics? How does that help them understand the task of exploratory studies compared to that of descriptive studies? A similar exercise can be designed to distinguish between survey and experimental designs, or between applied and basic research. Video Resources 1. Research Methods for the Social Sciences: This is an insight media video that helps to explain and show students the process of the scientific research method. It is useful for many topics in an introductory research class. http://www.insightmedia.com/IMHome.asp 2. Research Methods in the Social Sciences: A student-based narrative and demonstration of research methodology, this ‘Film for the Humanities and Sciences’ video demonstrates the many methods used by researchers to collect and analyze data. The video is good in showing that research is important and easy in helping to make decisions. http://ffh.films.com Online Resources on Research, Critical Thinking, and other Research Topics 1. http://www.crlsresearchguide.org/ 2. http://www.criticalthinking.org/ 3. http://www.family.org/lifechallenges/A000000208.cfm 4. http://www.nccafv.org/elder.htm

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 6


CHAPTER 1

Suggested Readings Cited in the Book American Sociological Association. 2005. Brown, Joel H., and Ita G. G. Kreft. 1998. ”Zero Effects of Drug Prevention Programs: Issues and Solutions.” Evaluation Review. 22:3–14. Cherlin, Andrew, Linda Burton, Tera Hurt, and Diane Purvin. 2004. “The Influence of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Marriage and Cohabitation.” American Sociological Review 69:768–789. Gantz, Walter, Nancy Schwartz, James R. Angelini, and Victoria Rideout. 2007.Food for Thought, Television Food Advertising to Children in the United States. Melo Park, CA. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (March 2007). Glassner, Barry. 1999. The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things. New York: Basic Books. Guttmacher Institute. 2006. “Facts on Sex Education” In Brief (online publication). December 2006.http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_sexEd2006.html Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. 2007. Impacts of Four Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Programs, Final Report. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. Pew Research Center Report. 2007. “Public Knowledge of Current Affairs Little Changed by News and Information Revolutions” http://peoplepress.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=319 Robinson, Thomas N., Dina Borzekowski, Donna Mutheson, and Helena Kraemer. 2007. “Effects of Fast Food Branding on Young Children’s Taste Preference.” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161:792–796. Stack, Steven, Ira Wasserman, and Roger Kern. 2004. “Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography.” Social Science Quarterly 85:75–88. Tobler, Nancy, and Howard H. Stratton. 1997. ”Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs: A Meta- Analysis of the Research.” Journal of Primary Prevention 18: 71– 128. United States Department of Justice. 2002. National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Throwaway Children: National Estimates on Missing Children, an Overview (October 2002). U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.http://www.missingkids.com/ en_US/documents/nismart2_overview.pdf Whyte, William. 1984. Learning from the Field. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

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INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL FOR UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH

Wysong, E., et al. 1994 ”Truth and DARE: Tracking drug education to graduation and as symbolic politics.” Social Problems 41: 448–472. Zagumny, M. J. and M. K. Thompson. 1997. ”Does D.A.R.E. Work? An Evaluation in Rural Tennessee.” Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 42:32–41. Additional Readings on Research and Critical Thinking 1. Grauerholz, Liz, and Sharon Bouma-Holtrop. 2003. “Exploring Critical Sociological Thinking.” Teaching Sociology 31:485-496 This paper presents a disciplinary approach to critical thinking in the classroom. It focuses on important concepts about critical sociological thinking that can be incorporated in the teaching of sociology to enhance student understanding of the sociological imagination. 2. Tashakkori, Abbas and Charles Teddlie. 2003. “Issues and Dilemmas in Teaching Research Methods Courses in Social and Behavioral Sciences: US Perspective.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 6: 61-7 7 This paper provides an insight into the polarizing argument about qualitative and quantitative data. The author emphasizes the need for a mixed-methods teaching of social research for several reasons including the fact that mixed-methods research has greater potential for collecting wellrounded data and that the professional world seem more inclined towards a mixed-methods approach. A sample course structure utilizing a mixed-methods approach is presented to assist the instructor in designing and incorporating this strategy in teaching.

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 8


CHAPTER

2 Planning a Study

Chapter Summary The author continues to emphasize decision making as an important aspect of social research. The researcher is faced with choices to make, and a good decision results from understanding the advantages and disadvantages of the basic components of social research. In this chapter, the focus is in the processes involved in the development of the research topic and in the framing of the research question. Conducting a good literature review is the most important first step in developing and strengthening the research topic and research question which are part of the research proposal. Researchers must familiarize themselves with the nature and location of good and original research literature. The author further explains the meticulous process of reading and taking relevant notes, followed by an explanation of the skills and processes involved in writing a good literature review. The research proposal is not complete without considerable effort in developing a plan of study that will include decisions about when in the research process do you focus the research question? Other issues involve selecting the universe, selecting a linear or nonlinear approach in the research process, using variable or context approach, as well as selecting units and levels of analyses. Appropriate responses to these initial questions require understanding of the deductive and inductive approaches in social research. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Select and modify a suitable topic for research. 2. Understand the forms and locations of appropriate literature for social research. 3. Effectively use the internet for research and writing. 4. Identify different types of variables and their position in a causal statement. 5. Develop research hypotheses. 6. Follow a six-step process in reviewing literature for a research topic. 7. Evaluate a literature review on the basis of neutrality, clarity, and structure. 8. Select appropriate journal articles for a research topic by reading abstracts. 9. Understand the importance of proper citation and referencing. 10. Understand the differences and applications of levels and units of analysis. 11. Understand the components of the research proposal. 12. Write a good literature review. Chapter Outline I. PICKING A STUDY TOPIC Selecting a topic for research requires that you focus on some aspect of social life that you want to know more about, or a social condition that you want to change. The author points out four desirable features of a research topic: It must generalize beyond the scope of isolated cases, it must involve social patterns, it must address involve aggregates or a collection of social units, and it must be empirically observable. As a result of these features, some topics are not suitable for social science research. Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 9


INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL FOR UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH

II. CONDUCTING A REVIEW OF PAST STUDIES A literature review is among the first steps in doing social research. Among other things, a literature review helps the researcher to narrow a broad topic, it provides examples of research designs and instruments, and it provides a knowledge base on the topic for the researcher. The review also stimulates creativity and helps to improve writing skills. A good review is the product of organized and carefully documented search. Literature sources, their ideas, and their findings must be carefully documented. This process is based on the idea that research is a collective effort of researchers in the past, present, and future. A. Where Do You Find the Research Literature? The social researcher’s best source of information is the original research article found mostly in journals which you can frequently locate in college and university libraries. The distinctive character of journal articles is that they are peer-reviewed, a process that maintains quality assurance. The peer review process also leads to selective publication of only the best research articles. Some prestigious journals only publish as little as 10% of submitted articles. Journals also have specialized arrangements that make them easily searchable via article search tool systems. Researchers can gain access to journal articles through paper or online subscriptions, college library collections, as well as through interlibrary loans. Other outlets of research literature are books, government documents, Ph.D. dissertations, policy reports, and presented papers at academic conferences. An interested researcher can find original research in college libraries that collect and catalogue books that carry original research reports in the forms of monographs, readers, and edited collections. These sources cannot be searched using the article search tool system. Dissertations are original research conducted by Ph.D. students but are mostly held in the libraries of the degree granting university. Governmentsponsored research documents, policy reports from research institutes, and research papers presented at professional meetings are also valuable sources of original research literature. B. How to Conduct a Literature Review: A Six-Step Process The author outlines a six-step process for conducting and documenting an effective literature review. In the first step, the researcher must identify and refine the topic of researcher. In this step, the topic must be narrowed down to a research question by attaching conditions and limiting the range of cases or situations of interest. In the next step, the researcher must design the search process by considering time factor, number of articles, books, and reports to review, search tools to use, number of libraries to visit, and how to take notes and record bibliographic information. The researcher must then proceed to the third step of locating the full text of the research articles, reports, and books. In the fourth step, the researcher must read reports and take notes. Although researchers use many methods for accurate documentation of ideas and bibliographic information at this stage, including the use of word-processing software, the author recommends creating two files; a source file recording bibliographic information, and a content file that records substantive details such as research questions, methodology, and findings. This system can be used with note cards or computer files for effective organization. During the fourth stage, the researcher must organize notes taken in the previous stage, synthesize and discuss findings with a clear picture in mind of how all the information from various research reports fit together. Avoid the common error of providing summaries of findings; rather, communicate to the reader a purpose of the review and a logical synthesis of ideas around that purpose or purposes. In the final step the researcher must create a reference/work cited list or Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 10


CHAPTER 2

bibliography. This list, as well as the in-text citation, must follow specific rules according to the appropriate or selected citation style and format such as the APA, ASA, MLA or Chicago. III. FOCUSING ON A RESEARCH QUESTION The researcher must focus on a research question to proceed in the research process. Depending on whether the researcher is doing an inductive or deductive study, the research starts with mostly qualitative data for evidence and then proceeds to generalize or summarize (inductive approach), or the study starts with an educated guess and then uses mostly quantitative data to test or verify the original idea (deductive approach). Many studies blend both approaches. The quantitative approach devotes a lot of effort to specify the research question to be tested earlier on in the research process while the deductive approach continually modify the question in the research process. Deciding whether to use the deductive or inductive approach for your specific topic follows from reading many research reports and understanding the features of these approaches. IV. THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL The research proposal comprises a review of the literature and a detailed plan of study. Different research strategies are used in empirical studies depending on whether you are predominantly using deductive-quantitative approach or the inductive-qualitative approach. Both approaches have their limitations and advantages. A mixed approach is also an approach favored by many researchers. The following questions will help to guide the process of developing an approach for the research proposal. 1. When do you focus the research question? In a deductive-quantitative approach, the research question is developed earlier on to guide the data-collection process. In an inductive-qualitative approach, the research question emerges in an ongoing and interactive process during and after data collection. 2. To what universe can you generalize from a study’s findings? The researcher needs to identify the universe to which things learned from the sample or case can be generalized. 3. Which type of research path do you follow? The deductive approach follows a linear path which may be efficient, simple-to-follow sequence that makes it easy to identify mistakes and repeat past studies. However, it can appear to be rigid and artificial. The inductive approach is nonlinear and interactive. It is effective in fluid situations and can easily capture the big picture of a social situation and pull together divergent information. It may, however, appear to be inefficient and disorganized. 4. What do you examine? a. In deductive-quantitative studies, the language of variables and their relationships is central. Variables are concepts that vary, and they have categories or values. These values can themselves become variables in other situations. The three basic types of variables in causal relations are independent (cause), dependent (effect), and intervening (linking dependent and independent) variables. Linking causal relations to larger explanations of social phenomena lead to the creation of a hypothesis (connection between the dependent and independent variables). A causal hypothesis has four characteristics: It has at least two variables, it specifies the connection between the cause and effect variables, it specifies time order, it can be restated as prediction or expected finding, it is testable with empirical data. Hypothesis gain acceptance after multiple tests show that it maintains consistent Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 11


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empirical support above competing hypotheses. However, the use of null hypothesis (that the hypothetical relationship does not exist) emphasize that researchers give greater emphasis to evidence that negates a hypothesis than evidence that supports it. As a result, researchers never state that a hypothesis is true no matter how many tests it passes because it remains in competition with alternative hypotheses; instead researcher will state that a hypothesis is rejected if evidence negates it. b. The Inductive-qualitative approach, on the other hand, use cases and contexts as part of the natural setting of social life it studies. It observes and record complex processes as they unfold, noting the fluidity and interaction in social life. Devoid of the context, social life becomes stale, fixed, and distorted. 5. How do you look for patterns in the data? In quantitative studies, the researcher uses statistical patterns, charts, and tables to rearrange and examine data. In qualitative studies, the researcher rearranges textual and visual data and images to create motifs and themes. 6. What type of explanation will you use? Quantitative data is often used for causal explanation that is framed within larger theories or ideas. Qualitative data use causal explanations, but they are used mostly grounded theory that build explanations out of data. 7. What are the units of analysis in your study? The unit of analysis is the unit on which you gather data. Units of analysis include the individual, the group, the social category and the society. 8. What is the level of analysis of your study? This is the level of reality that the researcher attempts to explain and it includes the number of people, geographical space, length of time, and scope of activity. This ranges from a micro level to a macro level of reality. Researchers must be aware of spurious relationships in making causal explanations. Key Terms Article Search Tool: an online service or publication that provides an index, abstract database with which you can quickly search for articles in numerous scholarly journal topic, author, or subject area. (p. 30). Abstract: short summary, usually on the first page of a scholarly journal article (p. 31). Causal Explanation: a type of research explanation in which you identify one or more causes for an outcome, and place cause and effect in a larger framework (p. 53). Dependent Variable: the variable influenced by and changes as an outcome another variable (p. 48). Deductive Research: study in which you start with a general idea or theory and test it by looking at specific observations (p. 41). Grounded Theory: Ideas and themes that are built up from data observation (p. 53). Hypothesis: a statement about the relationship of two (or more) variables yet to be tested with empirical data (p. 49). Inductive Research in which you start many specific observations and move toward general ideas or theory to capture what they show (p.44). Independent Variable: the variable of factors, forces, or conditions acting on another variable to produce an effect or change in it (p. 48). Intervening Variable: a variable that comes between the independent and dependent variable in a causal relationship (p. 48). Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 12


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Level of Analysis: The level of reality to which explanations refer, micro to macro (p. 54). Linear Path: a relatively fixed sequence of steps in one forward direction, with little repeating, moving directly to a conclusion (p. 47). Literature Review: a summary of previously conducted studies on the same topic or research question. (p. 27) Nonlinear Path: advancing without fixed order that often requires successive passes through previous steps and moves toward a conclusion indirectly (p. 47). Null Hypothesis: a hypothesis that there is no relationship between two variables, that they do not influence one another (p. 50). Peer Reviewed: a scholarly publication that has been independently evaluated for its quality and merits by several knowledgeable professional researchers and found acceptable (p.30). Research Proposal: a detailed plan for conducting a study on a specific research question, that includes a literature review and specific techniques to be used. (p. 26) Spuriousness: when two variables appear to be causally connected but in reality, they are not because an unseen third factor is the true cause (p. 55). Unit of Analysis: the case or unit on which you measure variables or other characteristics (p. 54). Universe: a broad category of cases or units to which the study findings apply (p. 46) Variable: a feature of a case or unit that represents multiple types, values, or levels (p. 48).

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Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 Go to your college library (physically or via its Web site) and locate article search tools. You may have to ask your librarian about which specific services are available at the library; some common ones are JSTOR, EBSCO, WilsonWeb, and Proquest. Pick one of the article search tools and conduct a search using the term tattoo. Restrict your search to peer-reviewed scholarly publications. Then answer the following: • How many total studies have been conducted on the topic of tattoos during the past 10 years? • How many total studies have been conducted on the topic of tattoos during the past 5 years? • Based on the article title or abstract, what percent of studies in the past 5 years appear to be about medical issues (e.g., infection, etc.)? Activity 2 Repeat Activity 1 but with a different article search tool. What differences did you discover? What accounts for the differences? Activity 3 Take the five most recent scholarly journal articles you found in Activity 1 or 2. Prepare a reference/bibliography using the ASA (American Sociological Association) format. Be sure to put the articles in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. Note that in a scholarly journal article that has more than one author, the first listed author usually did more work on the study than the others, so you want to retain name order. If you Google “American Sociological Association style” you will find many college library sites that have additional help on how to organize the references. You can also find information on the ASA format at the following web site: http://www.asanet.org/page.ww?name=Quick+Style+Guide&section=Sociology+Depts Activity 4 Design the first part a study using quantitative data on a topic of interest to you. Complete each of the following parts of the design: Topic: _________________________________________________________________ Research question: _______________________________________________________ Hypothesis: _____________________________________________________________ Your independent variable of the hypothesis above: _____________________________ Your dependent variable of the hypothesis: ____________________________________ The unit of analysis for your study: __________________________________________ Activity 5 Identify the unit of analysis, Universe, and dependent variable in each of the three articles from the scholarly journal Social Science Quarterly listed below. 1. “The Effects of Visual Images in Political Ads: Experimental Testing of Distortions and Visual Literacy” (Social Science Quarterly, 2000, 81:913–27) by Gary Noggle and Lynda Kaid. 2. “The Politics of Bilingual Education Expenditures in Urban Districts” (Social Science Quarterly, 2000, 81:1064–72) by David Leal and Fred Hess.

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3. “Symbolic Racism in the 1995 Louisiana Gubernatorial Election” (Social Science Quarterly, 2000, 81:1027–35) by Jon Knuckey and Byron Orey. Additional Class Exercises and Activities Activity 6: Reading and taking effective notes on a Journal article Following a close reading of “Making it Practical- How to Read a Scholarly Journal Article” on page 39, provide the author (s), title, and publication date of one article that used a quantitative approach and is available in your local library. Alternately, you can use Research Navigator by Pearson Education at www.researchnavigator.com to locate a good journal article in any social science discipline. Ask your students to locate, print the full article in PDF format, and read the article before the next class meeting. During the next meeting, provide a research question for which the selected article will be relevant. Ask each student to prepare a source file and content file using the author’s example on page 40 as a model. Have each student read and critique another student’s notes on entry correctness, amount of detail and relevance to the research question. Activity 7- Identification of Information Sources Bring articles of original research to class from the different sources mentioned in the textjournal article, monograph, a reader, and a dissertation. Pass this around and allow students to point out differences in the structure of the articles. Activity 8- Identification of Causal Relations and Spurious Relations Ask students to read and identify examples of causal statements in magazines and newspapers, as well as in textbooks. Select some of these examples and divide the class into groups to identify dependent, independent, and intervening variables in the statements. Additionally, have students identify possible spuriousness in causal statements by suggesting possible causal factors omitted in the causal statements. Another way of doing this is making students identify the three causal elements of temporal order, association, and alternative causes in causal statements written on the board or displayed by other means for the whole class to see. Activity 9- Citation Formats Bring several journal articles to class that use different citation formats. Pass these around in the class and allow students to identify the different formats and to explain the distinctive rules used in these formats. Activity 10- Researchable Topics Allow students to name topics that are not researchable and others that are researchable using the four features discussed on page 26. Video Resources 1. Scientific Method: This Films Media Group video program provides a visual examination of the basic elements of the scientific method such as defining and researching the problem, forming a hypothesis, gathering information through experimentation and observation, analyzing the data, forming a conclusion, and communicating the results. http://ffh.films.com/

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Online Resources on Reviewing the Literature and Citation 1. www.researchnavigator.com 2. http://www.crlsresearchguide.org/ 3. http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/litrev.html 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature_review 5. http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/literature_review.html 6. Citation Formats: a. MLA- http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/mla/index.shtml b. APA- http://www.apastyle.org/ c. Chicago- http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html d. ASA- http://www.calstatela.edu/library/bi/rsalina/asa.styleguide.html Suggested Readings cited in the Book Atkinson. Michael. 2003. Tattooed: The Sociogenesis of a Body Art. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Atkinson, Michael. 2004. “Tattooing and Civilizing Processes: Body Modification as Selfcontrol.” Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology 41(2): 125–146. Caplan, Jane (editor). 2000. Written on the Body. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press. DeMello, Margo. 2000. Bodies of Inscription. Durham NC: Duke University Press. Fisher, Jill A. 2002. Tattooing the Body, Marking Culture. Body & Society 8 (4):91–107. Harris Interactive. 2003 “A Third of Americans with Tattoos Say They Make Them Feel More Sexy” http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/index.asp?PID=407 (downloaded 3/25/08). Hawkes, Daina, Charlene Seen and Chantal Thorn 2004. Factors That Influence Attitudes Toward Women With Tattoos. Sex Roles 50(9/10):593–604. Horne, Jenn, David Knox, Jane Zusman, and Marty Zusman, 2007. “Tattoos And Piercings: Attitudes, Behaviors, and Interpretations of College Students.” College Student Journal 41 (4): 1011–1020. Kang, Miliann, and Katherine Jones. 2007. “Why do people get tattoos.” Contexts 6(1): 42–47.

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Additional Readings on Literature Review 1. McGhee, Gerry, Glenn Marland, and Jacqueline Atkinson, 2007. “Grounded Theory Research: Literature Reviewing and Reflexivity.” Journal of Advanced Nursing. 60 (3): 334-342. Reviewing the literature on a topic for research can be a daunting task for students who are being introduced to research. In this paper, the authors attempt to run through the process of doing a good review for a grounded theory approach. After reading the largely deductive-style literature review presented in the second chapter of this text, this article will help students understand that different approaches in the social sciences do slightly different things at different points in the research process, but that the objective and underlying logic remains the same. In this paper, the authors discuss what they call the topic-related literature review and emphasize the importance of this approach to the overall inductive and reflexive style in field research. 2. Cronin, Patricia, Francis Ryan, and Michael Coughlan. 2008. “Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach”. British Journal of Nursing. 17 (1):38-43 This paper provides a step-by-step discussion of the review process, a strategy very similar to the one discussed in this chapter. However, the examples and emphasis are directed at nursing research. The purpose of this is to help students understand that the academic approach of systematic and careful literature review is common in all areas of research.

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3 Becoming an Ethical Researcher

Chapter Summary Unethical behavior in social research includes subjecting participants to unnecessary emotional or physical harm, stress, and anxiety. It also includes privacy rights, misconducts like plagiarism and fraud, misusing data and knowingly reaching false study conclusions either for personal gains or because of external pressures. Most unethical choices by researchers are not easily identifiable or even easily definable by law as illegal; however, these behaviors remain unscrupulous and unacceptable by many standards of social research. Ethical concerns must be at the forefront of every social researcher’s mind before collecting data. The obligation to act ethically in all situations towards human subjects in social research transcends the need to acquire knowledge at all costs and it certainly transcends the need to build a career or obtain other rewards. Certainly, the costs for getting caught include losing respect and all career prospects, as well as the possibilities for legal action. It is imperative that social researchers obtain information about ethical behaviors and conduct from professional code of ethics, other researchers, and from their individual consciences. The author emphasis the humane aspect of research by examining ethical implications for all research approaches presented throughout the book. In addition to the many resources and illustrations pulled together in this book, the inclusion of ethical checkpoints throughout the text makes this one of the best and thoroughly interesting textbooks on introduction to social research. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Understand the need for ethical behavior in social research. 2. Explain the origins of ethical concerns about research with human subjects. 3. Understand that research ethics are concerned with fundamental rights and wrongs that exceed the standards of legal requirements. 4. Differentiate between anonymity and confidentiality. 5. Explain the costs and benefits of making ethical choices in research. 6. Apply ethical standards to their own research. Chapter Outline I. THE ETHICAL IMPERATIVE The issue of ethical behavior in social research is extremely important because, while social research is about creating knowledge, solving problems, providing answers, and helping society, most social research participants are humans. The objective of ethical concerns is that research must avoid harming research participants. Ethical behavior requires moral legitimacy and sound judgment in making research decisions. However, ethical decisions in social research are not always apparent or easy. As such, it is important to think of ethics earlier on in the research process as well as to be prepared to make quick and instant ethical decisions when confronted with a problem. The moral and professional obligation for researchers to make ethical decision in Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 18


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all situations is a demanding task and requires knowledge, foresight, personal integrity, a good conscience, and contact with other researchers. The pressures to act unethically are enormous and may originate from pressures to build your career, opportunities to take a short cut, vague ethical guidelines, and ignorance. Nonetheless, the costs of unethical behavior are extremely high and may include a ruined career and possible legal action. A. Scientific Misconduct This type of unethical behavior includes research fraud and plagiarism. Research fraud involves lying or deception about data or other aspects of academic studies while plagiarism involves using other people’s ideas without acknowledging them. Good documentation or note-taking practice and adoption of standard writing and reporting practices is helpful in guiding the researcher from these pitfalls. B. Unethical but Legal Ethics are broader than law. This means that there are many decisions that border on unethical behavior and practice that do not necessary infringe on the law. Seeking guidance in making ethical decision is a good practice for all researchers. II. ETHICAL ISSUES INVOLVING RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS The focus of most ethical principles is on showing respect for research participants. The following principles are recognized by the research community, code of ethics, and sometimes by the law: never cause unnecessary or irreversible harm to or humiliate participants, obtain voluntary consent for research, and never release harmful information about participants. A. The Origin of Ethical Principles for Research with Humans Unethical research practices can be traced to medical research in the early 1900s and well into the 1970s. These include the German Nazi studies, Japanese Unit 731 studies, the US Tuskegee syphilis studies, US malaria studies, and US New York Willowbrook school study in which hepatitis was injected into children with developmental disabilities. B. Protect Research Participants from Harm Social research also causes, and has been known to cause, physical, emotional, and legal harm to participants. Social researchers have responsibility to aware of the potential harm that their type of researcher can cause. Examples of social research that exposed participants to significant harm include the Milgram obedience study, the Zimbardo prison experiment, and the Humphreys tearoom study. C. Participation Must Be Voluntary and Informed Participants in a study must voluntarily consent to participating in research, and in most cases, the researcher must seek informed and signed consent. This means that the researcher must provide detailed information to the participation, except in cases when it is absolutely necessary not to provide those details before the study. D. Limits to Using Deception in Research The researcher may use deception only when it has methodological purpose, and the researcher debriefs participants. In addition, researchers must avoid use of any form of coercion to obtain Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 19


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participation. Student participation in research also raises questions about coercion. This must be done only if participation is tied to clear educational objectives and students have other choices to participation in the research. E. Privacy, Anonymity, and Confidentiality Researchers often learn intimate and private information about participants. Ethical expectations are that researchers take precautions to keep private information to a minimum necessary for the legitimate purpose of the researcher, and to protect such information from public disclosure. Two principles linked to privacy are anonymity (taking step to not knowing the identity of participants) and confidentiality (protecting the identity of participants when you know it). These are difficult to ensure, and are pursued differently under different study circumstances, but are important ethical concerns in social research. Public disclosure of data in aggregate form helps to ensure privacy. However, sound judgment is necessary in making decisions to protect study participants. In cases where immediate danger to safety becomes an issue, such as impending murder or extant sexual or physical abuse, protection of participant identity is not more important than the safety of potential victims. Privacy can be violated under these extreme circumstances. F. Extra Protection for Special Populations Protections of vulnerable populations, such as students, children, the developmentally disabled, employees, is important in social researcher because the environmental and physical conditions do not permit true informed and voluntary consent. Parental or legal guardian consent and close supervision to protect these populations are extra and necessary steps the researcher must take. G. Formal Protections for Research Participants The principles established by the Nuremburg Code serve as the basis for ethical codes for research with human subjects. In the United States, the US Department of Human Services provides guidelines for research using people that many institutions follow. Private and public institutions, as well as academic organizations and professional associations also develop written code of ethics. Research institutions also have institutional review boards (IRBs) to provide oversight in social research by reviewing research proposals. III. ETHICS AND SPONSORS OF RESEARCH Some organizations may ask researchers to compromise ethical standards as condition for sponsorship or continued employment. The researcher still has the responsibility to make sound ethical decisions and not cave in to unethical behavior. The choices include becoming the loyal but unethical researcher, or quitting the situation or job, or going public by becoming a whistleblower. All the options have personal, career, and professional consequences. IV. POLITICAL INFLUENCES ON RESEARCH Censorship and controlling of research is a practice in dictatorships, however, these practices exist in free democratic societies as well. In the US, politicians, organizations, and corporations have used their influence to censor legitimate research to promote their own narrow interests. Tactics used by these influential people and organizations include threat to the personal safety of researchers, their families and friends, threat to ruin careers, cutting of funding, public humiliation, and lawsuits. Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 20


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V. VALUE-FREE AND OBJECTIVE RESEARCH Value-free research has two meanings; research free of theoretical assumptions and research free of the personal belief and prejudices of the researcher. The first is rarely possible as many studies have theoretical orientation that may be helpful in clarifying findings. The second meaning is the standard practice in social research. Objectivity in research also has two meanings; research focused on that which is visible and research that follows standard practices. The first is inaccurate because research can use invisible and indirect evidence such as attitude studies. The second meaning is the standard practice in social research. Personal values and judgment may enter in some parts of the research process, such as selecting a topic and determining how to publicize findings. However, value-free and standard (objective) procedures are the mainstay of social research. Key Terms Anonymity: not connecting a participant’s name or identifying details to information collected about him or her (p. 73). Code of Ethics: A written, formal set of professional standards that provides guidance when ethical questions arise in practice (p. 76). Confidentiality: holding information in confidence or not making it known to the public (p.73). Informed Consent: An agreement in which participants state they are willing to be in a study and know what the research procedure will involve (p.69). Institutional Review Board (IRB): a committee of researchers and community members that oversees, monitors, and reviews the impact of research procedures on human participants (p.76). Plagiarism: using another person’s words or ideas without giving them proper credit and instead passing them off as your own (p. 63). Principle of Voluntary Consent: never force anyone to participate in a research study. Participants should explicitly and voluntarily agree to participate (p. 69). Research Fraud: to invent, falsify or distort study data or to lie about how a study was conducted (p.63). Scientific Misconduct: violating basic and generally accepted standards of honest scientific research, such as research fraud and plagiarism (p. 63). Special Populations: people lacking the cognitive competency or full freedom to give true informed consent (p. 75). Whistle-Blowing: when a researcher sees unethical behavior and, after unsuccessful attempts to get superiors to end it, goes public to expose the wrongdoing (p. 80).

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Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 To better understand possible sponsors of research, locate 30 scholarly journal articles on two topics of your choice. For each article, look to see whether there is a sponsor other than the author’s employer. You can find this in a footnote at the beginning or the end of an article saying that there was a grant that provided funding. How many of the 30 articles you located had an outside sponsor? For some topics, you may find no article with sponsors. For other topics, a large majority might have sponsors.

Activity 2 Social science fields and related practitioners have professional organizations with a code of ethics. Figure 3.5 provided an example of the ethical code of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. Here is a list of 14 other U.S.-based professional organizations that have such codes: Professional Organization Web Site for Code of Ethics 1. Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences http://www.acjs.org/pubs/167_671_2922.cfm 2. American Anthropological Association http://www.aaanet.org/committees/ethics/ethics. htm 3. American Counseling Association http://www.counseling.org/Resources/CodeOfEt hics/TP/Home/CT2.aspx 4. American Educational Research http://www.aera.net/aboutaera/?id=717 Association 5. American Nurses Association http://www.med.howard.edu/ethics/handouts/am erican_nurses_association_code.htm 6. American Planning Association http://www.planning.org/ethics/ 7. American Political Science Association http://www.apsanet.org/513.cfm 8. American Psychological Association http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html 9. American Society for Public http://ethics.iit.edu/codes/coe/amer.soc.public.a Administration dmin.d.html 10. American Sociological Association http://www.asanet.org/page.ww?section=Ethics &name=Ethics 11. Association for Institutional Research http://www.airweb.org/?page=140 12. Association of American Geographers http://www.aag.org/Publications/EthicsStateme nt.html 13. Marketing Research Association http://www.mra-net.org/ 14. National Association of Social Workers http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.a sp Select five associations from the list above and look up what their code of ethics says about conducting research. In what areas do they all agree or say the same thing? In what areas do you see differences among them? Activity 3 Find out about your college’s or university’s IRB. If it does not have one, ask your teacher to explain why it does not. If it does, find out who the members are and ask to attend a meeting as Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 22


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an observer when a “nonexempt” social research project is being discussed. Obtain a copy of the informed consent form used and write a short description of the meeting and issues discussed at it. Additional Class Exercises and Activities Activity 4- Study Topics Divide the class into small groups. Ask each group to design a study in which potential ethical challenges are likely to arise. Ask each group to read its study aloud and allow other students to identify possible ethical issues. Activity 5- Stem Cell Research Ask the class to discuss the possible ethical problems that might arise with stem cell research. Ask them to suggest possible remedies. Other popular topics can be discussed as well. Activity 6- Ethic Scenario Provide research scenarios in which one or more ethical issues are at skate. Ask students to identify the ethical problem and give them opportunities to revise the design by correcting the problem. Here is an example: Professor Jacko asks his students in his research class to complete a 5-page questionnaire for a research he is doing on attitude to student drinking behavior on campus. He provided a 5% bonus for completing the project. He told students they could write a 12page analytical paper for 5% if they chose not to participate in the research. Video Resources on Ethical Research 1. Academic Integrity: The Bridge to Professional Ethics: This insights media video gives broad lectures on ethical issues in academic settings and research and what should guide decisionmaking in critical moments. http://www.insight-media.com 2. Weighing the Decision: The Ethics and Science of Stem Cell Research: This is a NewsHour program on ethical issues related to stem cell research. The program presents the views of panelists of research professionals and academics. http://ffh.films.com 3. Obeying or Resisting Authority: A Psychological Retrospective: An ABC program that presents a research that is similar to the Milgram experiment. Commentary by Dr. Philip Zimbardo is also included and footnotes about the ethical issues in many classical studies are also presented. http://ffh.films.com Online Resources on Ethical Research 1. http://www.ethicalresearch.net/ 2. http://www.unesco.org/most/ethissj.htm 3. http://www.pitt.edu/~provost/ethresearch.html 4. http://www.the-sra.org.uk/ethical.htm 5. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/bioethics/guidelines/ethical.html

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Suggested Readings Cited in the Book Draus, Paul J., Harvey Siegal, Robert Carlson, Russel Falck, and Jichuan Wang, Jichuan. 2005. Cracking the Cornfields.” Sociological Quarterly 46:165–189. Humphreys, Laud. 1973. Tearoom Trade. Chicago: Aldine Kane, Robert J. 2005. “Compromised Police Legitimacy as a Predictor of Violent Crime in Structurally Disadvantaged Communities.” Criminology 43:469–498. Milgram, Stanley. 1963. “Behavioral Study of Obedience.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 6:371–378. Milgram, Stanley 1965. “Some Conditions of Obedience and Disobedience to Authority.” Human Relations 18:57–76. Milgram, Stanley. 1974. Obedience to Authority. New York: Harper and Row. Mooney, Chris. 2005. The Republican War on Science. New York: Perseus Books. Piliavin, Irving, J. Rodin, and Jane Piliavin. 1969. “Good Samaritanism: An Underground Phenomenon?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 13:289–299. Scarce, Rik. 1994. “(No) Trial (But) Tribulations: When Courts and Ethnography Conflict.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 23:123–149. Savelsberg, Joachim, Lara Cleveland, and Ryan King. 2004.“Institutional Environments and Scholarly Work: American Criminology, 1951–1993.” Social Forces 82:1275–1302. Savelsberg, Joachim, Ryan King, and Lara Cleveland. 2002. “Politicized Scholarship? Science on Crime and the State.” Social Problems 49:327–349. Scarce, Rik. 1999. “Good Faith, Bad Ethics: When Scholars Go the Distance and Scholarly Associations Do Not” Law & Social Inquiry 24:977–986. Taylor, Steven. 1987. “Observing abuse.” Qualitative Sociology 10:288–302. Van Mannen, John. 1982. “Fieldwork on the Beat.” Varieties of Qualitative Research. Edited by J. Van Mannen, J. Dabbs, Jr., and R. Raulkner (pp. 102–151). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Vidich, Arthur, and Joseph Bensman. 1968. Small Town in Mass Society, rev. ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Zimbardo, Philip. 1972. “The Pathology of Imprisonment.” Society 9:4–6.

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CHAPTER 3

Additional Readings on Ethical Research 1. Cohen, Lois. 1977. “Social Sciences Research: Ethical and Policy Implications.” Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology. 5 (6):261-265 The problem of ethical behavior is recognized in all fields of research. This paper is an example of ethical issues in the field of dental research. The author discusses similar issues as presented in the chapter. Ethical concerns arise from multiple sources including in the identification of participants in research study, question type, privacy and confidentiality, data use, disclosure, and referral for treatment. After reading this paper, the student will understand that ethical issues are important in research no matter the field of study, and that the sources of these concerns are many and sometimes elusive. 2. Paul, Cutcliffe and John Ramcharan.. 2001. “Judging the ethics of qualitative research: considering the ‘ethics as process’ model.” Health & Social Care in the Community. 9 (6):358-366 One of the important monitoring system for ethics in social research is ethics committees established in universities to review human-subject research. This paper reviews some of the ethical issues relevant to qualitative research in light of securing a balance in the costs-benefits realities of qualitative research. The authors explain the complex issues arising from a healthmedical model of ethical concerns in ethics committees and the repercussion for approval of qualitative social research proposals. After reading this article, the student will understand the complex, and sometimes seemingly insurmountable problems researchers face in pressing their proposals through ethics committees or the IRB, albeit promoting quality control. 3. Wax, Murray L. 1995. “Knowledge, Power, and Ethics in Qualitative Social Research.” American Sociologist. 26(2):22-34 In this paper, the student will read the case for emphasizing ethical behavior in social research. The author juxtaposes biomedical and social research to show the differences between ethical issues in these two areas of knowledge. One is more blatant and the other mostly subtle. It is important that the social researcher, especially the qualitative researcher, be aware of and prepares for the intricacies of ethics in the field in order to make good decisions. 4. Homan, Roger. 1992. “The ethics of open methods.” British Journal of Sociology. 43(3):321332 This is the atypical paper, one with a needed critical perspective. It examines the ethical problems of quantitative studies or what he calls the open method versus the covert method otherwise known as qualitative studies. The paper points out that researchers need to view research as conflict situations in which quantitative method’s instruments of assuring ethical standards, such as the informed consent, are basically tools of power that protect the researcher, not the participant. The paper explores ethical problems that arise during research as the protection of the participant is eroded and compromised in the interest of promoting the image and career of the researcher. After reading this paper, the student will become aware of the need to reexamine every information in a critical light.

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5. Wax, Murray L and Joan Cassell. 1981. “From Regulation to Reflection: Ethics in Social Research.” American Sociologist. 16(4):224-229 This paper uses the approach of the text to emphasize that social research, from the experiment to the field study, have specific ethical issues and different levels of risks that need to be understand and addressed. It examines the role of the department of human services in regulating social research by addressing some of the problems in regulating social research versus biomedical research using current regulations. The student, after reading this paper, will become aware of the interaction between academic research and policy structures in society.

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CHAPTER

4 Sampling: How to Select

a Few to Represent the Many Chapter Summary The author demonstrates the interconnectedness and interactive nature of the social research process by discussing how sampling derives its goodness from other activities in the research process and how errors in sampling interfere with the integrity of other research activities. The importance of decision making on the part of the researcher is underscored by demonstrating alternative sampling methods and their purposes and limitations. Qualitative and quantitative approaches are shown to focus on different types of sampling in fulfilling their objectives. In qualitative research, the focus in sampling is not representativeness but the ability to capture the richness and fullness of social interactions and processes. In quantitative research, representation of a population in a sample is essential in predicting the population parameter. In fulfilling these goals, researchers have several tools at their disposal. They may choose to use probability or nonprobability sampling techniques. However, only probability sampling assures that sample statistics can be accurately used to generalize to a target population. In probability sampling, great efforts are expended in random selection. Other factors such as the size of the sample, the representativeness of the sample, the diversity in the target population, and the number of variables in the study also affect the accuracy of statistical prediction. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Explain the differences between probability and nonprobability sampling. 2. Identify different sampling techniques and their unique properties 3. Show the situations in which different sampling techniques are effectively employed. 4. Differentiate between parameter and statistics. 5. Understand the crucial function of random selection in probability sampling. 6. Explain the principles of sampling distribution and normal curve in understanding the logic of sampling. 7. Make decisions about what sample size to use in a given study. Chapter Outline I. HOW AND WHY DO SAMPLES WORK Samples are best when they allow the researcher to produce accurate generalizations about the population from features of the sample. Random samples are more representative of the population from which they are drawn and they sometimes produce more accurate generalizations about the population than most censuses. The goal of a qualitative researcher, as opposed to the quantitative researcher, is not to obtain representative samples but to use small number of cases to illuminate an aspect of social life more fully.

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II. FOCUSING ON A SPECIFIC GROUP: FOUR TYPES OF NONRANDOM SAMPLES Not all researchers use random samples either because they are difficult to obtain or because they are not necessary for the purpose of the research. An example of nonprobability sampling techniques is convenience sampling, a method that selects available cases. Quota sampling, on the other hand, involves identifying categories of people from which the researcher decides to select certain number of cases. In purposive sampling, the researcher makes decision to select cases for a specific purpose such as a difficult-to-reach population. Another type of nonprobability sampling is snowball sampling. This is a multistage process that involves obtaining cases from the network of previous cases. III. COMING TO CONCLUSIONS ABOUT LARGE POPULATIONS. In accurately representing the larger population in a small sample, random sampling is the way to do it. The case or unit on analysis of a sample, the sampling element, is drawn from the population and used to make generalizations about the universe. The sampling frame is a list of all the sampling elements in the target population. The sample is used to produce a statistics that is a prediction of the population parameter. The sampling ratio indicates the percent of percent of the target population that you have in the sample. A. Why Use a Random Sample? Random refers to a mechanical selection process in which all elements in a population have equal chances of being selected to serve in the sample. This mathematical process allows the researcher to calculate, with precision, the probabilities of an outcome and the sampling error. B. Types of Random Samples The simple random sample technique provides the model on which other random sampling techniques are based. It is based on an accurate sampling frame, a selection process that is mathematically random, and the location of selected cases based on these random numbers. Computer programs and books of random tables are helpful in random selection. The mathematical theory of probability assures us that the results of a sampling distribution from random samples produce a value that is closest to the population parameter. This is demonstrated in the bell or normal curve in which the mid point of the distribution is closest to the population value. This knowledge about the characteristics of the sampling distribution allows researchers to calculate the probability or our confidence in how close the value of a single sample is close to the population parameter, to calculate the sampling error, and to estimate the representativeness of the random sample of the population from which it was drawn. Systematic sampling is a random process that does not rely on computerized random numbers to select cases. The process involved is the creation of a sampling frame, the calculation of a sampling interval, and the use of that interval to select cases. Stratified sampling technique provides the researcher some control to take into account the representation of special groups in the sample. The researcher uses information about the population to divide the sampling frame into strata and then uses random selection from the strata to represent the portion of each stratum in the population. In cluster sampling, as opposed to stratified sampling, the researcher may not have access to the sampling frame for the population but has information on the clusters of cases. The researcher samples these clusters once or many times and then finally creates a frame from the final clusters for random sampling. Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 28


CHAPTER 4

IV. THREE SPECIALIZED SAMPLING SITUATIONS Random sampling using the previously discussed methods may not be possible. In situations where accurate sampling frame is not available for telephone surveys, a random-digit dialing tech is used. This is facilitated by computerized programs that randomly dial telephone numbers based on area code and exchange numbers. In a situation where sampling frame for individuals is not available but a sampling frame of household is available, a within-household sampling may be used. This technique involves sampling households and using other random sampling techniques to sample people in the household to participate. In studies about deviant or stigmatized behavior, for example, a researcher may need to be creative in reaching an selecting cases because these cases are not easily accessible. V. INFERENCES FROM SAMPLE TO POPULATION Using random samples allows the researcher to make inferences about the population from a small sample. In doing this, however, sampling errors are introduced that affect the accuracy of this prediction. The sample size affects the sampling error in that the larger the sample, the more likely it is that the statistics will be closer to the population parameter. Also, the more homogenous or similar the cases in the population to each other (less diversity), the more likely it is that the statistics will accurately predict the population parameter. Sample size in itself does not guarantee representativeness of the sample. The sample must be randomly drawn from a good sampling frame. A smaller sample from a better sampling frame and randomly selected cases will provide a better prediction of the population parameter. Estimation of the size of a sample involve complicated assumptions and measurements such population size, number of variables in study, diversity of the population, and degree of accuracy required. A simple rule of thumb is that the larger the target population, the smaller the sampling ratio. The confidence interval is calculated to estimate the probability that the population parameter falls within an interval, typically 95% interval. Key Terms Cluster Sampling: a multistage sampling method in which clusters are randomly sampled, and then a random sample of elements is taken from sampled clusters (p. 100). Confidence Internal: a zone, above and below the estimate from a sample, within which a population parameter is likely to be (p. 107). Convenience Sample: a nonrandom sample in which you use an nonsystematic selection method that often produces samples very unlike the population (p. 88). Hidden Population: a group that is very difficult to locate and may not want to be found and therefore is difficult to sample (p. 104). Population Parameter: any characteristic of the entire population that you estimate from a sample (p. 92). Population: a larger collection of units from which a sample is taken (p. 88). Purposive Sampling: a nonrandom sample in which you use many diverse means to select units that fit very specific characteristics (p. 90). Quota Sampling: nonrandom sample in which you use any means to fill preset categories that are characteristics of the population (p. 89). Random-Digit Dialing (Rdd): Computer based random sampling of telephone numbers (p. 103).

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Random Sample: a sample drawn in which a random process is used to select units from a population (p. 88). Sample: a small collection of units taken from a larger collection (p. 88). Sampling Distribution: A plot of many random samples, with a sample characteristic across the bottom and the number of samples indicated along the side (p. 94). Sampling Element: a case or unit of analysis of the population that can be selected for a sample (p. 92). Sampling Error: the degree to which a sample deviates from a population (p. 93). Sampling Frame: a specific list of sampling elements in the target population (p. 92). Sampling Interval: the size of the sample frame over the sample size, used in systematic sampling to select units (p. 97). Sampling Ratio: the ratio of the sample size to the size of the target population (p. 93). Simple Random Sampling: a sampling model that is based on a mathematically random selection procedure on which other types of random samples are modeled (p. 94). Snowball Sampling: a nonrandom sample in which selection is based on connections in a preexisting network (p. 91). Stratified Sampling: a type of random sampling in which a random sample is draw from multiple sampling frames, each for a part of the population (p. 99). Systematic Sampling: an approximation to random sampling in which you select one in a certain number of sample elements; the number is from the sampling interval (p. 97). Target Population: a population specified in very concrete terms (p. 92).

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CHAPTER 4

Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1: Sociogram and Snowball Sampling Snowball samples use social networks. Researchers represent a social network by drawing a sociogram—a diagram of circles connected with lines. For example, Sally and Tim do not know each other directly, but each has a good friend, Susan, so they have an indirect connection. All three are part of the same friendship network. The circles represent each person or case, and the lines represent friendship or other linkages (see Figure 4.9 on page 109). What to do: Identity two people who you know but who are not your best friends, and who may or may not know one another. Ask each to name three of his/her close friends. Contact those six people, Ask them to name their three closest friends. Repeat a third time. Now draw a sociogram or map of interconnections. Show when more than one person named another person in the same network. This could be the basis for a snowball sample of this network (or two networks, if they do not overlap). Name 1 you started with: Name 1’s three friends 1A 1B 1C 1A’s three friends: 1B’s three friends: 1C’s three friends:

Name 2: Name 2’s three Friends 2A 2B 2C 2A’s 3 Friends: 2b’s 3 Friends: 2C’s Three Friends:

Draw the sociogram of the 26 people you identified. Activity 2: Sampling Frame Let us say you would like to sample all people in a region of the United States. You could try to get a list of everyone with a driver’s license. Some people do not have a driver’s license, and the lists of those with licenses, even if updated regularly, quickly go out of date. You could try income tax records. But not everyone pays taxes; some people cheat and do not pay, others have no income and do not have to file, others have died or have not begun to pay taxes, and still others have entered or left the area since the last time taxes were due. You could try telephone directories, but they are not much better; some people are not listed in a telephone directory, some people have unlisted numbers, and others have recently moved. With a few exceptions (e.g., a list of all students enrolled at a university), sampling frames are frequently inaccurate. A sampling frame can include some of those outside the target population (e.g., a telephone directory that lists people who have moved away) or might omit some of those inside it (e.g., those without telephones). What to do: Compare three possible sampling frames for overlap. First, contact a local government official in charge of voter lists (usually an elections official) for a local voting district. Ask if you could Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 31


INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL FOR UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH

have a list of registered voters (this is generally public information). Next, get a published telephone directory that includes the same area. Lastly, get either a list of property tax records from a county clerk for the district or contact the department of motor vehicles for driver’s license holders. Begin with voter registration list. Take 100 names from the list. How many of these names do not appear in the published telephone directory? How many of these names do not appear in the property tax or the driver license records? Develop a chart the following for recordkeeping. Voter Registration Name

Phone Directory

Driver’s License

Tax Record

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y

N N N N

N N N N

N N N N

Activity 3: Simple Random versus Systematic Sampling Making it Practical Box 1 illustrates simple random sampling and systematic sampling. Notice that I picked different names in each sample. For example, H. Adams is in both samples, but C. Droullard is only in the simple random sample. In fact, it is rare for any two random samples to be identical. My sampling frame had 20 males and 20 females (gender is in parenthesis after each name). My simple random sample yielded 3 males and 7 females. My systematic sample yielded 5 males and 5 females. What to do: Use different random numbers; try taking the first two digits and beginning at the end (e.g., 11 from 11921, then 43 from 43232). Draw a random sample of 10 names. Now draw a new systematic sample of 10 names with a different random start. What did you find? How many are there of each sex? A Random Sample of 10 Names Random Number Name Picked 1. ______________ ________________ 2. ______________ ________________ 3. ______________ ________________ 4. ______________ ________________ 5. ______________ ________________ 6. ______________ ________________ 7. ______________ ________________ 8. ______________ ________________ 9. ______________ ________________ 10. ______________ ________________

Systematic Sample Name Picked ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

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Activity 4: Sampling Details Reported in the Media Locate five newspaper articles or magazine stories that discuss using a sample to get study results. Answer the following four questions to see how sampling was used. 1. What was the population examined in the study? 2. Did the researchers use probability or nonprobability sampling? Which sample type did they use? 3. How large was the sample? Do you also have the size of the population so you can estimate the sampling ratio, or is the sampling ratio given? 4. Was a margin of error or confidence interval given? How large is it? Are you told both the interval size (margin of error) and level of confidence (e.g., 95 percent)?

Additional Class Exercises and Activities Activity 5- Computer Program Sampling Use SPSS or a free software program designed to generate random numbers and estimate sample size. Easysample at http://www.twinklesoft.com/easyDetail.html is free software that performs several functions related to sampling, including the generation of random numbers. Get a list of about hundred students in your university with some demographic characteristics such as age, race, year in college, gender, major, or GPA. This is your population. Make sure the list is not organized according to any order. Use the list to generate a sample size as well as random numbers and select the suggested sample size from the population. Compare the characteristics of the sample to the population (100 names) and discuss how similar the proportions of characteristics are to the population. Exercise 6- Examining Sampling Methods Divide the class into groups of small sizes and have each group identify the research question and sampling method used in one journal article. Have students provide their own views with regards to the appropriateness of the sampling method to the research questions and suggest alternative sampling method to answer the same question. Have each group share its findings and conclusions with the rest of the class. Video Resources 1. Hypothesis Testing, Types of Error, and Small Samples: The basics quantitative social research are clearly presented in this video. Hypotheses testing, errors, and sampling are demonstrated in ways that will help the student understand these concepts. http://ffh.films.com/ 2. Probability: The mathematical concept of probability is explained and demonstrated in this video to help the student visualize the mathematical principles behind this important concept in social research. http://ffh.films.com/

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Online Resources on Sampling 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sampling_(statistics) 2. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampling.htm 3. http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm 4. http://obssr.od.nih.gov/Documents/Publications/Qualitative.PDF 5. http://www.nielsenmedia.com/nc/portal/site/Public/menuitem.55dc65b4a7d5adff3f65936 147a062a0/?vgnextoid=bc0e47f8b5264010VgnVCM100000880a260aRCRD

Suggested Readings cited in the Book Connor, Susan D. 2005. “The Association Between Presence of Children in the Home and Firearm-Ownership and Storage Practices.” Pediatrics 115:38–43. Draus, Paul J., Harvey Siegal, Robert Carlson, Russell Falck, and Jichuan Wang. 2005. Cracking in the heartland. Sociological Quarterly 46: 165–189. Vaquera, Elizabeth and Grace Kao. 2005. “Private and public displays of affection among interracial and intraracial adolescent couples.” Social Science Quarterly 86:484–508.

Additional Readings on Sampling 1. Dillman, Don A. 1991. “The Design and Administration of Mail Surveys.” Annual Review of Sociology. 17(1):225-249 In this paper, the survey method as a means of social data collection is examined. The author provides information about the various types of surveys, and their merits and drawbacks are fully examined. The author proceeds to provide a history of the development and change in survey as a research method in sampling, measurement, coverage, and response rate. The author shares views about what aspect of survey research needs greater attention for improvement. The student will find this paper informative with regards to understanding how and why social science research methods undergo changes. 2. Winship, Christopher and Robert Mare. 1992. “Models for Sample Selection Bias.” Annual Review of Sociology. 18(1):327-350 3. Kish, Leslie. (1957). “Confidence Intervals For Clustered Samples.” American Sociological Review. 22():154-165. The two papers above focus on social research bias that originates from nonrandom selection. The first paper reviews several statistical models that account for sample selection bias and concludes that every statistical modeling used to correct sampling bias is not sufficient to fully avoid the impact of this bias. Although most of the statistical approaches discussed in this paper are beyond the scope of the text, the student reading the paper will understand the significance of proper random sampling for constructing meaning in research. The second paper explains the difficulties of getting proper simple random sampling in human populations, especially in survey research.

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CHAPTER

5 Measuring Social Life

Chapter Summary Measurement, like other aspects of social research, is a careful and thoughtful process that transforms ideas and observations into visible ideas and concrete data. The complexity of social life makes it difficult for everyday social observation to define social behavior, attitude, and perceptions in ways that make them useful for social research. This makes social measurement techniques vital for social policy and research. The social researcher develops the means to adequately and correctly observe social phenomena at the measurement stage. Using conceptualization and operationalization processes, the researcher develops instruments to make valid measurement of social life possible. The task of measurement, linking conceptual to operational definitions, is approached a little differently by quantitative and qualitative researchers. The deductive path, often used by quantitative researchers, engenders specific steps and procedures in making abstract ideas observable phenomena while the inductive path is more intuitive and more likely to be used by qualitative researchers. Similarly, the ideas of validity and reliability are gauged differently in the quantitative and qualitative approaches although both approaches seriously consider these measurement issues in connecting the abstract dimension to the concrete dimension as well as consistently and truthfully measuring what needs measuring. The development and use of indexes and scales by quantitative researcher is an example of the complexity of social phenomena and how researchers develop instruments that attempt to grasp this complexity. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Understand the crucial nature of measurement to social life and decision making. 2. Explain the vagueness of everyday social measures and the necessity for more precise measures. 3. Explain the differences in the measurement process between quantitative and qualitative approaches. 4. Distinguish between conceptualization and Operationalization. 5. Provide examples of operational and conceptual definitions. 6. Provide examples of hypotheses. 7. Explain the process of the creation of grounded theory. 8. Explain the definitions of validity and reliability in social research. 9. Explain the three types of measurement validity as they pertain to quantitative studies. 10. Identify the levels of measurement of variables. 11. Differentiate between scales and indexes. 12. Explain mutual exclusiveness, exhaustiveness, and unidimensionality as characteristics of quantitative variables. 13. Identify issues in the construction and use of indexes. 14. Name and show the characteristics of four different types of scales.

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Chapter Outline I. WHY MEASURE? Measurement of social phenomena is central to social research, especially in the quantitative approach. It allows the researcher to test hypotheses and make decisions, as well as share knowledge with others in a more effective manner. Without measures, decision making becomes difficult. However, problems with accurate measurement or our inability to measure phenomena correctly can affect the life chances of many people. II. MAKING ASPECTS OF THE SOCIAL WORLD VISIBLE Social world phenomena exist in real and tangible forms as well as in unseen forms. Just as physical and biological science attempt to measure minute phenomena, so does social science in measuring social life that otherwise is beyond our ordinary daily senses. III. MEASURING WITH NUMBERS OR WORDS The process of research measurement differs between quantitative and qualitative approaches with respect to the timing of measurement during the stages in research process, in the direction of measurement, the form of data, and in the way linkages are made among observations and ideas. A. Two Parts of the Measurement Process Measurement in social research requires that the researcher engage in the thoughtful process of conceptualization, an effort that transforms ideas into words. Good conceptualization requires consideration of the unit of analysis and the careful separation of the concept from closely related ideas to avoid confusion. The second issue in measurement is Operationalization. In this process, the researcher links the conceptual definition to specific measurement procedures. This means that the concept is linked to specific measurement items or operational definition. B. Quantitative Conceptualization and Operationalization In the quantitative research approach, measurement flows through conceptualization, Operationalization, and measurement. From the abstract level, the researcher proceeds to define concepts and link them by conceptual hypotheses. The researcher follows this with Operationalization of the concepts which are linked by empirical hypotheses. This stage is followed by operational definitions or indicators that are then observed at the level of reality. Statistical techniques are then used to examine the pattern of relationship between these indicators. The researcher moves backward to test the observed statistical relationships on the empirical hypotheses, which in turn are used to test the conceptual hypotheses. C. Qualitative Conceptualization and Operationalization In the qualitative approach, the researcher uses rudimentary ideas about the field to collect data. In the process of data gathering, the researcher thinks over exiting ideas and creates new ideas based on empirical data. The researcher clarifies these ideas and creates theoretical relationships in what is referred to as grounded theory.

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CHAPTER 5

IV. HOW TO CREATE GOOD MEASURES: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY Reliability and validity attempt to show credibility in measurement although we can never achieve perfect credibility in social measurement. Reliability refers to the ability of the measurement not to vary because of the instrument. Validity refers to the fit between our mental picture of reality and the measures of that reality. In quantitative studies, measurement validity includes face validity, content validity, and criterion validity. In qualitative studies, reliability is achieved through thoughtful and consistent data collection to achieve dependability on the information. Validity in qualitative research focuses on authenticity or a balanced account of social life from the point-of-view of the specific people who experience that reality. Reliability is easier to achieve in social measurement than validity. A reliable measure does not guarantee that measure to be valid. V. A GUIDE TO QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT A. Levels of Measurement Measurement in quantitative approach includes levels of measurement that refer to the amount of categories variables can have as well as the level of precision of those measures. Discrete variables have fixed set of categories while continuous variables have infinite number of categories. In terms of precision, measurement variables range from nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. B. Specialized Measures: Scales and Indexes Scales and indexes are used to provide more information in measurement and about variables. Like other measures of quantitative data, categories of scales and indexes must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive. As well, they must have unidimensionality. VI. ADDING MEASURES TO GET A SCORE: INDEX CONSTRUCTION To construct an index, the researcher combines items into a single numerical score. One complication with the construction and use of indexes is weighting. This is issue of giving more numerical value to some items on the scale over others. The author advises that it is best and easiest to treat all items as equal except conceptualization, assumptions, and specialized statistical procedures require it. The other complication in the use of indexes is the issue of missing data. VII. CAPTURING INTENSITY: SCALE CONSTRUCTION Scales are constructed to measure intensity of social emotions. Some of the common types of scales are the Likert, social distance, semantic differential, and Guttman scales.

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Key Terms Conceptual Definition: defining a variable or concept in theoretical terms with assumptions and references to other concepts (p. 117) Conceptual Hypothesis: stating a hypothesis with the variables as abstract concepts (p. 119) Conceptualization: refining an idea by giving it a very clear, explicit definition (p. 116) Continuous Variables: a variable that can be measured with numbers that can be subdivided into smaller increments (p. 126) Discrete Variables: a variable measured with a limited number of fixed categories (p. 126) Empirical Hypothesis: the hypothesis stated in terms of specific measures of variables (p. 119) Exhaustive Attributes: all units fit into some category of a variable (p. 129) Index: a composite measure that combines several indicators into a single score (p. 129) Level of Measurement: the degree a measure is refined or precise (p. 126) Measurement Validity: the fit between conceptual and operational definitions (p. 122) Multiple Indicators: having several different specific measures that to indicate the same concept (p. 123) Mutually Exclusive Attributes: each units fits into one, and only one, category of a variable (p. 129) Operational Definition: defining a concept as specific operations or actions that you carry out to measure it (p. 117) Operationalization: the process of linking a conceptual definition with specific of measures (p. 117) Reliability: a feature of measures - the method of measuring is dependable and consistent (p. 122) Scale: a measure that captures a concept’s intensity, direction, or level at the ordinal level of measurement (p. 129, 132) Unidimensionality: all items of an index or scale measure the same concept or have a common dimension (p. 130). Validity: a feature of measures- the concept of interest closely matches the method used to measure it (p. 122)

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CHAPTER 5

Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1: Index of a Good Job Consider the following six occupations: Long-distance truck driver Financial accountant Registered nurse Airplane mechanic School janitor Musician (in a local rock band) Answer the following seven questions on the characteristics of each occupation. For each, 2 = definitely Yes, 1 = Sometimes/Somewhat, 0 = No. 1. Does it pay a good salary? 2. Is the job secure from layoffs or unemployment? 3. Is the work interesting and challenging? 4. Does it offer good working conditions (e.g., hours, safety, time away from home)? 5. Are there opportunities for career advancement and promotion? 6. Is it prestigious or looked up to by others? 7. Does it permit self-direction and the freedom to make decisions? Total the seven answers for each of the occupations. Each occupation will have a score of zero to 14. Which had the highest and which had the lowest score? The seven questions are my operational definition of the construct “good occupation.” Each question represents a subpart of a theoretical definition. A different theoretical definition would result in different questions, perhaps more than seven. Creating indexes is so easy that you must be careful that every item in the index has face validity. Items without face validity should be excluded. Each part of the construct should be measured with at least one indicator. Of course, it is better to measure the parts of a construct with multiple indicators. Activity 2: Measuring Social Dominance You can replicate part of a study of college roommates and racial-ethnic groups. Van Laar and colleagues (2005) measured social dominance, which is a feeling that groups are fundamentally unequal, with the following four-item index that used a Likert scale, from 1 Strongly Disagree to 7 Strongly Agree. 1. It is probably a good thing that certain groups are at the top and other groups are at the bottom. 2. Inferior groups should stay in their place. 3. We should do all we can to equalize the conditions of different groups. 4. We should increase social equality.* You may need the approval of your campus Institutional Review Board (IRB) (see Chapter 3) to conduct this activity. Write a questionnaire containing the preceding four questions and using Likert scoring. Distribute the questionnaire to 35 students. Take the scores of the Likert scale answers (1 to 7) for items 1 to 4 and add to yield an index that ranges from 4 to 28 for each student. What was the average score for your 35 students? Read the article by van Laar and colleagues (2005) and compare your findings with what they discovered.

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Activity 3: Social Distance Complete an updated version of the Borgadus social distance scale created by Kleg and Yamamoto (1998). In addition to yourself, you can ask your friends and family members to complete it. Exclude the in-group that you (or your friends or family) belongs to. I would desire with members of each group listed 1. To marry into that group 2. To have a group member as my best friend 3. To have as next-door neighbors members of that group 4. To work in the same office as members of that group 5. To have as speaking acquaintances only members of that group 6. To have as visitors to my country members of that group 7. To keep out of my country members of that group Degree of association (1–7): Use the numbers 1 to 7 above to indicate how you feel about each group listed here. Arab _____ Black American ___ Chinese _____ Danish _____ Dutch _____ English _____ French _____ German _____

Greek _____ Irish _____ Italian _____ Japanese ___ Jewish _____ Korean _____ Mexican _____ Native American __

Norwegian _____ Polish ___ Russian _____ Scottish _____ Spanish _____ Swedish _____

*This item was reverse scored.

Additional Class Exercises and Activities Activity 4- Measuring Height Ask your class to arrange itself according to height, from shortest to tallest. Ask each student to measure the height of the student next to them. Record the numbers on the board. Now, assign the students numbers based on their place in the height order, with the shortest or tallest as 1, the next as 2, and so on. Write the numbers on the board in a separate table. Tell the students to form themselves into three groups of ‘short’, ‘medium height’, and ‘tall’. Ask your students to use information on levels of measurement features in the text to decide what level to place the various measurement methods used on height. Show them how the mean is meaningful or not in the different measures and how you can use a higher level measure to produce the lower level measures, but not the other way around.

Online Resources on Measurement 1. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/relandval.php 2. http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/relval/ 3. http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/L3-2EssentialsGoodPsychologicalTest.html 4. http://www.chsbs.cmich.edu/fattah/courses/empirical/19.html 5. http://courses.csusm.edu/soc360vc/indexes_scales_text.htm

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Suggested Readings Cited in the Book Babbie, Earl. 2004. The Practice of Social Research, 10 ed. Belmont CA: Wadsworth. Bell, S., and C. Lee, C. 2002. “Development of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire for Young Women.” Psychology, Health and Medicine 7:189–201. Crozat, Matthew. 1998. “Are the Times-a-Changing? Assessing the Acceptance of Protest in Western Democracies.” In The Movement Society, edited by D. Meyer and S. Tarrow, pp. 59–81. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield. DeRango, Kelly. 2001. “Discrimination and Segregation in Housing” Employment Research, paper of the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. http://www.upjohninst.org/publications/newsletter/kd_701.pdf Downloaded March 25, 2008. Duncan, Otis Dudley, and Beverly Duncan. 1955. ”A Methodological Analysis of Segregation Indexes.” American Sociological Review 20:210–217. Gee, Gilbert C., Michael S. Spencer, Juan Chen, and David Takeuchi. 2007. “A Nationwide Study of Discrimination and Chronic Health Conditions Among Asian Americans.” American Journal of Public Health 97:1275–1282. Gordon, Phyllis A., Jennifer Chiraboga Tantillo, David Feldman, and Kristin Perrone. 2004. “Attitudes Regarding Interpersonal Relationship with Persons with Mental Illness and Mental Retardation.” Journal of Rehabilitation 70:50–56. Heise, David R. 1970. “The Semantic Differential and Attitude Research” In Attitude Measurement, edited by Gene F. Summers. Chicago: Rand McNally, pp. 235–253. Kleg, Milton, and Kaoru Yamamoto. 1998. As the world turns. Social Science Journal 35: 183– 190. Rosenberg, Morris. 1965. Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (also see http://www.bsos.umd.edu/socy/Research/rosenberg.htm). Smith, David W. 2004. “The Population Perspective on Quality of Life among Americans with Diabetes.” Quality of Life Research. 13:1391–1400. Van Laar, Colette, Shana Levin, and Shana and Stacey Sinclair. 2005. “The Effect of University Roommate Contact on Ethnic Attitudes and Behavior.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 41:329–345. Weitzer, Ronald, and Steven Tuch. 2005. Racially biased policing. Social Forces 83:1009–1030.

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Additional Readings on Social Research Measurement 1. Sell, Helmut. 2000. “Exactness and precision.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 3 I(2):135-155 In this paper, the author challenges the common assertion that quantification of social research provides meaning to a chaotic social world. It reviews quantitative measurement instruments in many fields including psychology and psychiatry and concludes that statistical measuring of social realities and the meanings derived are mostly inappropriate. Qualitative measures are suggested as providing greater depth in understanding social life. 2. Fraser, Elvis. 1994. “Reconciling Conceptual and Measurement Problems in the Comparative Study of Human Rights.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology. 35(1):1-18 This paper provides an example of conceptualization. The author uses advanced statistical methods, including factor analysis, to conceptualize human rights as a multidimensional concept with civil, political, social, and economic rights as different dimension of this concept. Students can use this paper to understand conceptualization and scale construction of a familiar idea. 3. Bulmer, Martin. 2001. “Social Measurement: What Stands in Its Way?” Social Research. 68(2):455-480 The difficulties encountered in quantitative conceptualization of social variables are addressed in this article. The author cautions that instead of focusing so much on conceptualization, we can develop better ways of analyzing social processes as is found in qualitative analysis. After reading this article, the student will understand the difficulties with which social research measurement contends.

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CHAPTER

6 The Survey: Asking People Questions

Chapter Summary Social researchers utilize measurement instruments they develop at the measurement phase to collect data using various methods. One key method is the use of a questionnaire or question method. This method is a vital component of the survey method that is used by many researchers. Even though the questionnaire is not unique to the survey method, the unique blending of the questionnaire with certain sampling techniques discussed in chapter four gives this method of data collection a distinctive characteristic. Its ease of use, combined with its many flexible characteristics, makes the survey method a popular choice. However, the method must be used with care to avoid many errors that surveys are prone to. Especially crucial is how survey results are interpreted in making causal links between variables. Consistency, structure, organization, and skill are required to avoid many errors when writing survey questions. Questions in surveys take many forms including open ended and closed ended forms. The questionnaire can be mailed or used for interview purposes. Interviews can be face-to-face, telephone, or web based. The use of the survey method also follows stages that the user must be aware of and must plan to select the best approach relevant to the research question and hypotheses. The interview method is particularly difficult and requires specialized training. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Describe the limitations of survey studies in establishing causal relations. 2. Describe the three stages in which a survey study is conducted. 3. Describe some of the pitfalls in the writing of survey questions. 4. Identify the different survey formats and explain their advantages and disadvantages. 5. Understand the roles of the interviewer and interviewee. 6. Explain the stages of the interview process. 7. Identify some ethical concerns in survey research and reporting. Chapter Outline I. WHAT IS A SOCIAL SURVEY Surveys are the most popular but sometimes widely misused data collection method. It provides data based on self-report and is therefore limited in use for information people know and are willing to give. Respondents provide information that the researcher uses to understand relationships between concepts. Polls, attitude surveys, and medical surveys are all types of surveys. Surveys are used mostly for correlational studies. These types of studies clearly meet the correlational condition for establishing causal relations. The time order condition is difficult to meet using survey data. In meeting the elimination of alternative causes condition, survey studies use control variables for which data is collected and statistically measured. Like other data gathering methods, the researcher must make a decision regarding the suitability of the method to the study. Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 43


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II. HOW TO CONDUCT A SOCIAL SURVEY In conducting a survey study, the researcher must plan and carry out the study in stages. In the start-up stage, the researcher plans to collect data from specified respondents, determines the information to be gathered and develops ways of effectively collecting the information. The researcher may prepare a questionnaire or an interview schedule. In the execution stage, the researcher collects and record data according to a system that will enable statistical analysis. The last stage in the process is the data analysis and reporting stage. III. WRITING GOOD SURVEY QUESTIONS Two principles for good survey studies are that researchers avoid things that will cause confusion in the minds of respondents and that they keep the perspective of respondents in mind. Diversity of respondents’ backgrounds and experiences make the task of survey researchers more difficult. Researchers using survey instruments must avoid leading questions, jargons, emotional words, double-barreled questions, and biases. Among many other difficult decisions, survey researchers must choose to use closed or open ended questions. IV. EFFECTIVE QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN TIPS Survey researchers also face the question of length of surveys and question order. These issues are resolved through experience, nature of the study, characteristic of respondents, and the context of the study. V. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENT SURVEY FORMATS Researchers using social survey method are faced with choices among many formats each with advantages and disadvantages. The mail and self-administered format are cheaper and respondents have the time and convenience to check records. However, low response rate is big problem with this format. Other formats include telephone interviews, face-to-face interviews and web surveys. VI. SURVEY INTERVIEWING A. The Interviewer’s Role Interviews are special social relations between and interviewer and a respondent. It is a shortterm interaction that requires special roles. Many factors are salient to a successful interview. Respondents may substitute role , perceive interview as a bureaucratic exercise, or an intimate conversation, or a referendum, or a testing situation, or a contest. The interviewer is required to control the interaction while remaining neutral. The interviewer cannot display emotional reaction, must remain nonjudgmental and help to reduce fear and suspicion. B. Interview Stages The interview follows three major stages. At the introductory stage, the interviewer gains access to and secure the cooperation of the respondent. In the main part, questions are forwarded and answers are recorded. At this stage, a good interviewer uses effective probes to obtain reliable and truthful answers. In the exit stage, the interviewer leaves the respondent to find another place for editing the questionnaire and adding useful notes of observations and comments.

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C. Training Interviewers Proper training, appearance, and personal characteristics such as voice quality, poise, tact, intelligence, honesty, maturity, are many of the factors for selecting interviewers. In addition, many hours of training and introduction to the survey method are required. D. Using Probes Probes are useful interviewer skills but they are also likely to produce undesirable effects such as shaping respondents’ response. Skillful probing techniques can provide clarity and improve accuracy in responses. E. Interview Bias Interviewer attitudes and behavior have effect on respondent answers. More troubling is the fact that interviewer race, gender, ethnicity, and other physical characteristics have impact on types of responses. Generally, similarity in physical characteristic of interviewer and respondent tend to produce the most accuracy in responses. F. Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Computer assisted telephone interviews use computers and telephones to connect the respondent to the interviewer and the survey instrument. They reduce interviewer error and increases data processing speed. VII. THE ETHICAL SURVEY Like other forms by which data is collection, survey lends itself to abuse and unethical practices. Surveys are used for invasion of privacy, violations of the rule of voluntary and informed consent, and some people use pseudosurvey as a cover to sell an idea or product as well as to change respondents’ views and practices. Media misuse in reporting survey findings is also rampant.

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Key Terms Closed-Ended Question: survey question in which respondents must choose among fixed answer choices (p. 160) Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI): telephone survey technology that integrates interviewing over the phone with a computer for the questionnaire and data entry (p. 174) Contingency Question: a two-part question in which a first question screens who gets the second question (p. 165) Control Variable: a variable that represents a possible alternative explanation to the main hypothesis being tested; often control variables are measured in survey research with questions in addition to measures of the independent and dependent variables (p. 154) Correlational Research: any nonexperimental study in which correlations in data are examined and cause-effect relations are shown indirectly (p. 144) Double-Barreled Question: a confusing survey question that includes two or more ideas (p. 157) Full-Filter Question: a contingency survey question that first asks whether a respondent knows about an issue, then only asks those with knowledge about the issue (p. 163) Interview Schedule: a questionnaire specifically designed for an interviewer asking respondents the questions (p. 154) Leading Question: a survey question worded such that respondents are pushed to a specific answer or position (p. 158) Open-Ended Question: survey question that allow respondents to give any answer (p. 160) Order Effects: when the ordering of survey questions influences how respondents answer them (p. 167) Probe: a neutral request made by an interviewer to clarify an ambiguous answer, complete an incomplete answer, or obtain a relevant response (p. 171) Quasi-Filter Question: a closed-ended survey question that includes a choice for respondents who have no opinion or do not know about an issue (p. 163) Questionnaire: a fixed collection of questions used in a social survey that respondents’ answer (p. 154) Social Desirability Bias: a tendency for survey respondents to answer in a way that conforms to social expectations or makes them look good rather than to answer honestly (p. 165) Standard-Format Question: a closed-ended survey question that does not offer a “don’t know” or “no opinion” option (p. 163)

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Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1: Design a Two-Page Mail Questionnaire The only way to learn in depth about how to write survey questions is to write some. It helps to look at the questions in existing surveys, but often they do not ask what you want to find out. So you need to write your own questions. Pick a topic and design your own 10- to 15-item questionnaire for a mail survey. Remember that in a mail survey you need to be very explicit and clear because the respondent cannot ask anyone for clarification. In total, your questionnaire should be two pages long. Include 1 contingency question 1 partially open question 1 open-ended question 5 or more quasi-filter questions 2–5 demographic questions (age, education, race, marital status) Activity 2: Complete an Online Survey Go to the Allyn and Bacon web site at and locate a survey designed for readers of this textbook. Complete the survey (it should not take more than 5 minutes). After you complete the survey, answer the following four questions: 1. Did you feel any questions had social desirability bias? If so, which ones? 2. Where there any closed-end answer formats that did not offer choices that fit you? If so, which ones? 3. Were all answer choices mutually exclusive and exhaustive? If not, which ones? 4. Were any questions too vague and ambiguous? If so, which ones? Activity 3: Conduct short Face-to-Face Interviews Locate five adults to interview; these can be friends, relatives, co-workers, neighbors, and so on. This is not an official study and you will not be interviewing strangers, so IRB approval probably is not needed. Pick questions from the surveys of official survey organizations (see Roper, Gallup, pollingreport.com for hundreds of questions. Include some demographic questions (e.g., age, years of schooling). The interview topic should be non-controversial and not involve intimate personal information. Write out all your questions before you begin, and use closedended questions. The interview should last at least 10 minutes. Follow the stages of an interview and the role of a survey interview discussed in this chapter.

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Activity 4 Find print media (newspapers, magazine) reports on the results of two different surveys. Find out how many details about the methodology are reported. Specifically focus on the following: Survey 1

Survey 2

Media report/source Survey organization Sample size Method of survey Date of survey

Additional Class Exercises and Activities Activity 5- Examining Survey Instruments Request that students find copies of surveys they have received or find some on the internet. Distribute these in class and ask students to sit in groups to discuss them. List several problems that surveys typically show such as wording, vagueness, wordiness, emotionality, double-barrel, and other biases, and ask students to identify problems they find with their survey instrument and suggest ways to improve them.

Video Resources 1. Reports, Surveys, Questionnaires, and Describing Data (CD-ROM): This insights video CD-ROM media shows the structure of various survey methods of data collection and survey data analysis. http://www.insight-media.com/ 2. Research Design: The Survey: This program explains the survey data collection process can be done using questionnaire and how the results can be analyzed. http://www.insightmedia.com/

Online Resources 1. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survey.htm 2. http://www.amstat.org/sections/srms/ 3. http://www.bls.gov/ore/home.htm 4. http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/~palmquis/courses/survey.html 5. http://clem.mscd.edu/~davisj/prm2/survey1.html

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Suggested Readings cited in the Book Bradburn, Norman M., and Seymour Sudman. 1980. Improving interview method and questionnaire design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brewer, Paul, and Clyde Wilcox. 2005. “Trends: Same-Sex Marriage and Civil Unions” Public Opinion Quarterly 69:599–616. avis, Darren, and Brian Silver. 2003. “Stereotype Threat and Race of Interview Effects in a Survey on Political Knowledge.” American Journal of Political Science 47:33–45. Foddy, William. 1993. Constructing questions for interviews and questionnaires. New York: Cambridge University Press. Hurwitz, Jon and Mark Peffley. 2005 “Playing the Race Card in the Post-Willie Horton Era: The Impact of Racialized Code Words on Support for Punitive Crime Policy.” Public Opinion Quarterly 69(1):99–112 Schuman, Howard, and Stanley Presser. 1981. Questions and answers in attitude surveys: Experiments on question form, wording and content. New York: Academic Press. Smith, Tom W. 1987. “That which we call welfare by any other name would smell sweeter.” Public Opinion Quarterly 51(1):75–83.

Additional Readings on Survey Research Method 1. Alwin, Duane. 1997. “Feeling Thermometers Versus 7-point Scales.” Sociological Methods & Research. 25(3):318-340 In this paper, the author tests two competing hypotheses about rating scales and the number of response categories. One hypothesis posits that more categories results in greater information and more measurement precision while the other posits vulnerability to systematic measurement error. The second hypothesis was rejected and the first that claims greater precision for more categories was supported. This paper will allow the student to see simple hypothesis testing. 3. Tourangeau, Roger and Ting Yan. 2007. “Sensitive Questions in Surveys.” Psychological Bulletin. 133(5):859-883 This paper reports that social desirability introduces distortions in survey data and other standard measures. The researchers conclude that misreporting about sensitive topics is common and situational in social research to avoid embarrassment in front of interviewers or other third parties. After reading this paper, the student will understand that social research is complicated and less objective mainly because the subjects of research are people.

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CHAPTER

7 The Experiment

Chapter Summary The importance of comparison in research is underscored throughout this book. The author emphasizes the importance of establishing causal relations as the ultimate goal of social research. In this chapter, the social research method that takes this goal to higher heights and meets most of the crucial challenges of establishing causal relations is the experimental method. The three conditions for establishing causality are more clearly met in the experimental method than in any other research method by which social researchers collect data. Data collected using this method also uses the power of statistical analysis to provide useful conclusions. Experiments take the form of many designs, and most of these are classified as classical designs, pre-experimental, or quasi-experimental designs. Researchers use notations to make the understanding of these designs much easier. The experimental method also has other advantages which include providing greater control for alternative explanations and controlling many threats that hinder internal validity of many other social research designs. Experiments, like other methods of data collection, have weaknesses. As opposed to other methods that tend to have greater external validity, a feature in data collection methods lends to greater ability to generalize, results from experimental methods are difficult to generalize to a larger population beyond the experimental group. Also, the use of proper random sampling does not work very well in experimental methods. Experiments also tend to focus on fewer variables and hypothesis, limiting their ability to reflect the real world of complex interconnections. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Explain the basic logic of the experimental method. 2. Identify and discuss research questions that are suitable for experimental research. 3. Understand the role of comparison and random assignment in social experimentation. 4. Explain the main components of the experimental design. 5. Explain the steps involved in conducting an experiment. 6. Differentiate between true experimental, pre-experimental, and quasi-experimental designs. 7. Distinguish between an experimental and control group in an experiment. 8. Identify the role of pretest and posttest in experimental designs. 9. Use notation to explain basic experimental designs. 10. Explain internal and external validity in social research. 11. Identify threats to internal and external validity. 12. Identify ethical issues related to social experiments.

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Chapter Outline I. DOING EXPERIMENTS IN EVERYDAY LIFE Social experiments use the same basic logic as experiments in the natural sciences. It extends commonsense logic of comparison by adding levels of systematic and careful logic, observation, and recording. Doing experiment refers generally to comparing situations before and after a modification or comparing two things that are similar in all respects but one. Experimental research is the strongest design for testing causal relationships because it satisfies all three conditions for causality (temporal order, association, elimination of an alternative explanation). In experiment studies, we do three things: 1. Start with cause-effect hypothesis 2. Modify a situation or introduce a change. 3. Compare outcomes with and without the modification. II. WHAT QUESTIONS CAN YOU ANSWER WITH THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD? Like other research techniques, social experimental research is suited to answer certain research questions and not others. It answers questions related to causal relations between few variables under controlled environments in smaller settings. Experiments are constrained by ethical concerns and practical constraints. The ideal in social research is to combine findings about the same social situation using multiple research approaches such as survey and experimental methods. III. WHY ASSIGN PEOPLE RANDOMLY? The strength of the experimental design is to compare, and the basic logic is to do comparison among things and situations that are similar in every respect except in that which is being studied. The goal of an experimental design, therefore, is to isolate the causal mechanism for that difference. To make groups equal for comparison, experimental designs can use matching to ensure that groups are truly equal in all respects. This is difficult to achieve in real life because people differ along too many dimensions for counting. Many experimental designs therefore use the more practical approach of randomization or random assignment. IV. DO YOU SPEAK THE LANGUAGE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN? Using the experimental design require familiarity with the language of social experimentation and the various arrangements of groups and interventions to ensure proper planning, reliable results, and correct interpretation of results. The independent variable, also called a treatment or stimulus, is the condition that the researcher controls and manipulates to observe the effect of these changes on the dependent variable which is measured one or more times. In a pretest, the dependent variable is measured before the independent variable is introduced by the researcher. A posttest measures the dependent variable after the independent variable has been introduced to the subjects. Experiments use one or more groups. If one group is used to experience multiple situations, the design is a repeated measures experimental design. If multiple groups are used, it is called an independent group design. In a multiple group design, the group or groups that experience the independent variable are the experimental groups, and the control group does not experience the independent variable.

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A. Managing Experiments The key to reliable experimental data and accurate causal explanation is correct setup procedures and careful management of the entire process and setting. Use of deception, confederates, and other false communication and setup tools are helpful in many experiments for the purpose of obtaining true social response. However, these tactics raise fundamental ethical questions of which the social researcher needs to be aware. B. Types of Experimental Design Learning how to combine the various components (random assignment, pretest, posttest, control group, experimental group) of the experimental design is an important skill, and social experimenters accomplish this in myriads of ways. Some of the standard designs that provide models for creative configurations are grouped into true experimental, pre-experimental, and quasi-experimental designs. The Classical Experimental Design is the basic model of the true experimental design group. The design combines all the components in a simple model with a pretest and posttest and an experimental and control group. In the true experimental design group falls other designs such as the Two-Group Posttest only Design, the Solomon Four-Group Design, the Latin Square Design, and Factorial Design. In the pre-experimental group, typically designs that lack random assignment, are included the One-Shot Study Design, One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design, and the Static Group Comparison design. Quasi-experimental designs include the Interrupted Time Series design and the Equivalent Time Series design. C. Design Notation Designing an experimental configuration suitable for any particular social research is made easy with the use of standard scientific notations that allow other researcher is quickly grasp the logic of your design. The three basic notations are ‘O’ for dependent variable, ‘X’ for independent variable, and ‘R’ for random assignment. D. Looking at an Experiment’s Internal Validity Since the basic logic of the experimental design is to eliminate alternative explanation for the relationship between a dependent and independent variable, anything other than the effect of the independent variable that influences a change in the dependent variable is called a threat to internal validity. These threats include selection bias, history, maturation, testing, experimental mortality, contamination or diffusion of treatment, and experimental expectancy. The design configurations of the experimental approach are utilized to minimize these threats as much as possible given the social circumstances, the setting, and ethical considerations. E. External Validity and Field Experiments Social research has another important objective, the application of study findings to a larger context. Any condition that affects our ability to make study results relevant for a broader social context is referred to as threats to external validity. One such threat is the fact that participants may not be representative of the characteristics of the population to which we desire to generalize our results. Others include artificiality of the experimental setting, artificial treatment, and reactivity of research participants to study conditions. Controlled laboratory social experiments have high internal but weak external validity. Social researchers use other kinds of experiments and observations to increase external validity Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 52


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of a study, but at the cost of internal validity. Field experiments are planned to observe participants in their natural setting, sometimes unaware of being the subjects of an observation. Natural experiments or ex post facto studies are unplanned field data used after the fact. Clearly, these approaches have ethical implications. V. HOW TO BE ETHICAL IN CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS The intrusiveness of many experimental designs are cause for ethical concerns such as causing physical and emotional distress, embarrassment, fear, or anxiety. Additionally, false communication and deceptions are used. The golden rule is to induce as minimal a discomfort to participants as is necessary to achieve a clear and socially acceptable research purpose. Immediate debriefing of participants is extremely important. Key Terms Classical Experimental Design: an experimental design that has all key elements that strengthen its internal validity: random assignment, control and experimental groups, and pretest and protest (p. 186) Confederates: people who work for an experimenter and mislead participants by pretending to be another participant or an uninvolved bystander (p. 186) Control Group: experimental group in an experiment with multiple groups, a group of participants that does not receive the independent variable or receives a very low level of it (p. 185) Debrief: an interview or talk with participants after an experiment ends in which you remove deception if used and try to learn how they understood the experimental situation (p. 199) Design Notation: a symbol system to express the parts of an experimental design with X, O, and R (p. 193) Double-Blind Experiment: an experimental design to control experimenter expectancy in which the researcher does not have direct contact with participants. All contact is through assistants from whom some details are withheld (p. 196) Experimental Design: how parts of an experiment are arranged, often in one of the standard configurations (p. 186). Experimental Group: in an experiment with multiple groups, a group of participants that receives the independent variable or a high level of it (P. 185) External Validity: an ability to generalize experimental findings to events and settings beyond the experimental setting itself (p. 196) Factorial Designs: an experimental design in which you examine the impact of combinations of two or more independent variable conditions (p. 188) Field Experiment: an experiment that takes place in a natural setting and over which experimenters have limited control (p. 197) Hawthorne Effect: a type of experimental reactivity in which participants change due to their awareness of being in a study and the attention they receive from researcher (p. 197) Independent Group Design: experimental designs in which you use two or more groups and each gets a different level of the independent variable (p. 185) Interaction Effects: the effect of two or more independent variables in combination on a dependent variable that is beyond or different from the effect that each has alone (p. 189) Internal Validity: the ability to state that the independent variable was the one sure cause that produced a change in the dependent variable (p. 195) Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 53


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Main Effects: the effect of a single independent variable on a dependent variable (p. 189) Natural Experiment: events that were not initially planned to be experiments but permitted measures and comparisons that allowed the use of an experimental logic (p. 199) Placebo: a false or non-effective independent variable given to mislead participants (p. 196) Posttest: a measure of the dependent variable after independent variable has been introduced in an experiment (p. 185) Pre-Experimental Designs: Experimental designs that lack one or more parts of the classical experimental design (p. 190) Pretest: a measure of the dependent variable prior to introducing the independent variable in an experiment (p. 185) Quasi-Experimental Designs: experimental designs that approximate the strengths of the classical experimental design but do not contain all its parts (p. 192) Random Assignment: sort research participants into two or more groups in a mathematically random process (p. 182) Reactivity: a threat to external validity due to participants modifying their behavior because they are aware that they are in a study (p. 197) Repeated Measures Design: an experimental design with a single participant group but that receives different levels of the independent variable (p. 185)

Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 A good way to learn about experimental designs is to practice diagramming experimental studies using design notation. Diagram the study by Rummel and others (2003) in Appendix C, “Do Pictoral Mnemonic Text-Learning Aids Give Students Something Worth Writing About,” and answer these questions: How many participants in total were involved? How was the dependent variable measured? What is the treatment? Activity 2 A very important aspect of experimental research are the threats to internal validity. Read the following experiment along with its results and determine which threats, if any, might be operating in each of four experimental conditions. Dr. Wacko wanted to see whether sex, drugs, or rock and roll improved student selfesteem more than traditional counseling or no treatment at all over a six-week period. He randomly assigned four groups of 30 students to two groups. In all four groups the control group received no special treatment. In Experimental Group A, he gave the students favorable information about illegal drug use, supplied them with quantities of several types of illegal drugs free of charge, and encouraged them to try the drugs. In Experimental Group B, he told the students about the history of rock and roll and gave them MP3 players with a large quantity of rock and roll music. He also encouraged them to listen to the music at least six hours per day. In Experimental Group C, he told the students the benefits of premarital sex and encouraged them to experiment with sexual behavior. He introduced them to attractive members Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 54


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of the opposite sex who had very liberal sexual attitudes. He also supplied them with contraceptives and private rooms. In Experimental Group D, he placed the students in traditional counseling to improve self-esteem. Note: He measured self-esteem with a questionnaire in which self-esteem went from 0 = very negative to 100 = very positive. Here are his results; the number in parentheses () is the number of participants. Self-Esteem Score and (Number of Students) Pretest A Experimental 65 (15) Control 60 (15) B. Experimental 65 (15)) Control 45 (15) C. Experimental 66 (15) Control 65 (15) D Experimental 64 (15) Control 63 (15)

Posttest 63 (13) 66 (14) 89 (14 79 (14) 90 (6) 67 (14) 88 (14) 66 (15)

Activity 3 Here is a simple field experiment you can replicate, although you may need to get prior approval from your college IRB (discussed in Chapter 3). The study looked at the “Lady Macbeth effect.” If you ever read or saw play Shakespeare’s Macbeth, you may remember Lady Macbeth’s famous line, “Out, damned spot! Out, I say!” when the guilt of a bloody murder overcomes her. The researchers hypothesized that people who feel greater guilt or shame are more likely to desire cleanliness. They randomly divided students into two groups. One group was asked to recall an unethical act from their past, such as betraying a friend, telling a lie, and so forth. They were to think about it and write it down. The other group was told to reflect on a positive ethical deed they had done, such as returning lost money. Afterward, the students were given their choice of one of two gifts for their participation: either a pencil or an antiseptic wipe. The researchers hypothesized that participants who had reflected on a shameful act would be more likely to take the wipe. To see what they found, refer to the article by Chen-Bo Zhong and Katie Liljenquist. “Washing Away Your Sins,” Science, September 8, 2006, vol. 313, no. 5792, pp. 1451–1452. Did you find the same thing as the researchers found? Additional Class Exercises and Activities Activity 4- Practicing the Experimental Method Divide the class into small groups and ask each group to come up with a research question that could be answered using the experimental method. Using notations, ask each group to design an experiment using one of experimental designs provided in the text or some variation. Each group must identify both the independent and dependent variables and show how the experiment will be used to provide answers to their experimental question.

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Video Resources 1. Understanding Psychology: Experimental Methods in Psychology: The video program examines the experimental method, especially in its use in psychology, to demonstrate the power and limitations of data collection using this technique. http://www.insightmedia.com/ 2. Introduction to Designing Experiments: The use of the experimental method is demonstrated in this video as a researcher designs an experiment, discovers flaws, and redesigns to capture social phenomena. It also introduces the student to hypothesis formulation and testing. http://ffh.films.com

Online Resources on the Experimental Method 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiment 2. http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~bbrown/psyc1501/methods/exptl.htm 3. http://www.parmly.luc.edu/hearing/ExpMethod.htm 4. http://www.holah.karoo.net/experimental_method.htm 5. http://www.colby.edu/biology/BI17x/expt_method.html

Suggested Readings cited in the Book Ong, Andy S. J., and Colleen A. Ward. 1999. “The Effects of Sex and Power Schemas, Attitudes toward Women, and Victim Resistance on Rape Attributions.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29:362–376. Palmgreen, Philip, Lewis Donohew, Elizabeth Pugzles Lorch, Rick Hoyle, and Michael Stephenson. 2001. “Television Campaigns and Adolescent Marijuana Use.” American Journal of Public Health 91:293–296. Payne, B. Keith. 2001. “Prejudice and Perception.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81:181–192. Rummel, Nikol, Joel Levin, and Michelle Woodward. 2003. “Do Pictorial Mnemonic TextLearning Aids Give Students Something Worth Writing About?” Journal of Experimental Psychology 95:327–334. Scribner, Richard, and Deborah Cohen. 2001. “The Effect of Enforcement on Merchant Compliance with the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law.” Journal of Drug Issues 31:857–867. Tan, Alexis, et al. 2001. “Changing Negative Racial Stereotypes: The Influence of Normative Peer Information.” Howard Journal of Communication 12:171–180. Zhong, Chen-Bo, and Katie Liljenquist. 2006. “Washing Away Your Sins.” Science [September 8, 2006] 313(5792):1451–1452.

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Additional Readings on the Experimental Method 1. Nichols, David.1993. “Outgrowing Physics Envy: Reconceptualizing Social Research.” Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal. 15(1):51-72. Use of the experimental method in social science research can be problematic. This paper explains that social research does not have to be like physics research in order to be objective. After reading this paper, students will understand the importance of nonexperimental methods as useful in social science research. 2. Kardes, Frank R.. 1996. “In Defense of Experimental Consumer Psychology.” Journal of Consumer Psychology. 5(3):279-296 This paper is a response to major criticisms against the usefulness of the experimental method in the social sciences that it is too reliant on settings that are artificial, that it relies too heavily on college students as participants who may not represent the real world, and that the application of experimental results to practical problems is limited. The paper will help to shed more light on the criticisms of the experimental method discussed in this chapter. 3. Rose, Arnold M.. 1948. “Conditions of the Social Science Experiment.” American Sociological Review. 13(5):616-619. The author explains the usefulness of the experimental method to social research to extend knowledge. However, the use of experiments in the social sciences must be pursued with a clear understanding of the nature of social science data compared to data in the biological and physical sciences. 4. Wilson, Timothy. 2005. “The Message Is the Method: Celebrating and Exporting the Experimental Approach.” Psychological Inquiry. 16(4):185-193 In this paper, the values and virtues of the experimental method in social research is commended. Using social psychology as an example, the author emphasizes that the experimental method is powerful in explaining social phenomena, and that the method can be used in creative ways to address applied social problems as it was used in action research. 5. Cummings, E. Mark. 1995. “Usefulness of Experiments for the Study of the Family.” Journal of Family Psychology. 9(2):175-185. The second paper addresses the need for and the usefulness of the experimental method to family research in explaining causal relations, directions, and effects of family variables. The author examines the advantages of this method in relation to other methods for examining causality in social science research.

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8 Research with Nonreactive Measures

Chapter Summary Social research topics are diverse and complex. One area of research in social science is answering questions about people from sources of data that do not react to the researcher. In previous chapters, we encountered many ethical issues related to interacting with subjects with emotions, life, and culture. Social researchers also have to worry about sources that do not have these characteristics, raising a new set of ethical concerns. The nonreactive research method concerns collecting data from objects and from sources that present information in existing forms such as word, symbols, and graffiti. Researchers using these sources are at risk to the dangerous thinking that information obtained from these inanimate sources can be treated in any manner without consequences to real people. The truth, however, is that real lives, reputations, and real emotions lay buried in the stacks of information from these sources and should be treated as such. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Explain reactivity and nonreactivity in data collection. 2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of analyzing physical evidence. 3. Define content analysis. 4. Explain the coding process in content analysis. 5. Explain the five characteristics of variables used in content analysis. 6. Distinguish between latent and manifest coding. 7. Explain intercoder reliability. 8. Describe the steps in content analysis research. 9. Provide examples of social indicators. 10. Identify the limitations of using existing statistics. 11. Explain the ethical issues in quantitative nonreactive research. Chapter Outline I. TRASH CAN BE GOOD DATA Among the diverse ways in which social information makes itself available to social researchers are those considered to be nonreactive. Quantitative researchers have adopted techniques to study some of these social situations. The following sections examine some of the techniques adopted to conduct such studies. II. ANALYZING PHYSICAL EVIDENCE FOR CLUES ABOUT SOCIAL LIFE Physical evidence abounds in society and social researchers have discovered creative ways in which these materials, such as trash, graffiti, and school yearbook, can be analyzed to provide insights about social life and to confirm knowledge from direct reactive evidence. Like all social research, creativity and interest leads researchers to examine many of these sources of data. However, inference from these sources must be made through indirect techniques. This poses Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 58


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limitations for making correct interpretations, and identifying useful patterns, and eliminating alternative explanations in large samples. Possible ethical problems with this research technique include privacy violation. III. REVEALING THE CONTENT BURIED WITHIN COMMUNICATION MESSAGES Social researchers also use content analysis to study hidden and visible symbols, words, meanings, themes, ideas in communication massages. As a quantitative tool, researcher develop coding systems to record contents by counting visible items (manifest coding) as well as to record invisible attributes such as themes (latent coding). The characteristics of variables usually measured are direction, frequency, intensity, space, and prominence. Statistical techniques are then used to see relationship between variables that emerge from communication contents. Systems for measuring coder reliability are also employed to measure consistency of coders and the dependability of data obtained. Content analysis is also sensitive to the cultural context of data. Like other typical quantitative research methods, the researcher using content analysis follows series of steps that include formulation of a research question, identifying text to analyze, deciding on a unit of analysis, drawing a sample, creating a coding system, coding the data, and engaging in analysis of the data. IV. MINING EXISTING STATISTICAL SOURCES TO ANSWER NEW QUESTIONS Other forms of nonreactive measures include using public data and secondary data to answer new research questions. The researcher must be familiar with the sources and existing information to be able to properly utilize data. The researcher must first searches for existing statistical information and then conceptualizes the existing data into variables, formulate hypotheses, and then use statistical techniques to test hypotheses. The primary measures in existing statistics are social indicators such as number of hours people volunteer per year. The sources of data include government, agencies, and companies. Some of the problems with such data are missing data, reliability and validity of data and knowledge about the information on which data is provided. The researcher has to creatively think about how best to use these existing data to formulate variables of interest. Secondary data analysis is also a method by which researchers interact with data that they did not collect but which can be reorganized and analyzed to address new research questions. V. CONDUCTING ETHICAL NONREACTIVE RESEARCH Because people who are studied in reactive research are not directly involved with the research, ethical concerns are not primary in these research methods. Privacy issues are of concern in physical evidence analysis. In the analysis of official existing statistics, the researcher must be aware of implicit assumptions about policy priorities and social values. Measures included in these forms are likely to contain the selective views of officials and rulers.

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Key Terms Ecological Fallacy: mistaken interpretations that occur when you use data for a higher or bigger unit of analysis to examine a relationship among units at a lower or small unit of analysis (p. 222) Coding System (in content analysis): a set of instructions or rules stating how text was systematically measured and converted into variables (p. 209) Content Analysis: a non-reactive technique for studying communication messages (p. 208) Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness: when statistical information is reported in a way that gives a false impression of its precision (p. 222) General Social Survey (GSS): a large scale survey with many questions of a large national sample of adult Americans conducted almost every year. Data from it are made available to researchers at low or no cost (p. 225) Intercoder Reliability: a measure of measurement consistency in content analysis when you have multiple coders (p. 211) Latent Coding: coding in content analysis in which you look for the underlying, implicit meaning in the content of a text (p. 210) Manifest Coding: coding in which you record information about the visible, surface content in a text (p. 210) Nonreactive Research: a collection of research techniques in which the people in the study are unaware that someone is gathering information or using it for research purposes (p. 206) Social Indicator: any measure of social conditions or well-being that can be used in policy decisions (p. 217) Standardization: adjusting a measure by dividing it by a common base to make comparisons possible (p. 224) Text (in content analysis): it means anything written, visual, or spoken in a communication medium (p. 208) Unobtrusive Measures: most nonreactive research measures do not intrude or disturb a person, so the person is unaware of them (p. 206) Teach ing Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 Locate eight trashcans in public places (such as a classroom, student lounge, or waiting room). Obtain permission from a person in charge of the area and take the content of the trashcan and catalog the types of items you find for each of 10 days, five weekdays in a row, for two weeks. This gives you 10 observations from eight locations. Are there patterns in what you find, either by location or day? Activity 2 Content analyze television commercials (not including ones for upcoming TV shows or public service advertisements) by first developing a recording sheet. The sheet should have the (1) television network (2) day of week, (3) time of day, and (4) estimated price of product: (a) under $10, (b) $10–$100, (c) $101–$500, (d) $501–$10,000, (e) over $10,000. Pick two TV networks, and four days–two weekdays and both weekend days. Divide the time of day into four parts: Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 60


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morning (8 A.M. to noon), afternoon (noon to 5 P.M.), early evening (5 P.M. to 9 P.M.), and late evening (9 P.M. to midnight). Now observe each network each day for each time slot (you may enlist a friend to help). After you gather the data, do you find patterns by the price of products based on time of day or by day of the week? Are the two networks the same or different? Activity 3 Go online to the Statistical Abstract of the United States http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/). Once there, click on Print Version to see many sections (chapters) with the topics they cover. Can you locate the following five pieces of information and the table an which it appears in the Statistical Abstract? a. What percentage of U.S. households reported that they owned a dog as a pet? b. What percentage of rapes/sexual assaults occurred in the victim’s home or place of lodging? c. What percentage of all youth, aged 12 to 17, engaged in ”binge drinking”? d. In terms of per capita (i.e., per person) consumption, which of the following was the highest (in terms of total pounds eaten)—beef, chicken, fish/shellfish, or pork? e. For the entire U.S. population (all ages, races, genders), what percent say they have serious limitations in activity caused by chronic health conditions because of a serious physical, mental, or emotional problem? Activity 4 Go online to the NORC Web site (http://www.norc.org/GSS+Website/ ). Click on Browse GSS variables, then Subject Index (be sure to look past the blank space in the upper half of the screen). Click on the letter D and find the survey question on the Military Draft. Look at the question Return to the Draft. Click on Trends at the bottom to see the years this question was in the GSS and overall support. What exactly did the GSS ask in this question? During what years did this question appear in the GSS? See if you can find out who is more in favor of the military draft, men or women. Internet Resources on Content and Textual Analysis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_analysis http://www.wsu.edu/~amerstu/pop/text.html http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/wyrick/debclass/rbvald.htm http://www.uvsc.edu/owl/info/pdf/types_of_writing/textual%20analysis.pdf http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/content/

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Suggested Readings cited in the Book Chavez, Leo. 2001. Covering Immigration. Berkeley: University of California Press. Downey, Liam. 2005. “The Unintended Significance of Race: Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit.” Social Forces 83:971–1007. Foster, Gary, Richard Hummel, and Donald Adamchak. 1998. “Patterns of conception, Natality and Morality from Midwestern Cemeteries.” Sociological Quarterly 39:473–490. Lauzen, Martha, and David Dozier. 2005. “Maintaining the Double Standard: Portrayals of Age and Gender in Popular Films.” Sex Roles 52:437–446. Quinn, Malcolm. 1994. The Swastika: Constructing the Symbol. New York Routledge. Rashotte, Lisa Slattery. 2002. “What Does That Smile Mean? The Meaning of Nonverbal Behaviors in Social Interaction” Social Psychology Quarterly 65(1): 92–102. Rathje, William, and Cullen Murphy.1992. Rubbish: The Archaeology of Garbage. New York: Vintage. Stevenson, Richard W. (Oct. 16, 1996). U.S. to revise its estimate of layoffs. New York Times.

Additional Reading on Textual Analysis Roberts, Carl W. 2000. “A Conceptual Framework for Quantitative Text Analysis.” Quality & Quantity. 34(3):259-275. This paper discusses various quantitative methods for textual analysis and their relevance to social science researchers by highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of textual analyses. After reading this paper, the student will become familiar with the ways in which social scientists analyze textual information.

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CHAPTER

9 Making Sense of Numbers

Chapter Summary This chapter brings the discussion of quantitative measures to an end until the general discussion of report writing in the last chapter. The quantitative methods, including experiments and surveys, quantify social facts and attempt to bring order to these numbers and make conclusions about social facts by using statistics. The chapter begins by showing how to assemble numbers in a coded format and how to clean the data in preparation for statistical analysis and interpretation. One of the ways in which data is examined is by doing univariate analysis. This means that the researcher analyzes the characteristics of a single variable to understand what the numbers say about the sample or group from which it is collected. However, the need to understand causality leads the researcher to the next level of analysis, the bivariate analysis. At this level, the statistical relationships between two variables are examined to detect independence or association. The complexity of social life and the understanding that no one event has only one exclusive cause leads the researcher to the third level of analysis, the multivariate analysis. Here, spurious causes are isolated and determined while other relationships of the causal mechanism are analyzed. The final level of analysis is the inferential level. At this level, the researcher makes an attempt to explain social phenomena in the population based on findings in the sample. This complications and implications of inferential statistics begin at the research design level. In the end, we recognize the intricate pattern in social research. Every step has consequences for the other steps. A mistake at any step and on any procedure affects the integrity of the research study as a whole. The need for caution in social research cannot be overemphasized. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Understand the importance of careful data coding and cleaning as important activities in proper research. 2. Explain the techniques used by researchers to describe the distribution and characteristics of one variable. 3. Explain the techniques used by researchers to describe relations between two variables. 4. Explain the relationships between measures of central tendency and the normal curve. 5. Identify the various measures of the spread of data around the center. 6. Describe the steps in creating a scattergram 7. Explain the significance of a scattergram in describing bivariate relations. 8. Explain the nature of positively and negatively skewed distributions. 9. Understand the significance of standard deviation and Z-score. 10. Read and interpret contingency tables. 11. Discuss the ideas of covariation and statistical independence. 12. Explain the role of multiple regression analysis in nonexperimental data analysis. 13. Discuss the logic of inferential statistics. 14. Explain the logic of statistical significance and level of significance. Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 63


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15. Describe type I and type II errors. Chapter Outline I. THE GROWING POPULARITY OF LIVING TOGETHER “IN SIN Numbers and statistics can help the researcher see trends and patterns in social relationships. Quantitative data is collected in the form of raw numbers that measures values of variables. These numbers are organized according to a system, entered into a computer and analyzed to show patterns of social relationships. II. WHAT TO DO ONCE YOU HAVE THE NUMBERS Raw data is organized according to rules and a system that the researcher creates in the form of a codebook. The codebook is valuable for understanding the meaning of numbers that will be analyzed. The coded data is transferred into a computer-readable grid form with rows representing a data record or case and each column representing a variable. III. CLEANING UP THE NUMBERS The process of coding data or information requires accuracy otherwise the research project can be jeopardized. Coded data must be verified to ensure accuracy before proceeding to statistical analysis. IV. HOW TO DESCRIBE QUANTITATIVE RESULTS Statistics, an applied mathematical field, allows us to summarize and manipulate numbers to analyze data using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate approaches for the purpose of describing and making inferences about social life. A. Looking at Results with One Variable Frequency distribution is the easiest way to present information about one variable, and this information can be presented in graphical formats using pie chart, bar chart, or histogram. Measures of central tendency, mean, mode, and median, are used to summarize variables in single numbers to show the middle of a distribution. The mode is the most frequently occurring value, while the median is the middle value above and below which half of the cases in the distribution fall (also called the 50th percentile). The mean is the arithmetic average as is the most useful of the measures of central tendency. The normal curve is a bell shape that approximates the distribution of many social phenomena with the measures of central tendencies falling in the middle of the distribution. However, many other distributions are positively or negatively skewed. Single variables are also described by the spread of their values around the center. These statistics include the range, percentiles, and the standard deviation. The standard deviation is the most widely used measure of spread and it shows the average distance between all scores and the mean. This measures is further refined into a Z-score that allows comparison of the same variable across populations. Other methods used by researcher to understand and display information about single variables include mapping techniques and timeline techniques.

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B. Results with Two Variables In addition to describing and presenting information and summaries about one variable, social researchers need to understand the relationship between two variables. Techniques and presentation methods used to simultaneously evaluate the relationship between two variables utilize bivariate statistics. The relationship between two variables is either one of covariation (one vary with the other) or statistical independence (variation in one does not depend on variation in the other). To find out whether a relationship (covariation) exists between two variables, statistical analysis uses scattergram, crosstabulation, or measures of association. Scattergram is a graphic representation of the bivariate relationship and works best when data is in the form of interval or ratio level measurement with many cases. A scattergram provides information about the form of the bivariate relationship by showing whether this is linear, curvilinear, or independent. It also provides information about the direction of the bivariate relationship in determining whether this is positive or negative. Finally, scattergram provides information to judge the degree of precision or closeness in the bivariate relation. To represent and understand bivariate relations about nominal level data as well as ordinal level data with fewer categories, crosstabulation or bivariate tables are handy. These tables condense information about two variables to show how distribution of cases in each category of one variable is contingent on distribution of categories of the other variable. They are expressed in terms of frequency counts in raw numbers or percentages. The third method by which bivariate relations are tested is the use of measures of association between two variables. These measures, using single numbers to precisely measure the strength of relationship, include Cramer’s V, Lambda, Gamma, and Chi-square. C. Results with More than Two Variables In studying social life, researchers attempt to provide explanations that eliminate possible alternative explanations or spuriousness. Experimental methods use attempt to do this by improving internal validity. Nonexperimental methods use control variables and statistical methods to achieve the same objective- the elimination of spuriousness. They measure variables that might provide alternative explanations (control variables) along with variables they belief provide better explanation. Statistical that simultaneously analyze multiple relationships are then used to estimate spuriousness as well as to measure the relative impact of several independent variables on the dependent variable. Multiple Regression Analysis is one of the most powerful and popular techniques used by social researchers to accomplish the multivariate goals. The technique allows the researcher to input several independent variables together to measure their collective and individual impact on the dependent variable. One of the important statistics produced by this technique is the standardized regression coefficient (beta) that tells the size and direction of the impact of each independent variable on the dependent variable. Another, the R-squared statistics, measures the collective prediction accuracy of the dependent variable by independent variables. An R2 of 20% is considered good in social research. D. Going Beyond Description: Inferential Statistics Social research goes beyond understanding the relationship between variables. An ultimate goal is to generalize result from studies of samples to a target population. Inferential statistics allow researchers to use probability theory to test hypotheses about a population using information obtained from a random sample. Statistical tests such as t-test and f-test use statistical Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 65


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significance to help researchers decide whether a variable relation observed in the sample is likely to hold in the population from which the sample was randomly selected. The most common level of statistical significance used by the scientific community as a guide to reach conclusions about the population is the .05 level. This level indicates that there is a 95% chance that the sample result reflects the population accurately; the researcher can safely reject the null hypothesis that this observed sample relationship is a chance occurrence in the population. Even though a higher or lower benchmark for making inferential decision can be used, the errors of falsely rejecting the null hypothesis (type I error) and the error of falsely accepting a null hypothesis (type II error) make this significance level a safer bet. In addition to this rule of thumb, researchers use other criteria such as substantive and theoretical information to support inferential statistics in reaching conclusions. Key Terms Codebook: a document that describes the coding procedure and the location of data for variables in a format that computers can use (p. 233) Contingency Table: a table with two or more variables that have been cross-tabulated (p. 248) Control Variable: variables measured in nonexperimental research studies that represent alternative explanations for a causal relationship (p. 252) Covariation: when two variable go together or are associated with one another (p. 244) Cross-Tabulation: placing two variables in a table at the same time allows you to see how cases that have values on one variable align with values on a second variable for those same cases (p. 248) Curvilinear Relationship: a nonlinear relationship between variables that shows on a scattergram as a U curve, right side up or upside down, or an S curve. (p. 246) Data Coding: the process of putting the raw quantitative information into a computer-readable format (p. 233) Data Record: information on one person, unit, case, or your unit of analysis in a computerfriendly format (p. 233) Frequency Distribution: a simple table showing how many, or what percent, of the cases fall into each variable category (p. 235) Level Of Statistical Significance: a simplified way to indicate the statistical significance of a relationship (p. 256) Mean: the measure of central tending that is the arithmetic average (p. 237) Measure of Central Tendency: one number that summarizes the center or main tendency is a set of numbers (p. 236) Median: measure of central tendency where one half is above and one-half is below, that is the mid-point (p. 237) Mode: measure of central tendency that is the most common value (p. 236) Negative Relationship: a connection between two variables such that as one rises the other variable falls, and vice versa (p. 246) Percentile: a score at a specific place in a set of numbers, such that a particular percent of scores is below that place (p. 239) Positive Relationship: a connection between two variables such that as one increases the other variable also increases, and vice versa (p. 246) Range: the highest and lowest ends of a set of numbers. (p. 238)

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Scattergram: a graph on which you plot the value of each case or observation. Each axis of the graph represents the values of one variable, and the graph can reveal bivariate relations (p. 244) Skewed Distribution: a distribution of cases that is not bell shaped or normal but instead has many cases at one of the extreme values (very high or very low) of a variable. (p. 237) Standard Deviation: a widely used measure of the variability of a variable that indicates the average distance of cases from the mean value (p. 239) Statistical Independence: the absence of an association or covariation between two variables (p. 244) Statistical Significance: a way to determine how likely sample results could be due to random processes (p. 255) Type I Error: the error of falsely rejecting a null hypothesis (p. 257) Type II Error: The error of falsely accepting a null hypothesis (p. 258) Z-Score: a standardized measure that allows comparisons of groups that differ in their means and standard deviations (p. 241)

Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 Quantitative data analysis builds on the arithmetic that you learned in elementary school and continued to learn about in later mathematics classes. People who love numbers tend to like this aspect of social research; those who have a phobia of numbers try to avoid this aspect of research. Today, computers do the “grunt work” of calculations. This makes our lives easier but means we can quickly lose touch of what is happening to the numbers. Let us explore calculations the old-fashioned way that everyone can appreciate. As you learned in this chapter, variation (or spread or dispersion of values/scores) is a critical aspect in quantitative data. The standard deviation is the common way to measure it, but the formula for it looks frightening at first. This is especially true when statisticians use Greek letters to symbolize its parts. This might have made sense back when most high school and college students knew some Greek, it seems strange today unless you are from Greece. Also, some people get “freaked out” by square roots. What the formula says in words is, The standard deviation = the square root of the “variance” in a set of scores. You get the variance by subtracting each score from the mean and then squaring that result. You must add together all the squared results and divide the total by the number of cases you have to get the variance. Recall that the mean is the total divided by the number of scores. All the steps sound complex as words. This is why we usually write it out as a formula with symbols (see Figure 9.7 for the square root formula). Now try to calculate the square root of the following four sets of scores. Each is size of eight pieces of fruit. For simplicity, use a hand calculator for taking square roots. Apples: 5 6 4 7 8 10 7 5 Bananas: 9 10 11 8 13 12 11 9 Cherries: 7 2 4 3 2 6 3 3 Dates: 2 3 2 1 2 4 5 4 What is the mean and variance for each fruit? What is the standard deviation of each? Which fruit has the greatest and the least amount of variation or dispersion?

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Activity 2 Data analysis means looking for patterns in a set of numbers. The numbers represent some aspect of the social world. You can put them into a visual representation (pie charts, histograms, scattergram) or percent tables to see such patterns. Look at the following table on support/oppose a law that would forbid abortions. Antiabortion Law Support Mixed Oppose Total

Men (%) 44 22 34 100

Women (%) 33 36 31 100

Answer the following questions: a. Which gender shows strongest support for a law against abortion? b. Which gender shows strongest opposition to a law against abortion? c. Is the male-female percent difference, or gender gap, greater in support or opposition? d. What is the more prominent position for the women? Acitivity 3 You usually want to compare results with something else. Let’s look at one chart in one study. First, locate the following article: “Race and Environmental Voting in the U.S, Congress,” Paul Mohai and David Kershner, Social Science Quarterly (2002), vol. 83, pp. 167–189. Look at the histogram on page 181 (Figure 4). You see eight bars or lines of different lengths, and the bars come in two shades. A note at the bottom says, “medium dark bar = Liberal Score and very dark bar = Environmental Score.” Along the left side, it says Percentage Support. The higher the bar, the greater the support— support is the votes by representatives in the U.S. Congress. At the bottom each bar has a label: South or Outside the South, indicating geographic location of states in the United States, and CBC or Non-CBC (CBC = Congressional Black Caucus). All African Americans are members of the CBC, and only African Americans belong, so this is an indicator of race. You are shown two dependent variables: percent support for liberal social issues, and percent support for environmental issues, and two independent variables: being a member of the CBC or not, and being from a Southern or non- Southern state. In sum, you have information about four variables in just few bars of different lengths. Now answer these questions about the results: a. Which geographic and racial group showed the most support for environmental issues? b. Which geographic and racial group showed the least support for environmental issues? c. Did the same people with most support on liberal social issues also show most support environmental issues? Activity 4 Z-scores frighten many people at first, but once you understand them, you will find them useful and easy to calculate. They are useful in many situations. Read the following, and calculate zscores for the women in the two companies, then answer the question. Samantha has been working at Company X for 10 years as the Human Resources manager. She went to school with Yilin, who has had the same position job at Company Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 68


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Y for the same amount of time. The companies are a similar size and are located in different cities, but the cities have a similar cost of living. Samantha and Yilin got together at a class reunion, and Samantha said she made $65,000 and was satisfied with that salary. Yilin said she also made $65,000 but complained and felt underpaid. The mean manager salary at Company X is $70,000 with a standard deviation of $5,000. At Company Y, the mean manager salary is $72,000 and the standard deviation is $1000. What would Yilin be earning if she made a comparable amount (that is, she had the same z-score) as Samantha?

Video Resources 1. Organizing Quantitative Data: This “Films for the Humanities” video provides strategies for data analysis using descriptive techniques and graphical presentation methods. It helps to student to see various ways of animating social data to enhance understanding. http://ffh.films.com 2. Inferential Statistics: The video demonstrates hard-to-understand mathematical concepts such as probability theory and other inferential statistics. It focuses on using the right statistics and tests for data analysis. http://ffh.films.com 3. Online Resources 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_analysis 2. http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/stat-data/Topics.htm#rrtopic 3. http://calcnet.mth.cmich.edu/org/spss/StaProcDesc.htm 4. http://www.umdnj.edu/idsweb/shared/statslct.htm 5. http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/Statistical_analyses.html

Suggested Readings cited in the Book Liefbroer, Aart C., and Edith Dourleijn. 2006. “Unmarried Cohabitation and Union Stability: Testing the Role of Diffusion Using Data From 16 European Countries.” Demography 43:203–221. Luker, Kristin. 1997. Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of Teenage Pregnancy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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Additional Readings on Literature Review 1. McHugh, Mary and Diane Hudson-Barr. 2003. “Descriptive Statistics, Part II: Most Commonly Used Descriptive Statistics.” Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing. 8(3):111-117 This paper provides an overview of the descriptive statistical methods used in social science research such as the distribution and graphical presentation of measures of central tendency and dispersion. After reading this paper, the student will reinforce information learned in this chapter. 2. Morgan, George and Jeffrey Gliner. 2003. “Measurement and Descriptive Statistics.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 38(10):1313-1316. 3. McHugh, Mary and Antonio Villarruel. 2003. “Descriptive Statistics, Part I: Level of Measurement.” Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing. 8(1):35-38. These papers discuss levels of measurement and presentation methods for descriptive statistics. These papers would reinforce knowledge about levels used in measuring variables and how they are used in statistical analyses.

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10 Observing People in Natural Settings

Chapter Summary The text moves beyond the predominantly quantitative approaches in social research to focus on approaches that are less likely to be deductive and numbers oriented, and to be more intuitive, interpretative, and concerned with words, norms, values, and contextual meaning. In this chapter, the author focuses on field research techniques, ethnography, and focus group studies. These situations are largely natural in setting, and social life is studied in ways that improve our ability to see life in action. Field research provides a model approach in qualitative studies that focus on micro level variables. The chapter explains the logic of this research approach that includes the need to understand the face-to-face interaction of people and for understanding the context of social behavior. The method is inductive, allowing the researcher the flexibility to develop tentative conceptual framework while developing conceptual categories in the field. The peculiar nature of the field research that calls for the involvement of the researcher in the daily activities of subjects calls for greater researcher social skills than any other method in social research. The ability of the researcher to communicate, negotiate, affiliate, and participate are invaluable. In addition, the researcher must be prepared to face risks and make decisions that are crucial and sudden. As a result, the personal life of the researcher is completely susceptible to the vicissitudes of the research field, something to which the deductive-quantitative approaches are largely immune. Additionally, the field researcher has an uncanny sense and ability to observe, commit to memory, organize facts and underlying rationale, orally express him or herself, and to communicate very well in writing. The nature of the field research, including other micro-level face-to-face methods such as ethnography and focus group, make it very appropriate to collect data about social life that would be near impossible to understand otherwise. As a result, the field research is susceptible to myriads of ethical concerns that require that the researcher using this technique become the beacon of ethical values in social research. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Explain the characteristics of field research. 2. Define ethnography 3. Discuss the role of the moderator in focus group studies. 4. Provide examples of settings for a field research. 5. Describe emotion work. 6. Explain the necessary psychological, observational, and social skills in preparations for a successful field research. 7. Outline the steps involved in field research. 8. Discuss the four factors that affect a choice of field site (containment, richness, unfamiliarity, suitability). 9. Discuss the importance of the gatekeeper to the field researcher. Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 71


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10. Discuss presentation of self, disclosure, and social roles in entering the field. 11. Explain some strategies for success in the field such as performing small favors, being the earnest novice, and adopting an attitude of strangeness. 12. Explain the process of sampling in the field research. 13. Explain descriptive, structural, and contrast questions in field research. 14. Explain the differences and similarities between a typical survey interview and a field interview. 15. Explain the ethical challenges in field research. Chapter Outline I. STUDYING EMOTION WORK Not all social situations or research questions can be studied effectively using quantitative methods. Field research is especially suited for research questions that are related to the study of natural settings. A good example of a study for which field research is well suited is emotion works. Emotion work involve employment in situations where conditions for job performance is intimately related to the display of certain emotions, mostly upbeat, cheerful, and friendly emotions, in spite of what true feeling the employee may have. Researchers who study these situations obtain qualitative information by personal involvement and participation in the work. II. WHAT IS FIELD RESEARCH? Field research methods produce qualitative data that cannot be produced by quantitative studies or the deductive process. Field research requires direct interaction with people, examination of micro-level activities, and exposure to the good and bad sides of social life. Field research includes ethnography, participant observation, ‘depth’ interviews, and focus groups. Ethnography, as an example of field research, involves detailed description and understanding of social life from the point-of-view of the insider or natives of a culture. It involves understanding and accurately interpreting explicit social knowledge and tacit social knowledge. It requires cultural knowledge of assumptions, values, symbols, songs, and other behaviors, perceptions, and attitudes. III. STUDYING PEOPLE IN THE FIELD To conduct research in the field, the researcher must develop a special orientation and obtain specialized skills of interaction, observation, and recording of data. A principle of field research, naturalism, requires becoming part of the world you study. This has implication for your emotional state, safety needs, physiological concerns that might expose you to rewards and risks. Another principle is flexibility to allow the researcher to easily adjust to fluid social situations and adopt and change data collection methods for maximum efficiency in the field. The field research, like other research methods, goes through phases. The first step is to prepare for the field of study by increasing self awareness, properly investigating background information about setting and subjects, preparing and honing observational skills such as listening, memory, detail orientation, and writing. Next is the stage of starting the research. The researcher gets organized by orienting attitudes, state of mind, and opening up the mind to new things, situations, and ideas. The researcher develops a general topic without narrowing it down too much. The researcher then selects the field site that may involve a physical place and other social dimensions. Factors that govern this selection include containment or a social situation that is not too fluid to make observations meaningless from time to time, richness of data, Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 72


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unfamiliarity, and suitability. The next step is to gain access to the research field. Being aware of factors that limit access to the field is important to avoid problems, especially getting permission of the gatekeeper. The researcher needs to enter the field conscious of the self to be presented, how much of self to disclose, and the social roles to adopt. Being in the field requires that the researcher acquire an understanding of the norms and values of the field, quickly normalize the research process by adjusting self and others to the social situations of the research, and build rapport and trust. The researcher also needs to continuously negotiate the various social levels of interaction and adjust degree of interaction as necessary for the research purpose by avoiding going native. To facilitate success in the field, field researchers are often required to build relationships, perform favors, appear interested in certain situations while exercising selective inattention to situations and circumstances to avoid suspicions and gain access to valuable information. The researcher must adopt attitudes and behavior that suit a new member of society that is eager to learn rather than eager to teach others and getting into conflicts. Field researchers are able to observe and collect data if they are resource, talented, and quick thinking. Their personal and subjective experiences and orientations are essential to the field data and interpretation. The researcher observes physical settings as well as people and their behavior. Waiting and appreciating the ordinary events in life is part of the training and experience of a good field researcher. Unlike the objective method of random sampling, field researchers are trained to do selective observations from all times, locations, people, situations, events and contexts. A field researcher is also trained to take notes and record memories of important observations. In the field, researchers must be trained to conduct interviews in unstructured, nondirective, and in-depth ways. Question types include descriptive questions, structured questions, and contrast questions. The field researcher obtains an informer who has understanding of the native culture, has time to speak with researcher and is not educated enough to impose academic analysis on narratives. Other stages in field research include leaving the field and writing the report. Ending the field research may come naturally as the researcher has enough information as is needed, or it may end abruptly due to contrived situations or because of time constraints. The researcher must plan for the exit phase and on how to disengage the field. This phase may produce emotional, physical, social, and economic costs to researcher and members of the social unit for which the researcher must be adequately prepared. In the writing phase, the researcher reports personal observations as well as observations of events. The writing skills of the researcher are very important in conveying data. The reports are usually longer and data come mostly in textual and visual forms. IV. ETHICS AND THE FIELD RESEARCHER Ethical concerns in the field arise from the need to conduct covert or overt observation. Privacy issues also become critical because many intimidate details and identities are disclosed to the researcher. Legal issues and safety issues also arise in field research. V. FOCUS GROUPS Another type of field research, focus groups study is a qualitative research technique that typically uses several small groups of 4-12 individuals to discuss similar topic or issue in a natural of special setting. The participants tend to be knowledgeable about the issue, have similar backgrounds but not members of same primary groups. The group sessions last between 45-90 Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 73


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minutes and is moderated by someone who poses open ended questions, directs the discussion in a free and open manner without allowing the domination by one member. Key Terms Analytic Notes: account of attempts to give meaning to field events (p. 281) Appearance of Interest: a micro strategy to build or maintain relationships in a field settings in which a researcher acts interested even when he or she is actually bored and uninterested (p. 275) Attitude of Strangeness: a perspective in which the field researcher questions and notices ordinary details by looking at the ordinary through the eyes of a stranger (p. 276) Ethnography: a detailed description of insider meanings and cultural knowledge of living cultures in natural settings (p. 264) Field Site: any location or set of locations in which field research takes place. It usually has ongoing social interaction and a shared culture (p. 269) Focus Group: a qualitative research technique that involves informal group interviews about a topic (p. 287) Gatekeeper: someone with the formal or informal authority to control access to a field site (p. 269) Going Native: when a field researcher drops a professional researcher role and loses all detachment to become fully involved as a full field site member (p. 273) Informant: a member in a field site with whom a researcher develops a relationship and who tells the researcher many details about life in the field state (p. 283) Jotted Notes: very short notes of a few words written inconspicuously in the field site that are used only to trigger memory later (p.280) Naturalism: the principle that we learn best by observing ordinary events in a natural setting, not in a contrived, invented, or researcher-created setting (p. 267) Normalize Social Research: how a field researcher helps field site members redefine social research from unknown and potentially threatening to something normal, comfortable, and familiar (p. 271) Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 A good way to learn about ethnography and field research is to read studies that use them. Locate three field research studies on different settings or topics. Many studies are book-length, but two journal sources are the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography and Qualitative Sociology. You can also try a keyword search of scholarly articles using the terms ethnography, participant observation, or field research. Look for the features outlined in Tips for the Wise Consumer box of this chapter. Activity 2 Doing detailed field research observation takes practice. Find a public social location that meets the criteria of a good field site and assume a total observer role for 30 minutes. Return to the same location 24 to 48 hours later for a second 30-minute observation period. During your first visit, notice everything about the physical setting using all your senses. After you leave the site, try to write down everything you can recall. During your second visit, (1) notice what you Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 74


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missed about the physical setting the first time that helps produce its atmosphere; and (2) notice the people—their number, age, gender, ethnicity—and entry/exit location. After you leave the site, try to write down everything you can recall. Two days later, reread your notes for both observations and add any other details you recall. Activity 3 You can learn to see social settings in a new light by drawing three types of field site maps: temporal, social, and spatial. Find a social location that meets the criteria of a good field site and assume a total observer role for 20 minutes. Return to the same site five times. Pick different days of the week and times of the day. After leaving the site, try to create each type of map. The spatial is usually the easiest, the temporal and social more difficult. Can you begin to see how the three types of maps capture and together begin to present a picture of life in the field site? Activity 4 Conduct an informal, open-ended Interview for about 15 minutes with someone who works full time as a waiter or waitress at a sit-down restaurant about “emotion work.” Do not use that term. Instead ask about specifics—do they have to “act nice,” “say pleasant things,” “smile when dealing with people who are difficult or rude,” and so forth? Try to get a sense of how they deal with unpleasant customers, the pressure on them from management, or tips to be nice and friendly. Have them recount specific instances or tell stories. Ask whether there is a gap between how they really feel and how they must act on the job. Do they hide their true emotions and feelings as part of the job? Have they ever let their true feelings show when they should not have? Additional Class Exercises and Activities Activity 5- The Focus Group Exercise The chapter provides a brief discussion of focus groups as an ideal method to examine an issue within a short time but with good quality qualitative data. Divide your class into groups of 5-7 people and give each a topic to read about (one topic for all the groups will work as well). Public policy issues, such as state laws, regulations, or general attitudes about education, immigration, or death sentence will be appropriate. Ask one student to be the moderator. Each student provides general questions about the issue which the moderator adds to and modifies for discussion. Using the guidelines in the chapter about focus group operation (open, nondirective), the moderator allows the group to discuss the issue for about 20 minutes. Give opportunity to each group to do the same while other groups observe. At the end of the exercise, ask the class to make observations about the effectiveness and limitations of this method. What could each group have done to improve the quality of data obtained?

Video Resources 1. Ethnomedical Field Research in the Amazon: This insight media video program looks at the methodology of field research in exploring for medicines from plants. www.insight-media 2. Marketing Research and Information: This “Films for the Humanities” video presents techniques used in marketing research including focus groups research and other methods. http://Ffh.films.com Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 75


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Online Resources on Field Research 1. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Brown/lauratp.htm 2. http://www.earthwatch.org/research 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_research 4. http://gangresearch.net/GangResearch/researchmeth.html 5. http://www.nri.org.pg/pages/field_research.htm

Suggested Readings cited in the Book Cushman, Penni. 2005. “It’s Just Not a Real Bloke’s Job: Male Teachers in Primary Schools.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 33:321–338. Davis, Fred. 1959. “The Cabdriver and His Fare: Facets of a Fleeting Relationship.” The American Journal of Sociology 65:158–165. Fine, Gary Alan. 1987. With the Boys: Little League Baseball and Preadolescent Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Gurney, Joan Neff. 1985. “Not one of the guys: The female researcher in a male-dominated setting.” Qualitative Sociology 8(1): 42–62. Hochschild, Arlie. 1983. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press. Katovich, Michael A., and Ron L. Diamond. 1986. “Selling Time: Situated Transactions in a Noninstitutional Environment.” The Sociological Quarterly 27:253–271. Michael A. Katovich and Ron L. Diamond 1986. “Selling Time: Situated Transactions In A Noninstitutional Environment.” Sociological Quarterly 27(2): 253–271. Perry, Pamela. 2001. “White Means Never Having to Say You’re Ethnic: White Youth and the Construction of “Cultureless” Identities.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 30(1): 56–91. Schweingruber, David, and Nancy Berns. 2005. “Shaping the Selves of Young Salespeople through Emotion Management.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography. 34:679–706. Sherman, Rachel. 2006. Classic Acts: Service and Inequality in Luxury Hotels. Berkeley: University of California Press. Van Maanen, John. 1991. “The Smile Factory: Work at Disneyland.” in P. Frost, L. Moore M. Luis, C. Lundberg, and J. Martin (eds.), Reframing Organizational Culture (pp. 58–76). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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Additional Readings on Field Research 1. Mead, Lawrence M. 2005. “Policy Research: The Field Dimension.” Policy Studies Journal. 33(4):535-557. The author addresses the question of realistic policy research and the importance of field research in making connections between government action and policy impacts in the field. The conclusion reached is that field research is an incontrovertible partner with quantitative analysis in understanding policy and program impacts. The paper will provide the student a perspective that extols the virtues of field research. 2. Esser, James and Richard Marriott. 1995. “Mediation tactics: A comparison of field and laboratory research” Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 25(17):1530-1546. This study provides a comparative analysis of field and experimental methods as they are used in mediation research. The authors challenge the view that field research is superior to experimental research in mediation. They provide comparative data and conclude that both methods are comparable in this area of research. After reading this article, the student will be able to see the characteristics of field research more closely as it is compared to the experimental method. 3. Vallaster, Christine. 2000. “Conducting Field Research in Asia: Fundamental Differences as Compared to Western Societies.” Culture & Psychology. 6(4):461-477. The author analyses the field research method based on experience in non Chinese societies compared to field research in western societies. The idea is to explain the gap between field research theory and practice especially in non-western cultures. After reading this paper, the student will see the complications in field research within the context of cross-cultural studies in regard to entering the field, maintaining contact, collecting data, and exiting the field. 4. Anderson, Leon, and Thomas Calhoun.. 1992. Facilitative Aspects of Field Research with Deviant Street Populations. Sociological Inquiry. 62(4):490-498. In this paper, the qualities of field research among deviant groups with regards to entry, access to settings and social relationships, and collection of data are examined. The authors conclude that field research is effective and an easier method to use in the study of deviant groups. 5. MacDougall, Colin. 2001. “Planning and Recruiting the Sample for Focus Groups and InDepth Interviews.” Qualitative Health Research. 11(1):117-127. The author focuses on the methodological issues in the use of sampling in focus groups and indepth interviews. The paper addresses issues in the literature relating to these research methods and suggests ways of improving the stages of preparation, contact, and follow-up. After reading the chapter and this paper, the student will appreciate the difficulties in the use of focus groups and how best to improve on the research design and implementation of this research approach.

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11 Looking at the Past and Across Cultures

Chapter Summary Social research that compares cultures and societies and that uses historical evidence, in addition to contemporary data, to explain societal differences tends to have great difficulty in accomplishing this task. As is evident in all the methodological approaches used by social scientists, measuring social phenomena is extremely difficult because conceptualization and operationalization of social issues at social and cultural levels is challenging. Attempting to find equivalences for concepts at different cultural, linguistic, historical, and cultural levels for comparison makes this task even more daunting. This is the charge of the historical-comparative (H-C) social researcher. Unlike the qualitative methods of field research to which the previous chapter was devoted, H-C research is suited to examining macro issues and comparisons across cultures and societies. It is specifically suited to extracting information from remote sources and about remote events to weld these together to make conclusions about social life. It uses historical narratives from different sources to create an abstraction of realities. Like qualitative research method, however, H-C also uses micro level data in conjunction with macro level data, utilizes the grounded theory approach, provides interpretations depending mostly on contextual factors, and requires the involvement of the researcher in the construction of meaning and interpretation. This research approach employs various tools, quantitative and qualitative, to negotiate the difficulties of making meaningful explanations at the larger macro level at which it operates. Like all other approaches in social research, the H-C approach is not immune to ethical concerns. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Describe the historical-comparative research processes from the need for acquiring knowledge to writing the final research report. 2. Identify the unique characteristics of historical-comparative research. 3. Explain the three possible sources of error in contextual meaning in historicalcomparative research (supracontext awareness, coherence imposition, capacity overestimation) 4. Identify issues that are appropriate in historical-comparative research. 5. Compare field research and historical-comparative research. 6. Compare historical research and historical-comparative research. 7. Discuss how historical-comparative research uses the four types of historical evidence. 8. Explain some reasons why comparison across cultures and societies is difficult. 9. Explain the sources of data for historical-comparative research. 10. Discuss the issues of equivalence that affect historical-comparative research. 11. Explain some ethical issues in historical-comparative research.

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Chapter Outline I. WHAT IS HISTORICAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH? Historical-Comparative research is research focused at explaining macro-level events within and across societies and other large scale sociological categories such as culture and language. It focuses on addressing the big questions of life. It requires in-depth background knowledge about the history, culture, geography, and general development of societies and larger political and economic regions of the world. A. How Are Field Research And H-C Research Alike Field research and historical-comparative research share the qualitative character of incorporating the point-of-view of the researcher in the research process. Both research methods also incorporate diverse data types and forms, focus on social processes, time passage, and sequence, and they utilize grounded theory supported by detailed information and limited generalizations. B. What Is Unique About H-C Research? In spite of these similarities, the historical-comparative research method differs from field research in the sense that the historical-comparative researcher usually has limited direct evidence to work with because of the wide scope and historical nature of the study. Unlike the field researcher, the historical-comparative researcher integrates the macro and micro level and uses specific as well as macro level concepts that transcend specific culture, place, and time. II. HOW TO DO HISTORICAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH STUDY Like field social research, doing historical-comparative research is a process that follows guidelines to produce useful data and analysis. The researcher needs to acquire background information about the culture or territory of concern, and conceptualize the issue in the study. Flexibility is important in shaping and focusing the issue. The researcher creates organizing concepts and combines these into important questions for the study. Searching for evidence can be time consuming while attempting to evaluate alternative explanations. The evidence is organized to interact with conceptual frameworks and theoretical explanations. The data is organized around the evidence to create general explanations to allow the picture to emerge. The researcher finally writes the report. III. RESEARCHING THE PAST Historical studies and historical-comparative research both utilize historical evidence to construct a reality. However the historical-comparative researcher treats details of specific events with less importance compared to the history researcher. Instead, the application of social theory and concepts or the building of theory is a more serious task. The historical-comparative researcher uses primary sources, records, secondary sources, and recollections just as the historian, but the objectives and the manner in which these are utilized are different. IV. RESEARCH THAT COMPARES ACROSS CULTURES As a comparative research, historical-comparative research uses and extends concepts and explanations to compare across larger social units, thereby improving on measurements and conceptualization. A troubling issue in historical-comparative research is the frequent use of the nation as the unit of analysis. Some concepts, such as legal systems that reside within nationCopyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 79


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state boundaries, are easily dealt with using the nation as unit of analysis. However, elements of culture are not easily boxed within political boundaries that were created without respect to cultural boundaries. Like language and social context which vary across societies, historicalcomparative research suffer from issues of conceptual and measurement equivalence across societies and other larger social units. V. BEING AN ETHICAL H-C RESEARCHER Historical-comparative research faces ethical challenges with regard to privacy and the dominance of elite views. Careful documentation, sensitivity to cross-cultural interaction issues, and political issues are important consideration.

Key Terms Conceptual Equivalence: being able to apply the same concept across different cultures or historical eras (p. 316) Contextual Equivalence: seeing the same event or activity in context across different cultures or historical eras (p. 317) Ethnocentrism (in comparative research): the fallacy of looking at the behaviors, customs, and practices of people in other cultures narrowly from your culture’s point of view (p. 304) External Criticism: evaluating the authenticity of primary source materials (p. 304) Galton’s Problem: a possible mistakes when comparing variables/features of units of analysis, in which an association among variables or features of two units may be due to them both actually being part of one large unit (p. 312) Internal Criticism: evaluating the credibility of information in primary source materials (p. 304) Lexicon Equivalence: being able to say the same thing with the same meaning across languages or dialects in different cultures or historical eras (p. 316) Measurement Equivalence: using very different ways of measuring across different cultures or historical eras. The measurement method may influence outcomes (p. 317) Oral History: interviews with a person about his or her life and experiences in the past (p. 306) Presentism: the fallacy of looking at past events from the point of view of today and failing to adjust for a very different context at the time (p. 304) Primary Sources: sources created in the past and that survived to the present (p. 303) Recollections: a person’s words or writings about past experiences created by the person some time after the experiences took place (p. 306) Running Records: ongoing files or statistical documents that an organization, such as a school, business, hospital, or government agency, maintains over time (p. 304) Secondary Sources: specific studies conducted by specialist historians who may have spent many years studying a narrow topic. Other researchers use these secondary data as sources (p. 307)

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Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 Locate a family member or neighbor who is elderly, ideally 40–50 years older than you. Ask the person if you can have two 90-minute interviews with him or her. Schedule the open-ended interviews on different days and use a tape recorder. Ask the person to tell you about his or her life, starting when he or she was no more than six years old. Just ask a few guiding questions and let the person talk, following a chronological order if possible. Pay close attention to major life events, such as marriages, deaths, new jobs, and moving to a new town. Ask the person to explain how these events felt at the time. Ask the person to comment on major historical events that occurred during his or her lifetime (e.g., wars, major political events). Allow the person to repeat stories or tell about the same event more than once, and ask for clarification if there is something you do not understand. After you have 2–3 hours of taped interviews, transcribe the interviews onto paper. You now have a record of the person’s life, which he or she may read if desired. Activity 2 Locating newspaper articles that are over 100 years old can be fun and fascinating. You may have to ask your local reference librarian how to get them most quickly from your specific location. Once you access the newspaper articles, identify a topic and narrow it down (as I did with immigration in Making It Practical: Old Newspaper Articles as Sources, p. 304). Read all the articles for a five-year period about that topic. Write an essay on what they learned. Activity 3 Pick a country with a population of 5 to 50 million and about which you know very little. First, develop some background knowledge by finding out about the country’s history, conflicts, internal social divisions, economy, family traditions, culture, form of government, religious beliefs, holidays, and so forth. An online source to check is the CIA World Factbook. After you have a basic understanding of the country, pick one feature about it (e.g., marriage practices, school system) and make comparison with your home culture. Develop a list of at least 10 similarities and/or differences. Draw on at least five different sources to develop your comparison list. If you were to visit the country and conduct a study of the feature, what would you want to observe and learn about it? Activity 4 Two free online sources that have primary historical materials on the United States are: (1) American Memory at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html (Library of Congress), which contains photographs, maps, manuscripts, and sheet music; and (2) Historical Census Browser at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/ histcensus/ (University of Virginia Library), which contains data from the U.S. Census of Population and Housing volumes and provides statistics for each decade from 1790 to 1960. Go to the American Memory Web site and then select Culture/folklife, then select Slave Narratives (audio interview 1932–1975) or Slave narratives (federal writer’s project 1932–1938). Read what the ex-slaves said in the interviews and identify five people to follow. Go the Historical Census BrowserWeb site. Find the number of slaves in the same state and country at 1850 as each of those five people (first select 1850, then scroll down to slave population). Select the state, and at the bottom of the list of states and territories, Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 81


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select Retrieve County level data. Find out as much as you can about that county in 1850 and write a short essay about the five people’s life conditions when they were young children. Activity 5 Go online to locate international existing statistics about many countries. A free online source with lots of information is Nationmaster (http://www.nationmaster.com/index.php ) and the World Bank (http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20535285~menuPK:1192694~pagePK:64133150~PiPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00. html). Two other online sources are the Statistical Abstract of the United States and the CIA Factbook. Using these sources, identify a set of 15 countries and 15 variables that are available for all 15 countries (such as infant mortality rate, per capita GDP, and birth rate). Create a 15 ҏ15 chart. List the countries along the side and put letters A–O in the columns across the top. At the bottom, create a key for the letters with the name of each variable. Using this chart, what patterns do you see? URLs: 1. World Bank: http://web.worldbank.org/Wbsite/External/Datastatistics/0,,contentMDK:20535285~menuPK :1192694~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~the-SitePK:239419,00.html 2. Nationmaster: http://www.nationmaster.com/index.php 3. CIA Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ 4. Statistical Abstract of The United States: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/past_years.html

Video Resources 1. Cross-Cultural Communications: How Culture Affects Communication: This insight media video illustrate one of the strongest points made in the text about cross cultural studies- that conceptualization across cultures, languages, and histories can present a difficult set of research problems. The video shows how communication across cultures pose difficulties for understanding. www.insight-media.com

Online Resources 1. http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/nbs/research/HRM1-cross_cultural_mgt.htm 2. http://www.anu.edu.au/culture/ 3. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/worldcul/world.htm 4. http://crossculturalcentre.homestead.com/ 5. http://www.sccr.org/

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Suggested Readings cited in the Book Banaszak, Lee Ann. 1998. “Use of the Initiative Process by Women Suffrage Movements.” Pp. 99–114 in Social Movements and American Political Institutions, (Ed.) A. Costain and A. McFarland. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Blee, Kathleen. 1991. Women of the Klan. Berkeley: University of California Press. Ferree, Myra Marx, William Gamson, Jurgen Gerhards, and Dieter Rucht. 2002. Shaping Abortion Discourse. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kriesi, Hanspeter and Dominique Wisler. 1999. “The Impact of Social Movements on Political Institutions” Pp. 42–65 in How Social Movements Matter, (Ed.) M. Giugni, D. McAdam, and C. Tilly. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press. Marx, Anthony W. 1998. Making Race and Nation. New York: Cambridge University Press. McKeown, Adam. 2001. Chinese Migrant Networks and Cultural Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. McRoberts, Kenneth. 2001. “Canada and the Multinational State.” Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue Canadienne de Science Politique 34:683–713. Rusche, Georg and Otto Kirchheimer. 1939. Punishment and Social Structure New York: Russell and Russell. Sutton, John. 2004. “The Political Economy of Imprisonment in Affluent Western Democracies, 1960–1990.” American Sociological Review 69:170–189.

Additional Readings on Cross Cultural Research 1. Allardt, Erik. 1990. “Challenges for Comparative Social Research” Acta Sociologica. 33(3):183-193. The author contends that comparative research will benefit most when researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The reader will be able to see the uses of comparative studies in the globalization trends as well as examine the methodological potentials and problems in using this approach. 2. Kalmijn, Wim and Runt Veenhoven. 2005. “Measuring Inequality of Happiness in Nations: In Search for Proper Statistics.” Journal of Happiness Studies. 6(4):357-396. In this paper, the authors demonstrate and analyze the use of different descriptive statistics in comparative studies in understanding happiness among nations. After reading the chapter, the student will find this paper instructive in linking quantitative analysis to comparative studies.

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12 Writing a Research Report

Chapter Summary The author uses the last chapter in the text to explain the process of putting everything together. This is a logical place to explain the process of writing because it ties together everything the student had learnt throughout the text. As in all previous chapters, the emphasis of this text is choices and their consequences for researchers. The social researcher needs to understand that social research is a dynamic field, and many things can be done differently as long as the decision maker understands the alternatives and makes an informed decision. The chapter provides an overview of the differences between the quantitative and qualitative approaches and how each approach organizes the final report differently to emphasize the methodology and the objective of the research. Just as the individual chapters emphasized the centrality of ethics in research, the author affirms the role of researcher-awareness of the individual responsibility for not harming research participants as well as not allowing external influences to impact the integrity of the research and the research report. In addition to the research report, however, the author prepares the mind of the new researcher to understand the need for other kinds of reports that are integral parts of the world of social researchers. Some of these are the research proposal and the proposal for research grants. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, a student should be able to: 1. Explain the reason that researchers write a final report. 2. Understand the steps and activities involved in writing a research report. 3. Explain the benefits of prewriting activities, editing, and revising to the overall quality of a report. 4. Show the differences between quantitative and qualitative research reports. 5. Explain how cause-effect relations are shown in reports based on: a) Experimental design b) Survey design c) Field research Chapter Outline I. WHY WRITE A RESEARCH? After the completion of data collection and analysis, it is time for the researcher to communicate to clients and an audience the questions, methodology, results, and conclusions of the study. It is usually a straightforward and serious report that reflects a careful documentation and knowledge of the subject matter. II. THE WRITING PROCESS The researcher, in order to communicate effectively, must know the audience so that the language, diction, and content are tailored accordingly. No matter the audience, however, the research report must be clear, accurate, and well organized. The tone and style must reflect a professional researcher, devoid of clichÊs, highly formal or dense style and language. The tone must be formal and impersonal. It must not seek to moralize but to inform and present the Copyright Š 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 84


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evidence in a factual manner. Clear thinking and communication, definition of terms, and sticking to conclusions that have empirical evidence is best. The writer of research report must think of writing as a process with sequence and steps. The writer must visit the library before and after data collection so clarify important points and to meticulously document all sources. Prewriting activities are helpful in writing and rewriting a good report. Allow time to edit and revise the report, and ask the help of others for criticism. Make sure to write the introduction and title last so that they reflect important variables and findings in the report. III. SHOW CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONS Causal relations are important in many studies, and the causal mechanism must be clearly reported. Experiments must show how their designs meet the three causal conditions. Survey reports must show how their correlational relations are supported. Field research must carefully show the co-occurrence of events in qualitative data. IV. THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT A quantitative report generally follows the following structure. The report has an abstract or an executive summary if it is an applied research. This is followed by an introduction that states the problem, reviews the literature and provides justification for the study. The methods section follows with a description of type of study, study design, measurement and sampling method. The results section follows with statistical results in tables and brief statement of other variable relations. The discussion section, a straight forward interpretation of the results section, follows this results section. The conclusion section closes the report with a restatement of research questions and summarization of major findings. V. THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT Reports on qualitative studies tend to be longer with a more flexible structure. Field research reports, for an example, are mostly written in the first person, less formal tone, with theory, evidence, methods, and conclusions all woven together in thematic or chronological sequence. Historical-comparative reports provide limited generalization backed by numerous data in tables, pictures, or diagrams. These reports also provide numerous footnotes or endnotes, and are organized by topics or in chronological format. Some also use structures similar to the quantitative report format. VI. THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL Research proposals are written for supervised research projects and contain literature review, methods, and justification to convince the supervisor that the student is capable of completing the research project. It demonstrates careful planning. Proposals for research grants are specialized reports that need special skills to convince the organization that the researcher is capable of completing the research and that funding will be adequate and is appropriate to the goals of the funding agency. VII. UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH Students are encouraged to engage in research as a learning tool.

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Key Terms Editing: part of the rewriting process in which you focus on improving the mechanism aspects of writing, such as spelling or sentence structure (p. 330) Executive Summary: a summary of a research report that is longer than an abstract and used in applied research studies for practitioners (p. 332) Freewriting: a way to begin serious writing in which you write down everything you think of as quickly as it enters your mind, not worrying about correct grammar or spelling (p. 328) Paraphrasing: restating another person’s ideas in your own words, condensing at the same time (p. 327) Prewriting: activities that prepare you for a serious writing process (p. 328) Principal Investigator (PI): the main researcher who conducts a study that is funded by a grant (p. 339) Request For Proposals (RFPs): an announcement by a founding source that it seeks research proposals to fund (p. 339) Research Report: a written document that summarizes the way a study was conducted and its major findings, and is a complete report on the research process (p. 324) Revising: part of the rewriting process in which you move ideas around or add and subtract ideas or evidence (p. 330) Writer’s Block: a temporary inability to write that some people experience when they have a writing task to complete (p. 327)

Teaching Suggestions Class Exercises and Activities Provided in Text Activity 1 Practice preparing an outline for a research report. To do this, first identify five scholarly journal articles that report on the same type of research on one topic. Develop an outline of each research report. Notice what is similar and what is different about each. After outlining each and conducting a comparison, develop an outline of your own in two stages. First, develop general categories with major headings and no more than one secondary level in the outline. You should have four or five major headings and two or three subcategories under each. Second, refine your outline by developing two levels of greater detail, so that you have major headings, first-level headings, second-level headings, and one more level of subheadings. There should be two or more items at each level. Activity 2 Locate five RFPs for a topic of interest. You can find a few with a general search on the Internet, but many are only available in specialized publications or databases. A good one to check is the U.S. government’s Federal Register. It is available in most college libraries and online, and it has an overwhelming amount of information. It is often easier to locate specific private foundations or government agencies at the national, state, or city level. For example, specific agencies such as Big Brothers or Big Sisters to might ask for RFPs for applied research, or a state Department of Education might seek RFPs to evaluate its bilingual education programs. The RPF may be active or have already had a deadline that passed. Once you found five RFPs, answer the following six questions about each: Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 86


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is the name of the funding source? From whom are applications sought, or who is eligible to apply for funding? What topics or research questions does the funding source want to be examined? How much money is provided either in total or as the maximum for a proposal? What is the submission deadline for a proposal, and are there specifications for how the proposal should be delivered? 6. Are there specifications for the format of the proposal (e.g., page length, specific sections)? Activity 3 Go onto the Internet and conduct a search using Google. Enter the term Undergraduate Research. Create three lists. In list 1, include colleges and universities that have a program for undergraduate research. In list 2, place government or private agencies that provide financial support for undergraduate research. In list 3, put all scholarships, summer institutes, and research grant support for undergraduates. Note whether the funding is for a specific academic field (e.g., chemistry) or is open to all fields.

Additional Class Exercises and Activities not in Text Activity 4- Putting it Together Use an overhead for this exercise or make copies to distribute in class. Identify a well written published quantitative research paper. Cut up the paper in its various sections (e.g. abstract, theory, methodology etc.). Remember to cut off the section titles so students do not see them. Label each section using a number, but remember to create a key of the components. Rearrange the paper in any order but the correct order and staple or tape them together. Scan the new mixed structure for a computer overhead display or make copies to distribute in class. Ask students to read and to label the sections in the correct order in which they are likely to appear in a journal.

Online Resources on Report Writing 1. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/hypertext/reportW/index.html 2. http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/lab_report_complete.html 3. http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/observe/com4a6.cfm 4. http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=6&n=13 5. http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html

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Suggested Readings cited in the Book Wysong, E., et al. 1994 ”Truth and DARE: Tracking drug education to graduation and as symbolic politics.” Social Problems 41: 448–472. Zagumny, M. J. and M. K. Thompson. 1997. ”Does D.A.R.E. Work? An Evaluation in Rural Tennessee.” Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 42:32–41. Becker, Howard S. et al. 1961. Boys in White: Student Culture in Medical School. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hartley, James, James Pennebaker, and Claire Fox. 2003. “Using New Technology to Assess the Academic Writing Styles of Male and Female Pairs and Individuals.” Journal of Technical Writing and Communication 33(3):243–261. Hurd, P. D. 1998. “Scientific Literacy: New Minds for a Changing World.” Science Education 82:407–416. Perry, Pamela. 2001. “White Means Never Having to Say You’re Ethnic: White Youth and the Construction of ‘Cultureless’ Identities.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 30(1):56–91. Pitt, M.J. 1994. “A Practical Guide to Gender Neutral Language” Management Decision 32(6):41–44. Weitzer, Ronald and Steven Tuch. 2005. “Racially Biased Policing Determinants of Citizen Perceptions.” Social Forces 83(3):1009–1030. Whyte, William Foote. 1955. Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Additional Readings on Research Report Writing 1. Writing Research Reports. and Scholarly Manuscripts for Journal Publication: Pitfalls and Promises. By: Harper, Frederick D.. Journal of Negro Education, Summer2006, Vol. 75 Issue 3, p322-340, 2. Woodburn, Dallas. 2006. “Writing the Dreaded Research Paper.” Writing. 28(5):28-28 3. Thebane, Lehana and Noori Akhtar-Danesh. 2008. “Guidelines for Reporting Descriptive Statistics in Health Research.” Nurse Researcher. 15(2):72-81 The three papers address different aspects of the report writing exercise in research. In the first paper, the authors acknowledge that in spite of the growing body of literature on the quality of research report of health studies, improvements have been slow. The authors provide a guide on the analysis and methodology sections and demonstrate what statistics and presentation formats are useful in health research reports. In the second paper, the author uses personal experience to explain the process of research and research reporting for scholarly publications in academic journals. The goal is to help new writers minimize errors and maximize rigor and quality. In the third paper, the author maintains that report writing is not a popular subject with students. However, this attitude can be changed if certain things are brought into the research process to Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 88


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raise the interest and the feeling of connection to the research topic. The author provides some tips to accomplish this. After reading the chapter, the student will find these papers useful because they show how clarity and accuracy are part of the research process, and that writing crowns the research process. 4. Drisko, James. 2005. “Writing Up Qualitative Research.” Families in Society. 86(4):589-593. 5. Caulley, Darrel. 2008. “Making Qualitative Research Reports Less Boring: The Techniques of Writing Creative Nonfiction.” Qualitative Inquiry. 14(3):424-449. The papers above provide ways in which the researcher can improve quality standards in qualitative research reporting. This theme is extended in the second paper with a discussion of tips from fiction writing and how the writer can creatively employ these techniques to write an interesting qualitative research report. These papers will serve as great additions to helping the student gain more insight into qualitative research and its write-up. 6. Vivar, Cristina G, et al. 2007. “Getting Started with Qualitative Research: Developing a Research Proposal.” Nurse Researcher. 14(3):60-73. 7. Brink, Pamela. 1999. “Garbage In, Garbage Out.” Western Journal of Nursing Research. 21(6):725-728. 8. Molfese, Victoria, et al. 2002. “Recommendations for Writing Successful Proposals from the Reviewer's Perspective.” Journal of Research Administration. 33(3):21-25. Writing the research proposal is mentioned in the chapter as an important activity for many research students. These three papers provide a description of the processes involved in research proposal writing, with special focus on nursing and health care fields. In the second paper, the author discusses nursing proposal writing with a view of showing the connection between a good proposal and a good research project. In the third paper the authors emphasis actions for increasing the odds that a proposal will be selected for funding by funding agencies. 9. Miller, Delbert and Neil Salkind. 2003. “THE RESEARCH GRANT PROPOSAL”. By: Handbook of Research Design & Social Measurement, 2003, p663-668, 6p, 1 bw; Abstract: 10. Lisanti, Phyllis and Dorothy Talotta. 2000. “Tips for Writing a NAON Research Grant Proposal.” Orthopedic Nursing. 19(2):61-67. These two papers focus exclusively on writing to obtain research grants, a topic briefly mentioned in this chapter as requiring specialized skills. The first paper explains the components of a good grant proposal, the need to provide objectives and scholarly significance of the proposed research activity as well as the need to focus on the qualifications of investigators and matching many other qualities with the funding level and source sought. The second paper addresses some important activities that will help the nurse research grant writer to succeed. These papers will provide an important background for further reading in this specialized area of research writing.

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Chapterȱ1 WhyȱDoȱResearch? 1.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Empiricalȱevidence A) isȱdataȱorȱevidenceȱthatȱcanȱbeȱtiedȱtoȱsomethingȱthatȱcanȱbeȱseen,ȱtouched,ȱsmelled,ȱetc. B) isȱalwaysȱeasilyȱcollected. C) neverȱneedsȱtoȱbeȱdocumented. D) doesȱnotȱneedȱtoȱbeȱcollectedȱsystematically. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ8 Skill: Comprehension

2) Basicȱsocialȱresearchȱincreasesȱgeneralȱknowledgeȱand A) itsȱusefulnessȱisȱusuallyȱimmediatelyȱapparent. B) requiresȱthatȱtheȱresearcherȱpurchaseȱexpensiveȱequipment. C) theȱresearchersȱareȱactivistȱandȱinterventionistȱoriented,ȱsolvingȱimmediateȱproblems. D) isȱtheȱsourceȱofȱmostȱnewȱscientificȱideas. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ18 Skill: Knowledge

3) Criticalȱthinking A) involvesȱsuperstitionȱandȱwitchcraft. B) looksȱatȱanȱissueȱfromȱoneȱviewpointȱonly. C) hasȱlittleȱtoȱdoȱwithȱresearch. D) leadsȱusȱtoȱuncoverȱhiddenȱassumptions. Answer: D Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ6 Skill: Knowledge

4) QuantitativeȱdataȱcollectionȱtechniquesȱincludeȱallȱBUTȱtheȱfollowing: A) historicalȱcomparativeȱresearch. B) experiments. C) surveys. D) contentȱanalyses. Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ12 Skill: Comprehension

5) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱmajorȱpurposeȱofȱresearch? A) toȱexploreȱaȱnewȱissue B) toȱfindȱhiddenȱtreasure C) toȱseeȱifȱaȱprogramȱworksȱasȱitȱshould D) toȱexplainȱwhyȱanȱeventȱhappensȱinȱaȱcertainȱway Answer: B Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ13 Skill: Knowledge

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6) QuantitativeȱResearchȱexperiments A) areȱalsoȱcalledȱsurveyȱresearch. B) doȱnotȱfollowȱtheȱlogicȱfoundȱinȱnaturalȱscienceȱresearch. C) requireȱaȱwellȱdefinedȱresearchȱquestion. D) haveȱnothingȱtoȱdoȱwithȱscience. Answer: C Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ11 Skill: Comprehension

7) Thisȱtypeȱofȱdataȱcollectionȱtypicallyȱrequiresȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱcloselyȱobservesȱaȱsmallȱgroup ofȱpeopleȱoverȱaȱlengthȱofȱtime. A) ethnographicȱfieldȱresearch B) surveys C) quantitativeȱdataȱcollection D) historical-comparativeȱresearch Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ12 Skill: Comprehension

8) Dr.ȱMarshȱdidȱanȱexploratoryȱstudyȱonȱaȱtopicȱthatȱheȱthoughtȱwasȱveryȱinteresting.ȱHeȱspent hoursȱandȱhoursȱcollectingȱdataȱandȱanalyzingȱtheȱdata,ȱbutȱwhenȱheȱtriedȱtoȱinterpretȱtheȱdata heȱdidnȇtȱgetȱanywhereȱ-ȱnothingȱmadeȱsense.ȱWhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱstepsȱinȱtheȱresearch processȱdoȱyouȱthinkȱthatȱDr.ȱMarshȱskipped? B) designingȱtheȱstudy A) informingȱothers D) selectingȱaȱtopic C) backgroundȱresearch Answer: B Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ21 Skill: Application

9) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱstudiesȱmightȱbeȱconsideredȱexplanatoryȱresearch? A) Whyȱareȱsomeȱwomenȱalwaysȱlateȱforȱtheirȱannualȱphysical? B) Doȱathletesȱlikeȱaȱspecificȱbeverage? C) Doesȱtheȱanti-smokingȱpolicyȱinȱArizonaȱwork? D) Whenȱisȱtheȱbestȱtimeȱtoȱimplementȱaȱnewȱstudentȱpolicy? Answer: A Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ14 Skill: Application

10) Inȱrealȱlifeȱtheȱseven-stepȱresearchȱplanȱoftenȱintegratesȱstepsȱ,ȱitȱisȱnonȱlinear.ȱWhatȱstepȱisȱthe mostȱimportantȱinȱensuringȱthatȱtheȱresearchȱtopicȱisȱnarrowedȱtoȱanȱappropriateȱarea? A) informingȱothers B) designingȱtheȱstudy C) analyzingȱtheȱdata D) focusingȱtheȱquestion Answer: D Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ21 Skill: Application

11) Dr.ȱRichardsȱtookȱhisȱresearchȱinȱaȱcompletelyȱnewȱdirection,ȱandȱfoundȱhimselfȱaskingȱthe ȈWhatȈȱquestionȱagainȱandȱagainȱtoȱtryȱtoȱdesignȱaȱsecondȱstudy.ȱHisȱfirstȱstudyȱwas consideredȱa(n)ȱ__________ȱstudy. A) explanatory B) exploratory C) qualitative D) scholarly Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ13 Skill: Analysis

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12) Aȱstudyȱthatȱisȱdevelopedȱtoȱdetermineȱwhetherȱaȱnewȱimmigrationȱlawȱisȱeffectiveȱis consideredȱwhatȱtypeȱofȱstudy? A) evaluative B) descriptive C) comprehensive D) exploratory Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ15 Skill: Analysis

13) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱstepȱinȱtheȱresearchȱprocess? A) designȱstudy B) collectȱdata C) takeȱaȱcourseȱinȱresearch D) interpretȱdata Answer: C Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ21 Skill: Knowledge

14) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱinterestedȱinȱstudyingȱtheȱAmishȱmigrationȱintoȱtheȱmidwestȱduringȱtheȱ1900s. Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱwouldȱbestȱfitȱherȱresearch? A) experimental/quantitativeȱresearch B) contentȱanalysis/quantitativeȱresearch C) ethnographicȱfieldȱresearch/qualitativeȱresearch D) historicalȱresearch/qualitativeȱresearch Answer: D Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ11-12 Skill: Application

15) Ms.ȱGoldsworthȱtoldȱherȱprofessorȱthatȱsheȱwasȱhavingȱaȱdifficultȱtimeȱdeterminingȱwhatȱis trueȱandȱhowȱtoȱevaluateȱdata.ȱSheȱactuallyȱneedsȱhelpȱwith A) criticalȱreasoning. B) qualitativeȱresearch. C) historicalȱresearch. D) formingȱanȱargument. Answer: A Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ22 Skill: Application

16) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱaȱmedicalȱdoctorȱwithȱanȱideaȱaboutȱhowȱtoȱimproveȱhisȱdermatology patientsȇȱcare.ȱHeȱwouldȱlikeȱtoȱperformȱaȱstudy.ȱWhatȱtypeȱofȱstudyȱshouldȱheȱconsider? A) exploratory B) descriptive C) explanatory D) experimental Answer: B Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ13 Skill: Comprehension

17) Dr.ȱMarshȱdesignedȱaȱstudyȱtoȱdetermineȱifȱtheȱnewȱhealthcareȱguidelinesȱimpacted practitionerȱprocedures.ȱThisȱstudyȱisȱmostȱlikelyȱa(n) A) evaluativeȱstudy. B) extractiveȱstudy. C) exactȱstudy. D) descriptiveȱstudy. Answer: A Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ15 Skill: Application

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18) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱconductingȱaȱsurveyȱresearchȱstudy.ȱHeȱwill A) askȱpeopleȱquestionsȱinȱaȱwrittenȱformatȱorȱinȱanȱinterviewȱformat. B) needȱthousandsȱofȱparticipants. C) summarizeȱtheȱdataȱinȱpowerpointȱpresentationsȱonly. D) needȱatȱleastȱ5ȱassistantsȱtoȱhelpȱprocessȱtheȱstudy. Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ11 Skill: Application

19) Twoȱtypesȱofȱresearchȱareȱtypicallyȱdoneȱinȱtheȱlaterȱstageȱofȱtheȱlearningȱprocess.ȱTheyȱare A) explanatory,ȱevaluation B) descriptive,ȱexplanatory C) evaluation,ȱdescriptive D) exploratory,ȱdescriptive Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ17 Skill: Knowledge

20) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱdefinitionsȱDOESȱNOTȱfitȱtheȱwordȱȈresearchȈ? A) applyingȱcriticalȱthinkingȱandȱadoptingȱanȱorientation B) processȱofȱapplyingȱacceptedȱtechniquesȱandȱprinciples C) gatheringȱpreexistingȱinformationȱfromȱacademicȱjournals D) usingȱfaultyȱlogicȱtoȱmakeȱchoices Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ9 Skill: Knowledge

21) Mr.ȱLove,ȱanȱassistantȱtoȱDr.ȱVanȱOffer,ȱwasȱtoldȱthatȱheȱneededȱtoȱfindȱempiricalȱevidence.ȱHe hasȱnoȱclueȱwhatȱthatȱmeansȱ-ȱwhatȱisȱtheȱcorrectȱmeaning? A) dataȱorȱevidenceȱthatȱultimatelyȱcanȱbeȱtiedȱtoȱsomethingȱthatȱcanȱbeȱseen,ȱtouched, smelled,ȱheard,ȱetc. B) aȱlistȱofȱfoodȱitems C) unusualȱworkȱpractices D) evidenceȱthatȱisȱthrownȱtogetherȱwithȱnoȱpracticalȱmeaning. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ10 Skill: Comprehension

22) Explanatoryȱresearch A) isȱcompatibleȱwithȱexploratoryȱandȱdescriptiveȱresearch. B) identifiesȱsourcesȱofȱsocialȱbehaviorsȱandȱbeliefs C) answersȱtheȱquestionȱȈdoesȱitȱwork?Ȉ D) hasȱanȱoutcomeȱofȱpracticalȱrecommendations Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ14 Skill: Knowledge

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23) Appliedȱresearchersȱrarely A) conductȱevaluationsȱofȱdata. B) areȱrecognizedȱasȱleadersȱinȱtheȱfieldȱofȱsocialȱresearch. C) findȱanythingȱofȱsignificance. D) worryȱaboutȱbuilding,ȱtesting,ȱorȱconnectingȱfindingsȱtoȱaȱlargerȱtheory. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ18 Skill: Knowledge

24) Empiricalȱsocialȱresearch A) hasȱnoȱrealȱworldȱapplication. B) generatesȱresultsȱstatedȱasȱfixedȱabsolutes. C) isȱanȱongoingȱprocessȱofȱaccumulatingȱinformation. D) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱcriticalȱthinking. Answer: C Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ22 Skill: Comprehension

25) Descriptiveȱresearch A) presentsȱaȱgeneralizedȱpictureȱofȱaȱsituation. B) canȱblendȱtogetherȱwithȱexplanatoryȱresearch. C) focusesȱonȱwhetherȱsomethingȱactuallyȱworks. D) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱexploratoryȱresearch. Answer: B Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ13-14 Skill: Knowledge

1.2 True/False 1) ȈArgumentȈȱusedȱinȱtheȱresearchȱcontextȱmeansȱaȱsetȱofȱofȱlogicallyȱconnectedȱstatementsȱthat endȱwithȱaȱlogicalȱconclusion. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ7 Skill: Knowledge

2) Twoȱdifferentȱtypesȱofȱresearchȱ(e.g.ȱdescriptiveȱandȱexploratory)ȱcanȱoftenȱblendȱtogetherȱin practice. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ14 Skill: Comprehension

3) Strong,ȱsolidȱevidenceȱisȱdirectlyȱcorrelatedȱwithȱquantitativeȱresearchȱandȱhasȱnothingȱtoȱdo withȱqualitativeȱresearch. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ10 Skill: Comprehension

4) Exploratoryȱresearchȱfocusesȱonȱwhoȱandȱhowȱquestions. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ13 Skill: Knowledge

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5) Empiricalȱevidenceȱinvolvesȱmoral,ȱreligiousȱorȱideologicalȱreasoning. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ7 Skill: Knowledge

6) Socialȱresearchȱisȱevidence-basedȱsoȱanswersȱthatȱareȱderivedȱareȱstatic,ȱthatȱis,ȱtheyȱnever change. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ9 Skill: Comprehension

7) Basicȱresearchȱaddressesȱaȱspecificȱconcernȱorȱoffersȱsolutionsȱtoȱaȱproblemȱthatȱhasȱbeen identifiedȱbyȱanȱemployer,ȱclub,ȱorȱsomeȱotherȱorganizationȱorȱmovement. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ18 Skill: Comprehension

8) Appliedȱscienceȱresearchersȱoftenȱuseȱtheȱresultsȱinȱdecisionȱmaking. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ19 Skill: Knowledge

9) Inȱpracticalȱapplicationȱtheȱseven-stepȱresearchȱprocessȱrequiresȱthatȱoneȱmustȱfinishȱoneȱstep beforeȱundertakingȱtheȱnextȱstep. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ21 Skill: Knowledge

10) Theȱresearchȱprocessȱisȱfiniteȱ- requiringȱnoȱadditionalȱstudiesȱorȱresults. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ21 Skill: Comprehension

1.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Inȱ2-3ȱsentencesȱdescribeȱtheȱreasoningȱforȱcriticalȱthinking. Answer: Theȱvalueȱofȱlookingȱatȱanȱissueȱfromȱmoreȱthanȱoneȱview,ȱleadsȱtoȱuncoverȱhidden assumptions.ȱSingleȱviewȱlimitsȱperspective. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ6-7 Skill: Knowledge

2) Theȱfinalȱstepȱinȱtheȱresearchȱprocessȱisȱinformingȱothers.ȱInȱoneȱorȱtwoȱsentences,ȱexplainȱhow thatȱcouldȱbeȱdoneȱeffectively. Answer: Possibleȱanswersȱincludeȱpublication,ȱpresentation,ȱprofessionalȱassociations,ȱetc. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ21 Skill: Application

3) Explanatoryȱresearchȱasksȱtheȱquestionȱ__________ȱandȱevaluationȱasksȱ__________. Answer: Explanatoryȱasksȱwhy andȱevaluationȱasksȱdoesȱitȱwork. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ17 Skill: Knowledge

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4) Describeȱexploratoryȱresearch.ȱWhatȱisȱitsȱgoal? Answer: examineȱnewȱarea,ȱtendȱtoȱuseȱqualitativeȱdata,ȱgoalȱisȱtoȱdefineȱquestionsȱforȱfuture research Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ13 Skill: Knowledge

5) Whoȱareȱtheȱprimaryȱconsumersȱofȱbasicȱandȱappliedȱresearch? Answer: Otherȱresearchersȱandȱpractitionersȱ(teachers,ȱetc.) Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ19 Skill: Knowledge

6) Brieflyȱdescribeȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱqualitativeȱdataȱvs.ȱquantitativeȱdata. Answer: qualitativeȱwords,ȱimages;ȱquantitativeȱ= numbers Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ22 Skill: Analysis

7) Whyȱwouldȱitȱbeȱimportantȱtoȱinformȱothersȱatȱtheȱendȱofȱtheȱresearchȱcycle? Answer: Essentialȱtoȱbuildȱgeneralizableȱknowledge. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ21 Skill: Analysis

8) Whichȱisȱmoreȱimportant,ȱtheȱtypeȱofȱdataȱcollectedȱorȱwhetherȱtheȱdataȱareȱtrustworthy? Why? Answer: dataȱareȱtrustworthyȱ- invalidȱdata,ȱstudyȱmayȱbeȱinvalid. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ22 Skill: Analysis

9) Researchȱthatȱutilizesȱpreviouslyȱcollectedȱdataȱorganizedȱinȱaȱdifferentȱwayȱtoȱaddressȱa questionȱisȱconsideredȱwhatȱtypeȱofȱdataȱcollectionȱtechnique? Answer: existingȱstatisticalȱsources Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ12 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱmedicalȱresearchȱstudyȱthatȱcomparesȱoneȱdrugȱtoȱaȱnewȱdrugȱtoȱseeȱifȱtheȱnewȱdrugȱisȱmore effectiveȱisȱmostȱlikelyȱwhatȱkindȱofȱresearch?ȱWhatȱtypeȱofȱdataȱcollectingȱtechniqueȱwouldȱbe mostȱapplicable? Answer: quantitative,ȱexperiments Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ11 Skill: Application

1.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) __________ȱisȱoneȱwayȱofȱproducingȱknowledge. Answer: Research Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ5 Skill: Knowledge

2) __________ȱusesȱanȱargumentȱasȱwellȱasȱcriticalȱthinking. Answer: SocialȱResearch Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ7 Skill: Knowledge

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3) __________ȱandȱ__________ȱareȱtheȱtwoȱformsȱofȱevidenceȱinȱsocialȱresearch. Answer: Qualitative,ȱquantitative Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ10 Skill: Knowledge

4) IfȱoneȱwereȱtoȱdevelopȱaȱsystemȱofȱanalyzingȱmaterialȱinȱvariousȱCountryȱWesternȱlyrics,ȱone wouldȱmostȱaptlyȱbeȱusingȱaȱ__________ȱtechnique. Answer: contentȱanalysis Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ11-12 Skill: Knowledge

5) AȱresearchȱstudyȱthatȱisȱconductedȱearlyȱinȱtheȱlearningȱprocessȱandȱasksȱtheȱȈWhatȈȱquestion isȱtypicallyȱaȱ(n)ȱ__________ȱstudy. Answer: exploratory Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ17 Skill: Knowledge

6) Anȱongoingȱprocessȱofȱaccumulatingȱinformationȱisȱ__________ȱresearch. Answer: empiricalȱsocial Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ22 Skill: Knowledge

7) __________ȱshouldȱbeȱcollectedȱcarefullyȱandȱsystematicallyȱaccordingȱtoȱgenerallyȱaccepted rulesȱorȱstandards. Answer: Empiricalȱevidence Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ10 Skill: Knowledge

8) Theȱproductȱofȱresearchȱprocessȱisȱ__________. Answer: knowledgeȱorȱinformation Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ11 Skill: Comprehension

9) Experimentalȱresearchȱisȱmostȱcloselyȱassociatedȱwithȱ__________ȱdataȱcollectionȱtechniques. Answer: quantitative Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ11 Skill: Knowledge

10) Contentȱanalysis,ȱsurveysȱandȱexperimentsȱareȱallȱpartȱofȱ__________ȱdataȱcollection techniques. Answer: quantitative Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ11 Skill: Knowledge

11) Exploratoryȱresearchȱisȱtypicallyȱconductedȱ__________ȱinȱtheȱlearningȱprocess. Answer: early Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ17 Skill: Comprehension

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12) __________ȱareȱtheȱprimaryȱconsumersȱofȱbasicȱresearch. Answer: Researchers Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ19 Skill: Knowledge

13) Researchȱthatȱaddressesȱaȱspecificȱconcern,ȱlikeȱwhyȱsomethingȱcontinuesȱtoȱhappen,ȱis consideredȱ__________ȱresearch. Answer: applied Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ18-19 Skill: Knowledge

14) Researchȱisȱanȱongoingȱprocess,ȱbuildingȱonȱ__________. Answer: past/presentȱresearch Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ21 Skill: Comprehension

15) A(n)ȱ__________ȱisȱaȱsetȱofȱlogicallyȱconnectedȱstatementsȱthatȱstartȱsimpleȱandȱendȱwithȱa clearȱconclusionȱthatȱpullsȱeverythingȱtogether. Answer: argument Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ7 Skill: Knowledge

1.5 Essay 1) DiscussȱBasicȱResearchȱvs.ȱAppliedȱresearchȱ- differencesȱandȱsimilarities. Answer: Basicȱincreasesȱfundamentalȱknowledge,ȱsourceȱofȱmostȱnewȱandȱadvancedȱresearch techniques,ȱusefulnessȱinȱtheȱfuture.ȱFoundationȱforȱknowledgeȱthatȱadvances understanding.ȱAppliedȱaddressesȱspecificȱconcern,ȱorȱoffersȱsolutionsȱtoȱaȱproblem. Researchersȱrarelyȱworryȱaboutȱbuilding,ȱtestingȱorȱconnectingȱfindingsȱtoȱlargerȱtheory. Mostȱappliedȱresearchȱisȱdescriptiveȱorȱevaluative. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ18-19 Skill: Comprehension

2) TylerȱJensonȱisȱaȱcasinoȱinvestor.ȱHeȱisȱthinkingȱofȱbuildingȱaȱcasinoȱinȱIowaȱwhereȱthereȱare severalȱotherȱsuccessfulȱcasinos,ȱbutȱheȱisȱunsureȱaboutȱtheȱlocalȱattitudesȱonȱgambling.ȱHe wouldȱlikeȱtoȱdoȱaȱlittleȱresearchȱonȱtheȱcommunityȇsȱsocialȱandȱmoralȱattitudesȱtoward gambling.ȱWhatȱisȱtheȱpurposeȱofȱthisȱresearchȱ(exploring,ȱdescribing,ȱexplaining,ȱevaluating)? Explainȱyourȱanswer. Answer: Describing Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ13-14 Skill: Analysis

3) TheȱtextbookȱoffersȱtheȱexamplesȱofȱteenageȱsexȱeducationȱandȱtheȱDAREȱprogramȱas programsȱthatȱreallyȱhaveȱnotȱdoneȱwhatȱwasȱintendedȱofȱtheȱprograms.ȱCompareȱtheȱtwo programs,ȱwhatȱdoȱtheyȱhaveȱinȱcommon?ȱWhatȱisȱdifferent?ȱWhatȱtypeȱofȱresearchȱwasȱdone (descriptive,ȱetc)? Answer: educationalȱbasedȱprograms,ȱgovernmentȱmoney,ȱproofȱthatȱdidnȇtȱwork Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ19-20ȱandȱ15 Skill: Comprehension

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4) WhatȱwasȱtheȱpurposeȱofȱincludingȱtheȱD.A.R.E.ȱexampleȱinȱtheȱtextbook?ȱAreȱthereȱlessonsȱto beȱlearnedȱfromȱtheȱexample? Answer: evaluationȱresearch Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ15-17 Skill: Evaluation

5) Dr.ȱWellsȱisȱveryȱinterestedȱinȱtheȱsmokingȱhabitsȱofȱgamblersȱandȱhasȱdecidedȱtoȱdoȱaȱfield studyȱwhereȱsheȱobservesȱandȱsurveysȱvariousȱgamblersȱoverȱaȱperiodȱofȱtime.ȱWhatȱtypeȱof dataȱcollectionȱandȱresearchȱtechniqueȱdoȱyouȱthinkȱthatȱsheȱisȱusing?ȱIfȱDr.ȱWellsȱpublishes herȱstudy,ȱwhatȱtypesȱofȱadditionalȱstudiesȱmightȱbeȱgeneratedȱ(beȱcreative,ȱthinkȱofȱother studiesȱthatȱmightȱgoȱwellȱwithȱsmokersȱandȱgambling) Answer: Qualitativeȱdataȱcollectionȱtechnique,ȱethnographicȱfieldȱresearch.ȱOtherȱstudiesȱmight lookȱatȱgamblersȱwithȱlungȱcancer,ȱsmokersȱwithȱtendenciesȱforȱotherȱaddictions,ȱhigh riskȱbehavior,ȱbankruptcyȱandȱsmokers,ȱetc. Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ12 Skill: Application

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Chapterȱ2 PlanningȱAȱStudy 2.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Oneȱofȱtheȱfeaturesȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱshouldȱconsiderȱinȱselectingȱanȱappropriateȱstudyȱtopicȱis A) whereȱheȱlives. B) hisȱhistory. C) aggregates. D) costȱofȱobtainingȱtheȱdata. Answer: C Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ26 Skill: Knowledge

2) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱtopicsȱisȱanȱappropriateȱtopicȱforȱsocialȱresearch? A) ForȱwhatȱfourȱreasonsȱdoȱfirstȱgradersȱlikeȱreadingȱDr.ȱSeuss? B) WhyȱdoȱIȱhaveȱaȱheadacheȱeveryȱMondayȱmorning? C) Whyȱdoȱmyȱneighborsȱdriveȱaȱredȱcar? D) WhyȱdoesȱDr.ȱMarshȱappearȱtoȱbeȱincompetent? Answer: A Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ26 Skill: Application

3) Forȱwhatȱreason(s)ȱwouldȱaȱresearcherȱNOTȱconductȱaȱliteratureȱreview? A) Itȱprovidesȱexamplesȱofȱresearchȱdesigns,ȱmeasuresȱandȱtechniques. B) Itȱmayȱstimulateȱcuriosity. C) Itȱpresentsȱwhatȱisȱknownȱofȱtheȱtopic. D) Itȱisȱmoreȱfunȱtoȱreadȱthanȱaȱnovel. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ27 Skill: Comprehension

4) Inductiveȱandȱdeductive A) areȱtwoȱapproachesȱtoȱreasoningȱinȱaȱstudyȱmethod. B) cannotȱbeȱusedȱtogether. C) reasoningȱareȱtheȱsameȱthing. D) referȱtoȱquantitativeȱresearchȱonly. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ44 Skill: Knowledge

5) Aȱcausalȱhypothesis A) hasȱnoȱlinkȱtoȱtimeȱorder. B) hasȱatȱleastȱtenȱvariables. C) specifiesȱhowȱtheȱvariablesȱareȱconnected. D) hasȱaȱnullȱhypothesisȱinvolved. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ49 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱmightȱbeȱconsideredȱaȱtypeȱofȱperiodicalȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱmight considerȱinȱaȱliteratureȱsearch? A) novels B) peer-reviewedȱscholarlyȱjournal C) MySpaceȱpage D) myȱpersonalȱblog Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ28 Skill: Comprehension

7) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱtrue?ȱScholarlyȱjournals A) areȱcommonlyȱfoundȱinȱcollegeȱorȱuniversityȱlibraries. B) haveȱaȱreferenceȱorȱbibliographyȱsectionȱthatȱlistsȱsourcesȱinȱdetail. C) haveȱpeer-reviewedȱarticlesȱwithinȱthem. D) areȱnotȱpartȱofȱanyȱindexȱlocationȱsystem. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ30 Skill: Knowledge

8) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱstartingȱhisȱliteratureȱreviewȱonȱtheȱtopicȱofȱchildrenȱandȱtoothȱdecay.ȱHeȱhas foundȱlotsȱandȱlotsȱofȱinformationȱandȱnowȱheȱisȱreallyȱconfusedȱasȱtoȱhisȱnextȱstep.ȱWhatȱdo youȱthinkȱthatȱheȱshouldȱhaveȱdoneȱfirst? A) designȱhisȱsearch B) locateȱresearchȱreports C) doneȱpeerȱreview D) refinedȱtheȱtopic Answer: D Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ34 Skill: Application

9) Inȱaȱgroundedȱtheoryȱexplanationȱaȱresearcherȱbuildsȱtheȱexplanationȱby A) doingȱaȱbackgroundȱcheck. B) makingȱcomparisons. C) checkingȱonȱtheȱinternet. D) findingȱaȱcommonȱelementȱandȱrulingȱitȱout. Answer: B Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ53 Skill: Knowledge

10) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱpartȱofȱtheȱSixȱStepȱProcessȱofȱLiteratureȱReview? A) refineȱtheȱtopic B) readȱbooks C) designȱyourȱstudy D) organizeȱnotes,ȱsynthesizeȱandȱwriteȱtheȱreview Answer: A Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ34 Skill: Knowledge

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11) Whatȱquestionsȱshouldȱyouȱaskȱwhenȱtakingȱnotesȱwhileȱreadingȱmaterialȱforȱyourȱliterature review? A) Howȱmanyȱresearchersȱworkedȱonȱthisȱproject? B) Whatȱisȱtheȱstudyȇsȱbasicȱdesign? C) Howȱlongȱdidȱitȱtakeȱtheȱauthorȱtoȱdoȱtheȱresearch? D) Whichȱofȱtheȱresearchersȱdesignedȱtheȱexperimentȱorȱsurvey? Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ39 Skill: Comprehension

12) WhatȱisȱNOTȱneededȱforȱaȱcausalȱexplanation? A) timeȱorder C) association

B) spuriousness D) rulingȱoutȱofȱalternativeȱcausalȱfactors

Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ55 Skill: Comprehension

13) Whenȱdoesȱaȱresearcherȱfocusȱtheȱresearchȱquestionȱwhenȱhis/herȱresearchȱusesȱquantitative data? A) earlyȱinȱtheȱprocess B) proceedȱslowlyȱandȱfocusȱonȱaȱresearchȱquestionȱafterȱs/heȱgathersȱdata C) onceȱtheȱresearchȱisȱexactlyȱ25ȱpercentȱcomplete D) never Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ46 Skill: Comprehension

14) Inȱtheȱcause-effectȱstatementȱtheȱcauseȱvariableȱis A) theȱindependentȱvariable. C) theȱquantitativeȱvariable.

B) theȱdependentȱvariable. D) theȱqualitativeȱvariable.

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ48 Skill: Knowledge

15) IfȱaȱresearcherȇsȱquestionȱisȱaboutȱreasonsȱforȱanȱincreaseȱinȱtheȱbirthȱrateȱinȱPhoenix,ȱAZ,ȱthen theȱdependentȱvariableȱis A) theȱbirthȱrateȱinȱPhoenix. B) theȱreasonȱforȱincrease. C) theȱnumberȱofȱbabiesȱinȱtheȱworld. D) twins. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ48 Skill: Application

16) Whatȱquestionȱwillȱhelpȱidentifyȱtheȱindependentȱvariable? A) Doȱallȱtheȱresearchersȱagreeȱthatȱtheȱvariableȱisȱindependent? B) Canȱtheȱvariableȱstandȱonȱitsȱown? C) Doesȱitȱcomeȱearlierȱinȱtime? D) Howȱmanyȱvariablesȱareȱthere? Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ48 Skill: Comprehension

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17) Spuriousnessȱis A) theȱdependentȱvariable. B) theȱindependentȱvariable. C) anȱillusionaryȱrelationshipȱresultingȱfromȱanȱunacknowledgedȱotherȱvariableȱthatȱisȱa causeȱofȱbothȱtheȱindependentȱandȱdependentȱvariable. D) somethingȱthatȱshouldȱbeȱencouragedȱinȱallȱresearch. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ55 Skill: Knowledge

18) Mr.ȱLoveȱisȱputtingȱtogetherȱaȱreferenceȱlist,ȱbutȱheȱisȱunsureȱofȱexactlyȱwhatȱheȱshouldȱbe doing.ȱWhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱareȱappropriate? A) Heȱshouldȱcreateȱhisȱownȱformatȱstyle. B) Heȱshouldȱensureȱthatȱheȱisȱusingȱtheȱcorrectȱorderȱofȱreferences. C) Allȱreferencesȱshouldȱstartȱwithȱcapitalȱlettersȱandȱbeȱinȱreverseȱalphabeticalȱorder. D) Noȱmoreȱthanȱ10ȱreferencesȱshouldȱeverȱbeȱlisted. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ42-43 Skill: Application

19) QualitativeȱresearchȱisȱNOT A) usuallyȱinductive. B) causal. C) usuallyȱnumber-related. D) usedȱtoȱdiscoverȱtheȱmeaningȱofȱaȱsocialȱsetting. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ52 Skill: Knowledge

20) Researchersȱtestȱhypothesesȱinȱtwoȱways:ȱaȱstraightforwardȱwayȱand B) byȱusingȱdependentȱvariables. A) byȱusingȱtheȱnullȱhypothesis. D) byȱtakingȱaȱnonlinearȱpath. C) byȱusingȱqualitativeȱanalysis. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ50 Skill: Knowledge

21) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱreadsȱaȱscholarlyȱjournal,ȱs/heȱshould A) ignoreȱanythingȱthatȱmightȱconflictȱwithȱtheȱresearcherȇsȱopinion. B) onlyȱtakeȱintoȱaccountȱinformationȱpresentedȱinȱtheȱarticle. C) formȱaȱmentalȱimageȱofȱtheȱarticleȇsȱtopic. D) readȱtheȱarticleȱonlyȱonce. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ39 Skill: Knowledge

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22) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱtrueȱforȱquantitativeȱresearch? A) approachȱisȱdeductive B) pathȱisȱlinear C) Ideasȱareȱexpressedȱinȱtheȱformȱofȱdistrictȱvariables. D) Dataȱisȱinȱtheȱformȱofȱwordsȱandȱimages. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ52 Skill: Knowledge

23) Practicalȱlimitationsȱonȱstudyȱdesignȱinclude A) havingȱtooȱmanyȱresearchȱsubjects. C) lackȱofȱpersonalȱinterest.

B) ethicalȱconcerns. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove

Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ47 Skill: Knowledge

24) Theȱunitȱofȱanalysis A) mayȱchangeȱduringȱtheȱresearchȱprocess. B) hasȱnoȱmeaningȱinȱquantitativeȱresearch. C) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱtheȱlevelȱofȱanalysis. D) isȱtheȱunitȱonȱwhichȱaȱresearcherȱmeasuresȱvariablesȱandȱgathersȱdata. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ54 Skill: Knowledge

25) Microȱlevelȱandȱmacroȱlevelȱareȱtermsȱusedȱin A) levelȱofȱanalysis. C) microscopy.

B) termsȱofȱendearment. D) hypotheses.

Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ55 Skill: Knowledge

2.2 True/False 1) Aȱtopicȱthatȱisȱappropriateȱforȱsocialȱresearchȱgeneralizesȱsocialȱpatternsȱthatȱoperateȱin aggregatesȱandȱareȱempiricallyȱobservable. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ26 Skill: Knowledge

2) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱconductingȱaȱresearchȱstudyȱthatȱheȱdescribesȱasȱaȱquantitativeȱstudyȱthat describesȱhistoricalȱeventsȱinȱaȱtimeȱline.ȱIsȱhisȱstatementȱthatȱthisȱresearchȱisȱquantitativeȱin natureȱmostȱaptlyȱtrueȱorȱfalse? Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ52 Skill: Application

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3) Governmentȱdocumentsȱareȱveryȱrareȱ(oftenȱprotectedȱbyȱHomelandȱSecurityȱrules),ȱandȱare typicallyȱnotȱaȱsourceȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱwouldȱuseȱinȱaȱliteratureȱreview. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ32 Skill: Evaluation

4) Scholarlyȱjournalsȱtypicallyȱdoȱnotȱrequireȱpeerȱreviewȱbeforeȱpublishingȱresearch. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ30 Skill: Knowledge

5) Synthesizingȱandȱwritingȱtheȱliteratureȱreviewȱisȱtheȱfirstȱandȱeasiestȱstepȱofȱtheȱliterature reviewȱprocess Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ41 Skill: Knowledge

6) Unitsȱofȱanalysisȱareȱnotȱcriticalȱforȱthinkingȱthroughȱaȱresearchȱstudy. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ54 Skill: Knowledge

7) AnȱindependentȱvariableȱisȱtheȱȈcauseȈȱinȱaȱcause-effectȱstudy. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ53 Skill: Comprehension

8) Groundedȱtheoryȱhasȱnothingȱtoȱdoȱwithȱelectricityȱandȱgroundingȱcircuits. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ53 Skill: Knowledge

9) Qualitativeȱresearchersȱusuallyȱexamineȱcasesȱandȱcontextsȱwhileȱquantitativeȱresearchers usuallyȱlookȱatȱvariables. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ51 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱstudyȱthatȱisȱdeductiveȱstartsȱwithȱevidenceȱandȱthenȱslowlyȱbuildsȱtowardȱgeneralizations orȱsummaryȱideas. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ44 Skill: Comprehension

2.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Defineȱaggregatesȱinȱtheȱcontextȱofȱchoosingȱaȱresearchȱtopic. Answer: collectionȱofȱpeopleȱorȱunits Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ26 Skill: Knowledge

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2) Dr.ȱMarshȱhasȱdecidedȱthatȱheȱwouldȱlikeȱtoȱstudyȱhowȱmuchȱtimeȱheȱwastesȱeveryȱday.ȱIsȱhis researchȱtopicȱacceptable?ȱWhyȱorȱwhyȱnot? Answer: No,ȱitȱisȱaȱsingleȱcase,ȱnotȱanȱaggregate. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ26 Skill: Application

3) Explainȱempiricallyȱobservableȱ- whatȱdoesȱitȱmean? Answer: detectȱitȱandȱobserveȱitȱusingȱourȱsenses Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ26 Skill: Knowledge

4) Listȱtheȱtwoȱofȱtheȱfiveȱcharacteristicsȱofȱaȱcausalȱhypothesis. Answer: atȱleastȱ2ȱvariables,ȱspecifiesȱhowȱtheȱvariablesȱareȱconnected,ȱincludeȱaȱtimeȱorder assumption,ȱcanȱbeȱrestatedȱasȱaȱpredictionȱorȱexpectedȱfinding,ȱcanȱshowȱthatȱitȱis supportedȱorȱfalseȱwithȱempiricalȱdata. Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ49 Skill: Knowledge

5) Giveȱtwoȱreasonsȱwhyȱaȱresearcherȱconductsȱaȱliteratureȱreview. Answer: narrowȱfocus,ȱexamplesȱofȱdesigns,ȱwhatȱisȱknownȱonȱtheȱtopic,ȱexamplesȱofȱresearch reports,ȱimproveȱwritingȱskills,ȱstimulateȱcreativity Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ27 Skill: Knowledge

6) Nameȱ3ȱsourcesȱforȱresearchȱliteratureȱreviews,ȱandȱtheirȱuse. Answer: periodicalsȱ(goodȱstartȱforȱprocess),ȱbooks,ȱgovernmentȱdocs,ȱPhDȱdissertations,ȱpolicy reports Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ27-29 Skill: Comprehension

7) Inȱaȱshortȱparagraph,ȱdescribeȱanȱinterveningȱvariable. Answer: appearsȱinȱcomplexȱrelations,ȱlinkȱbetweenȱtheȱindependentȱandȱdependentȱvariable Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ48 Skill: Comprehension

8) Whatȱisȱaȱvariableȱinȱquantitativeȱresearch?ȱGiveȱanȱexample. Answer: aȱconceptȱthatȱvaries Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ48 Skill: Synthesis

9) Listȱtwoȱquestionsȱthatȱhelpȱidentifyȱtheȱindependentȱvariable. Answer: Doesȱitȱhaveȱanȱimpactȱonȱanotherȱvariable?ȱDoesȱitȱcomeȱearlierȱinȱtime? Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ48 Skill: Comprehension

10) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱaȱlinearȱpathȱorȱnonlinearȱpathȱinȱresearch? Answer: quantitativeȱdataȱ-ȱusuallyȱlinear,ȱfixedȱsetȱofȱstepsȱinȱoneȱdirectionȱqualitativeȱdataȱnonlinear,ȱusuallyȱmovesȱsidewaysȱbeforeȱmovingȱforward,ȱretracesȱsteps Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ47 Skill: Comprehension

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2.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) __________ȱisȱaȱtopicȱthatȱhasȱregularityȱorȱsomeȱkindȱofȱformȱthatȱdescribesȱinterconnections. Answer: Socialȱpattern Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ26 Skill: Comprehension

2) Mostȱresearchȱstudiesȱareȱreportedȱinȱ__________ȱjournals. Answer: scholarly Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ35 Skill: Knowledge

3) Whenȱtwoȱvariablesȱappearȱtoȱbeȱcausallyȱconnectedȱbutȱinȱreality,ȱtheyȱareȱnotȱbecauseȱan unseenȱthirdȱfactorȱisȱtheȱtrueȱcause,ȱthisȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: spuriousness Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ55 Skill: Comprehension

4) Usingȱ__________ȱdata,ȱaȱresearcherȱrearranges,ȱexaminesȱandȱdiscussesȱnumbersȱbyȱusing charts,ȱtablesȱandȱstatisticsȱtoȱseeȱpatterns. Answer: quantitative Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ51 Skill: Knowledge

5) __________ȱtypesȱofȱresearchȱareȱmoreȱlikelyȱtoȱappearȱinȱaȱbookȱformatȱbecauseȱtheyȱareȱthe resultsȱofȱlongȱcomplexȱstudies. Answer: Qualitative Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ32 Skill: Comprehension

6) __________ȱisȱusuallyȱtheȱfirstȱstepȱinȱtheȱSixȱStepȱProcessȱforȱconductingȱaȱliteratureȱreview. Answer: Refiningȱtheȱtopic Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ34 Skill: Knowledge

7) Theȱ__________ȱisȱtheȱlevelȱofȱrealityȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱexamines. Answer: levelȱofȱanalysis Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ54 Skill: Knowledge

8) Aȱ__________ȱstudyȱstartsȱwithȱaȱsummaryȱideaȱorȱanȱȈeducatedȱguessȈȱofȱwhatȱaȱresearcher thinksȱmightȱoccurȱandȱthenȱmovesȱtowardȱspecific,ȱobservableȱevidenceȱtoȱtestȱorȱverifyȱthe ideas. Answer: deductive Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ44 Skill: Knowledge

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9) Aȱcauseȱvariableȱisȱtheȱindependentȱvariable,ȱandȱtheȱresultȱeffectȱvariableȱisȱaȱdependent variable.ȱAȱthirdȱtypeȱofȱvariable,ȱ__________,ȱappearsȱinȱcomplexȱrelationsȱandȱshowsȱaȱlink betweenȱtheȱindependentȱandȱdependentȱvariables. Answer: interveningȱvariable Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ48 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱ__________ȱisȱtypicallyȱcausalȱinȱnatureȱwhenȱusedȱinȱquantitativeȱresearch. Answer: theory Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ52 Skill: Knowledge

11) A(n)ȱ__________ȱisȱaȱtentativeȱstatementȱofȱaȱrelationshipȱbetweenȱtwoȱvariables. Answer: hypothesis Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ49 Skill: Knowledge

12) Ifȱtwoȱvariablesȱhaveȱnoȱinfluenceȱoverȱeachȱotherȱandȱthereȱisȱnotȱrelationshipȱbetweenȱthe twoȱvariables,ȱthisȱisȱcalledȱaȱ__________ȱhypothesis. Answer: null Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ50 Skill: Knowledge

13) Inȱgeneral,ȱwithȱquantitativeȱdataȱaȱresearcherȱfollowsȱaȱ__________ȱpath. Answer: linear Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ47 Skill: Comprehension

14) __________ȱresearchȇsȱmainȱgoalȱisȱtoȱtestȱtheȱhypothesisȱthatȱtheȱresearcherȱstartedȱwith. Answer: Quantitative Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ52 Skill: Knowledge

15) Theȱ__________ȱisȱtheȱunitȱonȱwhichȱtheȱresearcherȱmeasuresȱvariablesȱandȱgathersȱdata. Answer: unitȱofȱanalysis Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ54 Skill: Comprehension

2.5 Essay 1) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱasksȱyouȱtoȱdoȱaȱliteratureȱsearchȱonȱaȱtopicȱthatȱheȱisȱconsideringȱforȱaȱresearch study.ȱHeȱisȱespeciallyȱinterestedȱinȱresearchȱthatȱhasȱbeenȱconductedȱrecentlyȱbyȱPhD candidates.ȱWhatȱtypesȱofȱdocumentsȱwouldȱyouȱlookȱfor?ȱWhereȱwouldȱyouȱlookȱforȱthem? Answer: Primarilyȱdissertationsȱfoundȱinȱuniversityȱlibrary.ȱDiscussȱwithȱlibrarianȱasȱtoȱother avenuesȱofȱsearch. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ32 Skill: Application

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2) DiscussȱpeerȱreviewȱandȱȈblindȱreviewȈȱprocess. Answer: Reviewerȱdoesȱnotȱknowȱtheȱidentityȱofȱpeerȱreviewersȱwhoȱevaluateȱtheȱmanuscript andȱreviewersȱdoȱnotȱknowȱwhoȱconductedȱtheȱstudy.ȱPersonalȱrelationshipsȱdonȇt impactȱtheȱreviewȱofȱtheȱmanuscripts. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ30 Skill: Comprehension

3) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱaȱmedicalȱresearcherȱandȱisȱveryȱinterestedȱinȱwhichȱofȱtwoȱnewȱdrugsȱis betterȱinȱtreatingȱhighȱbloodȱpressure.ȱHeȱasksȱ60ȱmenȱwithȱhighȱbloodȱpressureȱtoȱjoinȱthe experimentȱandȱthenȱheȱassignsȱeachȱtoȱaȱgroupȱofȱ30.ȱHeȱgivesȱoneȱgroupȱtheȱfirstȱdrugȱand theȱotherȱgroupȱtheȱotherȱdrug.ȱWhatȱisȱtheȱindependentȱvariableȱandȱwhatȱisȱtheȱdependent variableȱinȱthisȱstudy?ȱWhy? Answer: Drugȱisȱindependentȱ(itȱisȱbeingȱmanipulated);ȱbloodȱpressureȱisȱtheȱvariableȱthatȱis influencedȱbyȱtheȱdrugȱtakenȱandȱisȱtheȱdependentȱvariable. Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ53 Skill: Application

4) Whatȱisȱaȱjournalȱabstractȱandȱwhatȱdoesȱitȱinclude? Answer: aȱsummaryȱofȱtheȱmanuscriptȱandȱincludesȱtopic,ȱresearchȱquestion,ȱmethodȱand findings Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ31 Skill: Comprehension

5) Discussȱtheȱ8ȱquestionsȱfoundȱinȱdevelopingȱaȱresearchȱproposalȱ - whatȱareȱtheyȱandȱwhatȱis eachȇsȱrelevanceȱtoȱtheȱproposal? Answer: Whenȱtoȱfocusȱtheȱresearchȱquestion? Whatȱuniverseȱcanȱbeȱgeneralized? Whatȱtypeȱofȱresearchȱpath? Whatȱisȱexamined? Whatȱpatternsȱareȱinȱtheȱdata? Whatȱtypeȱofȱexplanation? Whatȱisȱtheȱlevelȱofȱanalysis? Whatȱareȱtheȱunitsȱofȱanalysis? Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ46-56 Skill: Comprehension

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Chapterȱ3 BecomingȱAnȱEthicalȱResearcher 3.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Thereȱareȱsomeȱveryȱclearȱprohibitionsȱinȱregardȱtoȱhumanȱsubjectȱresearch,ȱincluding A) neverȱcausingȱunnecessaryȱorȱirreversibleȱharmȱtoȱresearchȱparticipants. B) underȱcertainȱcircumstances,ȱgettingȱvoluntaryȱconsentȱfromȱresearchȱparticipants. C) makingȱsureȱthatȱallȱtheȱresearchȱparticipantsȱgetȱtheȱexperimentalȱtreatment. D) keepingȱcertainȱpeopleȱfromȱparticipating. Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ66 Skill: Knowledge

2) Informedȱconsentȱstatementsȱcontain A) aȱdetailedȱandȱexactȱdescriptionȱofȱtheȱpurposeȱandȱresearchȱprocedures,ȱincluding informationȱonȱotherȱparticipants. B) aȱpictureȱofȱtheȱresearcherȱandȱhisȱstaff. C) aȱguaranteeȱofȱanonymityȱandȱtheȱconfidentialityȱofȱdataȱrecords. D) aȱfingerprintȱcard. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ70 Skill: Knowledge

3) Socialȱresearchȱcanȱcauseȱharmȱbyȱcausing A) theȱresearcherȱtoȱlookȱlikeȱheȱdoesnȇtȱknowȱwhatȱheȱisȱdoing. B) physicalȱharmȱorȱbodilyȱinjury. C) unpleasantȱodorȱinȱtheȱenvironment. D) confusion. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ66 Skill: Knowledge

4) Theȱprincipleȱofȱvoluntaryȱconsent A) meansȱthatȱparticipationȱinȱaȱstudyȱmustȱbeȱvoluntaryȱatȱallȱtimes. B) hasȱnoȱrelevanceȱtoȱhumanȱsubjectȱresearch. C) appliesȱonlyȱtoȱanimalȱresearch. D) doesnȇtȱincludeȱtellingȱhumanȱvolunteersȱtheirȱrights. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ69 Skill: Knowledge

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5) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱstatementsȱisȱuntrue?ȱTheȱMilgramȱObedienceȱstudy A) cameȱaboutȱbecauseȱMilgramȱwantedȱtoȱlearnȱhowȱordinaryȱpeopleȱcouldȱhaveȱcarried outȱtheȱhorrorsȱofȱtheȱHolocastȱunderȱtheȱNazis. B) wasȱanȱexperimentȱthatȱusedȱelectricalȱshocksȱthatȱwereȱsupposedlyȱadministeredȱto pupils. C) isȱanȱexampleȱofȱaȱstudyȱthatȱusedȱdeception. D) isȱheldȱupȱasȱtheȱmostȱethicalȱexperimentȱeverȱconducted. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ68 Skill: Comprehension

6) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱconductingȱaȱresearchȱstudyȱthatȱwillȱexposeȱtheȱsubjectsȱtoȱaȱgreatȱdealȱof stress.ȱWhatȱmightȱbeȱoneȱwayȱtoȱprotectȱhisȱsubjectsȱfromȱharm? A) Tellȱthemȱtoȱmakeȱoutȱtheirȱwillsȱbeforeȱtheyȱstartȱtheȱstudy. B) Screenȱpotentialȱcandidatesȱtoȱensureȱthatȱnoȱoneȱisȱatȱhighȱriskȱforȱheartȱattack,ȱmental breakdown,ȱetc. C) Beȱdeceptiveȱandȱdonȇtȱtellȱtheȱsubjectsȱthatȱtheyȱmightȱbeȱexposedȱtoȱstress. D) Tellȱthemȱtoȱtakeȱanȱanti-anxietyȱmedicationȱbeforeȱtheyȱstartȱtheȱstudy. Answer: B Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ67 Skill: Application

7) Theȱlawȱrecognizesȱseveralȱveryȱclearȱprohibitionsȱinȱconductingȱresearch,ȱincluding A) neverȱstealȱanotherȱresearcherȇsȱwork. B) neverȱcauseȱunnecessaryȱharmȱtoȱresearchȱparticipants. C) neverȱalterȱdataȱtoȱfitȱaȱproposedȱhypothesis. D) neverȱhideȱanyȱinformationȱaboutȱresearchȱparticipants. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ66 Skill: Comprehension

8) TheȱNuremburgȱCodeȱcameȱaboutȱafterȱWWIIȱandȱasȱaȱresultȱofȱtheȱNaziȱdoctorȱtrials.ȱSeveral ofȱtheȱCodeȇsȱprinciplesȱinclude A) neverȱuseȱanimalsȱinȱresearch. B) participationȱinȱresearchȱdoesȱnotȱneedȱtoȱbeȱvoluntary. C) avoidȱunnecessaryȱphysicalȱandȱmentalȱsuffering. D) performȱsurgeryȱwithȱanesthesia. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ76 Skill: Comprehension

9) Mr.ȱMarshȱchangedȱsomeȱofȱtheȱdataȱinȱaȱstudyȱbecauseȱheȱthoughtȱthatȱitȱdidnȇtȱfitȱwithȱthe restȱofȱtheȱdata.ȱHeȱdidnȇtȱmeanȱanyȱharm,ȱbutȱthereȱisȱaȱproblem.ȱIfȱheȱdoesnȇtȱdiscloseȱtheȱfact thatȱheȱchangedȱtheȱdataȱheȱcouldȱbeȱguiltyȱof B) plagiarism. A) violationȱofȱtheȱNurembergȱCode. C) scientificȱmisconduct. D) skippingȱresearchȱsteps. Answer: C Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ63 Skill: Application

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10) Anyȱresearcherȱshouldȱbeȱcautiousȱaboutȱunnecessaryȱstressȱbecause A) anyȱdiscomfortȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱcreatesȱmustȱhaveȱaȱveryȱclear,ȱlegitimateȱresearch purpose. B) writtenȱconsentȱisȱnotȱneeded. C) itȱisȱbestȱtoȱginȱtheȱexperimentȱwithȱtheȱhighestȱlevelȱofȱstress. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ67 Skill: Knowledge

11) AnȱinformedȱconsentȱdocumentȱincludesȱallȱBUTȱtheȱfollowing: A) aȱstatementȱofȱanyȱalternativeȱproceduresȱthatȱmayȱbeȱused. B) anȱofferȱtoȱprovideȱaȱsummaryȱofȱtheȱfindingsȱwhenȱtheȱstudyȱisȱcompleted. C) aȱstatementȱofȱanyȱrisksȱassociatedȱwithȱparticipation. D) aȱstatementȱdescribingȱpeopleȱwhoȱhaveȱdecidedȱnotȱtoȱparticipateȱinȱtheȱstudy. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ70 Skill: Comprehension

12) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱinvitesȱsomeoneȱtoȱparticipateȱinȱaȱresearchȱstudyȱandȱasksȱhim/herȱtoȱsign aȱvoluntaryȱconsentȱform,ȱthisȱisȱcalled A) theȱMilgramȱprinciple. B) theȱNaziȱdoctorȱprinciple. C) theȱNuremburgȱCode. D) principleȱofȱvoluntaryȱconsent. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ69 Skill: Knowledge

13) Researchersȱhaveȱaȱstrongȱmoralȱandȱprofessionalȱobligationȱto A) actȱethicallyȱwhenȱsomeoneȱisȱwatching. B) actȱethicallyȱwhenȱtheȱsubjectȱasksȱquestions. C) actȱethicallyȱatȱallȱtimesȱandȱinȱallȱsituations. D) doȱnothing,ȱaȱresearcherȱcanȱdoȱanythingȱsheȱwants. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ62 Skill: Comprehension

14) Theȱresearchȱcommunityȱrecognizesȱclearȱprohibitionsȱwhenȱrecognizingȱresearchȱethics includingȱallȱofȱtheseȱEXCEPT A) neverȱcauseȱunnecessaryȱorȱirreversibleȱharmȱtoȱresearchȱparticipants. B) neverȱunnecessarilyȱhumiliateȱorȱdegradeȱresearchȱparticipants. C) neverȱreleaseȱharmfulȱinformationȱaboutȱspecificȱindividualsȱcollectedȱforȱresearch purposes. D) voluntaryȱconsentȱisȱsometimesȱneeded. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ66 Skill: Knowledge

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15) Violationsȱofȱtheȱethicalȱcode A) onlyȱhappenedȱinȱtheȱpast. B) neverȱoccurȱinȱtheȱUnitedȱStates C) areȱalwaysȱobviousȱandȱeasilyȱdetected. D) haveȱcontinuedȱinȱmodernȱtimes,ȱandȱallȱoverȱtheȱworld. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ67 Skill: Knowledge

16) Deceptionȱisȱacceptableȱwithinȱstrictȱlimitsȱifȱaȱresearcher A) showsȱthatȱitȱhasȱaȱclearȱspecificȱmethodologicalȱpurpose. B) doesȱnotȱtellȱanyone. C) hasȱaȱmonetaryȱinterest. D) wantsȱrecognition. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ70-71 Skill: Knowledge

17) Negotiatingȱconditionsȱforȱreleasingȱfindingsȱforȱresearchȱshouldȱbeȱdoneȱ__________ȱthe studyȱorȱsigningȱaȱcontract. A) priorȱtoȱbeginning B) whileȱconducting C) after D) intermittentlyȱafter Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ80 Skill: Knowledge

18) IfȱMr.ȱMarshȱtracesȱresearchȱparticipantsȱbackȱtoȱtheirȱidentityȱusingȱinformationȱthey provided.ȱHeȱdidȱnotȱdoȱaȱgoodȱjobȱinȱprotectingȱsubjectsȇ A) assets. B) anonymity. C) confidentiality. D) disguise. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ73 Skill: Application

19) Dr.ȱMottleȱwishesȱtoȱhaveȱherȱstudentsȱparticipateȱinȱaȱresearchȱstudy.ȱParticipationȱhasȱaȱclear educationalȱobjective.ȱSheȱalsoȱneeds A) toȱofferȱgoodȱgradesȱtoȱthoseȱthatȱparticipate. B) toȱofferȱaȱchoiceȱofȱanȱalternativeȱactivityȱofȱequalȱdifficultyȱforȱthoseȱnotȱwishingȱto participate. C) toȱofferȱpoorȱgradesȱtoȱthoseȱthatȱdonȇtȱparticipate. D) toȱcovertlyȱhaveȱsomeȱstudentsȱparticipate. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ71-72 Skill: Application

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20) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱinformsȱanȱexternalȱsourceȱofȱaȱseriousȱethicalȱissueȱthatȱisȱnotȱbeing resolvedȱwithinȱtheȱorganization,ȱthisȱisȱcalled A) hornȱblowing. B) zipperȱapplication. C) whistleȱblowing. D) suppressingȱfindings. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ80-81 Skill: Knowledge

21) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱbasicȱprincipleȱofȱethicalȱresearch? A) releaseȱallȱdetailsȱofȱtheȱstudyȱproceduresȱwithȱresults B) actȱwithȱintegrityȱandȱadhereȱtoȱtheȱbehaviorsȱoutlinedȱinȱprofessionalȱcodesȱofȱethics C) keepȱnamesȱandȱaddressesȱofȱallȱsubjectsȱinȱaȱpublicȱdatabase D) getȱinformedȱconsentȱfromȱtheȱresearchȱparticipantsȱbeforeȱbeginning Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ79 Skill: Knowledge

22) Valueȱfreeȱmeans A) researchȱwithoutȱanyȱpriorȱassumptionsȱorȱtheory. B) dataȱisȱmeaningless. C) noȱgoodȱwillȱcomeȱfromȱtheȱresearch. D) theȱresearchȱdoesȱnotȱcostȱanything. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ82-83 Skill: Knowledge

23) Professionalȱassociationsȱpromoteȱcodesȱofȱethics,ȱand A) theyȱareȱenforcedȱbyȱfederalȱauthorities. B) theȱmembersȱwillȱvoluntarilyȱenforceȱtheȱrulesȱbyȱimposingȱhugeȱfines. C) membersȱwinȱawardsȱforȱethicalȱconduct. D) theȱpenaltyȱforȱaȱminorȱethicalȱviolationȱrarelyȱgoesȱpastȱpublicȱembarrassmentȱandȱa letterȱofȱcomplaint. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ77 Skill: Comprehension

24) AȱsponsorȱtellsȱMr.ȱMarshȱthatȱitȱwillȱpayȱforȱhisȱresearchȱifȱtheȱresultsȱcomeȱoutȱaȱcertainȱway. A) Theȱethicalȱchoiceȱisȱforȱhimȱtoȱrefuseȱtoȱcontinueȱtheȱstudy. B) Heȱisȱconductingȱvalueȱfreeȱresearch. C) Sponsorsȱalwaysȱrequestȱthis. D) Sponsorsȱwillȱnotȱconductȱresearchȱwithoutȱthisȱrequest. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ79-80 Skill: Knowledge

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25) Specialȱpopulations,ȱalsoȱcalledȱvulnerableȱpopulations,ȱincludeȱpeopleȱwhoȱmayȱnotȱbeȱfully capableȱofȱgivingȱconsentȱfreely.ȱWhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱspecialȱpopulation? A) theȱhomeless B) prisoners C) students D) womenȱwithȱredȱhair Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ75 Skill: Knowledge

3.2 True/False 1) TheȱTuskegeeȱsyphilisȱstudyȱisȱoneȱofȱtheȱmostȱoutrageousȱinstancesȱofȱaȱdisregardȱofȱbasic ethicalȱprinciplesȱinȱresearchȱwithȱhumansȱinȱtheȱUnitedȱStates. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ62 Skill: Knowledge

2) NoȱoneȱshouldȱeverȱbeȱȈforcedȈȱintoȱparticipatingȱinȱaȱresearchȱstudy.ȱParticipationȱmustȱbe voluntaryȱatȱallȱtimes. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ69 Skill: Knowledge

3) Thereȱareȱeightȱbasicȱelementsȱthatȱneedȱtoȱbeȱincludedȱinȱanȱinformedȱconsentȱdocument. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ70 Skill: Knowledge

4) Whenȱpresentingȱresearchȱdataȱtoȱtheȱpublicȱitȱshouldȱbeȱreleasedȱinȱaggregateȱformȱonly. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ73-74 Skill: Knowledge

5) Researchersȱdoȱnotȱhaveȱaȱmoralȱorȱprofessionalȱobligationȱtoȱactȱethically. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ62 Skill: Knowledge

6) Theȱgreaterȱtheȱpossibilityȱofȱriskȱtoȱtheȱsubjectȱ(participant),ȱtheȱgreaterȱtheȱneedȱtoȱobtain informedȱconsent. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ69 Skill: Knowledge

7) Someȱofȱtheȱmostȱnotoriousȱatrocitiesȱeverȱcommittedȱinȱtheȱnameȱofȱresearchȱwereȱconducted byȱtheȱNaziȱdoctors. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ65 Skill: Knowledge

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8) Actingȱlegallyȱmeansȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱalsoȱactsȱethically. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ64-65 Skill: Analysis

9) Aȱresearcherȱisȱnotȱresponsibleȱforȱprotectingȱresearchȱparticipantsȱfromȱanȱincreasedȱriskȱof arrestȱsimplyȱbecauseȱtheyȱareȱinȱaȱstudy. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ67-68 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱresearcherȱhasȱlittleȱresponsibilityȱinȱminimizingȱtheȱriskȱofȱharmȱtoȱparticipants. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ67 Skill: Knowledge

3.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱresearchȱfraudȱandȱplagiarism? Answer: Researchȱfraudȱisȱdeceptionȱorȱlyingȱaboutȱdataȱorȱaȱstudy,ȱwhileȱplagiarismȱisȱstealing someoneȱelsesȱideasȱorȱwritings. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ63 Skill: Analysis

2) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱanonymityȱandȱconfidentiality? Answer: Anonymityȱmeansȱtoȱremainȱanonymousȱorȱnameless.ȱConfidentialityȱattaches informationȱtoȱparticularȱindividuals,ȱbutȱkeptȱsecretȱfromȱpublicȱdisclosure. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ73-74 Skill: Knowledge

3) Aȱteacherȱmustȱmeetȱthreeȱconditionsȱtoȱethicallyȱjustifyȱresearchȱinȱtheȱclassroom.ȱNameȱthe threeȱconditions. Answer: 1)ȱParticipationȱinȱresearchȱisȱattachedȱtoȱaȱclearȱeducationalȱobjectiveȱofȱtheȱspecific course.ȱ2)ȱStudentsȱhaveȱaȱchoiceȱofȱtheȱresearchȱexperienceȱorȱanȱalternativeȱactivityȱof equalȱdifficulty.ȱ3)ȱTheȱteacherȱfollowsȱallȱotherȱethicalȱprinciplesȱofȱconducting research. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ72 Skill: Knowledge

4) Whatȱfourȱruleȱlimitationsȱshouldȱbeȱconsideredȱwhenȱusingȱdeceptionȱinȱaȱresearchȱstudy? Answer: Showȱthatȱtheȱresearchȱhasȱaȱclear,ȱspecificȱmethodologicalȱpurpose;ȱuseȱitȱonlyȱtoȱthe minimalȱdegreeȱnecessary;ȱobtainȱinformedȱconsent;ȱalwaysȱdebrief. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ71 Skill: Knowledge

5) Nameȱtwoȱgroupsȱthatȱareȱconsideredȱspecialȱpopulations. Answer: students,ȱprisonȱinmates,ȱemployees,ȱmilitaryȱpersonnel,ȱtheȱhomeless,ȱwelfare recipients,ȱchildren,ȱdevelopmentallyȱdisabled Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ75-76 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Whatȱisȱwhistle-blowing? Answer: occursȱwhenȱaȱresearcherȱinformsȱanȱexternalȱsourceȱofȱaȱseriousȱethicalȱproblemȱthatȱis beingȱignoredȱwithinȱtheȱinstitution Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ80-81 Skill: Knowledge

7) Nameȱ3ȱgeneralȱtypesȱofȱcoercion. Answer: physical,ȱsocial,ȱlegal,ȱprofessional,ȱfinancialȱ(othersȱareȱalsoȱacceptable) Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ71-72 Skill: Knowledge

8) WhatȱdoesȱtheȱȈprincipleȱofȱvoluntaryȱconsentȈȱmean? Answer: Itȱmeansȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱshouldȱneverȱcoerceȱanyoneȱintoȱparticipatingȱinȱaȱresearch study.ȱParticipationȱshouldȱbeȱvoluntaryȱatȱallȱtimes. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ69 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whatȱisȱanȱinstitutionalȱreviewȱboard? Answer: aȱcommitteeȱofȱresearchersȱandȱcommunityȱmemberȱthatȱoversees,ȱmonitors,ȱand reviewsȱtheȱimpactȱofȱresearchȱproceduresȱonȱhumanȱparticipants Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ76 Skill: Knowledge

10) Socialȱresearchȱcanȱcauseȱharmȱisȱseveralȱways;ȱnameȱthreeȱofȱthem. Answer: physicalȱorȱbodilyȱharm,ȱemotionalȱdistressȱorȱpsychologicalȱharm,ȱlegalȱharmȱand damageȱtoȱaȱpersonsȱcareer,ȱreputationȱofȱincome Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ66 Skill: Knowledge

3.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) Twoȱmajorȱtypesȱofȱ__________ȱareȱplagiarismȱandȱresearchȱfraud. Answer: Scientificȱmisconduct Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ63 Skill: Knowledge

2) __________ȱisȱaȱmildȱformȱofȱharmȱtoȱparticipants.Itȱharmsȱtheȱsenseȱofȱtrustȱandȱhonestyȱin humanȱrelations. Answer: Deception Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ70-71 Skill: Knowledge

3) __________ȱisȱaȱformȱofȱpersuasionȱbyȱphysical,ȱsocial,ȱlegal,ȱprofessional,ȱfinancialȱorȱsome otherȱmeans. Answer: Coercion Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ71-72 Skill: Knowledge

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4) Aȱwritten,ȱformalȱsetȱofȱprofessionalȱstandardsȱthatȱprovidesȱguidanceȱwhenȱethicalȱquestions ariseȱinȱpracticeȱisȱcalledȱaȱ__________. Answer: codeȱofȱethics Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ76 Skill: Knowledge

5) __________ȱisȱtheȱdocumentȱthatȱresearchersȱuseȱtoȱmakeȱparticipantsȱawareȱofȱtheirȱrights. Answer: Informedȱconsent Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ69 Skill: Knowledge

6) Inȱsponsoredȱresearch,ȱaȱresearcherȱnegotiatesȱconditionsȱforȱreleasingȱfindingsȱ__________ȱto signingȱtheȱcontract. Answer: beforeȱorȱprior Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ80 Skill: Knowledge

7) TheȱPrincipleȱofȱ__________ȱrequiresȱthatȱresearchȱparticipationȱbeȱvoluntaryȱatȱatȱallȱtimes. Answer: VoluntaryȱConsent Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ69 Skill: Knowledge

8) A(n)ȱ__________ȱisȱaȱcommitteeȱofȱresearchersȱandȱcommunityȱmembersȱthatȱoversees, monitors,ȱandȱreviewsȱtheȱimpactȱofȱresearchȱproceduresȱonȱhumanȱparticipants. Answer: InstitutionalȱReviewȱBoard Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ76 Skill: Knowledge

9) Threeȱtypesȱofȱresearchȱharmȱincludeȱphysical,ȱ__________ȱandȱ__________. Answer: emotional,ȱlegal Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ66 Skill: Knowledge

10) Groupsȱsuchȱasȱstudents,ȱprisonȱinmates,ȱemployees,ȱmilitaryȱpersonnel,ȱtheȱhomeless,ȱand otherȱgroupsȱthatȱmayȱnotȱbeȱfullyȱcapableȱofȱgivingȱconsentȱfreelyȱareȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: specialȱpopulations Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ75-76 Skill: Knowledge

11) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱinvents,ȱfalsifiesȱorȱdistortsȱstudyȱdataȱorȱliesȱaboutȱhowȱaȱstudyȱwas conducted,ȱthisȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: researchȱfraud Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ63 Skill: Knowledge

12) Informedȱconsentȱupholdsȱtheȱprincipleȱofȱvoluntaryȱparticipationȱandȱincludesȱ__________ essentialȱelements. Answer: 8 Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ70 Skill: Knowledge

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13) SubjectsȱwhoȱparticipatedȱinȱtheȱMilgramȱObedienceȱstudyȱsufferedȱfromȱ__________ȱharm. Answer: emotionalȱorȱpsychological Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ68 Skill: Application

14) Anȱagreementȱinȱwhichȱparticipantsȱstateȱthatȱtheyȱareȱwillingȱtoȱbeȱinȱaȱstudyȱandȱknowȱwhat theȱresearchȱrisksȱandȱproceduresȱinvolvedȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: informedȱconsent. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ69 Skill: Knowledge

15) __________ȱisȱholdingȱinformationȱandȱnotȱmakingȱitȱknownȱtoȱtheȱpublic. Answer: Confidentiality Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ73-74 Skill: Knowledge

3.5 Essay 1) DiscussȱInstitutionalȱReviewȱBoards.ȱWhatȱareȱthey,ȱwhatȱisȱtheirȱpurpose?ȱWhyȱwouldȱyouȱbe interestedȱinȱanȱIRBȇsȱoperatingȱproceduresȱifȱyouȱwereȱconductingȱresearch? Answer: anȱethicalȱboardȱtoȱoverseeȱresearchȱdoneȱinȱtheirȱfacility;ȱwouldȱbeȱinterestedȱin operatingȱprocedures,ȱespeciallyȱifȱsubmittingȱtoȱtheȱIRBȱandȱfollowingȱallȱtheȱrulesȱto continueȱtheȱresearch Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ76 Skill: Application

2) Discussȱtheȱuseȱofȱdeceptionȱinȱresearch?ȱIsȱitȱeverȱethical?ȱWhatȱareȱsomeȱlimitations? Answer: Deceptionȱisȱaȱmildȱtypeȱofȱharmȱtoȱparticipantsȱ- voluntaryȱparticipationȱandȱa personȇsȱrightȱnotȱtoȱparticipateȱcanȱbeȱcritical.ȱDeceptionȱisȱneverȱpreferable. Limitationsȱshowȱthatȱitȱhasȱaȱclearȱpurpose,ȱuseȱitȱonlyȱtoȱtheȱminimalȱdegree necessary,ȱobtainȱinformedȱconsent,ȱalwaysȱdebrief. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ70-71 Skill: Knowledge

3) Discussȱtheȱreasonsȱwhyȱresultsȱofȱaȱresearchȱstudyȱmightȱbeȱsuppressed.ȱAreȱthereȱethical considerationsȱtoȱconsiderȱregardingȱsuppressingȱfindings? Answer: ReasonsȱincludeȱmakingȱtheȱsponsorȱȈlookȈȱbad,ȱpoliticalȱissues,ȱfundingȱandȱresults thatȱshowȱanȱundesiredȱoutcome.ȱYes,ȱresponsibilityȱtoȱsubjects,ȱetc. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ80 Skill: Knowledge

4) Discussȱscientificȱmisconduct.ȱWhatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱresearchȱfraudȱandȱplagiarism? Answer: Scientificȱmisconductȱisȱviolatingȱbasicȱandȱacceptedȱstandardsȱofȱhonestȱscientific research.ȱResearchȱfraudȱandȱplagiarismȱareȱbothȱconsideredȱscientificȱmisconduct. Researchȱfraudȱisȱinventing,ȱfalsifyingȱorȱdistortingȱstudyȱdataȱorȱtoȱlieȱaboutȱhowȱa studyȱwasȱconducted.ȱPlagiarismȱusingȱanotherȱpersonȇsȱwordsȱorȱideasȱwithoutȱgiving themȱproperȱcredit. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ63 Skill: Comprehension

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5) Areȱbeingȱethicalȱandȱbeingȱlegalȱoneȱandȱtheȱsameȱthing?ȱCanȱsomeoneȱbeȱoneȱandȱnot another?ȱGiveȱanȱexample. Answer: Beingȱethicalȱandȱbeingȱlegalȱareȱnotȱoneȱandȱtheȱsame.ȱYes,ȱaȱresearcherȱcanȱbeȱoneȱand notȱanother.ȱAȱresearchȱactionȱcanȱbeȱfullyȱlegal,ȱnotȱbreakingȱanyȱlaws,ȱbutȱnotȱethical (violatesȱstandardsȱofȱethicalȱresearch).ȱAnȱexampleȱmightȱbe,ȱadministeringȱinformed consentȱ(legal),ȱbutȱbeingȱdeceptiveȱaboutȱriskȱtoȱtheȱsubjectsȱandȱIRBȱ(unethical). Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ64 Skill: Application

6) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱanxiousȱtoȱbeginȱhisȱresearchȱstudy,ȱandȱheȱjumpsȱrightȱinȱwithoutȱgaining approvalȱofȱhisȱstudyȱthroughȱtheȱIRB.ȱAdditionally,ȱheȱhasȱnotȱaskedȱhisȱresearchȱsubjectsȱto signȱaȱconsentȱform.ȱTheȱstudyȱisȱnotȱbeingȱsponsoredȱbyȱanyȱfederalȱagencyȱorȱthroughȱthe FoodȱandȱDrugȱAdministration.ȱWhatȱareȱtheȱlegalȱandȱethicalȱimplicationsȱofȱMr.ȱMarshȇs actions? Answer: TheȱresearchȱisȱnotȱlegallyȱrequiredȱtoȱhaveȱIRBȱapproval,ȱbutȱethicallyȱitȱis. Additionally,ȱhisȱpeersȱmayȱnotȱacceptȱhisȱresearchȱwithoutȱitȱmeetingȱprofessional standardsȱofȱhumanȱsubjectȱprotection.ȱMr.ȱMarshȱisȱboundȱbyȱethicalȱcodesȱincluding theȱNuremburgȱCodeȱtoȱprotectȱhisȱstudyȱsubjects. Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ76-79 Skill: Application

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Chapterȱ4 Sampling,ȱHowȱToȱSelectȱAȱFewȱTo RepresentȱTheȱMany 4.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Convenienceȱsampling A) isȱeasyȱandȱfastȱbutȱofȱlimitedȱuse. B) producesȱveryȱrepresentativeȱsamples. C) shouldȱnotȱbeȱusedȱforȱanȱexploratoryȱstudy. D) isȱoneȱofȱtheȱbestȱsamplingȱtechniques. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ88 Skill: Knowledge

2) Aȱresearcherȱmightȱuseȱpurposiveȱsamplingȱby A) usingȱsnowballȱsampling. B) gettingȱaȱbroadȱoverviewȱofȱsources. C) pickingȱsubjectsȱheȱmeetsȱonȱtheȱstreet. D) selectingȱcasesȱfromȱaȱspecific,ȱdifficult-to-reachȱpopulation. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ91 Skill: Knowledge

3) Theȱcaseȱorȱunitȱofȱanalysisȱinȱaȱpopulationȱis A) universe. C) sampleȱframe.

B) snowball. D) samplingȱelement.

Answer: D Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Knowledge

4) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱcreatingȱaȱlistȱofȱsampleȱelementsȱusingȱaȱtelephoneȱdirectory.ȱTheȱlistȱisȱcalled a(n) A) universe. B) population. C) samplingȱframe. D) target. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Application

5) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱconsideringȱaȱresearchȱstudyȱofȱlungȱcancerȱcausedȱbyȱsmoking.ȱWhat populationȱparameterȱwouldȱheȱmostȱlikelyȱlookȱforȱinȱtheȱentireȱpopulation? A) peopleȱwhoȱareȱobeseȱandȱhaveȱlungȱcancer B) peopleȱwhoȱareȱsmokersȱandȱhaveȱlungȱcancer C) diabeticsȱwhoȱhaveȱlungȱcancer D) peopleȱwithȱtoothȱdecayȱandȱlungȱcancer Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Application

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6) Inȱallȱrandomȱsamplesȱtheȱresearcherȱstartsȱby A) callingȱnumbers. C) numberingȱeachȱelementȱinȱtheȱframe.

B) obtainingȱaȱsetȱofȱrandomȱnumbers. D) replacingȱsampleȱelements.

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ94 Skill: Knowledge

7) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱmightȱbeȱanȱappropriateȱsampleȱframeȱforȱaȱpopulationȱagedȱ16 -18? A) telephoneȱdirectory B) publicȱpropertyȱtaxȱrecord C) schoolȱregistration D) birthȱannouncements Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ94 Skill: Application

8) Oneȱkeyȱfeatureȱofȱrandomȱsamples: A) mustȱmakeȱsubstitutionsȱwheneverȱnecessary. B) mustȱuseȱaȱselectionȱprocessȱbasedȱonȱtheȱresearcherȇsȱpreference. C) mustȱidentifyȱandȱpickȱaȱparticularȱsamplingȱelement,ȱrarelyȱusingȱsubstitutions. D) mustȱselectȱtheȱexactȱelementsȱinȱtheȱsample. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ93 Skill: Comprehension

9) Firstȱthingȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱneedsȱtoȱdoȱwhenȱusingȱrandomȱsamplingȱis A) locateȱtheȱexactȱselectedȱelements. B) developȱanȱaccurateȱsamplingȱframe. C) callȱsampleȱnumbers. D) doȱcalculations. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ94 Skill: Knowledge

10) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱusingȱSystemicȱSamplingȱandȱhisȱsampleȱframeȱhasȱ2000ȱnamesȱfromȱaȱdirectory. Ifȱheȱisȱsamplingȱ400,ȱwhatȱisȱhisȱsampleȱinterval? A) 6 B) 3 C) 5 D) 4 Answer: C Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ97 Skill: Application

11) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱusingȱstratifiedȱsamplingȱandȱhasȱtwoȱframes.ȱIfȱsheȱneedsȱ11%ȱfromȱaȱframeȱof 200ȱandȱ89%ȱfromȱaȱframeȱofȱ1000,ȱwhatȱisȱtheȱtotalȱsampleȱsize? A) 1112 B) 1002 C) 1102 D) 900 Answer: A Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ99 Skill: Application

12) Theȱlargerȱtheȱsampleȱsize A) theȱlargerȱtheȱsamplingȱerror. C) theȱsmallerȱtheȱpopulationȱsize.

B) theȱsmallerȱtheȱsamplingȱerror. D) hasȱnoȱimpactȱonȱresearch.

Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ106 Skill: Knowledge

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13) Accidentalȱsamplingȱoccursȱwhenȱaȱresearcherȱselectsȱcasesȱthatȱareȱeasyȱandȱconvenient.ȱIt lacksȱdepthȱandȱisȱalsoȱcalled A) convenienceȱsampling. B) snowballȱsampling. C) quotaȱsampling. D) purposiveȱsampling. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ88-89 Skill: Comprehension

14) Oneȱlimitationȱofȱthisȱtypeȱofȱsamplingȱisȱthatȱtheȱresearcherȱonlyȱcapturesȱtheȱdiversityȱofȱa fewȱpredeterminedȱpopulationȱcharacteristics. A) purposive B) quota C) random D) convenience Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ89-90 Skill: Knowledge

15) Ifȱaȱresearcherȱwalksȱintoȱaȱbusȱstationȱandȱstartsȱinterviewingȱpeopleȱatȱrandomȱforȱhis researchȱisȱmostȱlikelyȱusing A) quotaȱsampling. B) judgmentalȱsampling. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove C) convenienceȱsampling. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ89-90 Skill: Application

16) Whichȱtypeȱofȱsamplingȱisȱmostȱapplicableȱforȱcapturingȱanȱexistingȱnetwork? A) snowballȱsampling B) quotaȱsampling C) purposiveȱsampling D) convenienceȱsampling Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ91 Skill: Knowledge

17) Mr.ȱMarshȱusesȱaȱlistȱofȱallȱbaseballȱseasonȱticketȱholdersȱforȱhisȱsamplingȱelements.ȱThisȱis calledȱhis A) universe. B) samplingȱframe. C) target. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: B Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Knowledge

18) Randomȱsampling A) isȱmostȱlikelyȱtoȱproduceȱaȱsampleȱthatȱtrulyȱrepresentsȱtheȱpopulation. B) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱquotaȱsampling. C) requiresȱlessȱworkȱthanȱnonrandomȱsampling. D) isȱsimilarȱtoȱblackȱversusȱwhite. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ93-94 Skill: Comprehension

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19) Aȱrandomȱsamplingȱdistributionȱcurveȱisȱinȱtheȱshapeȱof A) anȱexponentialȱcurve. B) parabola. D) HȱandȱDȱcurve. C) bellȱshapeȱcurve. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ94-95 Skill: Knowledge

20) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱhasȱaȱveryȱlargeȱsampleȱwithȱveryȱlittleȱdiversityȱamongȱcases,ȱsoȱhisȱsampling errorȱwillȱbe A) veryȱsmall. B) veryȱlarge. C) willȱbeȱtheȱsameȱasȱanyȱotherȱerror. D) willȱbeȱbell-shaped. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ106 Skill: Application

21) Aȱtypicalȱconfidenceȱlevelȱisȱ95ȱpercentȱmeaning A) thatȱaȱresearcherȱisȱ95ȱpercentȱconfidentȱthatȱtheȱtrueȱpopulationȱparameterȱfallsȱwithin theȱrangeȱaroundȱwhatȱtheȱresearcherȱfoundȱinȱtheȱsample. B) chanceȱofȱ5ȱpercentȱerror. C) theȱresearchȱisȱwrong. D) allȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ107 Skill: Comprehension

22) Ifȱaȱresearcherȱwantsȱtoȱsampleȱaȱveryȱsmallȱtargetȱpopulation,ȱheȱmightȱasȱwell A) notȱdoȱanyȱresearch. B) includeȱeveryone. C) includeȱeveryȱthirdȱsubject. D) notȱincludeȱtheȱfirstȱtenȱsubjects. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ107 Skill: Knowledge

23) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱconfusedȱ-ȱaȱprobabilityȱsampleȱwouldȱallowȱhimȱtoȱdoȱwhat? A) toȱmakeȱvalidȱinferencesȱfromȱtheȱsampleȱtoȱtheȱpopulation B) toȱresearchȱaȱsmallȱsample C) toȱlearnȱstatistics D) Allȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ105 Skill: Knowledge

24) Random-digitȱdialing A) meansȱthatȱtheȱresearcherȱusesȱdifferentȱfingersȱwhenȱdialingȱnumbers. B) compoundsȱtheȱproblemsȱofȱtelephoneȱdirectories. C) netsȱmanyȱdisconnectedȱorȱnonoperatingȱnumbers. D) requiresȱcaller-ID. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ103 Skill: Knowledge

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25) Inȱsamplingȱaȱhiddenȱpopulation,ȱaȱresearcherȱwouldȱuseȱwhatȱtypeȱofȱsampling? A) convenience B) snowball C) quota D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: B Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ105 Skill: Knowledge

4.2 True/False 1) Theȱmostȱrepresentativeȱsamplesȱdoȱnotȱuseȱaȱrandomȱselectionȱprocess. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ88 Skill: Knowledge

2) Qualitativeȱresearchersȱrarelyȱuseȱrandomȱsamplingȱbecauseȱtheyȱoftenȱhaveȱdifferentȱgoals thanȱtoȱgetȱaȱrepresentativeȱsampleȱofȱaȱlargeȱpopulation. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ88 Skill: Comprehension

3) Aȱproperȱsampleȱallowsȱresearchersȱtoȱstudyȱfeaturesȱofȱtheȱpopulationȱfromȱwhichȱitȱcame. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ88 Skill: Knowledge

4) Quotaȱsamplingȱisȱbetterȱthanȱconvenienceȱsamplingȱbecauseȱwithȱitȱaȱresearcherȱensuresȱthat majorȱdifferencesȱinȱtheȱpopulationȱalsoȱappearȱinȱtheȱresearcherȇsȱsample. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ89 Skill: Knowledge

5) Snowballȱsamplingȱisȱtheȱsameȱasȱnetworkȱsampling. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ91 Skill: Comprehension

6) Theȱsizeȱofȱaȱsampleȱisȱmoreȱimportantȱthanȱitsȱframe. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ93 Skill: Knowledge

7) Randomȱsamplingȱguaranteesȱthatȱeveryȱrandomȱsampleȱaȱresearcherȱpicksȱperfectly representsȱtheȱpopulation. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ97 Skill: Comprehension

8) Stratifiedȱsamplingȱisȱtheȱsameȱasȱsnowballȱsampling. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ99 Skill: Knowledge

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9) Clusterȱsamplingȱhasȱadvantagesȱandȱisȱlessȱexpensiveȱthanȱsimpleȱrandomȱsampling,ȱbutȱis slightlyȱlessȱaccurate. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ102 Skill: Knowledge

10) Samplingȱerrorȱassumesȱrandomȱsamplingȱandȱisȱinfluencedȱbyȱsampleȱsizeȱandȱtheȱdiversity ofȱcasesȱinȱtheȱsample. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ106 Skill: Comprehension

4.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Nameȱfourȱnonprobabilityȱsamplingȱtechniques. Answer: convenience,ȱquota,ȱpurposiveȱorȱjudgmental,ȱsnowballȱorȱnetwork Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ88ȱ-ȱ91 Skill: Knowledge

2) Defineȱconvenienceȱsampling. Answer: Nonrandomȱsampleȱinȱwhichȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱaȱnonsystematicȱselectionȱmethodȱthat oftenȱproducesȱsamplesȱveryȱunlikeȱtheȱpopulation. Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ88-89 Skill: Knowledge

3) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱhaphazardȱandȱrandomȱinȱregardȱtoȱsampling? Answer: Haphazardȱisȱnotȱsystematic;ȱrandomȱmeansȱaȱsystematic,ȱmathematicallyȱbasedȱtrue randomȱprocess. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ89 Skill: Knowledge

4) Whatȱareȱtheȱthreeȱstepsȱinȱquotaȱsampling? Answer: 1)ȱIDȱseveralȱrelevantȱcategoriesȱofȱpeople;ȱ2)ȱDecideȱhowȱmanyȱunitsȱtoȱgetȱforȱeach category;ȱ3)ȱAfterȱaȱresearcherȱfixesȱtheȱcategoriesȱandȱnumberȱofȱunitsȱinȱeachȱcategory, selectȱunitsȱbyȱanyȱmethod. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ89 Skill: Knowledge

5) Whatȱareȱtheȱlimitationsȱofȱquotaȱsampling? Answer: selectingȱȈfriendlyȈȱsubjects;ȱonlyȱcaptureȱtheȱdiversityȱofȱaȱfewȱpredetermined populationȱcharacteristics;ȱarbitrarilyȱsetȱtheȱsizeȱofȱaȱquota,ȱbutȱmightȱnotȱbeȱcorrect Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ89-90 Skill: Comprehension

6) Whatȱareȱtwoȱcriticalȱfeaturesȱofȱtrueȱrandomȱprocesses? Answer: Theyȱareȱpurelyȱmechanicalȱorȱmathematicalȱwithoutȱhumanȱinvolvement;ȱtheyȱallow theȱresearcherȱtoȱcalculateȱtheȱprobabilityȱofȱoutcomesȱwithȱgreatȱprecision. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ93-94 Skill: Knowledge

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7) Whatȱisȱrandom-digitȱdialing? Answer: Dialingȱrandomȱtelephoneȱnumbers. Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ103 Skill: Knowledge

8) Giveȱanȱexampleȱofȱaȱhiddenȱpopulation. Answer: illegalȱdrugs,ȱprostitutes,ȱhomosexuals,ȱetc. Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ104-105 Skill: Comprehension

9) Whatȱisȱaȱsamplingȱframe,ȱandȱgiveȱanȱexample? Answer: listȱofȱsamplingȱelementsȱ- telephoneȱdirectories,ȱtaxȱrecords,ȱetc. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Knowledge

10) Whatȱisȱaȱtargetȱpopulation? Answer: populationȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱuses Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Knowledge

4.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) Probabilityȱsamplesȱareȱtheȱsameȱasȱ__________. Answer: randomȱsamples Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ88 Skill: Knowledge

2) __________ȱsamplingȱisȱappropriateȱwhenȱaȱresearcherȇsȱgoalȱisȱotherȱthanȱgetting representativeȱsampleȱofȱanȱentireȱpopulation.ȱTheȱresearcherȱusesȱmanyȱdiverseȱmeansȱto selectȱunitsȱthatȱfitȱveryȱspecificȱcharacteristics. Answer: Purposive Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ90-91 Skill: Knowledge

3) Aȱquasi-randomȱsamplingȱmethodȱwhenȱaȱcomputerȱisȱnotȱavailableȱisȱ__________. Answer: systematicȱsampling Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ97 Skill: Knowledge

4) Theȱcrucialȱfeatureȱinȱsnowballȱsamplingȱisȱthatȱeachȱpersonȱorȱcaseȱhasȱaȱ__________ȱwithȱone another. Answer: connection Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ91 Skill: Knowledge

5) Anyȱstatisticalȱcharacteristicȱofȱanȱentireȱpopulationȱisȱaȱ__________. Answer: populationȱparameter Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ92-93 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Aȱ__________ȱisȱaȱspecificȱlistȱofȱsamplingȱelementsȱinȱtheȱtargetȱpopulation. Answer: samplingȱframe Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Knowledge

7) __________ȱisȱtheȱratioȱofȱtheȱsampleȱsizeȱtoȱtheȱsizeȱofȱtheȱtargetȱpopulation. Answer: Samplingȱratio Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ93 Skill: Knowledge

8) __________ȱisȱaȱtermȱmeaningȱwithoutȱbeingȱsystematic;ȱaȱcarefreeȱȈanythingȱgoesȈȱselection method. Answer: Haphazard Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ89 Skill: Knowledge

9) Thisȱtypeȱofȱsamplingȱisȱaȱmultistageȱmethodȱinȱwhichȱgroupsȱareȱrandomlyȱsampledȱandȱthen aȱrandomȱsampleȱofȱelementsȱisȱtakenȱfromȱtheȱsampledȱgroups.ȱThisȱtypeȱofȱrandom samplingȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: clusterȱsampling Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ100-102 Skill: Knowledge

10) Theȱ__________ȱtheȱhomogeneityȱ(orȱtheȱlessȱtheȱdiversity),ȱtheȱsmallerȱitsȱsamplingȱerror. Answer: greater Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ106 Skill: Knowledge

11) Thisȱtypeȱofȱsamplingȱisȱeasy,ȱcheapȱandȱfast,ȱbutȱitsȱbiggestȱproblemȱisȱthatȱitȱcanȱproduce veryȱunrepresentativeȱsamplesȱandȱlacksȱdepth.ȱ__________ȱisȱaȱnonsystematicȱselection methodȱthatȱoftenȱproducesȱsamplesȱveryȱunlikeȱtheȱpopulation. Answer: convenienceȱsampling Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ88 Skill: Knowledge

12) Aȱresearcherȱmayȱuseȱ__________ȱsamplingȱtoȱsampleȱaȱsocialȱnetworkȱofȱpeopleȱorȱlinked organizations. Answer: snowballȱorȱnetwork Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ91 Skill: Knowledge

13) Aȱstatisticalȱcharacteristicȱofȱanȱentireȱpopulationȱestimatedȱfromȱaȱsample,ȱisȱaȱ__________. Answer: populationȱparameter Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Knowledge

14) __________ȱsamplesȱpossibleȱtelephoneȱnumbersȱusingȱcomputer -basedȱrandomȱsampling. Answer: Random-digitȱdialing Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ103 Skill: Knowledge

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15) Thisȱtypeȱofȱpopulationȱincludesȱpeopleȱwhoȱengageȱinȱconcealedȱactivitiesȱandȱisȱcalled __________. Answer: hiddenȱpopulation Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ104 Skill: Knowledge

4.5 Essay 1) Differentiateȱtheȱmeaningsȱofȱtheȱtermsȱuniverse,ȱpopulationȱandȱtargetȱpopulation. Answer: Universeȱisȱtheȱbroadestȱterm,ȱitȱisȱtheȱgroupȱtoȱwhichȱtheȱresearcherȱwishesȱto generalize.ȱPopulationȱisȱlessȱbroadȱandȱisȱtheȱgroupȱfromȱwhichȱtheȱresearcherȱsamples. Targetȱpopulationȱisȱtheȱmostȱspecific,ȱandȱisȱtheȱpopulationȱthatȱtheȱresearcherȱuses. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ92 Skill: Knowledge

2) Listȱandȱdescribeȱfourȱtypesȱofȱrandomizedȱsamplingȱtechniques. Answer: Simpleȱrandomȱ-ȱselectȱfromȱaȱsamplingȱframeȱusingȱaȱpureȱrandomȱprocess. Systematicȱ-ȱselectȱfromȱaȱsamplingȱframeȱusingȱaȱsamplingȱinterval. Stratifiedȱ-ȱselectȱrandomlyȱfromȱmultipleȱsamplingȱframesȱthatȱareȱpresetȱcategoriesȱin theȱpopulation. Clusterȱ-ȱmultipleȱsamples,ȱfirstȱrandomlyȱselectȱclusters,ȱthenȱrandomlyȱselectȱelements withȱeachȱcluster. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ105 Skill: Knowledge

3) Discussȱconfidenceȱinterval.ȱWhatȱdoesȱitȱmeanȱstatistically? Answer: Confidenceȱintervalȱisȱaȱzoneȱaboveȱandȱbelowȱtheȱestimateȱfromȱaȱsampleȱwithinȱwhich aȱpopulationȱparameterȱisȱlikelyȱtoȱbe.ȱConfidenceȱrefersȱtoȱtheȱprobabilityȱthatȱthe populationȱparameterȱfallsȱwithinȱtheȱinterval. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ107 Skill: Knowledge

4) Compareȱandȱcontrastȱconvenienceȱsamplingȱwithȱpurposiveȱsampling. Answer: Bothȱareȱnonrandomȱsamplingȱtechniques.ȱConvenienceȱselectsȱanyȱelementȱthatȱis convenient.ȱPurposiveȱusesȱmanyȱdifferentȱmethodsȱtoȱselectȱelementsȱthatȱmatch narrowlyȱdefinedȱcriteria. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ105 Skill: Knowledge

5) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱhasȱproposedȱaȱstudyȱofȱaȱpopulationȱwithȱHepatitisȱC,ȱaȱblood/liverȱdiseaseȱthat isȱtransmittedȱthroughȱcontactȱwithȱbodilyȱfluidsȱ(sexualȱcontact,ȱsharingȱneedles,ȱetc.).ȱSince heȱdoesȱnotȱhaveȱaccessȱtoȱmedicalȱrecordsȱbecauseȱofȱconfidentiality,ȱhowȱwillȱheȱȈfindȈȱthis population,ȱi.e.ȱwhatȱtypeȱofȱsamplingȱtechniquesȱmightȱheȱuse?ȱWhatȱisȱthisȱkindȱof populationȱcalled?ȱGiveȱtwoȱotherȱexamplesȱofȱthisȱtypeȱofȱpopulation. Answer: Aȱhiddenȱpopulationȱisȱaȱgroupȱthatȱisȱveryȱdifficultȱtoȱlocateȱandȱmayȱnotȱwantȱtoȱbe foundȱandȱthereforeȱisȱdifficultȱtoȱsample.ȱExamplesȱincludeȱusersȱofȱillegalȱdrugs, prostitutes,ȱhomosexuals,ȱpeopleȱwithȱHIVȱAIDS,ȱhomelessȱpeople,ȱpeopleȱwith sexuallyȱtransmittedȱdiseases,ȱetc.ȱTechniquesȱmightȱincludeȱpurposiveȱorȱsnowball sampling. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ104-105 Skill: Application

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Chapterȱ5 MeasuringȱSocialȱLife,ȱHowȱMany? HowȱMuch?ȱWhatȱType? 5.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Allȱmeasurementȱbuildsȱonȱtheseȱtwoȱprocesses: A) conceptualization,ȱmeasurement. C) operationalization,ȱconceptualization.

B) data,ȱmeasurement. D) zoneȱofȱconfidence,ȱpopulationȱframe.

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ116-118 Skill: Knowledge

2) Marketingȱresearchersȱoftenȱuseȱthisȱscaleȱtoȱmeasureȱsubjectiveȱfeelings. A) Guttmanȱscale B) Likertȱscale C) semanticȱdifferential D) metricȱscale Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ135 Skill: Knowledge

3) TheȱGuttmanȱscaleȱmeasuresȱhowȱwellȱdataȱfitȱintoȱa A) combination. B) hierarchicalȱpattern. C) likertȱrating. D) Allȱtheȱabove Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ138 Skill: Knowledge

4) IfȱDr.ȱMottleȇsȱmeasurementsȱofȱherȱdataȱareȱconsistentȱandȱdoȱnotȱvaryȱbecauseȱofȱthe characteristicsȱofȱhowȱsheȱmeasured,ȱtheȱmeasurementȱis A) valid. B) timeȱconsuming. C) redundant. D) reliable. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ122 Skill: Application

5) Mr.ȱMarshȱasksȱhisȱcolleaguesȱifȱtheyȱbelieveȱthatȱhisȱconceptualȱdefinitionȱandȱmeasurement fit.ȱTheyȱagreeȱthatȱtheyȱdo.ȱWhatȱtypeȱofȱvalidityȱisȱthis? A) contentȱvalidity B) faceȱvalidity C) criterionȱvalidity D) colleagueȱvalidity Answer: B Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ123-124 Skill: Application

6) Anȱexampleȱofȱaȱcontinuousȱvariableȱwouldȱbe A) age. C) pregnant/notȱpregnant.

B) gender. D) lightȱswitch.

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ126 Skill: Application

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7) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱmeasuringȱtemperatureȱinȱhisȱresearch.ȱHeȱwillȱbeȱusingȱwhatȱvariableȱlevelȱof measure? A) nominal B) interval C) ratio D) ordinal Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ128 Skill: Application

8) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱmeasuringȱallȱpossibilitiesȱinȱhisȱresearch.ȱHisȱtechniqueȱisȱmostȱlikely A) mutuallyȱexclusive. B) exclusive. C) inclusive. D) exhaustive. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Application

9) Mr.ȱMarshȱusesȱaȱspecialȱmeasureȱcombiningȱinformationȱfromȱseparateȱindicatorsȱintoȱone score.ȱHeȱisȱmostȱlikelyȱusingȱa(n) A) nominalȱscale. B) index. C) scale. D) hisȱownȱmethod. Answer: B Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Application

10) IfȱDr.ȱMottleȱgivesȱitemsȱinȱanȱindexȱmoreȱorȱlessȱofȱaȱvalueȱherȱindexȱisȱprobably A) wrong. B) ordinal. C) tooȱhigh. D) weighted. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ131-132 Skill: Application

11) AnȱIQȱscoreȱisȱanȱexampleȱofȱwhatȱtypeȱofȱmeasurement? A) interval B) equivalence C) ratio

D) nominal

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ127 Skill: Knowledge

12) Thisȱtypeȱofȱvalidityȱisȱeasiestȱtoȱachieveȱandȱtheȱmostȱbasicȱkindȱofȱvalidity.ȱItȱisȱaȱjudgment byȱknowledgeableȱpeopleȱthatȱtheȱindicatorȱreallyȱmeasuresȱtheȱconceptȱitȱpurportsȱto measure.ȱItȱisȱknownȱas A) faceȱvalidity. B) contentȱvalidity. C) criterionȱvalidity. D) standardȱdeviation. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ123-124 Skill: Knowledge

13) Thisȱtermȱisȱusedȱtoȱaddressȱhowȱwellȱaȱresearcherȇsȱmeasureȱofȱrealityȱmeasuresȱwithȱthe ideasȱsheȱusesȱtoȱunderstandȱthatȱaspectȱofȱreality.ȱWhatȱisȱthisȱterm? A) value B) reliability C) reality D) validity Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ122-123 Skill: Knowledge

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14) Thisȱtypeȱofȱvalidityȱusesȱaȱstandardȱtoȱindicateȱaȱconcept.ȱInȱotherȱwordsȱitȱagreesȱwithȱan externalȱsource.ȱWhatȱtypeȱofȱvalidityȱisȱit? A) content B) criterion C) face D) intellectual Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ124 Skill: Knowledge

15) Nominalȱmeasuresȱindicateȱaȱdifferenceȱamongȱcategories.ȱWhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱwouldȱNOT beȱaȱnominalȱmeasure? A) gender B) religion C) politicalȱparty D) IQȱscores Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ127 Skill: Comprehension

16) Aȱcontinuousȱvariableȱhasȱanȱinfiniteȱnumberȱofȱvaluesȱthatȱflowȱalongȱaȱcontinuum,ȱwhileȱa __________ȱvariableȱhasȱaȱfixedȱsetȱofȱseparateȱvaluesȱorȱcategories. A) unique B) separate C) interval D) discrete Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ126 Skill: Knowledge

17) Thisȱtypeȱofȱmeasurementȱindicatesȱaȱdifferenceȱamongȱcategories,ȱandȱtheȱcategoriesȱcanȱbe orderedȱorȱranked.ȱIfȱaȱstudentȱearnedȱanȱȈAȈ,ȱthatȱmeasurementȱwouldȱbeȱa(n)ȱ__________ measurement. A) nominal B) ratio C) interval D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ127 Skill: Application

18) Whenȱallȱtheȱitemsȱinȱaȱscaleȱorȱindexȱfitȱtogetherȱandȱmeasureȱaȱsingleȱconcept,ȱthisȱisȱcalled A) unidimensionality. B) unidirectional. C) unanimous. D) unipositional. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ130 Skill: Knowledge

19) Ifȱaȱunitȱfitsȱintoȱoneȱcategoryȱonly,ȱitȱis A) mutuallyȱinclusive. C) mutuallyȱdesirable.

B) mutuallyȱexclusive. D) exhaustive.

Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Knowledge

20) Whenȱcreatingȱthisȱmeasure,ȱtwoȱorȱmoreȱitemsȱareȱcombinedȱintoȱaȱsingleȱnumericalȱscore. Whatȱisȱthisȱcalled? A) indention B) scale C) median D) index Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ130 Skill: Knowledge

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21) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱtrue? A) AȱGuttmanȱscaleȱindicatesȱwhetherȱaȱsetȱofȱitemsȱcorrespondsȱtoȱaȱhierarchicalȱpattern. B) WhenȱaȱresearcherȱintendsȱtoȱuseȱtheȱGuttmanȱscale,ȱsheȱmustȱdesignȱaȱstudyȱwithȱthe techniqueȱinȱmind. C) AȱGuttmanȱscaleȱhasȱbeenȱappliedȱtoȱmanyȱphenomena. D) Theȱdata,ȱwhenȱplotted,ȱinȱaȱGuttmanȱscaleȱformȱaȱtriangle. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ135-137 Skill: Knowledge

22) Whatȱtwoȱitemsȱcomplicateȱindexȱconstruction? A) weightingȱandȱmissingȱdata C) weightingȱandȱreliability

B) weightingȱandȱdataȱintegrity D) weightingȱandȱvalidity

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ131-132 Skill: Knowledge

23) Theȱsimplestȱoneȱofȱtheseȱisȱaȱvisualȱrating.ȱTheseȱareȱusedȱtoȱcreateȱmeasuresȱofȱvariables, whatȱareȱthese? A) thermometer B) telescope C) scale D) weight Answer: C Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ132 Skill: Knowledge

24) Aȱscaleȱthatȱtypicallyȱmeasuresȱopinionsȱorȱratingsȱatȱtheȱordinalȱlevelȱisȱprobably A) aȱLikertȱscale. B) aȱsocialȱdistanceȱscale. C) aȱsemanticȱdifferential. D) centralȱtendency. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ133-134 Skill: Knowledge

25) Aȱsocialȱdistanceȱscale A) measuresȱhowȱmanyȱmilesȱapartȱvariousȱruralȱtownsȱare. B) canȱhaveȱmeasurementsȱasȱhighȱasȱ100. C) isȱaȱconvenientȱwayȱtoȱdetermineȱhowȱcloseȱaȱpeopleȱfeelsȱtowardȱaȱsocialȱgroupȱto whichȱtheyȱdoȱnotȱbelong. D) isȱaȱconvenientȱwayȱtoȱinterpretȱdataȱobtainedȱthroughȱGuttmanȱscaling. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ134-135 Skill: Knowledge

5.2 True/False 1) Reliabilityȱisȱnecessaryȱforȱvalidityȱandȱisȱeasierȱtoȱachieveȱthanȱvalidity. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ125 Skill: Knowledge

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2) Itȱisȱcloseȱtoȱimpossibleȱtoȱmeasureȱqualitativeȱdataȱreliablyȱbecauseȱofȱdeepȱsocial relationshipsȱwithȱindividuals. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ125 Skill: Knowledge

3) Inȱqualitativeȱstudiesȱtwoȱdifferentȱresearchersȱmayȱnotȱgetȱidenticalȱresultsȱwhenȱstudyingȱthe sameȱthing. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ125 Skill: Knowledge

4) Aȱqualitativeȱresearcherȇsȱgoalȱisȱtoȱcaptureȱsocialȱlifeȱinȱaȱmannerȱthatȱringsȱtrueȱtoȱexperience ofȱpeopleȱbeingȱstudied. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ125 Skill: Knowledge

5) Scalesȱandȱindexesȱshouldȱhaveȱmanyȱdimensionsȱinȱadditionȱtoȱbeingȱmutuallyȱexclusiveȱand exhaustive. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ130 Skill: Knowledge

6) Aȱmeasurementȱcanȱbeȱvalidȱforȱoneȱpurpose,ȱbutȱmayȱnotȱforȱanother. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ123 Skill: Knowledge

7) Itȱisȱmoreȱimportantȱtoȱhaveȱhighȱreliabilityȱthanȱhaveȱhighȱreliabilityȱandȱvalidity. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ125 Skill: Knowledge

8) Indexȱandȱscaleȱareȱoftenȱusedȱinterchangeablyȱandȱgiveȱinformationȱonȱvariables. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Knowledge

9) Likert-scaledȱitemsȱcannotȱbeȱcombinedȱintoȱanȱindex. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ133 Skill: Knowledge

10) Partȱofȱtheȱconceptualizationȱprocessȱisȱtoȱdistinguishȱoneȱconceptȱfromȱcloselyȱrelatedȱones. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ117 Skill: Knowledge

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5.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Validityȱisȱmoreȱdifficultȱtoȱachieveȱthanȱreliability.ȱWhy? Answer: Validityȱlinksȱinvisible,ȱabstractȱideasȱwithȱspecificȱempiricalȱobservations.ȱAȱgap alwaysȱexistsȱbetweenȱmentalȱimagesȱaboutȱtheȱworldȱandȱtheȱconcreteȱreality. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ123 Skill: Comprehension

2) Giveȱtwoȱexamplesȱofȱpossibleȱoperationalȱdefinitions. Answer: oneȱorȱmoreȱsurveyȱquestions,ȱaȱmethodȱofȱobservingȱeventsȱinȱaȱfieldȱsetting,ȱwayȱto countȱsymbolsȱinȱtheȱmassȱmedia Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ117 Skill: Knowledge

3) Whatȱisȱtheȱthree-partȱsequenceȱofȱmeasuringȱquantitativeȱdataȱflow. Answer: conceptualization,ȱoperationalization,ȱandȱmeasurement Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ118-119 Skill: Knowledge

4) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱreliabilityȱandȱvalidity? Answer: Reliabilityȱmeansȱthatȱaȱmeasurementȱdoesȱnotȱvaryȱbecauseȱofȱcharacteristicsȱofȱhowȱit isȱmeasured.ȱValidityȱitȱtheȱideaȱthatȱtheȱconceptȱofȱinterestȱcloselyȱmatchesȱtheȱmethod usedȱtoȱmeasureȱit. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ122 Skill: Comprehension

5) Nameȱtheȱfourȱlevelsȱofȱmeasurement,ȱfromȱlowestȱ(discreteȱandȱleastȱprecise)ȱtoȱhighest precision. Answer: nominal,ȱordinal,ȱintervalȱandȱratio Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ127 Skill: Knowledge

6) Differentiateȱscaleȱversusȱindex. Answer: Aȱscaleȱcapturesȱaȱconceptȇsȱintensity,ȱdirection,ȱorȱlevelȱatȱtheȱordinalȱlevelȱof measurement.ȱAnȱindexȱisȱaȱcompositeȱmeasureȱthatȱcombinesȱseveralȱindicatorsȱintoȱa singleȱscore. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Knowledge

7) IfȱDr.ȱMottleȱstatesȱthatȱaȱunitȱisȱmutuallyȱexclusive,ȱwhatȱdoesȱthatȱmean? Answer: Itȱmeansȱthatȱtheȱunitȱfitsȱintoȱoneȱandȱonlyȱoneȱvariableȱcategoryȱ-ȱnotȱacrossȱmany categories. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Comprehension

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8) Giveȱanȱexampleȱofȱaȱsocialȱmeasurementȱscaleȱandȱitsȱuse. Answer: Likertȱmeasuresȱopinionsȱorȱratingsȱatȱtheȱordinalȱlevel.ȱBogardusȱsocialȱdistanceȱscale measuresȱtheȱamountȱofȱsocialȱdistanceȱseparatingȱgroups.ȱSemanticȱdifferential capturesȱconnotationsȱthatȱpeopleȱassociateȱwithȱaȱrating.ȱGuttmanȱscalingȱevaluatesȱthe dataȱafterȱaȱresearcherȱcollectsȱthem. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ133-136 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whatȱareȱtwoȱcomplicationsȱofȱindexȱconstructionȱandȱwhy? Answer: Countȱitemsȱequallyȱorȱweightȱthemȱ- weightingȱgivesȱdifferentȱscoresȱandȱadds importanceȱtoȱsomeȱinȱanȱindex.ȱMissingȱdataȱthreatensȱvalidityȱandȱreliability. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ131-132 Skill: Knowledge

10) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱmutuallyȱexclusiveȱandȱexhaustiveȱattributes? Answer: Mutuallyȱexclusiveȱmeansȱthatȱaȱunitȱbelongsȱinȱoneȱandȱonlyȱoneȱvariableȱcategory. exhaustiveȱmeansȱallȱpossibilitiesȱareȱincludedȱinȱhowȱaȱvariableȱisȱmeasured. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129-130 Skill: Knowledge

5.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) Missingȱdataȱcanȱbecomeȱanȱissueȱwhenȱconstructingȱanȱindex,ȱthreateningȱbothȱ__________ andȱ__________. Answer: validity,ȱreliability Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ132 Skill: Comprehension

2) Aȱ__________ȱisȱaȱmeasureȱthatȱcapturesȱaȱconceptȇsȱintensity,ȱdirectionȱorȱlevelȱatȱtheȱordinal levelȱofȱmeasurement. Answer: scale Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Knowledge

3) Leastȱprecise,ȱlowestȱlevelȱofȱmeasurementȱisȱ__________. Answer: nominal Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ127 Skill: Knowledge

4) __________ȱhasȱanȱinfiniteȱnumberȱofȱvaluesȱthatȱflowȱalongȱaȱcontinuum. Answer: Continuousȱvariable Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ126 Skill: Knowledge

5) __________ȱmeansȱthatȱaȱmeasurementȱdoesȱnotȱvaryȱbecauseȱofȱhowȱtheȱresearcherȱmeasured. Answer: Reliability Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ122 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Inȱaȱstudyȱwithȱquantitativeȱdata,ȱaȱresearcherȱtypicallyȱmovesȱfromȱtheȱ__________ȱconcept towardȱaȱ__________ȱmeasure. Answer: abstract,ȱconcrete Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ120 Skill: Knowledge

7) Whenȱaȱunitȱgoesȱintoȱoneȱandȱonlyȱoneȱvariableȱcategory,ȱitȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: mutuallyȱexclusive Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Knowledge

8) __________ȱmeansȱthatȱallȱitemsȱofȱanȱindexȱorȱscaleȱmeasureȱtheȱsameȱconcept. Answer: Unidimensionality Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ130 Skill: Knowledge

9) __________ȱmeasuresȱindicateȱaȱdifferenceȱamongȱcategories.ȱAnȱexampleȱwouldȱbeȱgender, religion,ȱracialȱheritage,ȱetc. Answer: Nominal Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ127 Skill: Knowledge

10) A(n)ȱ__________ȱisȱaȱcompositeȱmeasureȱthatȱcombinesȱseveralȱindicatorsȱintoȱaȱsingleȱscore.ȱIt isȱoftenȱaȱsumȱofȱtheirȱvalues. Answer: index Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ129 Skill: Knowledge

11) A(n)ȱ__________ȱscaleȱoffersȱaȱstatementȱorȱquestions,ȱandȱparticipantsȱindicateȱtheirȱresponse withȱaȱsetȱofȱanswerȱchoices,ȱsuchȱasȱstronglyȱagree,ȱagree,ȱdisagree,ȱorȱstronglyȱdisagree. Answer: Likert Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ133 Skill: Knowledge

12) Theȱ__________ȱscaleȱisȱaȱconvenientȱwayȱtoȱdetermineȱhowȱcloseȱaȱpeopleȱfeelsȱtowardȱa socialȱgroupȱtoȱwhichȱtheyȱdoȱnotȱbelong. Answer: socialȱdistance Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ135 Skill: Knowledge

13) Aȱresearcherȱdesignsȱaȱstudyȱwithȱthisȱscalingȱtechniqueȱinȱmind.ȱ__________ȱscalingȱisȱa techniqueȱthatȱtellsȱtheȱresearcherȱwhetherȱaȱparticularȱstructuredȱpatternȱholdsȱamongȱaȱsetȱof items. Answer: Guttman Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ135-136 Skill: Knowledge

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14) Theȱ__________ȱdifferentialȱmeasuresȱaȱpersonȇsȱsubjectiveȱfeelingsȱaboutȱaȱconcept,ȱobject,ȱor otherȱpersonȱindirectlyȱbyȱusingȱsetsȱofȱpolarȱoppositeȱadjectivesȱtoȱcreateȱaȱratingȱscale. Answer: semantic Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ135 Skill: Knowledge

15) __________ȱmeasuresȱdoȱeverythingȱthatȱnominalȱandȱordinalȱmeasuresȱdo,ȱplusȱtheyȱspecify theȱdistanceȱbetweenȱcategories. Answer: Interval Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ127 Skill: Knowledge

5.5 Essay 1) Discussȱtheȱfourȱlevelsȱofȱmeasurement;ȱnominalȱordinal,ȱinterval,ȱratio.ȱRankȱthemȱinȱorder fromȱleastȱspecificȱtoȱhighestȱprecision. Answer: Nominalȱindicatesȱaȱdifferenceȱamongȱcategories,ȱordinalȱmeasuresȱindicateȱaȱdifference amongȱcategoriesȱandȱtheȱcategoriesȱcanȱbeȱorderedȱorȱranked,ȱintervalȱbuildsȱonȱthe firstȱtwoȱmeasuresȱandȱspecifiesȱtheȱdistanceȱbetweenȱcategories,ȱratioȱmeasuresȱbuild onȱtheȱotherȱlevelsȱplusȱhaveȱaȱtrueȱzero.ȱAȱtrueȱzeroȱmeansȱaȱscoreȱofȱzeroȱreally indicatesȱaȱvalueȱofȱzeroȱorȱnothing. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ127 Skill: Knowledge

2) Discussȱtheȱthreeȱtypesȱofȱmeasurementȱvalidity;ȱface,ȱcontentȱandȱcriterionȱvalidity. Answer: Faceȱisȱaȱjudgementȱbyȱknowledgeableȱpeopleȱthatȱtheȱindicatorȱreallyȱmeasuresȱthe conceptȱitȱpurportsȱtoȱmeasure. Contentȱisȱaȱspecificȱtypeȱofȱfaceȱvalidity.ȱItȱcapturesȱtheȱentireȱmeaningȱ-ȱitȱisȱaȱspace thatȱcontainsȱideasȱandȱmeasuresȱthatȱcaptureȱallȱareasȱinȱtheȱconceptualȱspace. Criterionȱvalidityȱusesȱaȱstandardȱorȱcriterionȱtoȱindicateȱaȱconcept. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ123-124 Skill: Knowledge

3) Mr.ȱMarshȱhasȱreceivedȱcriticismȱthatȱhisȱmostȱrecentȱstudyȱlacksȱreliability.ȱHeȱisȱconcerned onȱhowȱheȱmightȱmightȱimproveȱfutureȱstudies.ȱIfȱheȱusesȱpilotȱversionsȱofȱaȱmeasure,ȱmightȱit improveȱreliability?ȱIfȱnotȱaȱpilotȱversion,ȱwhatȱelseȱcouldȱheȱuse?ȱDiscussȱthreeȱotherȱways thatȱheȱcouldȱimproveȱreliability. Answer: Yes,ȱaȱpilotȱversionȱcanȱimproveȱreliability,ȱbutȱitȱdoesȱtakeȱmoreȱtime.ȱHeȱalsoȱcould findȱmeasuresȱfromȱpastȱresearchȱandȱbuildȱonȱthemȱwithȱappropriateȱcitations. Clearlyȱconceptualizeȱ-ȱclearȱandȱunambiguousȱdefinitionsȱofȱconceptsȱ-ȱitȱisȱbetter whenȱaȱresearcherȱdefinesȱaȱconceptȱtoȱeliminateȱȈnoise.Ȉ Increaseȱtheȱlevelȱofȱmeasurementȱ-ȱhigherȱorȱmoreȱpreciseȱmeasurementȱisȱbetter. Useȱmultipleȱindicatorsȱ-ȱtwoȱorȱmoreȱindicatorsȱofȱtheȱsameȱconceptȱareȱbetterȱthan one.ȱUsingȱmoreȱthanȱoneȱmeasureȱisȱaȱwidelyȱacceptedȱprincipleȱofȱgoodȱmeasurement. Useȱpilotȱstudiesȱandȱreplicationȱ-ȱtryingȱpilotȱversionsȱofȱaȱmeasureȱcanȱimproveȱits reliability. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ123 Skill: Application

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4) Discussȱreliabilityȱandȱvalidityȱinȱqualitativeȱresearch. Answer: Reliableȱqualitativeȱdataȱmeansȱtheȱdataȱwasȱcollectedȱconsistently.ȱValidityȱlinksȱa conceptȱtoȱempiricalȱmeasures.ȱValidȱmeasuresȱofȱqualitativeȱdataȱvalidityȱhave authenticity,ȱmeaningȱaȱfair,ȱhonestȱandȱbalancedȱaccountȱofȱsocialȱlifeȱfromȱthe standpointȱofȱaȱpersonȱwhoȱlivesȱinȱaȱspecificȱsocialȱworld,ȱcapturingȱwhatȱisȱȈrealȈȱfor particularȱpeopleȱlivingȱinȱaȱspecificȱtimeȱandȱplace. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ125 Skill: Knowledge

5) Compareȱandȱdiscussȱtheȱstepsȱinȱquantitativeȱandȱqualitativeȱconceptualizationȱand operationalization. Answer: Quantitativeȱ-ȱConceptualizeȱvariablesȱbyȱdevelopingȱaȱclear,ȱcompleteȱwritten conceptualȱdefinitionȱforȱtheȱcoreȱideaȱofȱeach;ȱOperationalizeȱvariablesȱbyȱcreating specificȱactivitiesȱtoȱmeasureȱeach.ȱGatherȱempiricalȱdataȱusingȱtheȱspecific measurementȱactivitiesȱofȱtheȱoperationalȱdefinition;ȱthisȱlinksȱdataȱtoȱtheȱconceptual definition. Qualitativeȱ-ȱGatherȱempiricalȱdataȱandȱsimultaneouslyȱthinkȱaboutȱconceptsȱto organizeȱandȱmakeȱsenseȱofȱtheȱdata;ȱWhileȱgatheringȱdata,ȱbeȱawareȱofȱprocessesȱto makeȱsenseȱofȱtheȱdataȱandȱthinking;ȱReviewȱandȱrefineȱdefinitionsȱandȱtheȱdescriptions ofȱhowȱtheȱdataȱwasȱgatheredȱandȱmadeȱsenseȱof. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ122 Skill: Knowledge

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Chapterȱ6 TheȱSurvey:ȱAskingȱPeopleȱQuestions 6.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Whatȱisȱtheȱfirstȱstageȱinȱconductingȱaȱsurvey? A) execution B) beginning

C) dataȱanalysis

D) start-up

Answer: D Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ154 Skill: Knowledge

2) Aȱsetȱofȱquestionsȱusedȱinȱaȱsocialȱsurvey A) isȱcalledȱaȱquestionnaire. C) hasȱ3ȱparts.

B) mustȱbeȱatȱleastȱ20ȱinȱnumber. D) isȱtheȱfinalȱstageȱofȱresearcher.

Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ154 Skill: Knowledge

3) Mr.ȱMarshȱchangesȱhisȱtitleȱtoȱDr.ȱinȱorderȱtoȱinfluenceȱsurveyȱrespondents.ȱHeȱmayȱbeȱguilty ofȱusing A) prestigeȱbias. B) illegalȱbehavior. C) highȱintensity. D) wishfulȱbias. Answer: A Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ156 Skill: Application

4) Whatȱtwoȱ(2)ȱprinciplesȱguideȱgoodȱsurveyȱquestions? A) Keepȱquestionsȱunderȱ10ȱwords,ȱuseȱonlyȱsmallȱwords. B) Avoidȱconfusion,ȱkeepȱrespondentȇsȱperspectiveȱinȱmind. C) Alwaysȱstartȱwithȱaȱverb,ȱavoidȱlongȱquestions. D) Useȱyes-or-noȱquestions,ȱaskȱnoȱmoreȱthanȱ10ȱquestions. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ157 Skill: Knowledge

5) Goodȱanswerȱchoicesȱinȱclosedȱformatȱshouldȱhaveȱthreeȱfeatures,ȱincludingȱwhichȱofȱthe following? A) mutuallyȱexclusive B) exhaustive C) balanced D) Allȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ161 Skill: Knowledge

6) Inȱaȱsurvey,ȱwhenȱaȱparticularȱwordȱinȱitselfȱevokesȱsȱstrongȱfeeling,ȱthisȱisȱcalled A) contingency. B) socialȱdesirability. C) full-filter. D) wordingȱeffect. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ165 Skill: Knowledge

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7) Mr.ȱMarshȱrespondedȱthatȱheȱalwaysȱcompletedȱemployeeȱevaluationsȱonȱtimeȱwhenȱheȱwasȱa manager,ȱwhenȱinȱfact,ȱheȱrarelyȱconductedȱtheȱtask.ȱAsȱaȱrespondentȱinȱaȱsurveyȱhe exaggeratedȱtoȱlookȱgood.ȱThisȱisȱanȱexampleȱof A) contingencyȱbias. B) closedȱformatȱbias. C) wordingȱeffectȱbias. D) socialȱdesirabilityȱbias. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ165 Skill: Application

8) Aȱsocialȱsurveyȱcanȱtakeȱseveralȱformatsȱincluding A) face-to-faceȱformat. B) semaphoricȱformat. C) flatȱscreenȱtelevisionȱformat. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ168 Skill: Knowledge

9) Dr.ȱMottleȱasksȱrespondentsȱifȱtheyȱhaveȱaȱnȱopinionȱaboutȱgasȱprices,ȱandȱifȱtheyȱanswerȱyes, sheȱasksȱthemȱtoȱgiveȱtheirȱopinionȱinȱtheȱsecondȱpartȱofȱtheȱquestion.ȱWhatȱisȱtheȱnameȱused forȱthisȱtypeȱofȱquestion? A) quasi-filter B) full-filter C) full-filler D) full-question Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ163 Skill: Application

10) Theȱlowestȱcostȱformatȱforȱsurveysȱis A) webȱbased. C) byȱtelephone.

B) faceȱtoȱface. D) Allȱareȱtheȱsame.

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ169 Skill: Knowledge

11) Theȱfirstȱstageȱofȱaȱperson-to-personȱinterviewȱisȱto A) findȱaȱquietȱlocation. B) introductionȱandȱentry. C) greeting. D) Allȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ171 Skill: Knowledge

12) Anȱinterviewerȇsȱvisibleȱcharacteristics A) alwaysȱpositivelyȱaffectsȱtheȱintervieweeȇsȱwillingnessȱtoȱparticipateȱinȱtheȱsurvey. B) oftenȱaffectȱinterviewsȱandȱrespondentȇsȱanswers. C) haveȱnothingȱtoȱdoȱwithȱtheȱinterview. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ173 Skill: Knowledge

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13) Standard-formatȱquestionsȱinȱaȱclosed-endedȱsurveyȱdoȱnotȱofferȱwhichȱofȱtheȱfollowing? A) multipleȱchoice B) ȈdonȇtȱknowȈȱchoice C) opinions D) anȱopportunityȱtoȱexpressȱoneself Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ163 Skill: Knowledge

14) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱleadsȱaȱrespondentȱtoȱpickȱoneȱresponseȱoverȱanother,ȱtheȱresearcherȱis askingȱwhatȱtypeȱofȱquestions? A) doubleȱbarreledȱquestions B) singleȱbarreledȱquestions C) leadingȱquestions D) focusȱgroupȱquestions Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ158 Skill: Knowledge

15) Theȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱopen-endedȱquestionsȱandȱclosed-endedȱquestionsȱisȱthat A) open-endedȱquestionsȱalwaysȱstartȱwithȱtheȱwordȱȈWhat.Ȉ B) closed-endedȱquestionsȱcanȱonlyȱbeȱansweredȱwithȱaȱȈyesȈȱorȱȈno.Ȉ C) open-endedȱquestionsȱletȱtheȱrespondentȱgiveȱanyȱanswer. D) closed-endedȱquestionsȱrequireȱtheȱrespondentȱtoȱbeȱsittingȱandȱatȱattention. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ160 Skill: Knowledge

16) Whenȱaȱrespondentȱdistortsȱanswersȱtoȱlookȱgoodȱorȱconformȱtoȱsocialȱnorms,ȱthisȱisȱcalled A) socialȱdesirabilityȱbias. B) socialȱenhancementȱbias. C) socialȱsecurityȱbias. D) societalȱdesirabilityȱbias. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ165 Skill: Knowledge

17) Peopleȱtendȱtoȱunder-reportȱcertainȱthingsȱinȱaȱsurvey.ȱWhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱmightȱbe underreported? A) multipleȱchildren B) happyȱmarriage C) warȱmedals D) engagementȱinȱillegalȱbehavior Answer: D Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ164 Skill: Knowledge

18) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱmightȱinterfereȱwithȱwithȱaȱrespondentȇsȱrecallȱinȱaȱsurveyȱasking aboutȱpastȱevents? A) televisionȱshow B) anȱissueȱorȱeventȱthatȱwasȱnotȱsignificant C) poorȱvision D) tooȱmuchȱsugar Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ164 Skill: Knowledge

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19) Interviewersȱuseȱprobesȱtoȱclarifyȱrespondentsȇȱresponses.ȱWhatȱdoesȱthisȱmean? A) Anȱinterviewerȱclarifiesȱanȱambiguousȱanswerȱbyȱpauses,ȱrepeatingȱtheȱquestion,ȱorȱby askingȱadditionalȱquestions. B) Anȱinterviewerȱplacesȱelectricalȱprobesȱonȱtheȱrespondentȇsȱarmsȱandȱlegs. C) Anȱinterviewerȱpokesȱtheȱrespondentȱinȱtheȱarmȱwithȱhisȱfinger. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ171 Skill: Knowledge

20) Theȱlengthȱofȱaȱquestionnaireȱdependsȱonȱtheȱformatȱofȱtheȱsurveyȱand A) onȱwhereȱitȱtakesȱplace. B) howȱmuchȱtimeȱaȱresearcherȱhasȱtoȱpublish. C) onȱrespondentȱcharacteristics. D) whereȱtheȱmajorityȱofȱtheȱrespondentsȱwantȱtoȱmeet. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ166 Skill: Knowledge

21) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱconcernedȱaboutȱhowȱheȱwillȱorganizeȱtheȱsequenceȱofȱquestionsȱonȱhisȱsurvey. Sinceȱmanyȱofȱhisȱrespondentsȱwillȱmostȱprobablyȱlackȱstrongȱviews,ȱheȱisȱconcernedȱabout __________. A) orderingȱsurveyȱcopies B) orderȱeffects D) contextȱbias C) biasȱorder Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ167 Skill: Application

22) Whenȱrespondentsȱanswerȱquestionsȱbasedȱonȱaȱcontextȱofȱprecedingȱquestionsȱandȱthe interviewȱsetting,ȱthisȱisȱknownȱasȱ__________. A) conscientiousȱbias B) continuingȱbias C) continentalȱeffect D) contextȱeffect Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ167 Skill: Knowledge

23) Answerȱchoicesȱonȱaȱsurveyȱshouldȱbeȱbalanced.ȱWhatȱdoesȱthatȱmean? A) Thereȱshouldȱalwaysȱbeȱanȱevenȱnumberȱofȱanswers. B) Thatȱtheȱfavorableȱorȱunfavorableȱchoicesȱareȱofferedȱequallyȱinȱaȱsetȱofȱresponses. C) Thereȱisȱaȱfulcrumȱinȱtheȱanswers. D) ThereȱareȱequalȱȈrightȈȱandȱȈwrongȈȱanswers. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ162 Skill: Knowledge

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24) Anȱadvantageȱofȱmailedȱquestionnairesȱis A) thatȱsamplingȱisȱgenerallyȱveryȱrepresentative. B) thatȱthereȱisȱaȱconsistentlyȱhighȱresponseȱrate. C) theȱcolorȱofȱtheȱpaper. D) thatȱtheyȱcanȱbeȱanonymous. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ168 Skill: Knowledge

25) Whatȱisȱaȱcontingencyȱquestion? A) Aȱtwo-partȱquestionȱinȱwhichȱaȱfirstȱquestionȱscreensȱwhoȱgetsȱtheȱsecondȱquestion. B) Aȱtwo-partȱsentenceȱwithȱaȱbeginningȱandȱanȱend. C) AȱquestionȱwithȱaȱȈyesȈȱorȱȈIȱdonȇtȱknowȈȱresponse. D) Aȱdelayȱquestionȱusedȱtoȱannoyȱtheȱrespondent. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ165 Skill: Knowledge

6.2 True/False 1) Aȱdouble-barreledȱquestionȱjoinsȱtwoȱorȱmoreȱquestionsȱtogetherȱandȱmakesȱaȱrespondentȇs answerȱambiguous. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ156 Skill: Knowledge

2) Aȱgoodȱsurveyȱquestionȱisȱoneȱinȱwhichȱtheȱrespondentsȱknowȱwhichȱanswerȱtheȱresearcher expects. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ158 Skill: Knowledge

3) Moreȱpeopleȱwillȱcompleteȱaȱlongȱorȱveryȱlongȱsurveyȱthanȱaȱshortȱone Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ166 Skill: Knowledge

4) Inȱorganizingȱsurveyȱquestions,ȱtheȱdemographicȱquestionsȱshouldȱbeȱatȱtheȱbeginningȱofȱthe survey. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ167 Skill: Knowledge

5) Aȱresearcherȱfacesȱthreeȱsurveyȱquestionȱsequenceȱissues:ȱhowȱtoȱorganize,ȱhowȱtoȱreduce questionȱorderȱeffects,ȱandȱhowȱtoȱcontrolȱresearcherȱbias. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ166 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Writingȱgoodȱanswerȱchoicesȱinȱaȱsurveyȱisȱnotȱasȱimportantȱasȱwritingȱaȱgoodȱquestion. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ161 Skill: Knowledge

7) Anȱinterviewerȱneedsȱtoȱcontrolȱtheȱinterviewȱandȱitsȱflowȱofȱinteraction. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ170 Skill: Knowledge

8) Aȱmailȱquestionnaireȱformatȱlimitsȱtheȱkindsȱofȱquestionsȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱcanȱuse. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ168 Skill: Knowledge

9) Aȱcontingencyȱquestionȱreallyȱhasȱthreeȱquestionsȱthatȱallȱmustȱbeȱanswered. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ165 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱstandard-formatȱquestionȱdoesȱnotȱofferȱaȱȈdonȇtȱknowȈȱchoice. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ163 Skill: Knowledge

6.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱanȱopinionȱpollȱandȱaȱsurvey. Answer: Opinionȱpollȱisȱaȱtypeȱofȱsurveyȱaboutȱopinionsȱonȱcurrentȱissues. Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ144 Skill: Knowledge

2) Whatȱareȱcontrolȱvariables? Answer: Aȱvariableȱthatȱrepresentsȱaȱpossibleȱalternativeȱexplanationȱtoȱtheȱmainȱhypothesis beingȱtested.ȱNeedȱtoȱaccountȱforȱstatistically. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ154 Skill: Comprehension

3) Whatȱthreeȱquestionsȱdoesȱaȱresearcherȱaskȱinȱtheȱstart-upȱstage? Answer: who,ȱwhat,ȱhow Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ154 Skill: Comprehension

4) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱanȱopen-endedȱquestionȱandȱaȱclosed-endedȱquestion? Answer: Open-endedȱquestionsȱallowȱrespondentsȱtoȱgiveȱanyȱanswer,ȱclosed -endedȱareȱsurvey questionsȱwithȱfixedȱanswerȱchoices Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ160 Skill: Comprehension

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5) Whyȱdoesȱanȱinterviewerȱuseȱprobes? Answer: toȱclarifyȱambiguousȱorȱirrelevantȱresponsesȱtoȱquestions Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ172-173 Skill: Knowledge

6) Whatȱthreeȱethicalȱissuesȱshouldȱbeȱconsideredȱinȱadministeringȱsurveys? Answer: confidentialityȱofȱdata,ȱvoluntaryȱparticipation,ȱmisuseȱofȱsurveys Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ174 Skill: Knowledge

7) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱaȱstandard-formatȱquestionȱandȱaȱfull-filterȱquestion? Answer: Standard-formatȱdoesȱnotȱofferȱaȱdonȇtȱknowȱanswerȱchoice.ȱFull -filterȱquestionȱasksȱif respondentsȱhaveȱanȱopinion,ȱandȱifȱtheyȱdoȱwhatȱtheȱopinionȱis. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ163 Skill: Comprehension

8) Whatȱkindsȱofȱquestionsȱareȱnotȱappropriateȱforȱmailedȱquestionnaires? Answer: questionsȱwithȱvisualȱaids,ȱopen-endedȱquestions,ȱmanyȱcontingencyȱquestions,ȱand complexȱquestions Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ168 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whatȱareȱtheȱadvantagesȱandȱdisadvantagesȱofȱaȱmailedȱquestionnaire? Answer: Advantagesȱ-ȱeasyȱandȱinexpensive,ȱwideȱgeographicȱarea,ȱavoidsȱinterviewerȱbias Disadvantagesȱ-ȱpeopleȱdonȇtȱalwaysȱcompleteȱandȱreturnȱquestionnaires,ȱincreased mailedȱquestionnairesȱincreaseȱexpense,ȱnoȱcontrolȱoverȱwhenȱandȱhowȱrespondents completeȱquestionnaire Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ168 Skill: Comprehension

10) Whatȱmightȱbeȱanȱexampleȱofȱaȱsensitiveȱissueȱthatȱaȱpersonȱwouldȱunderreport? Answer: variesȱ-ȱpossibilitiesȱareȱillnessȱorȱdisability,ȱengagingȱinȱillegalȱorȱdeviantȱbehavior Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ164-165 Skill: Knowledge

6.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) A(n)ȱ__________ȱisȱaȱfixedȱcollectionȱofȱquestionsȱusedȱinȱaȱsocialȱsurveyȱthatȱrespondents answer. Answer: questionnaire Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ154 Skill: Knowledge

2) Theȱthreeȱstagesȱforȱgatheringȱdataȱtoȱtestȱaȱhypothesisȱusingȱaȱsurveyȱareȱstart -up,ȱexecution andȱ__________. Answer: dataȱanalysisȱstage. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ154 Skill: Knowledge

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3) A(n)ȱ__________ȱquestionȱjoinsȱtwoȱorȱmoreȱquestionsȱtogetherȱandȱmakesȱaȱrespondentȇs answerȱambiguous. Answer: double-barreled Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ156 Skill: Knowledge

4) Inȱa(n)ȱ__________ȱquestionȱformat,ȱrespondentsȱcanȱgiveȱanyȱanswer. Answer: open-ended Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ160 Skill: Knowledge

5) Mostȱsurveysȱofferȱpresetȱanswersȱfromȱwhichȱaȱrespondentȱchooses.ȱTheȱ__________ȱfeature requiresȱthatȱnoneȱofȱtheȱresponseȱcategoriesȱoverlap. Answer: mutuallyȱexclusive Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ161 Skill: Knowledge

6) AȱrespondentȱreactedȱveryȱhostilelyȱtoȱaȱquestionȱonȱaȱDr.ȱVanȱOfferȇsȱstudyȱsurvey.ȱDr.ȱVan Offerȱbelievesȱthatȱtheȱrespondentȇsȱreactionȱmayȱhaveȱimpactedȱtheȱanswersȱonȱtheȱwhole survey.ȱThisȱreactionȱisȱmostȱlikelyȱattributableȱtoȱaȱproblemȱwithȱtheȱquestionȱcalled __________. Answer: wordingȱeffects Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ165 Skill: Application

7) Inȱaȱclosed-formatȱsurvey,ȱfavorableȱandȱunfavorableȱchoicesȱareȱequalȱinȱtheȱsetȱofȱresponses. Thisȱfeatureȱofȱtheȱsurveyȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: balanced Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ162 Skill: Knowledge

8) Aȱ__________ȱquestionȱdoesȱnotȱofferȱaȱȈdonȇtȱknowȈȱchoiceȱandȱrespondentsȱmustȱvolunteer theirȱlackȱofȱknowledgeȱorȱopinion. Answer: standard-format Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ163 Skill: Knowledge

9) Previousȱquestionsȱonȱaȱsurveyȱtendȱtoȱinfluenceȱlaterȱonesȱinȱtwoȱways;ȱoneȱwayȱisȱthe respondentȇsȱownȱresponseȱandȱtheȱotherȱisȱtheȱ__________. Answer: questionȱcontentȱorȱissues Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ167 Skill: Knowledge

10) A(n)ȱ__________ȱ(alsoȱcalledȱscreenȱorȱskipȱquestion)ȱisȱaȱtwoȱquestionȱsequenceȱthatȱincreases relevanceȱinȱaȱsurvey. Answer: contingencyȱquestion Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ165 Skill: Knowledge

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11) Peopleȱtendȱtoȱ__________ȱ-reportȱhavingȱanȱillnessȱorȱdisabilityȱorȱengagingȱinȱillegalȱor deviantȱbehaviorȱinȱaȱsurvey. Answer: under Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ164-165 Skill: Knowledge

12) Aȱtypeȱofȱbiasȱthatȱoccursȱwhenȱrespondentsȱdistortȱanswersȱtoȱlookȱgoodȱorȱtoȱconformȱto socialȱnormsȱisȱaȱ__________ȱbias. Answer: socialȱdesirability Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ165 Skill: Knowledge

13) Oneȱadvantageȱofȱthisȱtypeȱofȱinterviewȱisȱthatȱitȱisȱflexibleȱandȱhasȱmostȱofȱtheȱstrengthsȱof face-to-faceȱinterviews.ȱThisȱtypeȱofȱinterviewȱisȱaȱ__________ȱinterview. Answer: telephone Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ168-169 Skill: Knowledge

14) Whenȱrespondentsȱtendȱtoȱanswerȱquestionsȱbasedȱonȱtheȱcontextȱofȱprecedingȱquestionsȱand theȱinterviewȱsetting,ȱthisȱisȱcalledȱ__________ȱeffects. Answer: controlȱcontext Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ167 Skill: Knowledge

15) Aȱdrawbackȱofȱthisȱparticularȱsurveyȱmethodȱisȱthatȱnotȱeveryoneȱhasȱaȱcomputerȱorȱinternet access.ȱThisȱtypeȱofȱsurveyȱisȱ__________. Answer: aȱwebȱsurvey Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ169-170 Skill: Knowledge

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6.5 Essay 1) Discussȱtheȱadvantages/disadvantagesȱofȱdifferentȱsurveyȱformats.ȱInȱparticular,ȱdiscussȱmail questionnaires,ȱtelephoneȱinterviews,ȱface-to-faceȱinterviewsȱandȱwebȱsurveys. Answer: Mailȱquestionnairesȱ- Advantagesȱareȱeasy,ȱinexpensive,ȱcoverȱaȱwideȱgeographical area,ȱcanȱbeȱdoneȱatȱrespondentsȱconvenience,ȱanonymityȱandȱlimitȱinterviewerȱbias. Disadvantagesȱareȱlowȱresponseȱrate,ȱpeopleȱwhoȱrespondȱareȱnotȱrepresentative,ȱno controlȱoverȱconditionsȱofȱcompletion,ȱlimitsȱtypesȱofȱquestions. Telephoneȱ-ȱAdvantagesȱareȱcanȱreachȱaboutȱ95%ȱofȱpopulationȱbyȱphone,ȱuseȱof random-digitȱdialing,ȱwideȱgeographicalȱarea,ȱshortȱturn -aroundȱtime,ȱcanȱuseȱprobes. Disadvantagesȱareȱhigherȱcost,ȱlimitedȱinterviewȱlength,ȱrespondentȱisȱnotȱavailableȱby phone,ȱpotentialȱinterviewerȱbias Face-to-faceȱ-ȱAdvantagesȱareȱhighestȱresponseȱratesȱandȱlongestȱquestionnaires, interviewsȱcanȱobserveȱnonverbalȱcommunication,ȱextensiveȱprobes.ȱDisadvantagesȱare training,ȱtravelȱsupervisionȱandȱpersonnelȱcostsȱofȱinterviews,ȱinterviewerȱbias,ȱlimited geographicalȱarea. Webȱsurveyȱ-ȱAdvantagesȱaeȱlowestȱcost,ȱquickȱanswers,ȱspanȱgeographicȱareasȱand includeȱvisualȱmedia. Disadvantagesȱareȱthatȱnotȱeveryoneȱhasȱcomputerȱorȱinternetȱaccess,ȱlowȱresponseȱrate, canȇtȱcontrolȱconditionsȱunderȱwhichȱtheȱrespondentȱtakesȱtheȱsurvey. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ168-170 Skill: Knowledge

2) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱhiredȱaȱnewȱassistantȱtoȱconductȱaȱsurveyȱforȱhim.ȱDuringȱoneȱofȱtheȱresearch luncheonȱmeetings,ȱtheȱnewȱassistantȱstartsȱtoȱdiscussȱinformationȱthatȱrespondentsȱhaveȱgiven her.ȱInȱparticular,ȱsheȱtellsȱaboutȱoneȱrespondentȇsȱsexualȱpreferencesȱandȱthenȱaccidentally givesȱtheȱrespondentȇsȱname.ȱOneȱofȱtheȱotherȱassistantsȱisȱhorrifiedȱbecauseȱsheȱisȱrelatedȱto theȱrespondent. Discussȱthreeȱissuesȱrelatedȱtoȱtheȱethicalȱsurvey,ȱincludingȱinvasionȱofȱprivacy,ȱvoluntary participationȱandȱmisuseȱofȱsurveys.ȱWhatȱshouldȱDr.ȱVanȱOfferȱdo?ȱAreȱanyȱofȱtheseȱissues relatedȱtoȱlessonsȱlearnedȱinȱChapterȱ3? Answer: Invasionȱofȱprivacyȱ- protectȱtheȱinformationȱreceived,ȱtreatȱsubjectȱwithȱrespect,ȱdonȇt breakȱtrustȱestablishedȱinȱtheȱinterview. Voluntaryȱparticipationȱ-ȱobtainȱinformedȱconsent,ȱdonȇtȱforceȱanyoneȱtoȱparticipate. Dependȱonȱvoluntaryȱcooperationȱmisuseȱofȱsurveysȱ-ȱdeception,ȱmisuseȱofȱsurveysȱto obtainȱinformationȱtoȱmarketȱproducts. Privacyȱandȱvoluntaryȱparticipationȱareȱrequiredȱelementsȱofȱinformedȱconsent.ȱMisuse ofȱsurveysȱfallsȱunderȱdeceptionȱwhichȱisȱanȱethicalȱconcernȱofȱitself. AlthoughȱDr.ȱVanȱOfferȱdidnȇtȱbreakȱtheȱconfidentiality,ȱheȱisȱtheȱresearcherȱandȱis responsibleȱforȱtheȱactionsȱofȱhisȱassistants.ȱHeȱwillȱdefinitelyȱneedȱtoȱmeetȱwithȱthe assistantȱandȱdiscussȱethicalȱconduct,ȱbutȱheȱmayȱconsiderȱalsoȱlettingȱherȱgo. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ174 Skill: Application

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3) Whatȱareȱtheȱprosȱandȱconsȱofȱopened- versusȱclosed-endedȱquestions? Answer: Open-endedȱtakesȱmoreȱtime,ȱrequiresȱrespondentȱtoȱhaveȱwritingȱorȱverbalȱskills, easierȱforȱrespondentsȱtoȱgetȱoffȱtrack.ȱInterviewersȱmustȱwriteȱextensiveȱanswers. Analysisȱisȱofȱtheȱdataȱisȱcomplexȱandȱtime-consuming.ȱItȱisȱveryȱusefulȱforȱexploratory researchȱwhenȱaȱresearcherȱknowsȱlittleȱaboutȱtheȱissue.ȱMoreȱeffectiveȱwhenȱtheȱgoalȱis toȱcaptureȱaȱrespondentȇsȱthinkingȱprocess.ȱClosed-endedȱrequiresȱmanyȱdesign decisionsȱtoȱeliminateȱbias.ȱFormatȱisȱfasterȱandȱeasierȱforȱbothȱrespondentsȱand researcher. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ160 Skill: Knowledge

4) Goodȱclosed-formatȱsurveysȱhaveȱthreeȱfeatures,ȱmutuallyȱexclusive,ȱexhaustive,ȱand balanced.ȱDiscussȱtheseȱthreeȱfeaturesȱandȱanȱexampleȱofȱeach. Answer: Mutuallyȱexclusiveȱmeansȱthatȱresponseȱcategoriesȱdoȱnotȱoverlap.ȱAnȱexampleȱof overlapȱmightȱbeȱthatȱaȱrespondentȱfindsȱhisȱuniqueȱanswerȱinȱtwoȱdifferentȱcategories. Exhaustiveȱmeansȱthatȱeachȱrespondentȱhasȱaȱchoice.ȱAnȱexampleȱwouldȱbeȱthatȱa respondentȱfindsȱhisȱuniqueȱanswerȱonȱtheȱquestionnaire,ȱi.e.ȱheȱisȱemployedȱasȱaȱbaker, andȱbakerȱisȱincludedȱasȱaȱprofession.ȱBalancedȱmeansȱthatȱtheȱsurveyȱoffersȱfavorable orȱunfavorableȱchoicesȱequally.ȱAnȱexampleȱwouldȱbeȱthatȱaȱrespondentȱanswersȱa questionȱthatȱdoesnȇtȱseemȱbiasedȱtoȱoneȱresponseȱ-ȱanȱunbalanceȱquestionȱwouldȱbe, ȈWhenȱyouȱvote,ȱwillȱyouȱvoteȱforȱJohnȱMcCainȱorȱanyȱofȱtheȱotherȱcandidates?Ȉ Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ161-162 Skill: Knowledge

5) Discussȱtheȱthreeȱquestionsȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱshouldȱaskȱinȱtheȱstart -upȱstageȱofȱtheȱsurvey conduct;ȱȈWhoȱwillȱbeȱtheȱrespondents?ȈȱȈWhatȱinformationȱdoesȱtheȱresearcherȱwantȱtoȱlearn fromȱthem?ȈȱȈHowȱcanȱaȱresearcherȱgetȱthatȱinformation?Ȉ Answer: Whoȱ-ȱresearcherȱneedsȱtoȱknowȱaboutȱhisȱrespondents.ȱWithoutȱknowingȱtheȱwho, questionsȱmayȱbeȱirrelevantȱorȱinappropriate. Whatȱ-ȱtheȱresearcherȱneedsȱtoȱfocusȱonȱwhatȱinfoȱheȱneedsȱforȱhowȱheȱwillȱuseȱitȱ otherwiseȱtheȱinformationȱwillȱbeȱirrelevant. Howȱ-ȱtheȱresearcherȱneedsȱtoȱdecideȱtheȱappropriateȱformatȱofȱtheȱsurvey.ȱAȱshortȱpilot runȱisȱalwaysȱaȱgoodȱindicationȱifȱtheȱsurveyȱisȱappropriate. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ154-157 Skill: Knowledge

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Chapterȱ7 TheȱExperiment 7.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Whenȱusingȱaȱtrueȱrandomȱprocess,ȱoverȱtheȱlongȱrunȱtheȱoddsȱare A) thatȱtheȱresearcherȱtiresȱofȱtheȱexperiment. B) allȱtheȱpeopleȱinȱtheȱgroupsȱwillȱbeȱdifferent. C) theȱpeopleȱinȱtheȱgroupsȱwillȱbeȱequal. D) even. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ183 Skill: Knowledge

2) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱstudyingȱaȱnewȱcommunicationȱmethod.ȱIfȱheȱusesȱtheȱnewȱtechniqueȱinȱa randomizedȱstudy,ȱitȱwouldȱbeȱthe A) dependentȱvariable. B) independentȱvariable. C) placebo. D) controlȱgroup. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ184 Skill: Application

3) Inȱanȱexperiment,ȱtheȱgroupȱthatȱreceivesȱtheȱexperimentalȱinterventionȱis A) theȱcontrolȱgroup. B) theȱplacebo. C) theȱalphaȱgroup. D) theȱexperimentalȱgroup. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ185 Skill: Comprehension

4) Selectionȱbiasȱandȱmaturationȱareȱthreatsȱto A) internalȱvalidity. C) experimentalȱmortality.

B) testing. D) double-blind.

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ195 Skill: Knowledge

5) Dr.ȱMottleȱwantsȱtoȱtestȱwhetherȱtheȱstyleȱofȱclothingȱhasȱanȱimpactȱonȱserversȇȱtips.ȱThe dependentȱvariableȱis A) theȱsizeȱofȱtheȱtips. B) clothing. C) restaurantȱmenu. D) sizeȱofȱtheȱclothing. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ186 Skill: Application

6) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱisȱinterestedȱinȱhowȱsequencesȱaffectȱtheȱdependentȱvariable,ȱtheȱdesignȱis A) SolomonȱFourȱGroupȱDesign. B) Two-GroupȱPostȱDesign. C) ClassicalȱDesign. D) LatinȱSquareȱDesign. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ188 Skill: Knowledge

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7) Threeȱmajorȱareasȱofȱtechniqueȱforȱcarryingȱoutȱeffectiveȱexperimentsȱare A) planning,ȱinstructionsȱtoȱparticipants,ȱandȱpostȱexperimentȱinterviews. B) discussion,ȱfieldȱexperiments,ȱandȱHawthorneȱEffect. C) paper,ȱcomputer,ȱandȱPDAs. D) internalȱvalidity,ȱexternalȱvalidity,ȱandȱHawthorneȱEffect. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ199 Skill: Knowledge

8) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱsoȱanxiousȱtoȱstartȱhisȱresearchȱthatȱheȱdoesnȇtȱconsiderȱtheȱfactȱthatȱhisȱsubjects mayȱbeȱcompletelyȱhumiliatedȱbyȱtheȱresearch.ȱFortunately, A) theȱInstitutionalȱReviewȱBoardȱ(IRB)ȱsuggestsȱthatȱheȱfindȱaȱdifferentȱwayȱtoȱconductȱhis researchȱsoȱasȱtoȱprotectȱhisȱsubjects. B) itȱisȱanȱimpactȱofȱtheȱHawthorneȱEffect. C) heȱusesȱcontrolledȱlaboratoryȱresearch. D) heȱenrollsȱasȱaȱsubjectȱinȱhisȱownȱstudy. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ201 Skill: Application

9) Howȱmanyȱindependentȱvariablesȱareȱinȱaȱ2ȱxȱ3ȱxȱ6ȱxȱ8ȱfactorialȱdesign? A) 2 B) 3 C) 6

D) 4

Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ189-190 Skill: Application

10) Researchersȱcontrolȱexperimenterȱexpectancyȱby A) hiringȱassistants. C) usingȱdouble-blindȱexperiments.

B) diffusionȱofȱtreatment. D) testing.

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ196 Skill: Knowledge

11) Theȱweaknessȱofȱstaticȱgroupȱcomparisonȱisȱthatȱtheȱresearcher A) isȱbiased. B) cannotȱknowȱwhetherȱgroupȱdifferencesȱpriorȱtoȱtheȱexperimentȱorȱifȱtheȱindependent variableȱcausedȱdifferencesȱinȱpostȱtestȱoutcomes. C) cannotȱknowȱwhetherȱgroupȱdifferencesȱpriorȱtoȱtheȱexperimentȱorȱifȱtheȱdependent variableȱcausedȱdifferencesȱinȱpostȱtestȱoutcomes. D) isȱunneeded. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ191 Skill: Knowledge

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12) Aȱresearcherȱshouldȱlookȱatȱwhatȱelementsȱwhenȱreadingȱanȱexperimentalȱresearchȱpaper? A) Howȱmanyȱactionȱwordsȱareȱused? B) Doȱtheȱresultsȱofȱtheȱresearchȱsupportȱyourȱpoliticalȱviews? C) Howȱwasȱtheȱdependentȱvariableȱmeasured? D) Isȱtheȱauthorȱanyoneȱthatȱyouȱknow? Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ200 Skill: Knowledge

13) Aȱthreatȱthatȱmightȱweakenȱexternalȱvalidityȱis A) artificialȱsetting. C) testing.

B) maturation. D) history.

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ196 Skill: Knowledge

14) Maturationȱisȱaȱthreatȱtoȱinternalȱvalidityȱandȱmeans A) thatȱtheȱsubjectȱ(participant)ȱisȱtooȱimmature. B) thatȱtheȱsubjectȱquitsȱtheȱexperimentȱbeforeȱitȱisȱcompleted. C) thatȱaȱbiologicalȱorȱemotionalȱprocessȱwithinȱtheȱparticipantsȱthatȱisȱnotȱpartȱofȱthe independentȱvariableȱinducesȱaȱchangeȱinȱtheȱdependentȱvariable. D) thatȱtheȱexperimentȱisȱripe. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ195 Skill: Comprehension

15) Dr.ȱKingȱisȱconductingȱaȱfieldȱexperiment.ȱOneȱsettingȱthatȱshouldȱnotȱbeȱusedȱis A) aȱbarn. B) aȱcontrolledȱlaboratory. C) aȱcornȱfield. D) aȱclassȱroom. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ197-198 Skill: Knowledge

16) ThreatsȱtoȱinternalȱvalidityȱincludeȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱEXCEPT A) selectionȱbias. B) quasi-experimental. C) testing. D) history. Answer: B Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ195 Skill: Knowledge

17) Anȱexperimenterȇsȱcontrolȱoverȱanȱexperimentalȱsettingȱaffects A) theȱcontrolȱgroup. B) externalȱvalidity. C) maturation. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ198 Skill: Knowledge

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18) Ethicsȱcanȱbeȱanȱissueȱinȱresearch A) exceptȱinȱtheȱcaseȱofȱsurveyȱresearch. B) whenȱresearchersȱuseȱdeceptionȱinȱtheirȱresearch. C) becauseȱplacebosȱcanȱbeȱbadȱforȱpeopleȇsȱhealth. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ201 Skill: Knowledge

19) Aȱplaceboȱis A) sometimesȱcalledȱaȱsugarȱpill. B) aȱnoneffectiveȱorȱinactiveȱindependentȱvariable. C) usedȱinȱdouble-blindȱexperiments. D) Allȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ196 Skill: Knowledge

20) Mr.ȱMarshȱconductsȱanȱexperimentȱthatȱheȱcannotȱtranslateȱintoȱrealȱlife.ȱTheȱtreatmentȱisȱnot realistic.ȱThisȱthreatȱtoȱexternalȱvalidityȱisȱcalled A) reactivity. B) artificialȱtreatment. C) maturation. D) HawthorneȱEffect. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ196-197 Skill: Application

21) HawthorneȱEffectȱis A) commonȱinȱfieldȱexperiments. C) awarenessȱofȱbeingȱinȱaȱstudy.

B) irrelevant. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ197 Skill: Knowledge

22) Naturalȱexperimentsȱareȱfieldȱexperiments A) areȱalwaysȱvalid. C) involvingȱplacebos.

B) gatherȱdataȱafterȱtheȱfact. D) withoutȱmerit.

Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ199 Skill: Knowledge

23) Ifȱaȱdouble-blindȱstudyȱmeansȱthatȱtheȱsubjectȱ(participant)ȱandȱtheȱpersonȱadministeringȱthe treatmentȱdoȱnotȱknowȱwhetherȱtheȱtreatmentȱisȱtheȱcontrolȱorȱplacebo,ȱthenȱwhatȱdoesȱa single-blindȱstudyȱmean? A) thatȱtheȱsubjectȱ(participant)ȱdoesȱnotȱknowȱwhatȱs/heȱisȱgettingȱ- treatmentȱorȱcontrol B) thatȱtheȱresearcherȱdoesȱnotȱknowȱwhatȱtheȱsubjectȱisȱgetting C) thatȱtheȱresearcher,ȱtheȱassistantȱadministeringȱtheȱtreatmentȱorȱcontrol,ȱandȱtheȱsubject (participant)ȱallȱdoȱnotȱknowȱwhatȱtheȱsubjectȱisȱgetting D) Thereȱisȱnoȱsuchȱthingȱasȱaȱsingle-blindȱstudy. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ197 Skill: Analysis

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24) Dr.ȱMottleȇsȱexperimentȱisȱconductedȱinȱtheȱSchoolȱofȱNursingȇsȱcafeteria.ȱTheȱstudentȱnurses thatȱsheȱobservesȱinȱtheȱstudyȱdoȱnotȱknowȱthatȱtheyȱareȱbeingȱstudied. A) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱconductingȱaȱsingle-blindȱexperiment. B) Dr.ȱMottleȱhasȱnoȱideaȱwhatȱsheȱisȱdoing. C) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱconductingȱaȱhighlyȱcontrolledȱlaboratoryȱexperiment. D) Dr.ȱMottleȱwishesȱtoȱavoidȱtheȱHawthorneȱeffect. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ197-98 Skill: Application

25) Whenȱparticipantsȱdonȇtȱfinishȱaȱstudy,ȱitȱisȱcalled A) testing. C) experimentalȱmortality.

B) internalȱvalidity. D) history.

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ195 Skill: Knowledge

7.2 True/False 1) Inȱgeneral,ȱsocialȱexperimentsȱareȱbetterȱforȱnarrowlyȱtargetedȱshort-termȱmicro-level concernsȱthanȱforȱcomplexȱmacro-levelȱissuesȱinȱwhichȱmanyȱfactorsȱworkȱtogether. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ181 Skill: Knowledge

2) Theȱgreatestȱconfidenceȱinȱwhatȱisȱlearnedȱcomesȱfromȱstudyingȱtheȱsameȱissueȱusingȱonlyȱone method. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ181 Skill: Knowledge

3) Aȱresearcherȱshouldȱneverȱmeasureȱtheȱdependentȱvariableȱinȱanȱexperiment. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ185 Skill: Comprehension

4) Researchersȱuseȱdeceptionȱinȱallȱtheirȱexperimentsȱtoȱensureȱthatȱparticipantsȱdonȇtȱalterȱtheir behaviorȱorȱopinionsȱtoȱfitȱtheȱresearcherȇsȱhypothesis. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ201 Skill: Knowledge

5) Aȱplaceboȱisȱanȱindependentȱvariable,ȱtypicallyȱanȱactiveȱtreatment. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ196 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Designȱnotationȱisȱaȱtechniqueȱusedȱexclusivelyȱinȱfieldȱresearchȱtoȱtrackȱtheȱresearchȱsubject (participant). Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ193 Skill: Knowledge

7) Quasi-experimentalȱdesignȱshouldȱalwaysȱbeȱusedȱinsteadȱofȱexperimentalȱdesignȱwhenȱthe researcherȱdoesȱnotȱknowȱhowȱtoȱconductȱpreexperimentalȱdesigns. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ192 Skill: Knowledge

8) Inȱgeneral,ȱsocialȱscientistsȱgetȱtheirȱbestȱresultsȱbyȱcomparingȱveryȱdifferentȱgroupsȱtoȱeach other. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ181 Skill: Knowledge

9) Aȱrandomȱassignmentȱmeansȱthatȱanȱinstructorȱassignsȱhomeworkȱtoȱherȱstudentsȱevery weekend. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ182 Skill: Knowledge

10) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱsaysȱthatȱherȱexperimentȱsuffersȱfromȱexperimentalȱmortality,ȱitȱmeansȱthat atȱleastȱoneȱofȱtheȱparticipantsȱdiedȱwhileȱparticipatingȱinȱtheȱexperiment. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ195 Skill: Application

7.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱrandomȱsamplingȱandȱrandomȱassignment? Answer: Inȱrandomȱsampling,ȱtheȱresearcherȱusesȱaȱrandomȱprocessȱtoȱselectȱaȱsmallerȱsubsetȱof peopleȱfromȱaȱlargerȱpool.ȱInȱrandomȱassignment,ȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱaȱrandomȱprocessȱto sortȱaȱcollectionȱofȱparticipantsȱintoȱtwoȱorȱmoreȱgroups. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ182 Skill: Knowledge

2) Listȱtheȱsevenȱpartsȱofȱanȱexperiment. Answer: independentȱvariable,ȱdependentȱvariable,ȱpretest,ȱpostȱtest,ȱexperimentalȱgroup, controlȱgroup,ȱrandomȱassignment Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ183 Skill: Knowledge

3) Differentiateȱpre-ȱversusȱpost-testȱinȱtheȱcontextȱofȱanȱexperiment. Answer: Preȱmeasuresȱtheȱdependentȱvariableȱpriorȱtoȱintroducingȱtheȱindependentȱvariable, postȱmeasuresȱtheȱdependentȱvariableȱafterȱtheȱindependentȱvariableȱhasȱbeen introduced. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ185 Skill: Knowledge

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4) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱanȱexperimentalȱgroupȱandȱaȱcontrolȱgroup? Answer: Experimentalȱgroupȱ(arm)ȱreceivesȱtheȱindependentȱvariable,ȱcontrolȱgroupȱdoesȱnot receiveȱtheȱindependentȱvariable. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ185 Skill: Knowledge

5) WhyȱisȱaȱLatinȱSquareȱdesignȱdifferentȱfromȱfactorialȱdesign? Answer: LatinȱSquareȱlooksȱatȱsequenceȱandȱfactorialȱdesignȱlooksȱatȱmultipleȱindependent variables. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ188 Skill: Knowledge

6) Whatȱtwoȱeffectsȱcanȱinfluenceȱfactorialȱdesigns? Answer: mainȱandȱinteraction Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ189 Skill: Knowledge

7) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱaȱclassicalȱexperimentalȱandȱquasi-experimentalȱstudy? Answer: Classicalȱexperimentsȱcontainȱallȱtheȱrequiredȱelements,ȱincludingȱrandomization. quasi-experimentalȱtypicallyȱhasȱsomeȱofȱtheȱelementsȱofȱtheȱclassicalȱdesign,ȱbutȱnot all;ȱalso,ȱdoesȱnotȱincludeȱrandomization. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ191-192 Skill: Comprehension

8) Aȱ2ȱxȱ6ȱxȱ3ȱfactorialȱdesignȱhasȱhowȱmanyȱcategoriesȱinȱtheȱfirst,ȱsecond,ȱandȱthirdȱindependent variables?ȱ(answerȱinȱthisȱorder) Answer: 2,ȱ6,ȱ3 Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ190 Skill: Application

9) Whatȱisȱaȱone-shotȱcaseȱstudyȱdesign? Answer: designȱhasȱoneȱgroup,ȱaȱtreatmentȱandȱpostȱtest,ȱthereȱisȱnoȱrandomȱassignmentȱbecause thereȱisȱonlyȱoneȱgroup Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ191 Skill: Knowledge

10) Whatȱisȱaȱdouble-blindȱexperiment? Answer: BothȱtheȱparticipantȱandȱtheȱadministratorȱofȱtheȱstudyȱareȱȈblindedȈȱ,ȱtheyȱdonȇtȱknow whichȱgroupȱthatȱtheyȱareȱin. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ196 Skill: Comprehension

7.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) Inȱprobabilityȱtheory,ȱ__________ȱisȱaȱprocessȱinȱwhichȱeachȱcaseȱhasȱaȱknownȱandȱequal chanceȱofȱselection. Answer: random Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ182 Skill: Knowledge

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2) __________ȱdesignȱallowsȱaȱresearcherȱtoȱtestȱforȱcausalȱrelationshipsȱinȱsituationsȱwhereȱaȱtrue experimentalȱdesignȱisȱdifficultȱorȱinappropriate. Answer: Quasi-experimental Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ192 Skill: Knowledge

3) Inȱexperiments,ȱtheȱ__________ȱvariableȱisȱsomethingȱaȱresearcherȱdoes,ȱintroducesȱor manipulates. Answer: independent Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ183 Skill: Knowledge

4) __________ȱexperimentalȱdesignȱhasȱrandomȱassignment,ȱaȱpretestȱandȱaȱpostȱtest,ȱan experimentalȱgroup,ȱandȱaȱcontrolȱgroup. Answer: Classical Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ186 Skill: Knowledge

5) Researchersȱconsultȱwithȱa(n)ȱ__________ȱwhenȱthereȱisȱaȱquestionȱaboutȱpotentialȱriskȱor harmȱtoȱparticipants. Answer: IRB Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ201 Skill: Comprehension

6) Two-groupȱpostȱtest-onlyȱdesignȱhasȱallȱpartsȱofȱ__________ȱdesignȱexceptȱpretest. Answer: classicalȱdesign Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ187 Skill: Knowledge

7) Aȱresearcherȇsȱdegreeȱofȱcontrolȱofȱanȱexperimentȇsȱsettingȱisȱkeyȱtoȱimpactingȱinternalȱand externalȱ__________. Answer: validity Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ198 Skill: Knowledge

8) __________ȱdesignȱisȱusedȱwhenȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱtwoȱorȱmoreȱindependentȱvariablesȱin combination. Answer: Factorial Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ188-189 Skill: Knowledge

9) __________ȱdesignsȱareȱusedȱwhenȱitȱisȱdifficultȱtoȱuseȱtheȱfullȱclassicalȱdesign.ȱThisȱdesignȱhas aȱweaknessȱinȱthatȱitȱisȱmoreȱdifficultȱtoȱinferȱaȱcausalȱrelationship. Answer: Pre-experimental Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ190-191 Skill: Knowledge

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10) Theȱtwoȱeffectsȱthatȱinfluenceȱtheȱdependentȱvariableȱareȱmainȱeffectsȱandȱinteractionȱeffectsȱin __________ȱdesign. Answer: factorial Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ189 Skill: Knowledge

11) Ifȱaȱresearcherȱaccidentallyȱorȱindirectlyȱcommunicateȱdesiredȱfindingsȱtoȱparticipants,ȱthisȱis calledȱ__________. Answer: experimenterȱexpectancy Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ196 Skill: Knowledge

12) __________ȱisȱaȱthreatȱtoȱexternalȱvalidity;ȱparticipantsȱmodifyȱtheirȱbehaviorȱbecauseȱtheyȱare awareȱthatȱtheyȱareȱinȱaȱstudy. Answer: Reactivity Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ197 Skill: Knowledge

13) Theȱweaknessȱofȱstaticȱgroupȱcomparisonȱisȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱdoesnȇtȱknowȱwhetherȱgroup differencesȱpriorȱtoȱtheȱexperimentȱcausedȱdifferencesȱinȱ__________. Answer: posttestȱoutcomes Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ191 Skill: Knowledge

14) Ifȱanȱunexpectedȱeventȱunrelatedȱtoȱtheȱindependentȱvariableȱoccursȱduringȱtheȱexperiment andȱinfluencesȱtheȱdependentȱvariable,ȱtheȱexperimentȱsuffersȱaȱ__________ȱthreat. Answer: history Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ195 Skill: Knowledge

15) Naturalȱexperimentsȱareȱ__________ȱexperimentsȱthatȱpeopleȱdidȱnotȱintentionallyȱplanȱasȱan experiment. Answer: field Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ199 Skill: Knowledge

7.5 Essay 1) Discussȱinterruptedȱtimeȱseriesȱandȱequivalentȱtimeȱseries.ȱWhatȱmightȱbeȱtheȱadvantageȱofȱthe equivalentȱseries? Answer: Interruptedȱ-ȱresearcherȱhasȱoneȱgroup,ȱmakingȱmultipleȱmeasuresȱofȱtheȱdependent variableȱbothȱbeforeȱandȱafterȱtheȱtreatment Equivalentȱ-ȱresearcherȱhasȱoneȱgroup,ȱinsteadȱofȱoneȱtreatment,ȱthisȱseriesȱhasȱa pretest,ȱthenȱaȱtreatmentȱandȱpostȱtest,ȱthenȱtreatmentȱandȱpostȱtest,ȱthenȱtreatmentȱand postȱtest,ȱetc.ȱuseȱofȱmultipleȱindependentȱvariablesȱinȱoneȱexperiment Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ192 Skill: Comprehension

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2) Discussȱexternalȱvalidity.ȱNameȱtwoȱthreatsȱthatȱmightȱweakenȱexternalȱvalidity. Answer: Externalȱvalidityȱisȱwayȱtoȱgeneralȱfindingsȱtoȱeventsȱandȱsettingsȱbeyondȱtheȱresearch. Threatsȱincludeȱparticipantsȱareȱnotȱrepresentative,ȱartificialȱsetting,ȱartificialȱtreatment, reactivity. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ196-197 Skill: Comprehension

3) Dr.ȱMottleȇsȱexperimentȱincludesȱrandomizingȱsubjectsȱtoȱaȱgroupȱthatȱgetsȱaȱneedle -stickȱorȱto aȱgroupȱthatȱgetsȱaȱȈfakeȈȱneedle-stick. ȱDifferentiateȱexperimentalȱgroupȱfromȱcontrolȱgroup.ȱWhatȱisȱtheȱroleȱofȱtheȱplaceboȱin experimentalȱdesign?ȱGiveȱanotherȱexampleȱofȱuseȱofȱaȱplacebo. Answer: Experimentalȱgroupȱreceivesȱtheȱactiveȱintervention,ȱtheȱcontrolȱgroupȱreceivesȱno interventionȱorȱanȱinactiveȱinterventionȱsuchȱasȱaȱplacebo.ȱAȱplaceboȱisȱanȱinactive substituteȱforȱaȱtrueȱintervention.ȱItȱisȱsometimesȱcalledȱaȱsugarȱpill,ȱbutȱcanȱbe somethingȱotherȱthanȱaȱpill.ȱForȱexampleȱaȱresearcherȱcouldȱuseȱaȱȈfakeȈȱcameraȱforȱa placeboȱandȱaȱrealȱcameraȱinȱtheȱexperimentalȱgroup. Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ185,ȱ196 Skill: Application

4) DiscussȱtheȱpurposesȱforȱFactorialȱDesignȱandȱLatinȱSquareȱDesign. Answer: Factorialȱusesȱmultipleȱvariablesȱtoȱsimulateȱrealȱworldȱconditionsȱwhereȱmoreȱthanȱone variableȱcanȱimpactȱaȱdependentȱvariable.ȱLatinȱSquareȱisȱconcernedȱwithȱtheȱsequence ofȱtreatment. Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ188 Skill: Comprehension

5) Discussȱethicalȱconsiderationsȱandȱdeceptionȱinȱconductingȱexperiments. Answer: Manipulationȱandȱdeceptionȱmayȱbeȱusedȱinȱexperiments,ȱbutȱanȱIRBȱshouldȱbe consultedȱtoȱensureȱthatȱtheȱriskȱtoȱtheȱparticipantȱcanȱbeȱminimized. Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ201 Skill: Comprehension

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Chapterȱ8 ResearchȱWithȱNon-ReactiveȱMeasures 8.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Whatȱareȱtheȱadvantagesȱofȱquantitativeȱnonreactiveȱresearch? A) Researchersȱhaveȱcontrolȱoverȱtheȱdataȱcollectionȱmethods. B) Itȱisȱlessȱexpensive. C) Itȱisȱoftenȱfasterȱandȱeasierȱtoȱcollectȱdata. D) Itȱgivesȱsolidȱresults. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ206 Skill: Knowledge

2) Useȱofȱofficialȱexistingȱstatisticsȱraisesȱethicalȱissuesȱregarding A) theȱfactȱthatȱtheyȱareȱsocialȱandȱpoliticalȱproducts. B) confidentiality. C) discovery. D) environmentalȱloopholes. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ227 Skill: Knowledge

3) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱareȱthingsȱaȱresearcherȱwouldȱdoȱtoȱconductȱaȱstudyȱwithȱphysical evidence? A) Identifyȱaȱphysicalȱevidenceȱmeasureȱofȱaȱbehaviorȱofȱinterest. B) Compareȱtheȱtwoȱvariablesȱofȱtheȱhypothesisȱusingȱquantitativeȱdataȱanalysis. C) Systematicallyȱrecordȱtheȱphysicalȱevidence. D) Allȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ207 Skill: Knowledge

4) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱstudyingȱchiropracticȱjournalsȱtoȱdetermineȱtrendsȱforȱuseȱofȱultrasoundȱin chiropracticȱpractice.ȱAsȱsheȱresearchesȱthisȱtopic,ȱsheȱisȱcountingȱtheȱnumberȱofȱtimesȱthat ȈultrasoundȈȱappearsȱinȱwrittenȱtext.ȱWhatȱtypeȱofȱcodingȱisȱsheȱmostȱlikelyȱusing? A) manifestȱcoding B) latentȱcoding C) contentȱcoding D) reliabilityȱcoding Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ210 Skill: Application

5) Textȱappearsȱinȱallȱcommunicationȱmedia,ȱincluding A) books. B) speeches. D) Allȱofȱtheȱabove C) films. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ208 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Contentȱanalysisȱisȱusefulȱfor A) topicsȱstudiedȱatȱaȱdistance. B) anyoneȱwhoȱwantsȱtoȱlearnȱaboutȱresearch. C) onlyȱsocialȱscientists. D) small,ȱintricateȱdetails. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ209 Skill: Knowledge

7) Whatȱchallenge(s)ȱdoesȱaȱresearcherȱfaceȱinȱdoingȱexistingȱstatisticsȱresearch? A) payingȱforȱtheȱdata,ȱwhichȱcanȱbeȱquiteȱexpensive B) beingȱcreativeȱinȱthinkingȱaboutȱhowȱtoȱturnȱtheȱdataȱintoȱvariablesȱthatȱcanȱanswer researchȱquestions C) locatingȱsubjects D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ217 Skill: Knowledge

8) AȱlimitationȱtoȱuseȱofȱtheȱGeneralȱSocialȱSurveyȱis A) lackȱofȱphotos. B) infrequentȱpublication. C) GeneralȱSocialȱSurveyȱquestionsȱareȱwordedȱdifferentlyȱthanȱaȱresearcherȱwishesȱorȱhas differentȱanswerȱchoices. D) Allȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ226 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whatȱisȱtheȱfirstȱstepȱinȱconductingȱcontentȱanalysisȱresearch? A) formulateȱaȱresearchȱquestion B) decideȱonȱunitsȱofȱanalysis C) drawȱaȱsample D) createȱaȱcodingȱsystem Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ213 Skill: Knowledge

10) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱlimitationȱwhenȱusingȱexistingȱstatistics? A) timelinessȱofȱtheȱinput B) reliability C) validity D) missingȱdata Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ220 Skill: Knowledge

11) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱconcernedȱthatȱtheȱinformationȱthatȱwasȱcollectedȱbyȱoneȱofȱtheȱgovernment agenciesȱmightȱhaveȱsystematicȱerrorsȱinȱitȱlimitingȱtheȱ__________ȱofȱtheȱinformation. A) amount B) reliability C) validity D) cost Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ220 Skill: Application

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12) Identifyȱoneȱlimitationȱofȱcontentȱanalysis. A) researcherȱcompetence C) interpretȱtheȱcontentȇsȱsignificance

B) coderȇsȱattitude D) defineȱtheȱdetailsȱofȱtheȱresults

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ216 Skill: Knowledge

13) Secondaryȱdataȱanalysisȱisȱsimilarȱtoȱexistingȱstatisticsȱresearchȱinȱthat A) theȱmethodsȱrequireȱanȱenormousȱvocabulary. B) theȱresearcherȱanalyzesȱdataȱthatȱsomeoneȱelseȱcollected. C) noȱcomputersȱareȱrequired. D) allȱworkȱmustȱbeȱdoneȱcovertly. Answer: B Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ225 Skill: Knowledge

14) Topicȱknowledgeȱcanȱlimitȱresearchȱbecause A) theȱtopicȱisȱsports-related. B) theȱresearcherȱmayȱgetȱaȱlotȱofȱdataȱthatȱmayȱleadȱtoȱfalseȱinterpretation. C) theȱresearcherȱquotesȱstatisticsȱinȱexcessȱdetail. D) theȱresearcherȱusesȱaȱlowerȱunitȱthanȱs/heȱshouldȱuse. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ222 Skill: Knowledge

15) Socialȱindicatorȱisȱaȱmeasureȱofȱsocialȱconditionsȱand A) shouldȱbeȱavoidedȱinȱresearch. B) canȱbeȱusedȱinȱpolicyȱdecisions. C) hasȱnoȱrealȱuse. D) isȱgenerallyȱmeaninglessȱtoȱtheȱpublic. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ217 Skill: Knowledge

16) InȱverifyingȱdataȱqualityȱofȱexistingȱstatisticsȱMr.ȱMarshȱdiscoversȱthatȱtheȱdefinitionȱofȱȈwork injuryȈȱvariesȱacrossȱdifferentȱagenciesȱandȱtime.ȱThisȱisȱanȱexampleȱof A) validity. B) reliability. C) topicȱknowledge. D) ecologicalȱfallacy. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ220 Skill: Application

17) Ifȱaȱresearcherȱcontemplatesȱconductȱofȱanȱexistingȱstatisticsȱresearchȱstudy,ȱitȱwouldȱbeȱaȱgood ideaȱforȱhim/herȱtoȱtalkȱwithȱa(n)ȱ__________ȱfirst. A) physician B) author C) informationȱprofessional D) clergyȱmember Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ218 Skill: Knowledge

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18) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱcomparingȱdataȱacrossȱtwoȱcities.ȱIfȱsheȱadjustsȱtheȱmeasuresȱbyȱaȱcommonȱbase, sheȱis A) creative. B) standardizingȱtheȱinformation. C) isȱusingȱecologicalȱfallacy. D) isȱusingȱtopicȱknowledge. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ224 Skill: Application

19) Whenȱmeasuringȱspaceȱinȱcontentȱanalysis,ȱaȱresearcher A) measuresȱtheȱsize,ȱvolume,ȱandȱamountȱofȱtimeȱorȱphysicalȱspace. B) doesȱaȱtopicȱanalysis. C) discussesȱtheȱproblemȱwithȱanotherȱresearcher. D) doesȱnotȱuseȱaȱcodingȱsystem. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ210 Skill: Knowledge

20) Contentȱanalysisȱcannot A) determineȱtheȱtruthfulnessȱofȱanȱassertion. B) beȱtheȱbasisȱofȱresearch. C) validateȱtheȱresearcher. D) performȱstatisticsȱofȱitself. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ216 Skill: Comprehension

21) Toȱmakeȱsureȱthatȱassistantȱcodersȱareȱconsistent,ȱaȱresearcherȱshould A) haveȱtheȱcodersȱcodeȱtheȱsameȱtextȱindependentȱofȱoneȱanotherȱandȱcheckȱfor consistency. B) shouldȱonlyȱhaveȱoneȱassistantȱcoder. C) circleȱerrorsȱandȱhaveȱtheȱcodersȱredoȱtheȱwork. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ211 Skill: Knowledge

22) Thisȱparticularȱlimitationȱhappensȱwhenȱaȱresearcherȱquotesȱstatisticsȱinȱexcessiveȱdetail. A) topicȱknowledge B) snowballȱtheory C) fallacyȱofȱmisplacedȱconcreteness D) validity Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ222 Skill: Knowledge

23) Physicalȱevidenceȱmeasures A) areȱdirect. B) measureȱaȱbehaviorȱorȱviewpointȱofȱinterest. C) areȱtheȱsameȱasȱcontentȱanalysesȱmeasures. D) areȱpartȱofȱallȱtopicȱknowledge. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ207 Skill: Knowledge

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24) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱexcessiveȱdetailȱinȱexpressingȱaȱnumberȱorȱstatisticsȱreportȱtoȱgiveȱthe impressionȱofȱscientificȱrigor,ȱheȱmayȱbeȱaddingȱinformationȱthatȱisȱnotȱaccurate.ȱForȱexample, usingȱ1,899,312ȱtoȱexpressȱpopulationȱinȱaȱcityȱinsteadȱofȱusingȱ1.9ȱmillionȱpeople.ȱThisȱdata qualityȱlimitationȱisȱknownȱas A) reliability. B) validity. D) fallacyȱofȱmisplacedȱconcreteness. C) topicȱknowledge. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ222 Skill: Comprehension

25) Theȱprimaryȱethicalȱconcernȱofȱphysicalȱevidenceȱanalysisȱis A) theȱresearcherȇsȱbias. B) timeȱforȱdiscussion. C) privacyȱandȱconfidentialityȱofȱdata. D) lackȱofȱresearchȱmethodology. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ227 Skill: Knowledge

8.2 True/False 1) Peopleȱareȱnotȱawareȱthatȱtheyȱareȱbeingȱstudiedȱinȱnonreactiveȱresearch. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ206 Skill: Knowledge

2) Creativityȱhasȱnoȱplaceȱinȱnonreactiveȱresearch. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ208 Skill: Knowledge

3) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱcodingȱs/heȱturnsȱaspectsȱofȱtextȱcontentȱintoȱquantitativeȱvariables. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ209 Skill: Knowledge

4) Disadvantagesȱofȱquantitativeȱnonreactiveȱresearchȱincludeȱpossibleȱlimitedȱcontrolȱoverȱhow theȱdataȱareȱcollected,ȱandȱtheȱdataȱareȱveryȱeasyȱtoȱinterpret. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ206 Skill: Knowledge

5) Aȱsymbolȱcanȱhaveȱcomplex,ȱmultilayeredȱmeanings,ȱandȱresearchersȱmustȱmakeȱqualitative judgmentsȱaboutȱhowȱtoȱcodeȱimages. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ213 Skill: Knowledge

6) Contentȱanalysisȱisȱnotȱdoneȱwithȱvisualȱmaterial. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ211 Skill: Knowledge

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7) Privacyȱisȱnotȱanȱissueȱinȱnonreactiveȱdataȱcollection. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ208 Skill: Knowledge

8) Manyȱmeasuresȱinȱlargeȱbureaucraticȱorganizationsȱareȱsocialȱindicators. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ217 Skill: Knowledge

9) Codingȱ(byȱassistants)ȱisȱtypicallyȱconsistentȱsoȱthereȱisȱnoȱneedȱforȱmeasuringȱreliability. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ211 Skill: Knowledge

10) TheȱStatisticalȱAbstractȱofȱtheȱUnitedȱStates containsȱlargeȱamountsȱofȱdata;ȱhowever,ȱitȱisȱtoo muchȱinformationȱforȱaȱresearcherȱandȱshouldȱbeȱavoided. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ218 Skill: Knowledge

8.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Listȱfourȱtypesȱofȱnonreactiveȱquantitativeȱresearchȱtechniques. Answer: physicalȱevidenceȱanalysis,ȱcontentȱanalysis,ȱexistingȱstatisticsȱanalysis,ȱsecondaryȱdata analysis Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ206 Skill: Knowledge

2) Identifyȱfiveȱcharacteristicsȱofȱvariablesȱthatȱareȱcodedȱinȱtextȱcontent. Answer: direction,ȱfrequency,ȱintensity,ȱspace,ȱprominence Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ209-210 Skill: Knowledge

3) Whyȱisȱcontentȱanalysisȱconsideredȱaȱnonreactiveȱresearchȱtechnique? Answer: Contentȱanalysisȱallowsȱtheȱresearcherȱtoȱuncoverȱaspectsȱofȱtheȱcontentȱinȱtheȱtextȱofȱa communicationȱmediumȱdifferentlyȱfromȱwhatȱtheȱresearcherȱlearnsȱinȱordinary reading,ȱlisteningȱorȱwatching. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ208 Skill: Knowledge

4) Contentȱanalysisȱisȱusefulȱinȱthreeȱresearchȱissues,ȱwhyȱisȱitȱespeciallyȱusefulȱwithȱtopics studiedȱatȱaȱdistance? Answer: Oneȱcanȱstudyȱtopicsȱwithoutȱtheȱsubjectȱknowingȱ- itȱmayȱbeȱmoreȱconvenientȱand/or safer. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ209 Skill: Comprehension

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5) Giveȱtwoȱexamplesȱofȱcontentȱinȱtheȱcontextȱofȱcontentȱanalysis,ȱi.e.ȱwords... Answer: words,ȱmeanings,ȱpictures,ȱsymbols,ȱideas,ȱthemes Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ208 Skill: Knowledge

6) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱmanifestȱcodingȱandȱlatentȱcoding? Answer: manifestȱcountȱwords,ȱlatentȱisȱfocusedȱonȱthemes. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ210 Skill: Knowledge

7) Giveȱanȱexampleȱofȱtheȱkindsȱofȱphysicalȱevidenceȱthatȱhaveȱbeenȱusedȱinȱtheȱpastȱtoȱcreate nonreactiveȱmeasuresȱofȱvariables. Answer: familyȱportraits,ȱwornȱfloorȱtiles,ȱgraffiti,ȱyearbooks Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ206 Skill: Comprehension

8) Giveȱanȱexampleȱofȱaȱpubliclyȱavailableȱsocialȱindicator. Answer: turnoutȱtoȱvoteȱinȱelections,ȱnumberȱofȱhoursȱthatȱpeopleȱvolunteerȱperȱyear,ȱpercentȱfo theȱpopulationȱthatȱisȱliterate,ȱpercentȱofȱtheȱpopulationȱthatȱlacksȱhealthȱcareȱcoverage, numberȱofȱchildȱabuseȱcases,ȱaverageȱlengthȱofȱtimeȱpeopleȱcommuteȱtoȱwork,ȱnumber andȱsizeȱofȱparksȱandȱrecreationȱareas Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ217 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whatȱisȱofȱmostȱethicalȱconcernȱwhenȱconductingȱphysicalȱevidenceȱanalysis? Answer: howȱtoȱprotectȱpeopleȇsȱprivacyȱandȱconfidentialityȱofȱdata Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ227 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱlimitationȱofȱphysicalȱevidenceȱmeasuresȱareȱthatȱtheyȱareȱindirect.ȱWhatȱdoesȱthisȱmean? Answer: meaningȱthatȱtheȱresearcherȱmustȱinferȱorȱmakeȱaȱcautiousȱȈeducatedȱguessȈȱfromȱthe evidenceȱtoȱpeopleȇsȱbehaviorȱorȱattitudes Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ207 Skill: Knowledge

8.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) __________ȱmeasuresȱareȱmeasuresȱthatȱdoȱnotȱintrudeȱorȱdisturbȱaȱperson,ȱsoȱtheȱpersonȱis unawareȱofȱthem. Answer: Unobtrusive Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ206 Skill: Knowledge

2) __________ȱinvolvesȱanalyzingȱpreviouslyȱcollectedȱpublicȱdataȱtoȱanswerȱnewȱresearch questions. Answer: Existingȱstatisticsȱresearch Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ216 Skill: Knowledge

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3) Toȱoperationalizeȱvariablesȱinȱcontentȱanalysis,ȱaȱresearcherȱcreatesȱaȱ__________ȱsystem. Answer: coding Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ209 Skill: Knowledge

4) __________ȱreliabilityȱisȱaȱmeasureȱofȱconsistentȱmeasurementsȱinȱcontentȱanalysisȱacross multipleȱcoders. Answer: Intercoder Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ211 Skill: Knowledge

5) Whenȱmeasuringȱspace,ȱtheȱresearcherȱmeasuresȱsize,ȱvolume,ȱamountȱofȱtimeȱorȱ__________ onȱaȱpage. Answer: physicalȱspace Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ210 Skill: Knowledge

6) Theȱ__________ȱisȱtheȱsingleȱmostȱvaluableȱsourceȱofȱstatisticalȱinformationȱinȱtheȱUnited States. Answer: StatisticalȱAbstract Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ218 Skill: Knowledge

7) Whenȱgovernmentȱagenciesȱstopȱcollectingȱcertainȱtypesȱofȱdata,ȱitȱcanȱlimitȱexistingȱstatistics andȱtheȱdataȱisȱthenȱconsideredȱ__________,ȱoneȱofȱtheȱlimitationsȱofȱexistingȱstatistics research. Answer: missing Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ220 Skill: Knowledge

8) __________ȱproblemsȱdevelopȱwhenȱofficialȱdefinitionsȱorȱmethodsȱofȱcollectingȱinformation varyȱoverȱtime. Answer: Reliability Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ220 Skill: Knowledge

9) Contentȱanalysisȱisȱaȱ__________ȱtechniqueȱthatȱletsȱaȱresearcherȱexploreȱbothȱhiddenȱand visibleȱcontentȱinȱcommunicationȱmessages. Answer: nonreactive Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ208 Skill: Knowledge

10) __________ȱcanȱonlyȱdescribeȱwhatȱisȱinȱtheȱtextȱandȱrevealȱpatternsȱinȱit. Answer: Contentȱanalysis Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ216 Skill: Knowledge

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11) Aȱlimitationȱofȱ__________ȱ(3ȱwords)ȱisȱthatȱGeneralȱSocialȱSurveyȱquestionsȱareȱworded differentlyȱthanȱtheȱresearcherȱwishes. Answer: secondaryȱdataȱsources Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ226 Skill: Knowledge

12) Anȱissueȱthatȱoccursȱwhenȱaȱscientistȱquotesȱstatisticsȱinȱexcessiveȱdetailȱisȱcalledȱ__________(4 words). Answer: fallacyȱofȱmisplacedȱconcreteness Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ222 Skill: Knowledge

13) __________ȱinvolvesȱadjustingȱaȱmeasureȱbyȱdividingȱitȱbyȱaȱcommonȱbaseȱtoȱmake comparisonȱpossible. Answer: Standardization Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ224 Skill: Knowledge

14) Primaryȱdataȱresearchȱfocusesȱonȱcollectingȱdataȱbutȱsecondaryȱfocusesȱonȱ__________ analyzingȱdata. Answer: statistically Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ225 Skill: Knowledge

15) Theȱprimaryȱethicalȱconcernȱofȱphysicalȱevidenceȱanalysisȱisȱtoȱprotectȱpeopleȇsȱ__________ andȱ__________ȱofȱtheȱdata. Answer: privacy,ȱconfidentiality Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ227 Skill: Knowledge

8.5 Essay 1) Compareȱandȱcontrastȱmanifestȱcodingȱwithȱlatentȱcoding.ȱWhichȱisȱmoreȱtimeȱconsuming? Answer: Manifestȱcountsȱtheȱnumberȱofȱtimesȱaȱphraseȱorȱwordȱappearsȱinȱwrittenȱtext,ȱor whetherȱaȱspecificȱactionȱorȱobjectȱisȱinȱaȱphotographȱorȱvideoȱscene.ȱLatentȱcodingȱ researcherȱreadsȱanȱentireȱparagraphȱorȱbookȱorȱviewȱanȱentireȱfilmȱandȱthenȱdecide whetherȱitȱcontainsȱcertainȱthemes.ȱIsȱlessȱreliableȱbecauseȱitȱreliesȱonȱcoderȇsȱskills Latentȱisȱmoreȱtimeȱconsuming Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ210-211 Skill: Analysis

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2) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱusingȱofficialȱexistingȱstatisticsȱtoȱsupportȱaȱtheoryȱthatȱheȱhasȱproposed.ȱHe hasȱmetȱtheȱGovernorȱofȱtheȱstateȱwhereȱisȱresearchȱisȱbeingȱconducted,ȱandȱisȱveryȱsurprised whenȱsheȱcallsȱandȱasksȱhimȱtoȱuseȱtheȱstatisticȱinȱaȱdifferentȱwayȱthatȱwillȱnotȱbeȱȈdamagingȈ toȱher. Discussȱtheȱethicalȱconcernsȱinȱthisȱincidentȱandȱotherȱnonreactiveȱresearch. Answer: Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱmayȱneedȱtoȱȈnegotiateȈȱwithȱherȱinȱregardȱtoȱherȱrequest.ȱHeȱmayȱalsoȱbe forcedȱtoȱhandleȱtheȱstatisticsȱinȱaȱdifferentȱmanner,ȱorȱuseȱaȱdifferentȱsetȱofȱstatistics. Otherȱnonreactiveȱethicalȱconcernsȱinclude,ȱprivacyȱandȱconfidentialityȱofȱdata.ȱExisting statisticsȱraisesȱissuesȱofȱsocialȱandȱpoliticalȱnatures.ȱPoliticalȱandȱbureaucraticȱissues impactȱtheȱtypesȱofȱresourcesȱdevotedȱtoȱexistingȱstatisticsȱasȱwellȱasȱtoȱpolitical agendas. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ227 Skill: Application

3) Describeȱthreeȱlimitationsȱtoȱcontentȱanalysis. Answer: Contentȱanalysisȱcannotȱdetermineȱtheȱtruthfulnessȱofȱanȱassertion,ȱevaluateȱthe aestheticȱqualitiesȱofȱliteratureȱorȱvisualȱtext,ȱinterpretȱtheȱcontentȇsȱsignificance,ȱreveal theȱintentionsȱofȱtheȱorganizationsȱorȱpeopleȱwhoȱcreatedȱtheȱtext,ȱdetermineȱthe influenceȱofȱaȱmessageȱofȱitsȱreceivers. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ216 Skill: Comprehension

4) Whyȱisȱintercoderȱreliabilityȱimportant?ȱWhatȱcanȱbeȱdoneȱaboutȱit? Answer: Codersȱdonȇtȱcodeȱdataȱintoȱtheȱsameȱcategories,ȱsoȱthereȱisnȇtȱconsistencyȱacrossȱthe dataȱclassifications.ȱToȱcheckȱonȱreliability,ȱhaveȱcodersȱcodeȱsameȱdataȱandȱmeasure consistency. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ211 Skill: Comprehension

5) Nameȱandȱdiscussȱfiveȱmeasurableȱcharacteristicsȱofȱvariablesȱinȱcontentȱanalysis. Answer: Directionȱ-ȱnoteȱtheȱpositive/supportȱorȱnegative/opposeȱdirectionȱofȱmessagesȱinȱthe text. Frequencyȱ-ȱcountȱwhetherȱsomethingȱoccursȱinȱtheȱtextȱandȱhowȱoften. Intensityȱ-ȱmeasureȱtheȱstrengthȱofȱaȱvariable. Spaceȱ-ȱmeasureȱtheȱsize,ȱvolumeȱandȱamountȱofȱtimeȱorȱphysicalȱspace. Prominenceȱ-ȱwhereȱdoesȱtheȱmeasureȱgetȱtheȱmostȱattention. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ209-210 Skill: Comprehension

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Chapterȱ9 MakingȱSenseȱOfȱTheȱNumbers 9.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Whenȱcodingȱcategoriesȱofȱvariablesȱitȱisȱessentialȱtoȱkeepȱwrittenȱrecordsȱofȱcodingȱrulesȱinȱa A) diary. B) researchȱlog. C) videoȱtape. D) codebook. Answer: D Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ233 Skill: Knowledge

2) Afterȱcoding,ȱaȱresearcherȱneedsȱto A) writeȱtheȱresearchȱpaper. C) finishȱtheȱresearch.

B) designȱaȱnewȱtrial. D) cleanȱtheȱdata.

Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ235 Skill: Knowledge

3) Whatȱisȱtheȱmodeȱinȱthisȱgroupȱofȱnumbers:ȱ1,ȱ1,ȱ1,ȱ1,ȱ5,ȱ6,ȱ16,ȱ33,ȱ1 A) 1 B) 3 C) 16

D) 5

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ236 Skill: Application

4) Whatȱisȱtheȱmedianȱinȱtheȱfollowingȱsetȱofȱnumbers:ȱ1,ȱ16,ȱ35,ȱ14,ȱ7 A) 1 B) 35 C) 14

D) 7

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ237 Skill: Application

5) Whatȱisȱtheȱmeanȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱsetȱofȱnumbers:ȱ6,ȱ3,ȱ9 A) 3 B) 5 C) 9

D) 6

Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ237 Skill: Application

6) Statisticalȱsignificanceȱindicates A) theȱprobabilityȱofȱfindingȱaȱrelationshipȱinȱsampleȱdataȱwhenȱthereȱisȱnoneȱinȱthe population. B) theȱprobabilityȱofȱnotȱfindingȱaȱrelationshipȱinȱsampleȱdataȱwhenȱthereȱisȱnoneȱinȱthe population. C) theȱprobabilityȱofȱnotȱfindingȱaȱrelationshipȱinȱsampleȱdataȱwhenȱthereȱisȱoneȱinȱthe population. D) theȱprobabilityȱofȱfindingȱaȱrelationshipȱinȱsampleȱdataȱwhenȱthereȱisȱoneȱinȱthe population. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ255-256 Skill: Knowledge

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7) Variationȱcanȱbeȱmeasuredȱinȱthreeȱways:ȱrange,ȱpercentile,ȱand A) mean. B) median. C) standardȱdeviation. D) mode. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ238-9 Skill: Knowledge

8) Aȱskewedȱdistributionȱhas A) theȱmean,ȱmedianȱandȱmodeȱexactlyȱinȱtheȱcenterȱofȱtheȱbellȱcurve. B) hasȱmanyȱcasesȱatȱextremesȱofȱtheȱcurve. C) isȱinȱtheȱshapeȱofȱaȱcup,ȱotherwiseȱknownȱasȱaȱcupȱcurve. D) sixȱcurvesȱstackedȱsidewaysȱacrossȱtheȱfield. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ237 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whenȱusingȱbivariateȱstatistics,ȱtheȱresearcher A) canȱlookȱatȱ2ȱvariablesȱtogetherȱsimultaneouslyȱandȱevaluateȱtheȱstatisticalȱrelationships betweenȱvariables. B) usesȱ8-10ȱvariablesȱatȱtheȱsameȱtime. C) usesȱaȱdiagramȱandȱmapȱtogether. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ244 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱgraphȱthatȱallowsȱaȱresearcherȱtoȱseeȱbivariateȱrelationshipsȱandȱusuallyȱhasȱindependent variablesȱonȱtheȱhorizontalȱaxisȱandȱdependentȱvariablesȱonȱtheȱverticalȱaxisȱisȱcalledȱa A) percentȱtable. B) Bellȱcurve. C) scattergram. D) covariation. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ243 Skill: Knowledge

11) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱtechniqueȱtoȱhelpȱdecideȱifȱthereȱisȱaȱrelationshipȱbetween twoȱvariables? A) aȱscattergram B) cross-tabulation D) measuresȱofȱassociation C) bellȱcurve Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ244 Skill: Knowledge

12) Aȱscattergramȱrevealsȱthreeȱaspectsȱofȱaȱbivariateȱrelationship.ȱWhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOT anȱaspect? A) form B) frame C) direction D) precision Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ246 Skill: Knowledge

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13) Aȱbivariateȱtable A) isȱusedȱinfrequently. B) worksȱwithȱvariablesȱthatȱhaveȱ2ȱ- 5ȱcategoriesȱandȱdataȱatȱnominalȱorȱordinalȱlevelsȱof measurement. C) isȱexactlyȱtheȱsameȱasȱaȱscattergram. D) usesȱpercentagesȱexclusively. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ248 Skill: Knowledge

14) R-squaredȱinȱmultipleȱregressionȱanalysisȱis A) alwaysȱ20ȱpercent. C) basedȱonȱimprovementȱoverȱzero.

B) consideredȱgoodȱifȱitȱisȱatȱleastȱ.50. D) neverȱaȱhelpfulȱmeasurement.

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ254 Skill: Knowledge

15) Inferentialȱstatisticsȱusesȱ__________ȱtoȱallowȱaȱresearcherȱtoȱtestȱhypotheses,ȱpermitȱinferences fromȱsampleȱtoȱpopulationȱandȱtoȱevaluateȱtheȱstrengthȱofȱrelationshipsȱamongȱvariables. A) probabilityȱtheory B) levelsȱofȱsignificance C) multipleȱregression D) statisticalȱsignificance Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ255 Skill: Knowledge

16) Theȱlevelȱofȱstatisticalȱsignificance A) isȱnotȱrelatedȱtoȱrandomȱerror. B) shouldȱbeȱ5%ȱorȱsmallerȱbyȱruleȱofȱthumb. C) isȱirrelevantȱtoȱinferentialȱstatistics. D) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱstandardȱdeviation. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ256 Skill: Knowledge

17) AȱtypeȱIIȱerror A) isȱfalselyȱacceptingȱaȱnullȱhypothesis. C) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱaȱtypeȱIȱerror

B) isȱfalselyȱrejectingȱaȱnullȱhypothesis. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove

Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ257 Skill: Knowledge

18) TheȱresultsȱofȱDr.ȱMottleȇsȱstudyȱindicateȱaȱlevelȱofȱstatisticalȱsignificanceȱatȱtheȱ.01ȱlevel.ȱWhat doesȱthisȱmean? A) Resultsȱlikeȱtheseȱareȱdueȱtoȱchanceȱfactorsȱonlyȱ1ȱinȱ100ȱtimes. B) Thereȱisȱaȱ95ȱpercentȱchanceȱthatȱtheȱsampleȱresultsȱareȱnotȱdueȱtoȱchanceȱfactorsȱalone. C) Theȱoddsȱofȱsuchȱresultsȱbasedȱonȱchanceȱaloneȱareȱ.05. D) Oneȱcanȱbeȱ95ȱpercentȱconfidentȱthatȱtheȱresultsȱareȱdueȱtoȱaȱrealȱrelationshipȱinȱthe population. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ256 Skill: Application

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19) MultipleȱRegressionȱAnalysisȱresultsȱtellȱtheȱresearcherȱtwoȱthings,ȱtheȱpercentageȱof predictionȱaccuracyȱand A) lengthȱofȱtimeȱtoȱcalculate. B) standardȱdeviation. C) scattergramȱaccuracy. D) sizeȱandȱdirectionȱofȱeffects. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ254 Skill: Knowledge

20) Covarianceȱmeansȱtoȱvaryȱtogether.ȱWhatȱisȱtheȱoppositeȱofȱcovarianceȱinȱaȱbivariate relationship? A) scattergram B) anticovariance C) univariance D) statisticalȱindependence Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ244 Skill: Knowledge

21) Theȱarithmeticȱaverageȱisȱtheȱmostȱwidelyȱusedȱmeasureȱofȱcentralȱtendency,ȱitȱisȱalsoȱcalled what? A) mode B) centralȱtendencyȱaverage C) median D) mean Answer: D Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ237 Skill: Knowledge

22) Scattergramsȱcanȱdetermineȱlinearȱrelationships.ȱAȱpositiveȱrelationship A) isȱnotȱpossible. B) isȱcircularȱinȱshape. C) looksȱlikeȱaȱdiagonalȱlineȱthatȱbeginsȱinȱtheȱlowerȱleftȱandȱgoesȱtoȱtheȱupperȱright. D) looksȱlikeȱaȱdiagonalȱlineȱthatȱbeginsȱinȱtheȱupperȱleftȱandȱgoesȱtoȱtheȱlowerȱright. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ246 Skill: Knowledge

23) Thisȱmeasureȱisȱtheȱmostȱcomprehensiveȱmeasureȱofȱvariability,ȱgivingȱanȱȈaverageȈȱdifference betweenȱallȱscoresȱandȱtheȱmean.ȱItȱisȱcalledȱwhat? A) median B) standardȱdeviation C) Z-score D) mode Answer: B Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ239 Skill: Knowledge

24) Becauseȱstandardȱdeviationȱisȱnotȱeasyȱtoȱinterpret,ȱDr.ȱMottleȱusesȱanotherȱstandardȱmeasure thatȱexpressesȱscoresȱonȱaȱfrequencyȱdistributionȱinȱtermsȱofȱaȱnumberȱofȱstandardȱdeviations fromȱtheȱmean.ȱWhatȱisȱDr.ȱMottleȱusing? A) Z-score B) X-score C) meanȱscore D) standardȱdeviationȱscore Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ241 Skill: Knowledge

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25) Mr.ȱMarshȱdiscoversȱthatȱtheȱmeasureȱofȱassociationȱisȱzeroȱinȱhisȱdataȱrelationship.ȱWhatȱdoes thisȱmean? A) Heȱshouldȱstopȱtheȱstudyȱrightȱawayȱandȱrefuseȱtoȱpublish. B) Itȱmeansȱthatȱthereȱisȱstatisticalȱindependence.ȱTheȱvariablesȱdoȱnotȱcovary. C) Heȱhasȱmadeȱaȱmistakeȱinȱhisȱdataȱcollection. D) Itȱmeansȱthatȱthereȱisȱstrongȱcovariation. Answer: B Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ251 Skill: Application

9.2 True/False 1) Aȱresearcherȱgatheringȱhis/herȱownȱdataȱneedsȱtoȱconvertȱrawȱdataȱintoȱaȱcomputerȱfriendly formatȱorȱengageȱinȱdataȱcoding. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ233 Skill: Knowledge

2) Aȱresearcherȱshouldnȇtȱthinkȱaboutȱcodingȱuntilȱhalfwayȱthroughȱtheȱresearchȱprocess. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ233 Skill: Knowledge

3) StatisticsȱrefersȱbothȱtoȱaȱsetȱofȱcollectedȱnumbersȱsuchȱasȱexistingȱstatisticsȱinȱtheȱStatistical Abstractȱandȱaȱbranchȱofȱappliedȱmathematics. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ235 Skill: Knowledge

4) Covariationȱandȱstatisticalȱindependenceȱareȱtheȱsameȱconcept. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ244 Skill: Knowledge

5) Theȱplotȱofȱaȱpositiveȱdirectionalȱrelationshipȱonȱaȱscattergramȱlooksȱlikeȱaȱdiagonalȱlineȱthat beginsȱinȱtheȱlowerȱleftȱandȱgoesȱtoȱtheȱupperȱright. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ246 Skill: Knowledge

6) Itȱisȱsufficientȱtoȱsayȱwhenȱshowingȱanȱassociationȱbetweenȱanȱindependentȱvariableȱandȱa dependentȱvariableȱthatȱtheȱindependentȱvariableȱcausesȱaȱdependentȱvariable. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ252 Skill: Knowledge

7) Multipleȱregressionȱanalysisȱisȱonlyȱforȱinterval- andȱratio-levelȱdata. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ254 Skill: Knowledge

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8) Theȱpowerȱofȱmultipleȱregressionȱisȱanȱabilityȱtoȱcontrolȱforȱmanyȱvariablesȱsimultaneously. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ254 Skill: Knowledge

9) Levelsȱofȱsignificanceȱtellȱaȱresearcherȱwhetherȱaȱrelationshipȱamongȱvariablesȱisȱlikelyȱdueȱto chanceȱalone. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ256 Skill: Knowledge

10) Ifȱaȱresearcherȱdemandsȱaȱveryȱhighȱstandardȱofȱsignificance,ȱheȱmayȱmakeȱaȱmistakeȱ -ȱsaying thereȱisȱnoȱrelationshipȱinȱtheȱpopulationȱwhenȱinȱrealityȱoneȱexists. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ257 Skill: Knowledge

9.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Whyȱdoesȱaȱresearcherȱassignȱnumbersȱtoȱvariableȱattributesȱorȱcategoriesȱinȱeachȱvariable? Answer: Becauseȱtheȱinformationȱwillȱgoȱintoȱaȱcomputer;ȱandȱnumbersȱareȱeasierȱtoȱuseȱwith computersȱthanȱlettersȱorȱwords. Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ233 Skill: Knowledge

2) Mr.ȱMarshȱlostȱhisȱcodebookȱatȱaȱmeeting.ȱIsȱthisȱaȱproblem?ȱIfȱso,ȱwhy? Answer: Yes,ȱhisȱcodebookȱletsȱhimȱworkȱbackwardȱtoȱdecodeȱinformation. Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ235 Skill: Application

3) Whatȱareȱthreeȱmeasuresȱofȱcentralȱtendency? Answer: mean,ȱmedian,ȱmode Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ236 Skill: Knowledge

4) Theȱdistributionȱacrossȱtheȱcenterȱofȱaȱcurveȱcanȱbeȱmeasuredȱthreeȱways.ȱWhatȱareȱthey? Answer: range,ȱpercentile,ȱandȱstandardȱdeviation Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ238-239 Skill: Knowledge

5) AȱZ-scoreȱisȱaȱstandardizedȱmeasureȱthatȱusesȱwhatȱtwoȱmeasuresȱinȱoneȱscore? Answer: aȱvariableȇsȱstandardȱdeviationȱandȱvalueȱofȱitsȱscores Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ241 Skill: Knowledge

6) AȱgraphȱthatȱallowsȱaȱresearcherȱtoȱseeȱbivariateȱrelationshipsȱusingȱanȱXȱandȱYȱaxisȱisȱcalled what? Answer: aȱscattergram Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ244 Skill: Knowledge

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7) Whenȱthereȱisȱanȱabsenceȱofȱanȱassociationȱorȱcovariationȱbetweenȱtwoȱvariablesȱthisȱisȱcalled what? Answer: statisticalȱindependence Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ244 Skill: Knowledge

8) Whatȱthreeȱaspectsȱofȱaȱbivariateȱrelationshipȱareȱrevealedȱinȱaȱscattergram? Answer: form,ȱdirection,ȱprecision Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ246 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whatȱisȱaȱcontrolȱvariableȱinȱaȱnonexperimentalȱresearchȱstudy? Answer: Controlȱvariablesȱrepresentȱalternativeȱexplanationsȱforȱaȱcausalȱrelationship. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ252 Skill: Knowledge

10) Theȱstatisticalȱanalysisȱtechniqueȱusedȱforȱnonexperimentalȱdataȱanalysisȱinȱintervalȱandȱratio levelȱdataȱisȱcalledȱwhat? Answer: multipleȱregressionȱanalysis Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ254 Skill: Knowledge

9.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) Aȱsimpleȱtableȱshowingȱhowȱmany,ȱorȱwhatȱpercentȱofȱtheȱcasesȱfallȱintoȱeachȱvariable categoryȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: frequencyȱdistribution Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ235 Skill: Knowledge

2) Manyȱnaturallyȱoccurringȱphenomenaȱfitȱtheȱ__________ȱcurveȱwhenȱdataȱpointsȱareȱplotted. Answer: bell Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ237 Skill: Knowledge

3) Theȱspreadȱaroundȱtheȱcenterȱofȱaȱdistributionȱcanȱbeȱmeasuredȱthreeȱways.ȱTheȱ__________ givesȱtheȱhighestȱandȱlowestȱendsȱofȱaȱsetȱofȱnumbers. Answer: range Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ238-239 Skill: Knowledge

4) Aȱ__________ȱisȱaȱgraphȱthatȱallowsȱtheȱresearcherȱtoȱseeȱbivariateȱrelationships.ȱUsuallyȱthe independentȱvariableȱgoesȱonȱtheȱhorizontalȱaxisȱandȱtheȱdependentȱvariableȱonȱtheȱvertical axis. Answer: scattergram Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ244 Skill: Knowledge

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5) Aȱscattergramȱrevealsȱthreeȱaspectsȱofȱaȱbivariateȱrelationship:ȱ__________,ȱdirectionȱand precision. Answer: form Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ246 Skill: Knowledge

6) Bivariateȱrelationshipsȱvaryȱinȱtheirȱdegreeȱofȱ__________.ȱAȱveryȱpreciseȱrelationshipȱoccurs whenȱallȱtheȱcasesȱfitȱrightȱalongȱtheȱlineȱthatȱindicatesȱtheȱrelationshipȱandȱdirection.ȱThe amountȱofȱspreadȱamongȱtheȱpointsȱonȱtheȱgraphȱindicatesȱ__________ȱ(sameȱasȱabove). Answer: precision Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ246 Skill: Knowledge

7) __________ȱisȱoneȱofȱtheȱmostȱwidelyȱusedȱstatisticalȱtechniquesȱforȱnonexperimentalȱdata analysisȱinȱprofessionalȱresearchȱreports. Answer: Multipleȱregressionȱanalysis Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ254 Skill: Knowledge

8) __________ȱindicatesȱtheȱprobabilityȱofȱfindingȱaȱrelationshipȱinȱsampleȱdataȱwhenȱthereȱis noneȱinȱtheȱpopulation. Answer: Statisticalȱsignificance Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ255-256 Skill: Knowledge

9) Theȱ__________ȱofȱstatisticalȱsignificanceȱtellsȱtheȱresearcherȱtheȱlikelihoodȱthatȱresultsȱareȱdue toȱchanceȱfactorsȱ-ȱthatȱis,ȱthatȱaȱrelationshipȱappearsȱinȱtheȱsampleȱwhenȱthereȱisȱnoneȱinȱthe population. Answer: level Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ256 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱ__________ȱerrorȱfalselyȱacceptsȱtheȱnullȱhypothesisȱwhenȱthereȱisȱaȱrelationshipȱinȱthe population. Answer: typeȱII Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ257 Skill: Knowledge

11) Thisȱcoefficientȱtellsȱtheȱresearcherȱtheȱsizeȱandȱdirectionȱofȱeffectsȱinȱmultipleȱregression analysisȱandȱisȱknownȱasȱtheȱ__________ȱcoefficient. Answer: beta Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ254 Skill: Knowledge

12) Ifȱtheȱlevelȱofȱsignificanceȱisȱ0.001,ȱthisȱmeansȱthatȱtheȱresultsȱareȱdueȱtoȱchanceȱfactorsȱ1ȱin __________ȱtimes? Answer: 1,000 Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ256 Skill: Application

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13) Thisȱmeasureȱofȱcentralȱtendencyȱrequiresȱthatȱoneȱhalfȱofȱtheȱvariablesȱareȱaboveȱitȱandȱhalf areȱbelowȱitȱonȱaȱcurve.ȱThisȱisȱcalledȱtheȱ__________. Answer: median Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ237 Skill: Knowledge

14) Aȱmeasureȱofȱspreadȱaroundȱtheȱcenterȱofȱdistributionȱthatȱgivesȱtheȱresearcherȱtheȱscoreȱatȱa specificȱplaceȱwithinȱtheȱdistributionȱisȱcalledȱaȱ__________. Answer: percentile Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ239 Skill: Knowledge

15) Whenȱmoreȱcasesȱinȱaȱdistributionȱcurveȱareȱinȱtheȱextremeȱupperȱorȱlowerȱareasȱofȱtheȱcurve, theȱcurveȱisȱnoȱlongerȱbell-shaped;ȱitȱbecomesȱ__________. Answer: skewed Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ237 Skill: Knowledge

9.5 Essay 1) DiscussȱthreeȱmeasuresȱofȱcentralȱtendencyNmean,ȱmedian,ȱmode.ȱWhichȱisȱtheȱmostȱwidely used? Answer: Centralȱtendencyȱisȱoneȱnumberȱthatȱsummarizesȱtheȱcenterȱorȱmainȱtendencyȱinȱaȱsetȱof numbers.ȱMeanȱisȱtheȱarithmeticȱaverage,ȱcomputedȱbyȱaddingȱallȱscoresȱandȱdividing theȱtotalȱbyȱtheȱnumberȱofȱscores.ȱItȱisȱtheȱmostȱwidelyȱused.ȱMedianȱisȱtheȱmiddleȱpoint andȱtheȱ50thȱpercentile.ȱHalfȱtheȱcasesȱareȱaboveȱitȱandȱhalfȱareȱbelowȱit.ȱArrangeȱscores fromȱlowestȱtoȱhighest,ȱcountȱtheȱscoresȱandȱtheȱscoreȱinȱtheȱveryȱmiddleȱisȱtheȱmedian. Ifȱthereȱareȱanȱevenȱnumberȱofȱscores,ȱtakeȱtheȱtwoȱmiddleȱscoresȱandȱdivideȱbyȱtwoȱto getȱtheȱmedian.ȱModeȱisȱtheȱscoreȱthatȱappearsȱmostȱfrequently.ȱItȱisȱeasiestȱtoȱcompute butȱtheȱleastȱusefulȱmeasureȱofȱcentralȱtendency. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ236-237 Skill: Knowledge

2) Discussȱmeasurementsȱusedȱinȱdistributionȱaroundȱtheȱcenterȱofȱaȱcurve:ȱrange,ȱpercentile, standardȱdeviation,ȱandȱZ-score. Answer: Rangeȱisȱsimplest,ȱitȱconsistsȱofȱtheȱlargestȱandȱsmallestȱscores.ȱPercentilesȱtellȱtheȱscore atȱaȱspecificȱplaceȱwithinȱtheȱdistribution.ȱTheȱmiddleȱorȱmedianȱscoreȱisȱtheȱ50th percentile,ȱgettingȱhigherȱasȱtheȱcurveȱmovesȱtoȱtheȱright.ȱStandardȱdeviationȱisȱusedȱto measureȱvariability.ȱItȱusesȱtheȱmeanȱandȱgivesȱanȱaverageȱdistanceȱbetweenȱallȱscores andȱtheȱmean.ȱZ-scoreȱexpressesȱpointsȱorȱscoresȱonȱaȱfrequencyȱdistributionȱinȱtermsȱof aȱnumberȱofȱstandardȱdeviationsȱfromȱtheȱmean.ȱTheyȱadjustȱforȱspecificȱdistributions. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ238-241 Skill: Comprehension

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3) Mr.ȱMarshȱwantsȱtoȱseeȱifȱsmokersȱlikeȱtoȱgambleȱatȱcasinos.ȱOnceȱheȱhasȱhisȱdata,ȱheȱplotsȱthe informationȱinȱaȱscattergram.ȱWhatȱthreeȱaspectsȱofȱtheȱbivariateȱrelationshipȱwillȱthe scattergramȱreveal?ȱExplainȱtheȱsignificanceȱofȱeach. Answer: Formȱ-ȱrelationshipsȱbetweenȱtwoȱvariablesȱcanȱbeȱindependent,ȱlinear,ȱorȱcurvilinear. Independenceȱorȱnoȱrelationshipȱlooksȱlikeȱaȱrandomȱscatterȱwithȱnoȱpatter Directionȱ-ȱpositiveȱrelationshipȱmeansȱhigherȱvaluesȱgoȱwithȱhigherȱvalues.ȱnegative relationshipȱmeansȱhigherȱvaluesȱonȱoneȱvariableȱgoȱwithȱlowerȱvaluesȱonȱtheȱother. Precisionȱ-ȱmeasuresȱassociationȱ-ȱhighȱprecisionȱoccursȱrightȱonȱtheȱline.ȱAmountȱof spreadȱamongȱtheȱpointsȱindicatesȱprecision. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ246 Skill: Application

4) Whatȱisȱtheȱpurposeȱofȱmultipleȱregressionȱanalysis?ȱWhatȱtwoȱthingsȱdoesȱitȱtellȱaȱresearcher? Answer: Multipleȱregressionȱforȱanalysisȱofȱnonexperimentalȱdataȱanalysis.ȱItȱisȱonlyȱforȱinterval andȱratio-levelȱdata.ȱPowerȱofȱmultipleȱregressionȱisȱanȱabilityȱtoȱcontrolȱforȱmany variablesȱsimultaneously.ȱR-squaredȱisȱtheȱpercentageȱofȱpredictionȱaccuracy,ȱ20 percentȱisȱveryȱgoodȱinȱsocialȱscience,ȱmeaningȱthatȱindependentȱvariablesȱexplainȱ20 percentȱofȱchangeȱinȱtheȱdependentȱvariable.ȱPercentȱisȱbasedȱonȱimprovementȱover zero.ȱBetaȱcoefficientȱtellsȱsizeȱandȱdirectionȱofȱeffectsȱonȱeachȱindependentȱvariableȇs impactȱonȱaȱdependentȱvariable. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ254 Skill: Knowledge

5) Whatȱdoesȱanȱ.01ȱlevelȱofȱsignificanceȱmean? Answer: Itȱmeansȱthatȱresultsȱareȱdueȱtoȱchanceȱfactors.ȱOnlyȱ1ȱinȱ100ȱmeansȱthereȱisȱaȱ99ȱpercent chanceȱthatȱtheȱsampleȱresultsȱareȱnotȱdueȱtoȱchanceȱfactorsȱalone,ȱbutȱreflectȱthe populationȱaccurately.ȱItȱmeansȱtheȱoddsȱofȱsuchȱresultsȱbasedȱonȱchanceȱaloneȱareȱ.01 orȱ1ȱpercent.ȱItȱmeansȱoneȱcanȱbeȱ99ȱpercentȱconfidentȱthatȱtheȱresultsȱareȱdueȱtoȱaȱreal relationshipȱinȱtheȱpopulations,ȱnotȱchanceȱfactors. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ256 Skill: Application

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Chapterȱ10 ObservingȱPeopleȱInȱNaturalȱSettings 10.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Culturalȱknowledgeȱhasȱtwoȱparts,ȱexplicitȱand A) textile. B) explanatory.

C) tacit.

D) tactile.

Answer: C Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ264 Skill: Knowledge

2) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱpreparationȱforȱdoingȱaȱfieldȱstudy? A) increasingȱself-awareness B) practiceȱobservingȱandȱwriting C) downloadingȱmusicȱforȱfieldȱstudy D) conductingȱbackgroundȱinvestigation Answer: C Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ267-268 Skill: Knowledge

3) Aȱgatekeeper A) canȱlimitȱaccessȱtoȱaȱfieldȱsite. B) holdsȱaȱspecificȱkeyȱring. C) isȱaȱformalȱroleȱonly. D) isȱnotȱanȱissueȱthatȱtheȱfieldȱresearcherȱmustȱaddress. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ269 Skill: Knowledge

4) Self-awarenessȱinȱtheȱcontextȱofȱpreparingȱforȱfieldȱresearchȱmeans A) attendingȱsupportȱclasses. B) beingȱawareȱofȱaȱresearcherȇsȱownȱpersonalȱconcerns. C) writingȱanȱautobiography. D) attendingȱaȱself-awarenessȱmeeting. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ268 Skill: Knowledge

5) Asȱaȱresearcherȱlearnsȱhowȱtoȱfitȱinȱbyȱlearningȱrules,ȱcustoms,ȱetc.,ȱheȱdoesȱwhat? A) normalizes B) playȱacts C) negotiates D) lies Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ271-272 Skill: Knowledge

6) Fieldȱresearchersȱhaveȱstrategiesȱthatȱtheyȱtailorȱtoȱtheȱfieldȱsiteȱandȱtheirȱbackground.ȱWhich ofȱthoseȱstrategiesȱisȱlistedȱbelow? B) beingȱabsolutelyȱsilent A) beingȱanȱearnestȱnovice C) provokingȱconflict D) usingȱoddȱfacialȱexpressions Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ274 Skill: Knowledge

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7) Whatȱisȱtheȱmostȱcommonȱethicalȱissueȱinȱfieldȱresearch? A) deceit B) confidentiality C) privacy D) gossip Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ286 Skill: Knowledge

8) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱfactorȱaffectingȱaȱresearcherȇsȱchoiceȱofȱaȱfieldȱsite? A) substitutionȱ-ȱusingȱanotherȱsimilarȱsite B) richnessȱ-ȱmoreȱinterestingȱdata C) suitabilityȱ-ȱpracticalȱissues D) containmentȱ-ȱsustainedȱsocialȱinteractionȱwithinȱaȱboundedȱspace Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ269 Skill: Knowledge

9) Tacitȱknowledgeȱincludes A) timeȱasȱgivenȱbyȱaȱtimepiece. C) unspokenȱculturalȱnorms.

B) bookȱreferences. D) aȱjournalȱreference.

Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ264 Skill: Knowledge

10) Threeȱmajorȱissuesȱtoȱconsiderȱwhenȱenteringȱtheȱfieldȱinclude:ȱpresentationȱofȱself,ȱsocialȱrole, andȱwhatȱotherȱissue? A) empathy B) disclosure C) professionalism D) comfort Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ270 Skill: Knowledge

11) Oneȱofȱtheȱessentialȱstepsȱinȱstartingȱaȱfieldȱresearchȱprojectȱis A) selectingȱaȱcompetentȱassistant. B) selectingȱaȱfieldȱsite. C) selectingȱanȱappropriateȱwebsiteȱforȱfutureȱblogs. D) selectingȱreadingȱmaterialsȱforȱentertainmentȱwhileȱwaitingȱforȱsomethingȱtoȱhappen. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ268 Skill: Knowledge

12) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱaȱpoorȱnotetaker,ȱwhatȱsuggestionȱmightȱbeȱmostȱhelpfulȱforȱhimȱwhileȱdoingȱhis fieldȱresearch? A) Jotȱaȱfewȱnotesȱwhileȱinȱtheȱfield,ȱbutȱsitȱdownȱimmediatelyȱafterȱheȱleavesȱtheȱfieldȱand writeȱdownȱallȱhisȱmemoriesȱusingȱwhateverȱformatȱisȱmostȱcomfortableȱforȱhim. B) Donȇtȱtakeȱanyȱnotes,ȱjustȱstartȱwritingȱtheȱpaperȱrightȱaway. C) Inȱ10ȱminuteȱincrementsȱalternateȱnotetakingȱandȱobservingȱoverȱandȱoverȱagain. D) Hireȱaȱsecretaryȱtoȱaccompanyȱhimȱintoȱtheȱfield. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ279-280 Skill: Application

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13) Theȱpurposeȱofȱethnographyȱis A) toȱprovideȱaȱdescriptionȱofȱaȱpopulationȱusingȱhistoricalȱdocuments. B) toȱprovideȱaȱdescriptionȱofȱaȱwayȱofȱlifeȱfromȱtheȱstandpointȱofȱitsȱinsiders. C) toȱexplainȱwhyȱaȱspecificȱreligiousȱsectȱusesȱvariesȱarticlesȱofȱworshipȱfromȱtheȱviewpoint ofȱpoliticalȱcandidates. D) toȱprovideȱaȱdescriptionȱofȱaȱpopulationȱsampleȱwithȱhistoricalȱandȱpoliticalȱdocuments. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ264 Skill: Knowledge

14) Whenȱobservingȱandȱcollectingȱdata A) theȱresearcherȱbecomesȱtheȱdataȱcollectionȱinstrument. B) theȱphysicalȱenvironmentȱofȱtheȱsiteȱisȱnotȱofȱconcern. C) theȱindividualȱphysicalȱcharacteristicsȱofȱtheȱpeopleȱareȱtypicallyȱnotȱrecorded. D) theȱresearcherȱisȱnotȱresponsibleȱforȱhisȱconduct. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ276-277 Skill: Knowledge

15) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱtrueȱwhenȱdevelopingȱstrategiesȱforȱsuccessȱinȱtheȱfield? A) Theȱresearcherȱdoesȱnotȱdevelopȱsocialȱrelationships,ȱkeepingȱaȱdistantȱperspective,ȱwith peopleȱinȱtheȱfieldȱsite. B) Thereȱisȱnoȱexchangeȱbetweenȱtheȱresearcherȱandȱtheȱpeopleȱinȱatȱtheȱfieldȱsite. C) Aȱresearcherȱshouldȱappearȱinterestedȱinȱpeopleȱandȱeventsȱofȱaȱfieldȱsite. D) Aȱresearcherȱshouldȱappearȱaloofȱinȱtheȱpeopleȱandȱeventsȱofȱaȱfieldȱsite. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ274-275 Skill: Knowledge

16) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱȈconcernedȈȱthatȱnothingȱseemsȱtoȱbeȱhappeningȱinȱhisȱfieldȱresearch.ȱWhat shouldȱheȱdo? A) Beȱpatient,ȱtheȱtrueȱȈrelevanceȈȱofȱwhatȱheȱisȱseeingȱmayȱnotȱbeȱapparentȱuntilȱlaterȱwhen reviewingȱtheȱinformation. B) Beȱpatient,ȱbutȱmakeȱpersonalȱdeadlinesȱtoȱkeepȱhimselfȱonȱtrack. C) Stopȱtheȱresearchȱimmediatelyȱandȱmoveȱontoȱanotherȱsubject. D) Takeȱnotesȱforȱoneȱmoreȱhourȱandȱthenȱreviewȱhisȱnotes. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ278-279 Skill: Application

17) Choosingȱpeopleȱusingȱaȱroutine,ȱspecial,ȱorȱunanticipatedȱfocusȱisȱcalled A) fieldȱchoice. B) populationȱselection. C) sampling. D) fieldȱselection. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ279 Skill: Knowledge

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18) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱlevelȱofȱfieldȱnotes? B) personalȱnotes A) jottedȱnotes C) suggestedȱnotes D) directȱobservationȱnotes Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ281 Skill: Knowledge

19) Whatȱthreeȱtypesȱofȱquestionsȱdoȱfieldȱresearchersȱaskȱwhenȱinterviewing? A) descriptive,ȱstructural,ȱandȱcontrastȱquestions B) descriptive,ȱunstructured,ȱandȱcontrastȱquestions C) definition,ȱstructural,ȱandȱcontrastȱquestions D) definition,ȱstructural,ȱandȱsubstantiveȱquestions Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ283 Skill: Knowledge

20) Mr.ȱMarshȱwritesȱtheȱfollowingȱinȱhisȱnotes:ȱȈtheȱcashierȱhadȱaȱbadȱhairdo.ȈȱWhatȱwouldȱbeȱa betterȱwayȱtoȱdescribeȱtheȱcashierȇsȱhairȱforȱfieldȱnotes? A) Theȱcashierȱhadȱfreakyȱhair. B) Theȱcashierȇsȱhairȱdidnȇtȱmatchȱhisȱoutfit. C) Theȱcashierȱhadȱanȱunusualȱhairdo. D) Theȱcashierȱhadȱcombedȱhisȱjet-blackȱhairȱstraight-forwardȱoverȱhisȱeyes. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ280 Skill: Application

21) Whatȱisȱtrueȱofȱaudioȱorȱvideoȱrecordingsȱinȱfieldȱresearch? A) Theyȱcanȱbeȱintroducedȱintoȱallȱfieldȱnotes. B) Peopleȱinȱtheȱfieldȱdoȱnotȱseeȱthemȱasȱaȱthreat. C) Recordersȱsaveȱaȱgreatȱdealȱofȱtime. D) Recordersȱfrequentlyȱmissȱactionȱorȱareȱoutȱofȱrange. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ282 Skill: Knowledge

22) Anȱinformantȱinȱfieldȱresearch A) isȱaȱmemberȱinȱtheȱfieldȱsiteȱwhichȱwhomȱaȱresearcherȱdevelopsȱaȱrelationshipȱandȱwho tellsȱtheȱresearcherȱdetailsȱaboutȱlifeȱinȱtheȱfieldȱstate. B) isȱaȱmemberȱofȱtheȱresearchȱteamȱwithȱwhomȱaȱresearcherȱdevelopsȱaȱfieldȱrelationship. C) isȱnotȱaȱmemberȱofȱtheȱresearchȱteam,ȱbutȱmonitorsȱtheȱresearchȱforȱtheȱresearcher. D) whoȱgoesȱundercoverȱforȱtheȱlegalȱauthorities. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ283-284 Skill: Knowledge

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23) Questionsȱthatȱfocusȱonȱsimilaritiesȱorȱdifferencesȱamongȱcategories,ȱprocesses,ȱorȱaspectȱare called A) contrastȱquestions. B) similarityȱquestions. C) structuralȱquestions. D) descriptiveȱquestions. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ283 Skill: Knowledge

24) Structuralȱquestions A) areȱneverȱusedȱinȱfieldȱresearch. B) areȱtheȱsameȱasȱcontrastȱquestions. C) areȱtheȱsameȱasȱdescriptiveȱquestions. D) areȱaskedȱafterȱaȱresearcherȱhasȱorganizedȱspecificȱfieldȱeventsȱintoȱpreliminary conceptualȱcategories. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ283 Skill: Knowledge

25) Aȱspecializedȱqualitativeȱresearchȱtechniqueȱthatȱinvolvesȱinformalȱgroupȱinterviewsȱaboutȱa topicȱisȱa(n) A) integratedȱgroup. B) meetingȱgroup. C) teleconferenceȱgroup. D) focusȱgroup. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ287 Skill: Knowledge

10.2 True/False 1) Inȱgettingȱorganizedȱforȱaȱfieldȱstudyȱaȱresearcherȱbeginsȱtheȱprocessȱwithȱaȱnarrowȱquestion orȱspecificȱhypothesis. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ269 Skill: Knowledge

2) Aȱfieldȱsiteȱorȱsettingȱisȱaȱfixedȱphysicalȱlocation. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ269 Skill: Knowledge

3) Aȱgatekeeperȱcanȱbeȱintimidating,ȱaȱresearcherȱmayȱneedȱtoȱnegotiateȱwithȱhim/her. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ269-270 Skill: Knowledge

4) Theȱbestȱguideȱtoȱattireȱinȱtheȱfieldȱisȱtoȱrespectȱoneselfȱandȱtheȱpeopleȱoneȱisȱstudying. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ270 Skill: Knowledge

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5) Aȱfocusȱgroupȱisȱusuallyȱconductedȱbyȱtelephone. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ287 Skill: Knowledge

6) Aȱresearcherȱmayȱneedȱtoȱnegotiateȱforȱaccessȱtoȱnewȱareasȱasȱhisȱresearchȱfocusȱdevelops. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ273 Skill: Knowledge

7) Beingȱinȱtheȱfieldȱisȱtheȱlastȱstageȱinȱdoingȱaȱfieldȱresearchȱstudy. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ284-286 Skill: Knowledge

8) Buildingȱrelationshipsȱthroughȱdoingȱsmallȱfavors,ȱappearingȱinterested,ȱandȱavoiding conflictsȱareȱallȱstrategiesȱforȱsuccessȱinȱfieldȱresearch. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ274-275 Skill: Knowledge

9) Tacitȱknowledgeȱisȱwhatȱremainsȱunseenȱorȱunstatedȱinȱfieldȱresearch. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ264 Skill: Knowledge

10) Dr.ȱMottleȱhasȱbeenȱdevelopingȱrelationshipsȱwithinȱtheȱcommunityȱwhereȱsheȱisȱconducting herȱfieldȱresearch.ȱToȱgainȱtrustȱsheȱhasȱbeenȱhelpingȱoutȱwithȱsomeȱofȱtheȱchoresȱinȱtheȱlocal store.ȱThisȱisȱanȱexampleȱofȱpossibleȱstrategiesȱthatȱbuildȱsuccessȱinȱtheȱfield. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ274 Skill: Application

10.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱexplicitȱandȱtacitȱknowledge? Answer: Explicitȱisȱwhatȱisȱeasilyȱseenȱandȱdirectlyȱknown,ȱwhileȱtacitȱisȱwhatȱremainsȱunseenȱor unstated. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ264 Skill: Knowledge

2) Whatȱdoesȱnormalizingȱtheȱsocialȱresearchȱmean? Answer: Howȱaȱfieldȱresearcherȱhelpsȱfieldȱsiteȱmembersȱredefineȱsocialȱresearchȱfromȱunknown andȱpotentiallyȱthreateningȱtoȱsomethingȱnormal,ȱcomfortableȱandȱfamiliar. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ271 Skill: Knowledge

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3) WhatȱdoesȱȈbeingȱanȱearnestȱnoviceȈȱmean? Answer: Anȱearnestȱnoviceȱactsȱslightlyȱlessȱinformedȱandȱknowledgeableȱthanȱs/heȱreallyȱis.ȱThe researcherȇsȱprimaryȱmissionȱisȱtoȱobserve,ȱlisten,ȱandȱlearnȱaboutȱotherȱpeople. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ275 Skill: Knowledge

4) WhatȱdoesȱȈgoingȱnativeȈȱmeanȱinȱdecidingȱonȱaȱdegreeȱofȱinvolvementȱinȱfieldȱresearch? Answer: Overinvolvementȱorȱgoingȱnativeȱhappensȱwhenȱaȱresearcherȱlosesȱobjectiveȱdistance andȱbecomesȱoverlyȱinvolvedȱinȱothersȱlives. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ273 Skill: Knowledge

5) Nameȱthreeȱtypesȱofȱfieldȱsiteȱeventsȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱcanȱsample. Answer: routine,ȱspecialȱandȱunanticipated Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ279 Skill: Knowledge

6) WhatȱdoesȱȈperformingȱsmallȱfavorsȈȱmeanȱinȱtheȱcontextȱofȱstrategiesȱforȱsuccessȱinȱtheȱfield? Answer: Peopleȱexchangeȱsmallȱfavors,ȱincludingȱdeferenceȱandȱrespectȱ-ȱaȱstrategyȱisȱtoȱhelpȱin smallȱwaysȱbutȱnotȱexpectȱanythingȱinȱreturn. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ274 Skill: Knowledge

7) Whatȱisȱtheȱmostȱcommonȱethicalȱissueȱinȱfieldȱresearch? Answer: privacy Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ286-287 Skill: Knowledge

8) Whatȱfourȱfactorsȱaffectȱaȱresearcherȇsȱchoiceȱofȱaȱfieldȱresearchȱsite? Answer: containment,ȱrichness,ȱunfamiliarity,ȱsuitability Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ269 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whatȱthreeȱissuesȱshouldȱbeȱconsideredȱwhenȱenteringȱtheȱfield? Answer: presentationȱofȱself,ȱamountȱofȱdisclosure,ȱandȱsocialȱrole Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ270 Skill: Knowledge

10) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱjottedȱnotesȱandȱdirectȱobservationalȱnotes? Answer: Jottedȱnotesȱareȱshort,ȱtemporaryȱmemoryȱtriggersȱthatȱareȱincorporatedȱintoȱdirect observationȱnotes.ȱDirectȱobservationȱnotesȱareȱtheȱcoreȱofȱfieldȱdataȱandȱareȱwritten immediatelyȱafterȱleavingȱtheȱfieldȱsiteȱ-ȱtoȱextentȱpossible,ȱtheyȱareȱanȱexactȱrecording ofȱtheȱparticularȱwords,ȱnotȱsummariesȱorȱgeneralizations. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ281 Skill: Knowledge

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10.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) Theȱpurposeȱofȱ__________ȱisȱtoȱprovideȱaȱdetailedȱdescriptionȱandȱup -closeȱunderstandingȱof aȱwayȱofȱlifeȱfromȱtheȱstandpointȱofȱitsȱnativesȱorȱmembers. Answer: ethnography Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ264 Skill: Knowledge

2) __________ȱisȱtheȱprincipleȱthatȱweȱlearnȱbestȱbyȱobservingȱordinaryȱeventsȱinȱaȱnaturalȱsetting, notȱinȱaȱcontrived,ȱinventedȱorȱresearcher-createdȱsetting. Answer: Naturalism Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ267 Skill: Knowledge

3) Aȱmemberȱinȱaȱfieldȱsiteȱwithȱwhomȱaȱresearcherȱdevelopsȱaȱrelationshipȱandȱwhoȱtellsȱthe researcherȱmanyȱdetailsȱaboutȱlifeȱinȱtheȱfieldȱstateȱisȱcalledȱa(n)ȱ__________. Answer: informant Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ283-284 Skill: Knowledge

4) Someoneȱwhoȱhasȱformalȱorȱinformalȱauthorityȱtoȱcontrolȱaccessȱtoȱaȱfieldȱsiteȱisȱa(n) __________. Answer: gatekeeper Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ269 Skill: Knowledge

5) A(n)ȱ__________ȱgroupȱisȱaȱqualitativeȱresearchȱtechniqueȱthatȱinvolvesȱinformalȱgroup interviewsȱaboutȱaȱtopic. Answer: focus Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ287 Skill: Knowledge

6) Researchersȱaskȱthreeȱtypesȱofȱfieldȱinterviewȱquestions,ȱ__________,ȱstructural,ȱandȱcontrast questions. Answer: descriptive Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ283 Skill: Knowledge

7) Aȱtypeȱofȱfieldȱsamplingȱwhereȱeventsȱoccurȱoverȱandȱagainȱtheȱsameȱwayȱisȱcalledȱ__________ sampling. Answer: routine Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ279 Skill: Knowledge

8) Veryȱshortȱnotesȱofȱaȱfewȱwords,ȱwrittenȱinconspicuouslyȱinȱtheȱfieldȱsiteȱandȱareȱusedȱonlyȱto triggerȱmemoryȱlaterȱareȱcalledȱ__________ȱnotes. Answer: jotted Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ280 Skill: Knowledge

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9) __________ȱisȱtheȱmostȱcommonȱethicalȱissueȱthatȱfieldȱresearcherȇsȱface. Answer: Privacy Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ286 Skill: Knowledge

10) __________ȱquestionsȱfocusȱonȱtheȱsimilaritiesȱorȱdifferencesȱamongȱtheȱcategories,ȱprocesses orȱaspectsȱafterȱstructuralȱquestions. Answer: Contrast Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ283 Skill: Knowledge

11) Threeȱtypesȱofȱfieldȱsiteȱeventsȱforȱsamplingȱinclude:ȱroutine,ȱ__________,ȱandȱunanticipated. Answer: special Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ279 Skill: Knowledge

12) Inȱfieldȱresearch,ȱaȱ__________ȱisȱtheȱinstrumentȱforȱacquiringȱfieldȱdata. Answer: researcher Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ276 Skill: Knowledge

13) __________ȱisȱnotȱtheȱsameȱasȱsympathy,ȱagreement,ȱorȱapproval.ȱItȱmeansȱtoȱsee,ȱfeel,ȱand thinkȱasȱanotherȱpersonȱdoes. Answer: Empathy Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ273 Skill: Knowledge

14) A(n)ȱ__________ȱofȱstrangenessȱisȱaȱperspectiveȱinȱwhichȱtheȱfieldȱresearcherȱquestionsȱand noticesȱordinaryȱdetailsȱbyȱlookingȱatȱtheȱordinaryȱthroughȱtheȱeyesȱofȱaȱstranger. Answer: attitude Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ276 Skill: Knowledge

15) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱlearnsȱtoȱactȱasȱifȱsheȱcaresȱandȱisȱnotȱboredȱorȱdistracted,ȱsheȱmaintainsȱan __________. Answer: appearanceȱofȱinterest Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ275 Skill: Knowledge

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10.5 Essay 1) Mr.ȱMarshȇsȱfieldȱstudyȱinvolvesȱobservationȱofȱfamilyȱandȱfriendsȱwhileȱtheyȱwaitȱforȱtheir lovedȱoneȱinȱtheȱemergencyȱroomȱwaitingȱarea.ȱHeȱformallyȱaskedȱandȱgainedȱpermissionȱof theȱhospitalȱadministrator,ȱtheȱERȱdirectorȱandȱtheȱheadȱERȱphysicianȱtoȱconductȱtheȱresearch study.ȱAnȱhourȱintoȱhisȱfieldȱworkȱanȱERȱnurseȱtakesȱhimȱasideȱandȱtellsȱhimȱthatȱtwoȱpeople haveȱcomplainedȱthatȱheȱisȱȈcreepingȱthemȱoutȈȱandȱasksȱhimȱwhoȱheȱisȱandȱwhatȱheȱisȱdoing inȱtheȱwaitingȱarea.ȱWhenȱheȱtellsȱtheȱnurseȱwhatȱheȱisȱdoing,ȱsheȱtellsȱhimȱthatȱheȱdoesȱNOT haveȱherȱpermissionȱtoȱconductȱhisȱresearch. Theȱnurseȱisȱaȱ__________ȱ,ȱsomeoneȱwithȱtheȱformalȱorȱinformalȱauthorityȱtoȱcontrolȱaccessȱto theȱfieldȱsite. HowȱshouldȱMr.ȱMarshȱproceed?ȱWriteȱtwoȱparagraphsȱonȱpossibleȱȈnextȱstepsȈȱforȱMr.ȱMarsh toȱcontinueȱhisȱresearch. Answer: gatekeeper Possibleȱnextȱstepsȱincludeȱnegotiatingȱwithȱnurseȱtoȱgainȱtrustȱandȱaccessȱ-ȱpossible negotiationsȱincludeȱflexibilityȱinȱtimes,ȱcandidȱobservationsȱoutsideȱofȱarea,ȱetc. Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ269-270 Skill: Application

2) Differentiateȱaȱtypicalȱsurveyȱinterviewȱversusȱaȱtypicalȱfieldȱinterviewȱinȱthreeȱdifferent aspects. Answer: Surveyȱhasȱaȱclearȱbeginningȱandȱend.ȱInȱfieldȱtheȱbeginningȱandȱendȱareȱnotȱclear. Surveyȱhasȱstandardȱquestionsȱforȱall.ȱInȱfieldȱtheȱresearcherȱtailorsȱtheȱquestions. Surveyȱshouldȱbeȱneutral.ȱInȱfieldȱitȱshouldȱnotȱbeȱneutral,ȱencourageȱelaboration. Surveyȱtheȱinterviewerȱasksȱallȱtheȱquestions.ȱInȱfield,ȱconversation. Surveyȱtheȱinterviewerȱmaintainsȱprofessionalȱtone.ȱInȱfield,ȱmoreȱofȱconversationȱwith distractions. Surveyȱisȱoneȱrespondentȱalone.ȱInȱfield,ȱcanȱbeȱgroupsȱorȱsingle. Surveyȱisȱclosed-ended.ȱInȱfield,ȱopen-ended. Survey,ȱinterviewerȱcontrolsȱtheȱpace.ȱInȱfield,ȱitȱisȱcombinationȱofȱresearcherȱandȱfield siteȱperson. Survey,ȱtheȱresearcherȱmoldsȱtheȱcommunicationȱpattern.ȱInȱfield,ȱtheȱresearcherȱadjusts toȱtheȱmemberȇsȱnorms. Surveyȱignoresȱtheȱsocialȱcontextȱofȱtheȱinterview.ȱInȱfield,ȱtheȱresearcherȱnotesȱthe researchȱcontext. Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ284 Skill: Knowledge

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3) Discussȱthreeȱstrategiesȱforȱsuccessȱinȱfieldȱresearcher,ȱi.e.ȱwhatȱareȱthey,ȱandȱhowȱareȱthey accomplished? Answer: buildingȱrelationships -ȱdevelopingȱsocialȱrelationshipsȱandȱtheȱsocialȱȈlayȱofȱtheȱlandȈ performingȱsmallȱfavors -ȱexchangeȱrelationshipsȱtoȱgainȱtrustȱappearingȱinterested -ȱlearningȱtoȱactȱinterested,ȱnotȱboredȱtoȱobtainȱmoreȱinformation. beingȱanȱearnestȱnovice -ȱkeepingȱaȱhumbleȱattitude,ȱnotȱalwaysȱbeingȱanȱexpertȱavoidingȱconflicts -ȱstayȱinȱneutralȱsidelinesȱtoȱmaintainȱneutralityȱadoptingȱanȱattitudeȱofȱstrangeness -ȱaȱstrangerȇsȱperspectiveȱgivesȱtheȱresearcherȱaȱȈfreshȈȱview Diff:ȱ3 PageȱRef:ȱ274-276 Skill: Knowledge

4) Fourȱfactorsȱaffectingȱaȱresearcherȇsȱchoiceȱofȱaȱfieldȱresearchȱsiteȱareȱcontainment,ȱrichness, unfamiliarity,ȱandȱsuitability.ȱDiscussȱwhatȱeachȱmeansȱandȱitsȱimportanceȱtoȱtheȱfield research. Answer: containmentȱ-ȱboundedȱspaceȱisȱeasierȱtoȱmaintainȱresearchȱdesignȱandȱfocus richnessȱ-ȱoverlappingȱwebsȱofȱsocialȱrelationsȱamongȱpeopleȱwithȱaȱconstantȱflowȱof activitiesȱandȱdiverseȱevents. unfamiliarityȱ-ȱaȱnewȱsetting,ȱaȱresearcherȱcanȱmoreȱquicklyȱseeȱculturalȱeventsȱand relationsȱinȱaȱsettingȱthatȱisȱnewȱtoȱher. suitabilityȱ-ȱpracticalityȱofȱtheȱsite,ȱconsideringȱresearcherȱtime,ȱandȱskills Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ269 Skill: Knowledge

5) Discussȱexplicitȱandȱtacitȱknowledge.ȱWhatȱdoȱtheȱtermsȱmeanȱtoȱtheȱsocialȱresearcher? Answer: Explicitȱknowledgeȱisȱwhatȱisȱseenȱandȱdirectlyȱknown.ȱTacitȱknowledgeȱisȱwhat remainsȱunseenȱorȱunstated.ȱExplicitȱknowledgeȱcanȱbeȱlearnedȱthroughȱbooks,ȱfacts, objects,ȱetc.ȱTacitȱknowledgeȱincludesȱtheȱunspokenȱculturalȱnormsȱ -ȱitȱrequiresȱmaking inferences,ȱgoingȱbeyondȱwhatȱsomeoneȱexplicitlyȱdoesȱorȱsaysȱtoȱwhatȱsheȱmeansȱor implies. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ264 Skill: Knowledge

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Chapterȱ11 LookingȱAtȱTheȱPastȱAndȱAcrossȱCultures 11.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Itȱisȱbestȱtoȱuseȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearch A) whenȱtheȱresearchȱquestionȱinvolvesȱtheȱflowȱofȱhistoryȱand/orȱtwoȱorȱmoreȱsociocultural contexts. B) whenȱtheȱresearchȱquestionȱinvolvesȱhistoricalȱresearchȱonly. C) whenȱethnologyȱresearchȱisȱirrelevant. D) whenȱtheȱresearchȱquestionȱinvolvesȱtheȱflowȱofȱhistoryȱand/orȱquantitativeȱresearch. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ294-295 Skill: Knowledge

2) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱsimilarityȱbetweenȱH-Cȱresearchȱandȱfieldȱresearch? A) Theyȱincorporateȱanȱindividualȱresearcherȇsȱpointȱofȱviewȱasȱpartȱofȱtheȱresearchȱprocess. B) Theyȱfocusȱonȱquantitativeȱmethodsȱtoȱachieveȱresults. C) Theyȱfocusȱonȱprocesses,ȱtimeȱpassage,ȱandȱsequence. D) Theyȱuseȱgroundedȱtheory. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ295-296 Skill: Knowledge

3) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱuniqueȱaboutȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearch? A) workȱwithȱlimitedȱevidence B) interpretȱevidenceȱwithȱminimumȱdistortion C) lackȱofȱintegrationȱbetweenȱmicroȱandȱmacroȱlevels D) useȱspecificȱasȱwellȱasȱtranscultural,ȱtranshistoricalȱconcepts Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ297 Skill: Knowledge

4) Imposingȱaȱresearcherȇsȱownȱsenseȱofȱorderȱtoȱmakeȱpeopleȇsȱbeliefsȱorȱactionsȱconsistentȱisȱa typeȱofȱdistortionȱcalled A) coherenceȱimposition. B) supracontextȱawareness. C) capacityȱoverestimation. D) supracontextȱawareness. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ298 Skill: Knowledge

5) Aȱcommonȱtypeȱofȱdistortionȱthatȱcanȱoccurȱduringȱinterpretationȱofȱtheȱmeaningȱofȱeventsȱin contextȱis A) episodeȱexaggeration. B) episodeȱoverestimation. C) distinctȱincompetency. D) coherenceȱimposition. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ298 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Historical-comparativeȱresearchȱdoesȱnotȱrequireȱaȱresearcherȱtoȱfollowȱaȱfixedȱsetȱofȱstep; however,ȱitȱinvolvesȱseveralȱprocessesȱthatȱtypicallyȱSTARTȱwith A) conceptualizingȱtheȱissue. B) acquiringȱtheȱnecessaryȱbackground. C) locatingȱandȱevaluatingȱtheȱevidence. D) organizingȱtheȱevidence. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ300 Skill: Knowledge

7) Toȱbeȱclassifiedȱasȱhistory,ȱanȱeventȱmustȱhaveȱhappenedȱatȱleastȱ__________ȱyearsȱago. A) 15 B) 7 C) 10 D) 12 Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ302 Skill: Knowledge

8) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱtypeȱofȱhistoricalȱevidence? A) primaryȱsources B) tertiaryȱsources C) recollections D) runningȱrecords Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ302 Skill: Knowledge

9) Earlyȱinȱtheȱresearchȱstudy,ȱtheȱresearcherȱshouldȱthinkȱthroughȱtheȱtopicȱandȱdevelopȱideas. Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱtrue? A) Itȱisȱimpossibleȱtoȱbeginȱresearchȱwithoutȱsomeȱassumptions,ȱconcepts,ȱandȱtheory. B) Itȱisȱpossibleȱtoȱwriteȱaȱpreliminaryȱreportȱbeforeȱtheȱresearchȱbegins. C) Onceȱaȱresearcherȱisȱsetȱonȱaȱtopic,ȱitȱisȱimpossibleȱtoȱchangeȱdirectionȱbecauseȱofȱwhatȱhe learnsȱfromȱtheȱdata. D) Oftenȱtheȱdataȱfitȱwithȱoriginalȱconcepts. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ300 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱhistorianȱusuallyȱseesȱcollectingȱhighlyȱaccurateȱhistoricalȱevidenceȱasȱaȱcentralȱgoalȱinȱitself; howeverȱtheȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearcherȱ A) seesȱtheȱcollectionȱofȱhistoricalȱevidenceȱasȱsecondary. B) seesȱtheȱcollectionȱtoȱbeȱunnecessary. C) treatsȱtheȱhistoricalȱevidenceȱasȱaȱsecondaryȱgoal. D) seesȱtheȱhistoryȱisȱaȱnecessaryȱlastȱstepȱinȱtheȱresearchȱcontinuum. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ302 Skill: Knowledge

11) Internalȱandȱexternalȱcriticismȱevaluateȱtheȱ__________ȱandȱtheȱ__________,ȱrespectively,ȱof primaryȱsourceȱmaterials A) credibility,ȱauthenticity B) authenticity,ȱcredibility C) credibility,ȱdiscredibility D) authenticity,ȱvariability Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304 Skill: Knowledge

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12) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱnotȱoverlyȱconcernedȱaboutȱdevelopingȱaȱtheoryȱtoȱexplainȱsocialȱrelationsȱor processes.ȱHeȱisȱmostȱlikelyȱconducting A) historicalȱresearch. B) ethnologicȱresearch. C) historical-comparativeȱresearch. D) fieldȱresearch. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ302 Skill: Application

13) Ifȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱveryȱdifferentȱwaysȱofȱmeasuringȱacrossȱdifferentȱcultures,ȱwhatȱtypeȱof equivalenceȱisȱheȱusing? A) measurementȱequivalence B) contextualȱequivalence C) Lexiconȱequivalence D) metricȱequivalence Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ317-318 Skill: Knowledge

14) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱusingȱsecondaryȱsourcesȱinȱhisȱresearch.ȱWhatȱmightȱbeȱa/someȱlimitation(s)ȱto theseȱsources? A) inaccurateȱhistoricalȱaccountsȱandȱtheȱhistorianȇsȱinterpretationȱofȱtheȱdata B) tediousȱresearchȱofȱoneȱtopic C) incorrectȱtimeȱperiods D) researcherȱbias Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ307-308 Skill: Application

15) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱtypeȱofȱdataȱthatȱresearchersȱuseȱaloneȱorȱinȱcombinationȱinȱa study? A) cooperativeȱfieldȱresearch B) existingȱqualitativeȱdata C) existingȱquantitativeȱdata D) cross-nationalȱsurveyȱdata Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ312,ȱ315 Skill: Knowledge

16) FourȱtypesȱofȱtypesȱofȱequivalenceȱincludeȱLexicon,ȱConceptual,ȱMeasurementȱandȱwhatȱother type? A) dictionary B) symbiosis C) context D) design Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ315 Skill: Knowledge

17) AsȱpartȱofȱDr.ȱMottleȇsȱresearch,ȱsheȱisȱexaminingȱtheȱinteractionȱofȱaȱSouthȱKoreanȱfamilyȱ500 yearsȱago.ȱEquivalenceȱwillȱbeȱanȱissueȱthatȱsheȱneedsȱtoȱconsider.ȱWhatȱtypeȱofȱequivalence willȱmostȱprobablyȱneedȱtheȱLEASTȱconsiderationȱinȱtheȱlistȱbelow? A) lexicon B) conceptual C) context D) measurement Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ315-318 Skill: Application

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18) Forȱconvenience,ȱmostȱcomparativeȱresearchersȱuseȱwhatȱasȱtheirȱunitȱofȱanalysis? A) theȱstate B) theȱcountry C) theȱcontinent D) theȱnation-state Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ310 Skill: Knowledge

19) Ifȱtwoȱunitsȱareȱactuallyȱsubpartsȱofȱaȱsingleȱlargerȱunit,ȱrelationshipsȱmayȱhaveȱaȱcommon origin.ȱThisȱcouldȱresultȱinȱpossibleȱmistakesȱor A) Daltonȇsȱproblem. B) Galwayȇsȱproblem. C) Gastadȇsȱproblem. D) Galtonȇsȱproblem. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ311-312 Skill: Knowledge

20) Theseȱsourcesȱareȱstudiesȱconductedȱbyȱspecialistȱhistoriansȱwhoȱmayȱhaveȱspentȱmanyȱyears studyingȱaȱnarrowȱtopic.ȱWhatȱareȱtheȱsourcesȱcalled? A) books B) texts D) secondaryȱsources C) fieldȱnotes Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ307-308 Skill: Knowledge

21) Aȱquestionȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱshouldȱkeepȱinȱmindȱwhileȱgatheringȱevidenceȱforȱcomparative researchȱis A) ȈWhatȱtypeȱofȱresearchȱamȱIȱconducting?Ȉ B) ȈHowȱaccurateȱandȱstrongȱisȱtheȱevidence?Ȉ C) ȈWhereȱisȱmyȱfieldȱresearch?Ȉ D) ȈWhatȱlengthȱofȱtimeȱwillȱitȱtakeȱforȱmyȱresearchȱtoȱbeȱconducted?Ȉ Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ301 Skill: Knowledge

22) Whenȱevaluatingȱevidence,ȱtheȱresearcherȱȈlooksȈȱforȱsilences.ȱWhatȱdoesȱthatȱmean? A) Itȱmeansȱthatȱtheȱinterviewȱsubjectȱpausesȱexcessively. B) ItȱmeansȱthatȱresearchȱdoesȱnotȱalwaysȱȈspeakȈȱtoȱtheȱresearcher. C) Itȱmeansȱthatȱthereȱmayȱbeȱsituationsȱinȱwhichȱtheȱevidenceȱfailsȱtoȱaddressȱaȱtopicȱor issue. D) Itȱmeansȱthatȱtheȱevidenceȱhasȱbeenȱlost. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ301 Skill: Knowledge

23) Specialistsȱinȱtheȱfieldȱofȱhistoryȱdevoteȱmostȱofȱtheirȱtimeȱandȱeffortsȱto A) fieldȱresearch. B) writingȱtheȱfinalȱreport. C) gatheringȱandȱanalyzingȱhistoricalȱdata. D) checkingȱtheirȱfacts. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ302 Skill: Knowledge

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24) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱquestionsȱwouldȱbeȱappropriateȱtoȱaskȱwhenȱdeterminingȱexternal criticism? A) Whenȱwasȱtheȱdocumentȱreallyȱcreated? B) Isȱinformationȱinȱtheȱsourceȱconsistentȱwithȱotherȱaccountsȱatȱthatȱtime? C) Whatȱconditionsȱmightȱhaveȱinfluencedȱwhatȱwasȱincludedȱinȱorȱomittedȱinȱaȱsource? D) Didȱtheȱsourceȇsȱauthorȱdirectlyȱwitnessȱwhatȱitȱcontainsȱorȱisȱitȱsecondhandȱinformation? Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304 Skill: Comprehension

25) Runningȱrecordsȱareȱfilesȱorȱdocumentsȱthatȱanȱorganizationȱmaintainsȱoverȱtime.ȱWhichȱofȱthe followingȱisȱaȱlimitationȱofȱrunningȱrecords? A) Organizationsȱdoȱnotȱalwaysȱmaintainȱthem. B) Organizationsȱrunȱoutȱofȱspaceȱandȱtheȱrecordsȱareȱhardȱtoȱfind. C) Paperȱdocumentsȱareȱoftenȱoldȱandȱbrittle. D) Handwrittenȱrecordsȱmayȱbeȱdifficultȱtoȱinterpret. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304-305 Skill: Knowledge

11.2 True/False 1) Inȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearchȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱaȱblendȱofȱresearchȱtechniques. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ294 Skill: Knowledge

2) Theȱhistorianȇsȱmainȱgoalȱisȱtoȱlocate,ȱcollect,ȱvalidate,ȱandȱanalyzeȱprimaryȱsources. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ302 Skill: Knowledge

3) Equivalenceȱisȱnotȱaȱcriticalȱconcernȱinȱsocialȱresearch. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ315 Skill: Knowledge

4) Whenȱaȱresearcherȇsȱfocusȱshifts,ȱevidenceȱthatȱwasȱonceȱrelevantȱbecomesȱlessȱrelevant. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ301 Skill: Knowledge

5) Itȱisȱwiseȱtoȱpullȱallȱdataȱintoȱoneȱspotȱandȱletȱitȱbeȱforȱaȱwhileȱbeforeȱsorting.ȱThisȱhelpsȱthe researcherȱtoȱremainȱobjective. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ301 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Primaryȱsourcesȱdoȱnotȱneedȱtoȱbeȱverifiedȱwhenȱusingȱthemȱasȱsourcesȱforȱaȱsocialȱresearch study. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ303-304 Skill: Knowledge

7) Conceptualȱequivalenceȱisȱapplyingȱtheȱsameȱconceptȱacrossȱdifferentȱculturesȱorȱhistorical eras. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ316-317 Skill: Knowledge

8) Aȱresearcherȇsȱpresenceȱorȱfindingsȱmayȱcreateȱdiplomaticȱproblemsȱamongȱgovernments. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ318 Skill: Knowledge

9) Historical-comparativeȱresearchersȱmayȱexamineȱandȱintegrateȱdataȱfromȱbothȱtheȱmicroȱand macroȱlevels. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ299 Skill: Knowledge

10) Groundedȱtheoryȱisȱusedȱinȱfieldȱresearch,ȱbutȱisȱrarely,ȱifȱever,ȱusedȱinȱhistorical -comparative research. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ295-296 Skill: Knowledge

11.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Whatȱfiveȱsimilaritiesȱdoȱfieldȱandȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearchȱstudiesȱhaveȱinȱcommon? Answer: Theyȱincorporateȱresearcherȇsȱpointȱofȱview.ȱTheyȱexamineȱaȱgreatȱdiversityȱofȱdata types.ȱTheyȱfocusȱonȱprocesses,ȱtimeȱpassage,ȱandȱsequence.ȱTheyȱuseȱgroundedȱtheory. Theyȱmakeȱlimitedȱgeneralizations. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ295-296 Skill: Knowledge

2) Whatȱisȱtheȱmostȱrelevantȱresearchȱmethodȱforȱexplainingȱandȱunderstandingȱmacro -level eventsȱsuchȱasȱsourcesȱofȱracism? Answer: historical-comparativeȱresearch Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ294 Skill: Knowledge

3) Nameȱthreeȱdifferentȱcommonȱtypesȱofȱdistortionȱwhenȱinterpretingȱtheȱmeaningȱofȱeventsȱin context. Answer: supracontextȱawareness,ȱcoherenceȱimposition,ȱandȱcapacityȱoverestimation Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ298 Skill: Knowledge

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4) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱevaluatesȱdocumentsȱorȱotherȱprimaryȱsourcesȱheȱusesȱwhatȱtwoȱtypesȱof criticism? Answer: internalȱandȱexternal Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304 Skill: Knowledge

5) Nameȱthreeȱthingsȱthatȱmakeȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearchȱunique. Answer: Workȱwithȱlimitedȱevidence.ȱInterpretȱevidenceȱwithȱminimumȱdistortion.ȱIntegrateȱthe microȱandȱmacroȱlevels.ȱUseȱspecificȱasȱwellȱasȱtranscultural,ȱtranshistoricalȱconcepts. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ297-298 Skill: Knowledge

6) Oneȱlimitationȱofȱrunningȱrecords isȱthatȱorganizationsȱdoȱnotȱalwaysȱmaintainȱtheȱrecords; whatȱisȱanotherȱlimitation? Answer: Organizationsȱdoȱnotȱrecordȱinformationȱconsistentlyȱoverȱtime. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304-305 Skill: Knowledge

7) Aȱmistakeȱwhenȱcomparingȱvariablesȱofȱunitsȱofȱanalysisȱinȱwhichȱanȱassociationȱamong variablesȱofȱtwoȱunitsȱmayȱbeȱdueȱtoȱthemȱbothȱbeingȱpartȱofȱoneȱunitȱisȱcalledȱwhat? Answer: Galtonȇsȱproblem Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ312 Skill: Knowledge

8) Historical-comparativeȱresearchersȱoftenȱexamineȱandȱintegrateȱdataȱfromȱtwoȱdifferentȱscales, theȱsmall-scaleȱlevelȱandȱtheȱlarge-scaleȱlevel.ȱWhatȱisȱanotherȱnameȱforȱtheȱtwoȱscales? Answer: microȱandȱmacroȱlevelȱscales Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ299 Skill: Knowledge

9) Fieldȱandȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearchȱhaveȱfiveȱsimilarities.ȱNameȱthreeȱofȱthem. Answer: Theyȱincorporateȱresearcherȇsȱpointȱofȱview.ȱTheyȱexamineȱaȱdiversityȱofȱdataȱtypes. Theyȱfocusȱonȱprocesses,ȱtimeȱpassageȱandȱsequence.ȱTheyȱareȱgroundedȱtheory.ȱThey makeȱlimitedȱgeneralizations. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ295-296 Skill: Knowledge

10) Comparativeȱresearchersȱuseȱseveralȱtypesȱofȱdataȱandȱcombineȱtypesȱtogetherȱinȱoneȱstudy. Nameȱfourȱdata/researchȱtypes. Answer: comparativeȱfieldȱresearch,ȱexistingȱqualitativeȱdata,ȱcross-nationalȱsurveyȱdataȱand existingȱcross-nationalȱquantitativeȱdata Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ312 Skill: Knowledge

11.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) __________ȱisȱtheȱfallacyȱofȱlookingȱatȱpastȱeventsȱfromȱtheȱpointȱofȱviewȱofȱtodayȱandȱfailing toȱadjustȱforȱaȱveryȱdifferentȱcontextȱatȱtheȱtime. Answer: Presentism Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ304 Skill: Knowledge

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2) Theȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearcherȱinterpretsȱevidenceȱwithȱ__________ȱdistortion. Answer: minimum Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ297 Skill: Knowledge

3) __________ȱisȱaȱpossibleȱmistakeȱwhenȱcomparingȱvariablesȱofȱunitsȱofȱanalysis,ȱinȱwhichȱan associationȱamongȱvariablesȱofȱtwoȱunitsȱmayȱbeȱdueȱtoȱthemȱbothȱactuallyȱbeingȱpartȱofȱone largeȱunit. Answer: Galtonȇsȱproblem Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ312 Skill: Knowledge

4) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱisȱawareȱofȱeventsȱbeyondȱtheȱimmediateȱsettingȱthatȱheȱisȱstudying,ȱsuch asȱeventsȱthatȱoccurredȱlaterȱinȱtimeȱorȱelsewhere,ȱthisȱtypeȱofȱdistortionȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: supracontextȱawareness Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ298 Skill: Knowledge

5) Aȱspecialȱtypeȱofȱrecollectionȱisȱcalledȱa(n)ȱ__________,ȱwhichȱincludesȱaȱverbalȱstoryȱofȱa personȇsȱrecollections. Answer: oralȱhistory Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ306 Skill: Knowledge

6) Historical-comparativeȱresearchȱintegratesȱmacroȱandȱ__________ȱlevelsȱofȱdata. Answer: micro Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ299 Skill: Knowledge

7) __________ȱsourcesȱareȱcreatedȱinȱtheȱpastȱandȱhaveȱsurvivedȱtoȱtheȱpresent. Answer: Primary Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ303 Skill: Knowledge

8) Aȱresearcherȱcannotȱalwaysȱuseȱtheȱsameȱwayȱofȱmeasuringȱacrossȱdifferentȱculturesȱor historicalȱeras.ȱThisȱisȱcalledȱ__________ȱequivalence. Answer: measurement Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ317 Skill: Knowledge

9) Inȱcomparativeȱstudiesȱaȱspecificȱformȱofȱsupercontextȱawarenessȱdistortionȱthatȱtreatsȱthe researcherȇsȱcultureȱandȱtimeȱinȱhistoryȱasȱbeingȱtheȱbestȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: ethnocentrism Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304 Skill: Knowledge

10) __________ȱcriticismȱisȱtheȱmannerȱinȱwhichȱaȱresearcherȱdeterminesȱwhetherȱaȱsourceȱisȱfake orȱaȱforgery. Answer: External Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304 Skill: Knowledge

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11) __________ȱareȱfilesȱorȱrecordsȱthatȱmanyȱorganizationsȱkeepȱforȱtheirȱownȱpurposes,ȱwhich canȱbeȱusedȱbyȱresearchers. Answer: Runningȱrecords Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304 Skill: Knowledge

12) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱaȱpersonȇsȱwordsȱorȱwritingsȱaboutȱpastȱexperiencesȱthatȱtheȱperson experiencedȱinȱtheȱpast,ȱthisȱisȱcalledȱusingȱtheȱpersonȇsȱ__________. Answer: recollections Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ306 Skill: Knowledge

13) Aȱresearcherȱconductsȱ__________ȱresearchȱwhenȱheȱconductsȱfieldȱresearchȱinȱculturesȱother thanȱhisȱown. Answer: comparativeȱfield Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ313 Skill: Knowledge

14) Aȱsurveyȱconductedȱinȱseveralȱcountriesȱisȱcalledȱaȱ__________- __________ȱsurvey. Answer: cross-national Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ313 Skill: Knowledge

15) __________ȱequivalenceȱisȱbeingȱableȱtoȱapplyȱtheȱsameȱconceptȱacrossȱdifferentȱculturesȱor historicalȱeras. Answer: Conceptual Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ316-317 Skill: Comprehension

11.5 Essay 1) Discussȱtheȱfiveȱsimilaritiesȱbetweenȱhistorical-comparativeȱandȱfieldȱresearch. Answer: Theyȱincorporateȱanȱindividualȱresearcherȇsȱpointȱofȱviewȱasȱpartȱofȱtheȱresearchȱprocess -ȱbothȱtypesȱofȱresearchȱreflectȱindividualȱresearcherȇsȱpointsȱofȱview.ȱTheyȱexamineȱa greatȱdiversityȱofȱdataȱtypesȱ-ȱhugeȱamountsȱofȱqualitativeȱdata.ȱTheyȱfocusȱon processes,ȱtimeȱpassageȱandȱsequenceȱ-ȱneverȱtreatȱpeopleȱasȱstaticȱorȱunchanging.ȱThey useȱgroundedȱtheoryȱ-ȱideasȱemergeȱduringȱdataȱcollectionȱandȱanalysisȱinȱaȱprocessȱof groundedȱtheory.ȱTheyȱmakeȱlimitedȱgeneralizationsȱ -ȱasȱaȱresearcherȱgainsȱgreater knowledgeȱaboutȱaȱparticularȱplaceȱandȱtime,ȱitȱmayȱbeȱdifficultȱtoȱmakeȱbroad generalizationȱthanȱquantitativeȱresearch. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ295-296 Skill: Knowledge

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2) Fourȱtypesȱofȱhistoricalȱevidenceȱare:ȱprimaryȱsources,ȱrunningȱrecords,ȱrecollections,ȱand secondaryȱsources.ȱDiscussȱtheȱprosȱandȱconsȱofȱeach. Answer: primaryȱsourcesȱ-ȱcanȱbeȱtheȱonlyȱresourceȱavailableȱandȱinȱmanyȱdifferentȱformats, consȱareȱthatȱitȱisȱeasyȱtoȱoverlookȱtheȱviewsȱofȱthoseȱwhoȱmayȱbeȱilliterate.ȱOnlyȱa fractionȱofȱwhatȱwasȱinȱtheȱpastȱhasȱsurvivedȱintoȱtheȱpresent.ȱDistortions. runningȱrecordsȱ-ȱmanyȱorganizationsȱkeepȱrecords.ȱConsȱareȱthatȱorgsȱdonȇtȱmaintain them,ȱorȱdoȱnotȱrecordȱinfoȱconsistentlyȱoverȱtime. recollectionsȱ-ȱrecollections,ȱespeciallyȱoralȱhistoriesȱareȱvaluableȱforȱtheȱilliterate memoirs.ȱConsȱareȱthanȱrecollectionsȱmayȱbeȱveryȱinaccurate. secondaryȱsourcesȱ-ȱprosȱareȱtheȱstrengthȱofȱauthenticity,ȱconsȱareȱthatȱtheyȱareȱvery difficultȱtoȱtrackȱdownȱandȱrecordȱallȱtheȱinformationȱneeded. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ302ȱ-ȱ304 Skill: Knowledge

3) Discussȱethicalȱramificationsȱofȱhistorical-comparativeȱresearch. Answer: Sensitivityȱtoȱissuesȱofȱcross-culturalȱinteraction,ȱdocumentationȱofȱprimaryȱsourcesȱapplyingȱinternalȱandȱexternalȱcriticism,ȱprivacy,ȱhostȱcountryȱetiquette,ȱpoliticalȱissues. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ318 Skill: Comprehension

4) Discussȱtheȱfourȱtypesȱofȱequivalenceȱandȱtheirȱimportanceȱtoȱsocialȱresearch. Answer: lexicon -ȱconsistencyȱinȱlanguage/communicationȱcontextȱacrossȱculturesȱandȱtime -ȱimportanceȱtoȱkeepȱfromȱmisinterpretation conceptual -ȱconsistencyȱinȱconceptsȱacrossȱtimeȱandȱcultures -ȱimportanceȱtoȱkeepȱfromȱmisinterpretation context -ȱsameȱeventȱacrossȱtimeȱandȱculture -ȱimportanceȱtoȱkeepȱfromȱmisunderstanding -ȱmayȱnotȱbeȱableȱtoȱinterpretȱacrossȱcultures measurement -ȱcannotȱalwaysȱuseȱsameȱmeasurementȱtoolȱacrossȱcultures -ȱaȱsurveyȱmightȱnotȱbeȱappropriateȱorȱrelevantȱacrossȱcultures. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ316-317 Skill: Comprehension

5) Mr.ȱMarshȱhasȱaȱstackȱofȱinformationȱthatȱheȱhasȱgatheredȱforȱhisȱhistorical-comparative researchȱstudy,ȱandȱseveralȱideasȱandȱtheoriesȱareȱbeginningȱtoȱemerge.ȱHeȱnoticesȱthatȱheȱhas primaryȱandȱsecondaryȱsourcesȱthatȱclearlyȱconflictȱwithȱeachȱotherȱonȱoneȱofȱtheȱtopicsȱwith whichȱheȱhasȱtheȱmostȱinterest.ȱShouldȱheȱȈskipȈȱtheȱtopicȱaltogether?ȱWhatȱifȱheȱwantsȱto pursueȱtheȱtopic,ȱwhatȱshouldȱheȱdo? Answer: Mr.ȱMarshȱneedsȱtoȱevaluateȱhisȱsourcesȱusingȱexternalȱandȱinternalȱcriticism.ȱIfȱafter evaluatingȱtheȱsourcesȱheȱstillȱhasȱconflictingȱinformation,ȱheȱshouldȱlookȱforȱadditional informationȱtoȱcollaborateȱtheȱdocumentsȱthatȱheȱhas.ȱPerhapsȱthereȱwillȱnotȱbeȱa resolution.ȱInȱthisȱcase,ȱasȱanȱethicalȱresearcher,ȱheȱwillȱensureȱthatȱbothȱpointsȱare representedȱinȱhisȱfinalȱreport. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ304-306 Skill: Application

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Chapterȱ12 WritingȱAȱResearchȱReport 12.1 MultipleȱChoice 1) Anȱessentialȱpartȱofȱtheȱresearchȱprocessȱwhereȱtheȱresearcherȱcommunicatesȱtheȱresultsȱofȱher studyȱisȱthe A) finalȱspeech. B) congratulatoryȱparty. C) researchȱreport. D) reportȱcard. Answer: C Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ324 Skill: Knowledge

2) Theȱpurposeȱofȱaȱresearchȱreportȱisȱtoȱtellȱothersȱwhatȱtheȱresearcherȱdid,ȱhowȱheȱdidȱit,ȱand A) howȱmuchȱitȱcost. B) whereȱitȱtookȱplace. C) whyȱheȱdidȱit. D) whatȱheȱdiscovered. Answer: D Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ324 Skill: Knowledge

3) Aȱwriterȇsȱaudienceȱthatȱisȱinterestedȱinȱaȱdetailedȱdescriptionȱofȱtheȱresearchȱprocessȱisȱthe A) expertȱprofessionalsȱandȱscholarsȱaudience. B) publicȱaudience. C) instructorȱaudience. D) managementȱaudience. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ325-326 Skill: Knowledge

4) Whenȱwritingȱforȱtheȱpublic,ȱanȱauthorȱshould A) useȱtechnicalȱlanguage. B) eliminateȱallȱpictures. C) provideȱconcreteȱexamplesȱthatȱcannotȱbeȱmisinterpreted. D) referenceȱotherȱauthorsȱsoȱthatȱtheȱpublicȱcanȱaccessȱmoreȱinformation. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ325-326 Skill: Knowledge

5) Researchȱreportȱstyle A) refersȱtoȱtheȱtypeȱofȱwords,ȱlengthȱandȱformȱofȱsentences,ȱandȱpatternȱofȱparagraphs. B) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱresearchȱreportȱcontent. C) takesȱprecedenceȱoverȱeverythingȱelseȱinȱtheȱresearchȱreport. D) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱtheȱreportȱtone. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ326 Skill: Knowledge

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6) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱrevisingȱherȱresearchȱreport,ȱmeaningȱthat A) sheȱisȱinsertingȱnewȱideas. B) sheȱisȱcorrectingȱtypos. C) sheȱisȱnotȱworriedȱaboutȱcriticism. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ330 Skill: Application

7) Writingȱisȱaȱprocess A) withȱaȱseriesȱofȱstepsȱthatȱresultȱinȱaȱfinalȱproduct. B) thatȱonlyȱauthorsȱcanȱunderstand. C) thatȱrequiresȱoneȱtypeȱofȱstyleȱonly. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ325-326 Skill: Knowledge

8) Editingȱaȱreport A) involvesȱextensiveȱcolleagueȱinteraction. B) isȱcleaningȱandȱtighteningȱupȱtheȱmechanicalȱaspectsȱofȱwriting. C) mustȱbeȱdoneȱbyȱanȱadministrativeȱassistant. D) isȱaȱfastȱprocess,ȱusuallyȱcompletedȱinȱ5-10ȱminutes. Answer: A Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ330 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whenȱaȱresearcherȱusesȱanotherȱpersonȇsȱideasȱorȱthoughts,ȱbutȱusesȱhisȱownȱwording,ȱthisȱis called A) paraphrasing. B) identityȱtheft. C) plagiarism. D) intellectualȱproperty. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ327 Skill: Knowledge

10) Whenȱparaphrasing,ȱaȱresearcherȱmust A) giveȱtheȱoriginalȱauthorȱcreditȱbyȱreferencing. B) alwaysȱuseȱquotes. C) exaggerate. D) takeȱoutȱanyȱwordingȱthatȱdoesȱnotȱsoundȱasȱifȱitȱisȱitȱmightȱbeȱtheȱresearcherȇsȱwork. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ327-328 Skill: Knowledge

11) Prewritingȱmeansȱthatȱaȱresearcher A) relaxesȱuntilȱaȱconsultantȱfinishesȱtheȱinitialȱfootwork. B) takesȱaȱ6-monthȱbreakȱbeforeȱwriting. C) beginsȱwithȱaȱfileȱfolderȱfullȱofȱnotes,ȱoutlines,ȱandȱlists. D) writesȱaȱpreliminaryȱfinalȱreportȱbeforeȱanalyzingȱtheȱdata. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ328 Skill: Knowledge

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12) Threeȱstepsȱinȱtheȱwritingȱprocessȱincludeȱprewriting,ȱrewritingȱandȱwhat? A) integratingȱdata B) calculating C) dataȱprocessing D) composing Answer: D Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ330 Skill: Knowledge

13) Anȱexecutiveȱsummaryȱhasȱmoreȱdetailȱthanȱanȱabstractȱbecause A) itȱgivesȱtheȱentireȱreportȱmoreȱdepth. B) manyȱpractitionersȱandȱpolicyȱmakersȱonlyȱreadȱtheȱexecutiveȱsummaryȱandȱthenȱjust skimȱpartsȱofȱtheȱfullȱreport. C) itȱfocusesȱtheȱreader. D) readersȱmayȱwantȱtoȱjustȱreadȱtheȱshortȱversionȱtoȱseeȱifȱthereȱisȱanyȱqualityȱinfoȱinȱthe fullȱreport. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ332 Skill: Knowledge

14) Twoȱmajorȱwaysȱofȱorganizingȱfieldȱresearchȱreportsȱareȱbyȱchronologicalȱnaturalȱhistoryȱand by A) themes. B) groupȱofȱpeople. C) questionȱcontent. D) context. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ335 Skill: Knowledge

15) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱreasonȱwhyȱqualitativeȱresearchȱreportsȱareȱlongerȱthan quantitativeȱresearch? A) Itȱisȱdifficultȱtoȱcondenseȱdataȱthatȱareȱinȱtheȱformȱofȱwords,ȱpictures,ȱorȱsentences. B) Providingȱevidenceȱoftenȱmeansȱofferingȱreadersȱspecificȱquotesȱandȱextendedȱexamples. C) Quantitativeȱresearchersȱhaveȱlessȱinformationȱthatȱtheyȱwishȱtoȱshare. D) Qualitativeȱresearchersȱwantȱtoȱcreateȱaȱsubjectiveȱsenseȱofȱempathyȱandȱunderstanding ofȱrealȱpeople,ȱeventsȱandȱsettingsȱwithȱhighlyȱdetailedȱdescriptions. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ335 Skill: Knowledge

16) Dr.ȱMottleȱisȱlistedȱasȱtheȱleadȱresearcherȱofȱaȱstudyȱandȱofȱtheȱgrantȱthatȱfundsȱtheȱresearch. SheȱisȱtheȱPIȱofȱtheȱstudy,ȱwhatȱdoesȱthatȱmean? A) Sheȱisȱtheȱprincipleȱinventor. B) Sheȱisȱtheȱprincipalȱinvestigator. C) Sheȱisȱtheȱprimaryȱinvestigator. D) Sheȱisȱtheȱprimaryȱinventor. Answer: B Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Application

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17) Dr.ȱMottleȇsȱresearchȱproposalȱcontainsȱaȱdescriptionȱofȱtheȱresearchȱproblemȱandȱits importance.ȱWhatȱisȱsheȱmissing? A) methodologyȱandȱwhyȱtheȱmethodsȱareȱappropriate B) methodologyȱandȱanȱappendix C) methodsȱandȱtechniques D) techniques Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ338-339 Skill: Application

18) Mr.ȱMarshȱisȱreadyȱtoȱwriteȱhisȱreportȱonȱtheȱhistorical-comparativeȱstudyȱthatȱheȱrecently completed.ȱHeȱisȱconcernedȱasȱtoȱhowȱtoȱorganizeȱtheȱreport;ȱwhatȱtwoȱwaysȱareȱtypicalȱfor thisȱtypeȱofȱreport? A) topicȱandȱchronologically B) topicȱandȱreasonability C) topicȱandȱthemes D) themesȱandȱchronologically Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ337 Skill: Application

19) Theȱreportȱconclusion A) restatesȱtheȱresearchȱquestionȱandȱsummarizesȱmajorȱfindings. B) isȱtheȱsameȱasȱtheȱexecutiveȱsummary. C) shouldȱbeȱ5-10ȱpagesȱinȱlength. D) restatesȱtheȱresearchȱquestionȱandȱreiteratesȱallȱtheȱdataȱcharts. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ334 Skill: Knowledge

20) Fundingȱagenciesȱtypicallyȱreleaseȱanȱannouncementȱthatȱtheyȱareȱacceptingȱresearch proposalsȱforȱpossibleȱfundingȱcalledȱaȱwhat? A) moneyȱrequest B) requestȱforȱprotocols C) requestȱforȱproposals D) requestȱforȱwork Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Knowledge

21) Theȱresearcherȱinȱchargeȱofȱaȱresearchȱstudyȱisȱcalledȱwhat? A) principalȱinvestigator B) principleȱinvestigator C) principalȱinitiator D) principleȱinstructor Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Knowledge

22) Theȱresearchȱproposalȱis A) notȱcompetitiveȱforȱfundingȱfromȱmostȱfundingȱsources. B) notȱrequiredȱtoȱbeȱtyped. C) aȱtypeȱofȱcontractȱbetweenȱtheȱresearcherȱandȱtheȱfundingȱsource. D) typicallyȱhundredsȱofȱpagesȱinȱlength. Answer: C Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ342 Skill: Knowledge

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23) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱNOTȱaȱsuggestionȱforȱsubmittingȱaȱsuccessfulȱresearchȱproposalȱtoȱa fundingȱsource? A) Includeȱallȱofȱtheȱresearcherȇsȱpersonalȱdataȱ(includingȱsocialȱsecurityȱnumber,ȱtelephone number,ȱmaritalȱstatus,ȱetc.)ȱonȱtheȱfrontȱpageȱofȱtheȱproposal. B) Followȱallȱdirectionsȱinȱdetail. C) Submitȱtheȱentireȱproposalȱbyȱtheȱdateȱdeadline. D) Includeȱrequiredȱlettersȱofȱsupport. Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ342 Skill: Application

24) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱquestionsȱwouldȱbeȱappropriateȱtoȱaskȱofȱaȱfundingȱsource? A) Whatȱtypesȱofȱresearchȱareȱfunded? B) IfȱIȱamȱfunded,ȱcanȱIȱnegotiateȱwithȱtheȱagencyȱtoȱgetȱmoreȱfunding? C) CanȱIȱgetȱmoreȱfundingȱifȱIȱdoȱaȱdifferentȱtypeȱofȱresearch? D) Doesȱyourȱagencyȱhaveȱknowledgeableȱreviewers? Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Knowledge

25) Inȱshowingȱcause-effectȱrelations, A) eliminatingȱalternativeȱexplanationsȱisȱtheȱmostȱdifficultȱconditionȱtoȱsatisfy. B) quantitativeȱresearchȱisȱtheȱbest. C) qualitativeȱresearchȱisȱtheȱbest. D) Noneȱofȱtheȱabove Answer: A Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ331-332 Skill: Knowledge

12.2 True/False 1) Theȱresearchȱreportȱisȱtheȱfirstȱstepȱinȱtheȱresearchȱprocess,ȱessentialȱforȱplanningȱtheȱresearch fromȱbeginningȱuntilȱend. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ324 Skill: Knowledge

2) Aȱresearcherȱshouldȱnotȱthinkȱaboutȱwritingȱaȱresearchȱreportȱuntilȱsheȱhasȱfinishedȱallȱher dataȱcollection. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ324 Skill: Knowledge

3) Professionalȱwritersȱsuggestȱthatȱoneȱshouldȱknowȱhisȱaudienceȱwhenȱwriting. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ325 Skill: Knowledge

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4) Onceȱaȱresearcherȱcollectsȱhisȱdata,ȱheȱwillȱseldomȱreturnȱtoȱliteratureȱ- onceȱcollected,ȱthereȱis noȱreason. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ326-327 Skill: Knowledge

5) Theȱtoneȱinȱaȱresearchȱreportȱshouldȱuseȱaȱwhimsicalȱtoneȱtoȱexpressȱhumor. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ326 Skill: Knowledge

6) Writingȱtheȱintroductionȱandȱtitleȱafterȱfinishingȱaȱdraftȱofȱtheȱreportȱensuresȱthatȱtheyȱwill accuratelyȱreflectȱwhatȱtheȱreportȱsays. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ330 Skill: Knowledge

7) Aȱresearchȱabstractȱhasȱinformationȱonȱtheȱtopic,ȱtheȱresearchȱproblem,ȱtheȱbasicȱfindings,ȱand anyȱunusualȱresearchȱdesignȱorȱdataȱcollectionȱfeatures. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ332 Skill: Knowledge

8) TheȱȈDescriptionȱofȱtheȱMethodȈȱisȱtheȱsectionȱofȱtheȱreportȱthatȱisȱmostȱimportantȱfor professionalsȱwhoȱareȱevaluatingȱtheȱqualityȱofȱtheȱresearchȇsȱmethodology. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ333 Skill: Knowledge

9) TheȱdataȱareȱpresentedȱinȱtheȱȈResultsȱandȱTablesȈȱsection.ȱTheyȱareȱalsoȱdiscussed,ȱanalyzed and/orȱinterpretedȱinȱthisȱsameȱsection. Answer: FALSE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ333 Skill: Knowledge

10) Fieldȱresearchȱreportsȱrarelyȱfollowȱaȱfixedȱformatȱwithȱstandardȱsections. Answer: TRUE Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ335 Skill: Knowledge

12.3 ShortȱAnswer 1) Listȱtwoȱsuggestionsȱforȱimprovementȱinȱtheȱrewritingȱprocess. Answer: mechanics,ȱusage,ȱvoice,ȱcoherence,ȱrepetition,ȱstructure,ȱabstraction,ȱmetaphors Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ329 Skill: Knowledge

2) Theȱthreeȱstepsȱinȱtheȱwritingȱprocessȱare: Answer: prewriting,ȱcomposing,ȱandȱrewriting Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ330 Skill: Knowledge

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3) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱanȱabstractȱandȱanȱexecutiveȱsummary? Answer: Abstractȱcanȱbeȱasȱfewȱasȱ50ȱwords,ȱisȱusedȱwithȱquantitativeȱresearchȱreportsȱandȱhas informationȱtheȱtopic,ȱtheȱresearchȱproblem,ȱtheȱbasicȱfindings,ȱandȱanyȱunusual researchȱdesignȱorȱdataȱcollectionȱfeatures.ȱExecutiveȱsummaryȱifȱforȱappliedȱresearcher, isȱlongerȱandȱincludesȱmajorȱfindings,ȱimplicationsȱandȱmajorȱrecommendations. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ332 Skill: Knowledge

4) ListȱtwoȱquestionsȱthatȱtheȱȈDescriptionȱofȱMethodȈȱsectionȱanswers. Answer: Whatȱtypeȱofȱstudyȱdidȱtheȱresearcherȱconduct?ȱExactlyȱhowȱdidȱtheȱresearcherȱcollect theȱdata?ȱHowȱdidȱtheȱresearcherȱmeasureȱeachȱvariable?ȱDidȱtheȱresearcherȱsample? Didȱanyȱethicalȱissuesȱorȱspecificȱdesignȱconcernsȱarise? Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ333 Skill: Knowledge

5) Aȱresearchȱproposalȱincludesȱwhatȱelements? Answer: Itȱdescribesȱtheȱresearchȱproblemȱandȱitsȱimportanceȱandȱgivesȱaȱdetailedȱaccountȱofȱthe methodsȱthatȱaȱresearcherȱwillȱuseȱandȱwhyȱtheyȱareȱimportant. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ338 Skill: Knowledge

6) Aȱresearcherȱcanȱdemonstrateȱanȱabilityȱtoȱcompleteȱaȱproposedȱqualitativeȱprojectȱinȱwhat twoȱways? Answer: -Aȱwell-writtenȱproposalȱwithȱanȱextensiveȱdiscussionȱofȱtheȱliterature,ȱsignificanceȱand sources.ȱ-Theȱproposalȱdescribesȱaȱqualitativeȱpilotȱstudy. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ338 Skill: Knowledge

7) WhatȱisȱanȱRFP? Answer: RequestȱforȱProposalȱ- anȱannouncementȱbyȱaȱfundingȱsourceȱthatȱseeksȱresearch proposalsȱtoȱfund. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Knowledge

8) Whatȱisȱtheȱroleȱofȱaȱprincipalȱinvestigator? Answer: AȱPIȱisȱtheȱresearcherȱinȱchargeȱofȱaȱstudyȱorȱprojectȱthatȱisȱfundedȱbyȱaȱgrant. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Knowledge

9) Whatȱisȱtheȱdifferenceȱbetweenȱrevisingȱandȱediting? Answer: Revisingȱisȱinsertingȱnewȱideas,ȱsupportingȱevidence,ȱdeletingȱideas,ȱmovingȱsentences aroundȱtoȱclarifyȱmeaningȱandȱstrengtheningȱtransitionsȱandȱlinksȱbetweenȱideas. Editingȱisȱcleaningȱandȱtighteningȱupȱtheȱmechanicalȱaspectsȱofȱwritings,ȱsuchȱas spelling,ȱgrammar,ȱusage,ȱverbȱtense,ȱsentenceȱlength,ȱetc. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ330 Skill: Knowledge

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10) Whenȱwritingȱaȱreportȱonȱfieldȱresearch,ȱtheȱreportȱisȱtypicallyȱorganizedȱinȱtwoȱdifferent ways.ȱWhatȱareȱthey? Answer: byȱchronologicalȱnaturalȱhistoryȱandȱbyȱtheme Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ335-336 Skill: Knowledge

12.4 FillȱinȱtheȱBlank 1) Aȱwrittenȱdocumentȱthatȱsummarizesȱtheȱwayȱaȱstudyȱwasȱconductedȱandȱitsȱmajorȱfindingsȱis calledȱa(n)ȱ__________. Answer: researchȱreport Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ324 Skill: Knowledge

2) __________ȱisȱpartȱofȱtheȱrewritingȱprocessȱinȱwhichȱaȱresearcherȱmovesȱideasȱaroundȱorȱadds andȱsubtractsȱideas. Answer: Revising Diff:ȱ1 PageȱRef:ȱ330 Skill: Knowledge

3) Aȱresearcherȱdefinesȱallȱtechnicalȱtermsȱandȱclearlyȱlabelsȱeachȱpartȱofȱaȱreport.ȱAdditionally, sheȱoffersȱmanyȱexamplesȱandȱincludesȱaȱstep-by-stepȱmannerȱofȱdiscussion.ȱTheȱaudienceȱfor thisȱstyleȱofȱwritingȱisȱmostȱlikelyȱ__________. Answer: otherȱstudents. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ325 Skill: Knowledge

4) __________ȱrefersȱtoȱtheȱtypeȱofȱwords,ȱlengthȱandȱformȱofȱsentences,ȱandȱpatternȱof paragraphs. Answer: Style Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ326 Skill: Knowledge

5) Aȱtemporaryȱinabilityȱtoȱwriteȱthatȱsomeȱpeopleȱexperienceȱwhenȱtheyȱhaveȱaȱwritingȱtaskȱto completeȱisȱcalledȱ__________. Answer: writerȇsȱblock Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ327 Skill: Knowledge

6) __________ȱisȱnotȱusingȱanotherȇsȱexactȱwords;ȱratherȱaȱresearcherȱrestatesȱsomeoneȱelseȇsȱideas inȱhisȱownȱwords. Answer: Paraphrasing Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ327-328 Skill: Knowledge

7) Partȱofȱtheȱrewritingȱprocessȱinȱwhichȱtheȱresearcherȱfocusesȱonȱimprovingȱtheȱmechanism aspectsȱofȱwritingȱisȱ__________. Answer: editing Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ330 Skill: Knowledge

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8) __________ȱcreatesȱaȱlinkȱbetweenȱaȱrapidȱflowȱofȱideasȱinȱtheȱmindȱandȱwriting.ȱTheȱideaȱisȱto getȱideasȱonȱpaperȱasȱquicklyȱasȱpossibleȱtoȱgetȱandȱkeepȱtheȱcreativeȱjuicesȱorȱideasȱflowing. Answer: Freewriting Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ328 Skill: Knowledge

9) __________ȱareȱannouncementsȱbyȱaȱfundingȱsourceȱthatȱitȱseeksȱresearchȱproposalsȱtoȱfund. Answer: Requestsȱforȱproposals Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Knowledge

10) Aȱ__________ȱisȱtheȱmainȱresearcherȱwhoȱconductsȱaȱstudyȱfundedȱbyȱaȱgrant. Answer: principalȱinvestigator Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Knowledge

11) Mostȱhistorical-comparativeȱreportsȱmixȱtwoȱtypesȱofȱorganizationȱ- topicȱandȱ__________. Answer: chronologic. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ337 Skill: Knowledge

12) Inȱtheȱ__________ȱsectionȱofȱtheȱresearchȱreport,ȱtheȱresearcherȱrestatesȱtheȱresearchȱquestion andȱsummarizesȱmajorȱfindings. Answer: conclusion Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ334 Skill: Knowledge

13) Theȱmostȱimportantȱsectionȱofȱtheȱresearchȱreportȱtoȱprofessionalsȱwhoȱevaluateȱtheȱqualityȱof researchȱmethodologyȱisȱtheȱ__________ȱsection. Answer: DescriptionȱofȱtheȱMethod Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ333 Skill: Knowledge

14) Inȱtheȱ__________ȱsectionȱofȱtheȱresearchȱreport,ȱtheȱresearcherȱgivesȱtheȱreaderȱaȱconcise, unambiguousȱinterpretationȱofȱtheȱdataȇsȱmeaning. Answer: discussion Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ333-334 Skill: Knowledge

15) Inȱaȱ__________ȱresearchȱreport,ȱaȱresearcherȱpresentsȱhyothesesȱandȱevidenceȱinȱaȱlogically tightȱandȱcondensedȱstyle. Answer: quantitative Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ335 Skill: Knowledge

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12.5 Essay 1) Aȱresearchȱreportȱshouldȱbeȱwrittenȱforȱaȱscientificallyȱliterateȱaudience.ȱWhatȱthreeȱthingsȱdid Hurdȱsuggestȱthatȱaȱscientificallyȱliterateȱpersonȱshouldȱbeȱableȱtoȱdo? Answer: -distinguishȱexpertsȱfromȱuninformedȱpeople,ȱtheoryȱfromȱdogma,ȱdataȱfromȱmyth, empiricalȱevidenceȱfromȱpropaganda,ȱfactsȱfromȱfiction,ȱandȱknowledgeȱfromȱopinion. -understandȱthatȱtheȱresearchȱprocessȱisȱcumulative,ȱtentative,ȱandȱskeptical. -analyzeȱandȱprocessȱdata,ȱandȱbeȱawareȱthatȱproblemsȱoftenȱhaveȱmoreȱthanȱone acceptedȱanswerȱandȱthatȱmanyȱissuesȱareȱmultidisciplinaryȱwithȱpolitical,ȱjudicial, ethical,ȱandȱmoralȱdimensions. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ324-325 Skill: Knowledge

2) Discussȱthreeȱreasonsȱforȱreturningȱtoȱtheȱliteratureȱafterȱcompletingȱdataȱcollectionȱand analysis. Answer: Timeȱhasȱpassedȱbetweenȱtheȱbeginningȱandȱendȱofȱaȱresearchȱproject,ȱandȱnewȱstudies mayȱhaveȱbeenȱpublished.ȱAfterȱcompletingȱaȱresearchȱproject,ȱaȱresearcherȱwillȱknow betterȱwhatȱisȱorȱisȱnotȱcentralȱtoȱtheȱstudyȱandȱmayȱhaveȱnewȱquestionsȱinȱmindȱasȱhe rereadsȱstudiesȱinȱtheȱliterature.ȱAsȱaȱresearcherȱwritesȱtheȱreport,ȱheȱmayȱfindȱthatȱhis notesȱareȱnotȱcompleteȱenoughȱorȱaȱdetailȱisȱmissingȱinȱtheȱcitationȱofȱaȱreferenceȱsource. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ326-327 Skill: Knowledge

3) Dr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱcontemplatingȱsubmissionȱofȱaȱresearchȱproposalȱtoȱanȱorganizationȱthatȱis completelyȱunknownȱtoȱhim.ȱTheȱRFPȱfromȱtheȱorganizationȱisȱveryȱvagueȱaboutȱitsȱfunding policies;ȱandȱDr.ȱVanȱOfferȱisȱunsureȱwhetherȱhisȱresearchȱisȱappropriateȱtoȱtheȱorganizationȇs fundingȱmission.ȱWhatȱareȱhisȱnextȱsteps?ȱShouldȱheȱjustȱforgetȱtheȱsubmission? Answer: Heȱshouldȱcheckȱoutȱtheȱorganizationȱonline,ȱthroughȱcolleagues,ȱandȱthroughȱhisȱown organizationȇsȱgrantsȱdepartment.ȱAdditionally,ȱheȱcanȱcallȱtheȱorganizationȱandȱask specificȱquestionsȱinȱregardȱtoȱitsȱfundingȱinitiatives.ȱIfȱhisȱresearchȱisȱnotȱaȱgoodȱfit,ȱhe mayȱneedȱtoȱrethinkȱanȱaspectȱofȱitȱforȱfundingȱthroughȱtheȱorganization,ȱorȱtryȱanother fundingȱvenue. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ339 Skill: Application

4) Listȱfiveȱitemsȱthatȱwillȱcontributeȱtoȱaȱsuccessfulȱresearchȱgrantȱproposal. Answer: -importantȱresearchȱquestion -haveȱfollowedȱallȱinstructions -submittedȱtheȱproposalȱbyȱtheȱdeadline -proposalȱisȱwrittenȱclearly -haveȱdescribedȱresearchȱprocedures -haveȱincludedȱspecificȱplansȱonȱhowȱinformationȱwillȱbeȱdisseminated. -haveȱdemonstratedȱplanning -haveȱtheȱbackgroundȱandȱexperienceȱtoȱconductȱtheȱstudy -haveȱlettersȱofȱsupport Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ342 Skill: Knowledge

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5) Discussȱcause-effectȱrelationsȱinȱregardȱtoȱsurveyȱorȱexistingȱstatisticalȱmethods. Answer: Oneȱneedsȱtoȱdemonstrateȱtimeȱorder,ȱandȱcontrolȱforȱalternativeȱexplanationsȱby measuringȱanyȱvariablesȱthatȱmightȱindicateȱanȱalternativeȱexplanation.ȱUsingȱcontrol variablesȱandȱlogicallyȱarguingȱthatȱalternativesȱareȱunlikely,ȱaȱresearcherȱcanȱsayȱthat anȱassociationȱamongȱvariablesȱsupportsȱaȱcausalȱrelationshipȱandȱisȱnotȱspurious. Diff:ȱ2 PageȱRef:ȱ331 Skill: Knowledge

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Teaching Tips for College and University Instructors:A Practical Guide Emblems of Quality in Higher Education: Developing and Sustaining Hig...

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