4 Legs & a Tail LK Winter 2021

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Winter 2022

What’s on Your Cat’s Mind? 10 Most Heartwarming Dog Stories Great Winter Reads Your First Horse Help For Your Pet

Inside this issue of 4 Legs & a Tail


3. Celebrate National Answer Your Cat's Questions Day So what is your cat really thinking?

6. 10 of the Most Heartwarming Dog Stories From History Aaron Short 10. What is UVDART

In times of crisis, the Upper Valley Disaster Animal Response Team is here for you

1 2. A Humane Agent for the Monadnock Region Carol Laughner

A lifelong dream realized and a passion to help the community

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14. Draft Trash Pickup

Pg. 14

Middlebury, Vermont doesn't horse around when it comes to garbage day

17. Jake's Friends Fund

Jackie Stanley

Celebrating the human-animal bond at Lucy Mackenzie

1 8. Nature Books for Winter Reading Catherine Greenleaf Here are some great idea's for readers

of all ages

2 0. Yay! We're Taking Brunhilde the Rabbit with Us on Vacation! Ingrid Braulini Expert tips on traveling with your pet this winter

24. Adopting a Senior Dog

Karen Sturtevant

The joy and benefits of rescuing an older dog

28. Animal Adapter

Pg. 24

Scott Borthwick

When wildlife becomes your unwelcomed house guests.

2 9. Loving Animals: Conversations with an Animal Communicator Jeannie Lindheim

Do you ever wonder what your pet is thinking or feeling?

30. Keeping Cats Indoors?

What you can do to keep them happy and healthy

3 2. Equine Clubs, Associations & Organizations Sue Miller If you're new to horses or the area, this is a great resource Winter 2022

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Inside this issue of 4 Legs & a Tail


36. Purchasing Your First Horse

Pg. 42

Helpful tips to consider BEFORE you look a horse in the mouth

40. Hanging in the Balance 42. Bravo for Bravo

Dorothy Crosby

Sarah Tuck Gillens

How one local Naval Seebee and his dog tackled the Antarctic

45. Twins

John Lamperti

Who can question the intelligence of a pair of cats?

4 6. A Dog on the Battlefield and the Character of George Washington Kate Kelly

Pg. 48

As we honor past presidents in February, we look at our first POTUS

48. Under the Dog Star

Cindra Conison

A touching story of how one young boy dealt with the loss of a friend

50. Short Jaw

Sandra L. Waugh VMD, MS

Don't just sit and watch, do something

5 2. Why the Delay in Veterinary Care? M. Kathleen Shaw DVM Planning ahead is the key to providing

your pet with the best possible health care these days

53. Help For Your Pet

Sue Skaskiw

54. Cognitive Dysfunction

Catherine MacLean DVM

Learn the signs of this disease in your senior dog

5 6. CBD: Becoming Broadly Accepted, but Dosage Questions Remain Peter Kenseth 59. Doggie Day Care Pg. 56

4 Legs & a Tail Volume L.421 P.O. Box 841 Lebanon, NH 03766 603-727-9214 TimH.4LT@gmail.com 2 4 Legs & a Tail

Pat Jauch

Things to know when looking for the right daycare or kennel for your pet

Publishers: Tim Goodwin, Tim Hoehn Graphic Design: Kristin Wolff Sales: Karyn Swett, Scott Palzer

If you have a tale about a tail or a photo that will make us smile, we’d like to hear from you. 4 Legs & a Tail is published quarterly and distributed free of charge throughout Central & Southern VT & NH. 4 Legs & a Tail, Inc. is locally owned and operated and acts as a moderator without approving, disapproving or guaranteeing the validity or accuracy of any data or claim. Any reproduction in whole or part is prohibited.

Winter 2022

CELEBRATE NATIONAL ANSWER YOUR CAT’S QUESTIONS DAY Y our kitty has questions and January 22 is the day to be answering them,

hence it is known as Answer Your Cat’s Questions Day. What child hasn’t promised their cat that if they just reveal they can speak, they’ll keep the secret? On this special day, we’re listening to each meow and trying to understand just what that cat is getting at – we just wish they had speech bubbles above their head like Garfield! HISTORY OF NATIONAL ANSWER YOUR CAT’S QUESTIONS DAY Though there is some discrepancy over when the first wildcats were domesticated, people in the Near East were definitely living with housecats by 7500 BC, and by the 19th century, we were developing different breeds of cats. In Ancient Egypt, cats were more than just friends – they were used for social and religious practices, and considered beloved and holy housepets. Cats were so revered they were mummified with the same dignity as humans. Besides that, many of the Egyptian gods had heads of cats and bodies of humans – you can’t get much closer than that! While the Ancient Egyptians highly valued cats for their ability to kill venomous snakes, Europeans valued them for their rat and other pest control skills. Cats were passed along by traders from the Romans to the British to the Vikings, where they eventually stamped their passports and headed out to the “New World” with the explorers. The Middle Ages were a dark mark on cats’ collective record, with rulers at the time believing cats to be the cause of the Black Death that ravaged Europe. Little did they know, cats were more likely to keep the population of rats and f leas in check. Nevertheless, the damage to their reputation was done, and cats wouldn’t restore their public image until the 15th and 16th centuries when they were welcomed aboard ships to keep pests away. It’s often speculated that cats were aboard Christopher Columbus’ ship, and our feline friends Winter 2022

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disembarked and flourished in America. Today, we love cats for so much more than their ability to reduce the rat population – so much so that we dedicate a whole day just to pondering what each meow and purr might mean. By 1993, cats outnumbered dogs as the most popular house pets in the nation, and they’re appreciated today for their curiosity, independence, intelligence – and for all their many, many questions.

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SELF-DOMESTICATED Analysis of ancient cat DNA suggests that the first cats actually domesticated themselves, as they reaped benefits from coexisting with humans!


RAT-CATCHERS Many 1300s European households had cats, but when the rulers during the plague believed cats to be the source of the devastating illness, many cats were cast out or killed. If only they knew cats were keeping the rat population in check and staving off the disease!


CARTOON CAT KING Garfield, the ever-popular cartoon featuring the beloved grumpy fat cat, is launched.


UNDER-CATS Though dogs had historically been the pets of choice for pet owners in the United States, 1993 saw the first time cats outnumbered dogs as housepets.


GRUMPY CAT GOES VIRAL Humans have historically loved cats, and memes make it clear nothing has changed. In December 2014, the “Grumpy Cat” page on Facebook hit 7 million likes.


When is Answer Your Cat’s Questions Day celebrated? Every year on January 22nd. Are there other cat-related holidays? Yes! National Cat Health Month is coming up in February, and National Cat Day itself falls on October 29th. Where is Answer Your Cat’s Questions Day observed? The United States.

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1. Cats are curious! There’s no “Answer Your Dog’s Questions Day” because there are very few pets as curious, intelligent, and inquisitive as cats. They say curiosity killed the cat, but most of the time, curiosity is a positive trait to help kitties learn about the world they live in. Help them out by answering their questions today. 2. It helps us improve as cat owners We could all listen a little better to our kitties. Taking cues from your cat’s behavior and vocalizations may help you pinpoint health issues, things they like and don’t like, and what you should change about their environment or lifestyle. The ultimate goal is to keep our feline friends satisfied, and the best way to start is by listening. 3. It’s a day to don cat merchandise! Cats’ wild popularity both on the internet and in our homes has led to a wealth of cat-related clothes and accessories. If you’re a cat owner, we know you must have at least one cat sticker, hat, t-shirt, or pair of socks - and today is the day to wear your love for cats on your person. What better time to celebrate our feline friends and than Answering Your Cat’s Questions Day? We say, wear those catprint shorts with pride.


1. Answer your cat’s questions Muffin wants to know just where you go for 8 hours every weekday, and why it takes you so long to empty the litter box. Spend some time cuddling with her today and answering each meow with some pets and treats. 2. Take to social media What better excuse to blanket social media with pictures of your sweet kitty than Answer Your Cat’s Questions Day? Edit a little speech-bubble over his head and type in what you think the questions are. You could also start a blog on cats, cat facts, and cat questions, or post a video on the same topics! 3. Read up on cats Your cat may have some questions because you could be doing more for her well-being. Read up on cats and cat health to know if your cat’s meows are just questions, or if there’s something they’re really trying to let you know. Now’s a great time to be an even better cat owner.


1. Why can’t I eat plants in the house? Plants that are toxic to our feline friends include azaleas, mistletoe, lilies, holly, and more out of the house - keep them out of the house. 2. Why can’t I have all the milk? Contrary to popular belief, cats shouldn’t have too much milk - particularly if your kitty is lactose intolerant. Cats will get diarrhea if they can’t properly digest milk, and also will be at higher risk of obesity if their diets aren’t closely watched. 3. Why can’t I scratch the sofa? Scratching is normal for cats, and owners should make sure to provide adequate scratching posts to ensure their cats don’t get stressed or depressed. 4. Why do people think sleeping cats are lazy? It’s just what they do. Cats spend 70% of their lives sleeping - around 13-17 hours of the day. It’s healthy and normal behavior, not laziness. 5. Why do humans declaw cats? Not only is declawing your cat cruel, but it’s also dangerous to their overall safety and wellness. Look around online or ask your vet about the many safe ways to get your cat’s claw off your sofa. Winter 2022

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10 of the Most

Heartwarming Dog Stories From History Aaron Short


here have been dogs throughout history that have fought in wars and crossed continents, been explorers and shown bravery that would be impressive if it had been demonstrated by a human hero. These exceptional canines are guaranteed to melt the heart of even the staunchest cat lover.

10. Swansea Jack

Swansea Jack was a black retriever who lived with his owner William Thomas near the River Tawe in Swansea, Wales, during the 1930s. One day, Jack saw a small boy drowning in the river and ran in, pulling the boy to shore by the scruff of his neck. There was no one around to see it, and had circumstances been different, the boy would probably have spent the rest of his life telling the story to people who would never believe him. But Jack wasn’t done. Within a few weeks, Jack rescued another swimmer, this time with witnesses in attendance. And then another. And another. And so on. Over the course of the next decade, Jack was reported to have saved at least 27 people, from presumably, the most dangerous river and docks in Wales. For his efforts over the course of his lifetime, Jack was given a silver collar by Swansea council, the Bravest Dog of the Year Award, a silver cup from the Mayor of London, and his very own statue. That’s more accolades than your average Batman. And he’s still recognized today—he was probably the inspiration for the nickname of Premier League football team Swansea FC, “The Swansea Jacks.”

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9. Bamse Bamse was a Saint

Bernard that served aboard a Norwegian minesweeper during World War II. Despite his cute and cuddly appearance—Bamse means “cuddly bear” in Norwegian—he was extremely tough. Bamse was originally brought on board by the ship’s captain. When the captain tried to take Bamse with him when leaving for another posting, the crew, who had grown fond of the dog, threatened to leave the ship if he was taken away. They loved the dog so much that they would have mutinied rather than lose him. Bamse became legendary in Dundee and Montrose, where the ship was stationed during World War II. He rode buses alone with a specially made bus pass tied around his neck, made sure that drunken sailors made it back to their posts, and allegedly put a stop to bar fights. Once, he rescued a crewman who’d fallen overboard by diving in to drag him to safety. He rescued another crewman cornered by a knifeman by barreling into the attacker and dragging him into the water. But Bamse was more than just a hero—he was also a peacemaker. It was reported that when sailors got into fights on board, he forced them to stop by standing on his hind legs with his paws on their shoulders as if to say, “Calm down, it’s not worth it.” And Bamse wasn’t just famous in Scotland, where his ship was based—every Christmas, he was dressed in a little sailor’s hat and photographed so that his picture could be put on Christmas cards sent to the crewmates’ relatives in Norway. Awwww. Winter 2022

8. Bob The Railway Dog

Bob was born in South Australia in 1882, and for some reason he loved trains. He spent the early years of his life as a stray, following railway workers to work, until he was rounded up by a dogcatcher. It looked as if he was destined for the pound, but luckily for Bob he was bought by a kindly station guard who’d taken a liking to him. It worked out well, as his new master allowed him to ride the train with him in the guard’s van every day. But, eventually, his master got a promotion and he and Bob parted ways. Then Bob started to jump trains alone. Bob traveled up and down Southern Australia, becoming a familiar and welcome sight on trains across the land. Sometimes, when Bob felt that he needed some privacy, he chose an empty carriage and scared away any passengers who tried to sit in it by barking like crazy. The station masters and guards all knew him by name, so they left him to his own devices. At night he followed the engine driver home for a warm meal and soft place to sleep, then returned to the train the next morning. For most of his life, Bob went where he pleased, and as his fame grew so did his reception when he rode into town. He was allowed to attend banquets as a guest of honor, was given a special bracelet with his name on it—with an engraving telling anyone who read it to let him go where he wanted—and when he was seen riding on trains by local children they ran after him as if he were the Pope. Bob had many adventures in his short life and died the most famous dog in Australian history.

7. Bummer And Lazarus

In the 1860s, two stray dogs called Bummer and Lazarus were given the run of the city of San Francisco at a time when any other stray dog would have been rounded up and thrown in the pound. But Bummer and Lazarus were different—they were celebrities. The newspapers of the day reported their doggy exploits as if they were Posh and Becks or Brad and Angelina. If they got into a fight with rival dogs, the papers often printed an exaggerated account of it the next day, complete with eyewitness testimony and a dramatized cartoon of the event. Even Mark Twain took time out from working on Huckleberry Finn to write about them. The reason they were so beloved was due to their close friendship. Bummer started off as tough mutt who begged people for scraps, hence his name. When another Continued Next Page

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stray arrived in the city and lost a fight, witnesses thought he’d be torn to shreds…until Bummer came running in to fight off his attacker. As Bummer nursed the injured dog back to health, it was given a new name—Lazarus. Their legend grew and every twist and turn of their friendship was reported on. When Bummer was shot in the leg and Lazarus didn’t look after him, there was uproar, with the whole city turning on Lazarus. This weird press fascination went on until both dogs died. And even after that, the coverage continued, with each newspaper accusing the other of publishing erroneous details about the dogs’ deaths.

6. Barry

The Saint Bernard is a dog that was specifically bred for a single purpose—to search and rescue. Monks at the Saint Bernard Pass, a dangerous, snowy divide between Switzerland and Italy, bred them for hundreds of years— perhaps even as far back as 1695—to rescue travelers who got lost and buried in the snow. They traveled in pairs so that when they found a victim, one dog could dig them out and sit on them for warmth while the other headed back to the monastery for help. Which brings us to the second Saint Bernard on our list—Barry, who saved 40 people’s lives the course of 12 years in the early 1800s. Barry’s most famous rescue was of a small child who’d become lost and trapped on a treacherous ice shelf. Barry managed to reach the boy, revive him, and keep him warm until rescue arrived. But even then, nobody could get to them. So Barry allowed the child to climb onto his back and pulled him to safety, inch by inch. Barry was so effective as a rescue dog that after his departure there was always one dog at the monastery named Barry—a tradition that persists to this day.

5. Bud Nelson Just one look

at Bud Nelson is enough to tell you that he was the greatest dog who ever lived. He’s an old-timey dog wearing goggles in a scratchy black-and-white photo—if he hadn’t existed, he would have been dreamed up for a steampunk novel or Bioshock game. The human in the photo is Bud Nelson’s owner, a doctor called Horatio Nelson. Horatio was the first man to cross America by car the year 1903, with his hilariously named co-driver Sewall K. Crocker and, of course, Bud. That made Bud the first dog to cross the United States by car. At the time, the automobile was still in its infancy, meaning that driving was neither safe nor fun. The car was a roof less monstrosity with little to no suspension to protect them from the mostly unpaved roads, and it would have made a lot of noise while belching out noxious smoke. But Bud Nelson was braver around the thing than some people would have been back then. He was given the goggles to protect his eyes and sat there looking just as happy as he does in the photo,all the way across the continent of North America.

Colton and Fat Frank out for a ride

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4. Owney It’s generally believed 2. Rolf Rolf was either the smartest dog in history or the center of a scam that that Owney’s original owner was a mail clerk because, just as Bob the Railway dog was obsessed with trains, Owney loved the scent and texture of mail bags and followed them by land, train, or boat wherever they went. When Owney’s owner left for whatever reason, Owney stayed behind at the post office with his precious mailbags. After a while, Owney began to follow the bags, first in mail wagons and then on mail trains. He started to rack up miles, traveling through the county, then the state, and finally the whole United States. Mail clerks were happy to let him do this because they realized that no train Owney traveled on ever crashed, making Owney a good-luck talisman. So, they started to give him little trinkets and medals to attach to his collar to represent everywhere he’d been. When he’d traveled so much that they no longer fit on his collar, he got a little jacket instead. As part of a publicity stunt, he traveled around the world on a 120-day-long, Jules Verne–style trip aboard an ocean liner. In this way, he traveled across America, Europe, and Asia, and all the way back. And just in case you don’t yet feel totally inadequate in the face of this small dog’s achievements, he also had his own postage stamp.

fooled a nation—specifically Nazi Germany. Either way, then, he was pretty awesome. According to the Nazis, Rolf could talk. To put this into context, the Nazis backed a lot of hair-brained schemes during World War II, and one of the most hair-brained was trying to train an army of super-intelligent dogs share their ideals. The smartest of these “super dogs” was Rolf. Apparently, Rolf was able to talk by tapping his paw against a board and using a sort of special dog Morse code to communicate with humans. It was using this code that he was able to converse, appreciate poetry, express his pride in the Nazi regime, and vent his blinding hatred of the French. Apparently, he even expressed an interest in joining the war effort and fighting on the front lines. We don’t expect you to believe that a dog could talk, but Hitler certainly did. He took a great interest in Rolf, and history’s greatest monster wasting time on the ridiculous notion that the Nazis had created the world’s first racist dog could only possibly be a good thing.

1. Fido There are plenty of stories of dogs who stood vigil for dead masters

for years afterward. Among the most well-known loyal dogs were Hachiko, from Japan, and Greyfriars Bobby, from Scotland. Hachiko and Greyfriars Bobby have had numerous books and even films made about them. But the loyal dog who was most famous during his own lifetime is probably the least well-known. Fido was born in Italy sometime during World War II. He was found on the verge of death by a kiln worker who took him home and nursed him back to health. And for this, he’d have Fido’s unwavering loyalty for the rest of his life. Every day, Fido waited for his master at the same bus stop, refusing to move until he stepped off the bus—and this at a time when Italy was being bombed almost daily. But one day, Fido’s master didn’t return. He’d been killed in an air raid while at work. Fido, ever vigilant, still turned up to wait for him. Every day. For 14 years. His tale spread across Italy until Fido became a constant source of media attention, both during the war and long after it ended. Surviving footage shows that huge crowds would turn up to watch him make his way to the bus stop every day, watch everyone get off, then walk away disappointed the bus pulled off. He received honors and medals, but all he wanted was for his friend to come home. He never did. Don’t worry—it’s okay to cry.

3.Pickles In 1966, the World Cup

was being held in England which, to the English, was kind of a big deal. Maybe the reason they were taking it so seriously was because they had a feeling they might w in—which they did—so you can imagine how bummed they were when the World Cup was stolen four months before the matches started. There was a frenzy to find the cup and avoid international embarrassment, and it was eventually found by a plucky collie named Pickles. Pickles was being walked by his owner when he sniffed something out in the bushes—what Pickles had found was the missing World Cup. In the aftermath of Pickles finding the Cup, his rise to fame can only be described as meteoric. He was lavished with attention from the press as the hero dog who’d saved the nation from international embarrassment. Pickles even attended a banquet in his honor, where he was given a bone and a check for £1,000—archive footage shows the check being shoved into his face, so we hope it was cashed by his master and not chewed to shreds. He later went on to star in several TV shows and even the movies. Winter 2022

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What is UVDART? T he Upper Valley Disaster Animal Response Team (UVDART) is one of sev-

eral Disaster Animal Response Teams throughout the United States which provide temporary assistance to animals in need of services during natural or man-made disasters. UVDART, Chartered by the Vermont Disaster Animal Response Team (VDART), is a volunteerbased, 501(c)(3) non-profit organization which provides services to more than

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50 towns in the Upper Valley region of Vermont and New Hampshire. UVDART provides a response team that is trained, credentialed and consistent when we are activated. UVDART provides 4 levels of disaster response including: providing trained personnel to assist with staffing an animal shelter of a small American Red Cross (ARC), pet-friendly human shelter; setting up an independent, small animal shelter with its own team and equipment; responding to moderate to large scale disaster events including floods, hurricanes, ice storms, etc. by setting up a shelter for a large number of companion animals; and providing assistance to other VDART teams. Additionally, UVDART can also send trained and credentialed volunteers to assist the Humane Society of the United States or other response organizations at major national level disasters. UVDART meets monthly at the Mt. Ascutney Hospital or virtually on the 4th Tuesday of the month from 7-8pm. Volunteers have opportunities to complete Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) courses, Pet First Aid training, Basic Shelter Training, and Tabletop exercises which may be completed alongside the American Red Cross. UVDART also maintains a Compan-

ion Animal Mobile Equipment Trailer (CAMET) which contains all the necessary equipment and resources needed to stand up an animal shelter. Here is a personal account from our wonderful longtime volunteers, Susan Marchand-LeBrun: “UVDART was called to respond to an event when floodwaters forced the evacuation of an apartment building. When we arrived at the shelter, the Red Cross had already done the intake on 3 dogs and their owners; one had already found housing with a relative and checked out. Because there were only the 2 dogs remaining, we were able to house the owners with their pets. Throughout the day, we took care of the dogs allowing the owners the freedom to meet with Red Cross workers to secure housing until the apartment building was renovated and deemed safe for occupancy. Fortunately, because this was a smaller scale event, they found pet-friendly accommodations at an area motel by the end of the day.”

UVDART is comprised of animal lovers who are willing to undergo training in preparation for helping in the case of a disaster. Would you like to join our team? If so, please reach out to Liz Gage, UVDART secretary, at creaturecompanion@gmail.com or go to VDART’s webpage: vermontdart.org/volunteer. Winter 2022

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A Humane Agent for the Monadnock Region A lifelong dream realized and a passion to help the community Carol Laughner - MHS Marketing Communications Manager

B eth Doyle knew at a very early age that she had a passion to help animals

and people. Beth’s dream was two-fold. First, as a kid, she wanted to join the National Guard so she could assist with natural disasters, and she also wanted to become a Humane Law Enforcement Officer. She didn’t know where or how to begin fulfilling her dream, but one thing was for sure - she was driven. She began her journey knowing that animal welfare starts with proper education, and helping a community begins with providing services to people so they can properly care for their pets. She found employment at a pet boarding facility and then moved on to a position as a veterinary technician. As enjoyable as it was to be working directly with animals, she knew she needed to move to a place where she could continue to pursue her dream and really make a big difference.

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Beth was volunteering at Monadnock Humane Society in 2009 “shadowing” the Animal Cruelty Investigator (ACI), Stephanie Frommer, and recalls a pivotal moment from that time. “We went to visit an elderly man who had far too many cats and was in over his head. He really needed our help. A trusting relationship had been built with this gentleman and it made him feel comfortable, not threatened, when MHS staff visited his home. That was one of the moments that I felt led me to where I should be.” She applied for a staff position at MHS and was hired as a shelter technician in the Adoption Center caring for the animals and doing adoptions. She then was promoted to canine manager, then assistant manager. During this time, she assisted with animal cruelty/neglect investigations whenever needed.

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Beth continued to grow and evolve at MHS while cultivating relationships and participating with many other organizations. After experiencing the damage and distress in the community from a serious ice storm, she joined the Rindge Fire Department in 2009 and became a New Hampshire Certified Firefighter. Beth rose to the rank of Lieutenant, became an EMT, and she trained with FEMA and earned multiple FEMA certifications. This experience gave her an understanding of proper incident command systems and smooth operations during natural disasters or other crises. Unfortunately, in 2015, due to budget cuts, the ACI position at MHS was eliminated and animal cruelty/neglect investigations were transitioned to local police departments. MHS directed people with animal welfare concerns to work directly with local authorities in their town. MHS maintained a small role with these investigations, despite no longer having a designated staff person to do so. Emily Kerylow, MHS Director of Shelter Operations, said that “Animal welfare calls continued to come to us. We knew the local authorities were stretched very thin and may not have had the time or specialized training to handle every case.” Over time, it became very clear from the frequency and volume of calls and inquiries, that an MHS Humane Agent position needed to be revisited as soon as possible. MHS had a goal to reinstate this position. They conducted a thorough review of the issues and resources needed to address animal welfare concerns in the area. MHS completed their research which included gathering data and statistics, working closely with local towns, and evaluating fundraising options needed for any related expenses. The review confirmed that the community needed a qualified, welltrained Humane Agent. Earlier this year, MHS leadership approved the position, and a search began to recruit and hire for this role. It didn’t take long to identify the best person for the job - she was already at MHS. Beth interviewed for the opportunity and was selected. Emily said, “Beth is very experienced with handling all types of animals as well as working with different members of our community. Her passion for the well-being of animals and people makes her an excellent choice for this position. She has played a large role in many of the calls and cases we’ve handled (including a case where 52 Labrador retrievers were surrendered to MHS at the same time), giving her foundational knowledge and expertise needed for this role.” Emily adds that MHS plans to give Beth ongoing support and resources through education and training in this specific field. She will complete her certification Winter 2022

with the National Animal Control Association and work alongside other Humane Agents in the state, as well as with local police departments, and other Animal Control Officers. Beth, in her role as the new MHS Humane Agent, will be responsible for responding to animal cruelty and neglect concerns. Many of the calls received by MHS are from well-intentioned citizens who just need a little bit of help. She will be able to provide guidance, education, and resources to members of our community. She will also be available to answer questions, work to resolve issues and concerns, and provide animals in need with the help they deserve. When a serious animal cruelty case is discovered, she will assist in the investigation in conjunction with the authorities. Beth will now be one of four (4) Humane Agents in New Hampshire working to address the community needs regarding animal welfare concerns. “We are very pleased to have a designated, well-trained staff member assigned to these calls and one who will take the lead in assisting our local authorities to ensure all animal welfare needs are met in our community,” Emily said. “We also have a special fund – the Wratchford Family Anti-Cruelty Fund – that was created to help offset costs involved in caring for animals at MHS who have come to

us from cruelty/neglect situations. The Monadnock Region is fortunate to have these resources to serve the community, and very fortunate to have Beth Doyle in this role!” If you would like more information about how to report an animal cruelty/neglect concern, or if you would like to support this work through the Wratchford Family Anti-Cruelty Fund, please visit our website: www.monadnockhumanesociety.org

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Draft Trash Pickup M acey Ross, a determined twentysomething, is making horses commonplace in the Middlebury, Vermont community in a rather unconventional way. Her business, Draft Trash Pickup, is a horse drawn curbside trash, recycling and compost pick up service that has us reminiscing years gone by. The Beginning After exploring some more typical career paths in the equine industry, Macey found the right fit with an unusual, but practical choice: “As a lifelong Equine advocate, I have always imagined myself owning horses. Throughout my upbringing I brainstormed careers within the industry that would allow me to love what I do, and make a living while doing so, in order to justify and make it possible to own and keep horses. I worked for multiple barns, and explored the idea of being a farrier, riding instructor, or a barn manager. It wasn’t until I started working with draft horses that I found there was a potential to do exactly what I was looking for. I realized that working with draft horses enabled them to earn their keep by providing unique services, while also providing a career for me that I truly enjoy.” Her passion and appreciation for draft breeds began in high school with the 14 4 Legs & a Tail

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Macey Ross with her draft team

inspirational guidance of an employer: “For around 9 years I have worked alongside a great man named Patrick Palmer, who has taught me a great amount of what I know about draft horses. Throughout high school and college I worked with Patrick to provide sleigh, wagon, and carriage rides for various events and weddings, along with his Horse Drawn Trash Route business located in the town of Bristol Vermont. It wasn’t until 3 years ago, in my last year at Vermont Technical College for an Equine Studies degree, that I owned my first team of Percherons with my significant other. Ever since then I have had my geldings working on the Middlebury horse drawn trash route. As Palmer semi-retired, he allowed me to become an owner of Draft Trash Pickup LLC, along with Nick Hammond as my partner.”

my Percheron mare, as well as training, and horse drawn services.” Along with offering a “green” alternative to a needed service, Macey appreciates everything about this rewarding lifestyle: “I enjoy the in-depth training that each horse receives and requires in order to work around the public, and through the commotion of off farm situations. I also love how it brings horses into the community and includes people Continued Next Page

Driven By Drafts Draf t T rash Pickup now ser vices the town of Middlebury, Vermont year round with Macey’s Poulin Powered team picking up curbside trash, recycling and compost materials, and delivering to the local transfer station. “I can’t express how much this business and running it means to me. To have a childhood dream come true, to be involved and provide such a unique service gives me a purpose. To see the joy it brings others makes all the hard work worth it.” She’s also expanded by starting another business “Driven by Drafts” centered around making opportunities with draft horses available to her community: “This business encompasses my passion to teach others about draft horses and working to develop the breed as well as a larger community of draft horse enthusiasts. I now offer driving lessons, some riding lessons, breeding Winter 2022

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Draft Trash Pickup on their Middlebury, VT route

Draft Trash on their horse powered curbside pick up route in Middlebury, VT

that may not typically have the opportunity to be around them. In the future I plan to continue with both businesses, as well as work towards owning a farm that focuses on true sustainability, homesteading, and continue with my farming roots.”

work under harness, as well as grow and develop properly, and remain in good condition for work. I really enjoy seeing the energy and stamina that Poulin Grain provides my horses.” Macey’s feeds of choice for her draft team include E-TEC® Fibre-Max, E-TEC® Balancer, and Alfalfa Pellets, while her Feeding for Success broodmare and filly thrive on EQUI-PRO® When it comes to powering the Draft Mare and Foal, and E-TEC® Balancer. She Trash team, as well as Macey’s slew of is sure to cater to each animal’s needs chickens, pigs, goats, and rabbits, she with customized diets, and says “Withtrusts Poulin Grain to keep them at the out my horses in their best condition, top of their game. I wouldn’t be able to run the business “My horse’s health and diet is crucial that I worked so hard to establish”. in order to allow them to perform their Macey and her partner also produce best and withstand the long hours of their own hay supply for their animals, and utilize Poulin Grain’s complimentary forage testing service to determine deficiencies, and how best to meet their horses’ diet needs. “Since feeding Poulin Grain, I have noticed a tremendous difference in the overall health and appearance of my horses. For both my broodmare and young stock, I found that a balanced diet has helped to fill out their condition, improve their coat quality and shine.”

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JAKE’S FRIENDS FUND Celebrating the HumanAnimal Bond Jackie Stanley

Washoshe and Wakoda

T here’s no denying how much our companion animals mean to us – the joy, laughter and companionship they bring us is so invaluable to our lives. The human-

animal bond is undoubtedly at the center of Lucy Mackenzie Humane Society’s mission; not only do they help facilitate the placement of animals within safe and loving homes, they also look to keep them there – supporting families and animals in the community whenever they may need it most. Jake’s Friends Fund, established in memory of a wonderful dog named Jake, is an emergency care fund offered by Lucy Mackenzie that ensures no companion animal will ever have to be euthanized or suffer simply because access to medical care is beyond somebody’s financial means. Loving and responsible families, as well as individuals, can easily fall on hard times, finding themselves living from paycheck to paycheck at any moment. This has never been more true than during the course of the pandemic. Year round, Lucy Mackenzie receives calls from community members that are in dire need of financial assistance in order to provide medical care for their animal companions. Jake’s Friends Fund enables Lucy Mackenzie to fund necessary and emergency veterinarian care for animals when their families are unable to afford it. In addition, this fund also helps to cover any extraordinary veterinary costs for the animals at Lucy Mackenzie, as they wait to be placed with their new families. Over the years, we’ve been able to help dogs who were in need of cruciate ligament surgery; cats that required exploratory surgery to remove blockages; horses that were in need of vital medicine and so much more - all helping to change the lives of animals and families alike. Jake’s Friends Fund relies entirely upon donations in order to exist. Thanks to our supporters, Lucy Mackenzie is able to provide deserving animals with a quality of care and life they otherwise may be unable to receive, ensuring they will never have to face the possibility of going without treatment during their darkest hours. To find out more about Jake’s Friends Fund, or to donate towards it, please visit lucymac.org. Winter 2022

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Nature Books for Winter Reading Catherine Greenleaf - Lyme, NH


hat could be better than a mug of hot chocolate, a blazing fire in the fireplace, a cozy chair and a good book to read? Here are some wonderful brand-new books about the natural world to give as gifts for the holidays, sure to delight youngsters and adults alike.


MY TINY LIFE BY RUBY T. HUMMINGBIRD by Paul Meisel. (Ages 4-8) Holiday House. Hardcover. $17.00. Children will love following the enchanting diary entries of a feisty, little hummingbird who chronicles his exciting experiences, from the time he hatches from the egg, to learning to fly for the first time, to his migration to Costa Rica. Delightful and colorful illustrations.


DIARY OF A YOUNG NATURALIST by Dara McAnulty. Milkweed Editions. Softcover. $16.95

GRANDMA LISA’S HUMMING, This moving memoir from adolescent BUZZING, CHIRPING GARDEN climate activist Dara McAnulty chronicles by Lisa Doseff/Illustrated by Duncan Robertson. (Ages 5-10) Pollination Press, LLC. Hardcover. $17.95 This children’s book, full of charming illustrations of flowers, tells the rhyming story of Grandma Lisa and her grandchildren and how they plant and grow a native flower garden to benefit butterflies and their larvae, only to excitedly discover their garden is benefitting all wildlife. The book details in a fun way the critical role insects play in pollination, in rebuilding the soil microbiome, and in providing vital protein for birds.

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the passing of days in nature outside his Northern Ireland home near the Mourne Mountains. Each diary entry makes note of the trees, birds, insects and mammals he witnesses and how his deep connection to the wild fuels the energy he pours into his global campaign to save the natural world. A Buzzfeed Best Book and winner of the UK’s prestigious Wainwright Award for nature writing.

THE STORY OF MORE: How We Got To Climate Change And Where To Go From Here (Adapted for young adults) by Hope Jahren. Little, Brown (Fleet imprint). Softcover. $14.99

Award-winning scientist and teacher, Hope Jahren, gives an eye-opening yet hopeful look at our future as a planet and a species. As E.O. Wilson has said, Earth may be the only life-bearing planet within ten light years, and by acting now to curb climate change, we can save ourselves and our beautiful home. As Jahren herself says: “It’s not a choice between decimation or preservation. The reality lies in the uncomfortable middle.” Winter 2022


THE NATURE OF OAKS: The Rich Ecology of Our Most Essential Native Trees by Douglas Tallamy. Timber Press. Hardcover. $27.95 From New York Times best-selling author Doug Tallamy comes a fascinating look at the stately oak tree. The oak is a keystone genus that provides sustenance for more species of wildlife than any other tree. Tallamy, a highly entertaining writer, explains what an important role the oak plays in carbon sequestration, soil stabilization and watershed management.

MAVERICK GARDENERS: Dr. Dirt and Other Determined Independent Gardeners by Felder Rushing. University Press of Mississippi. Softcover. $23.95 This book pays long overdue homage to the power of gardening to broker peace and harmony between neighbors. Chances are good that if you are friends with your neighbors, it all started with a talk about your flower beds or vegetable gardens. The book also details the healing power of gardening for those who have been bullied and ostracized by society. The heartbreaking story of Dr. Dirt explains why some people would rather keep to themselves in their gardens.

WASPS: A Guide For Eastern North America by Heather Holm. Pollination Press. Hardcover. $59.95. This 400-page multiple award-winning book is the first comprehensive examination of wasps, including their biology, diversity and role as beneficial insects. Long considered the “forgotten” flying insect of the native garden, the wasp is also a pollinator and a very effective carnivore, carrying away gardening pests that threaten agriculture. Noted author Heather Holm dedicates her book to the women scientists from generations ago whose research into the helpful wasp went largely ignored. This book is the ideal gift for the diehard native gardener, since it lists specific native flowers that attract wasps to the yard.

FINDING THE MOTHER TREE: Discovering The Wisdom of the Forest by Suzanne Simard. Knopf. Hardcover. $21.95. Simard, an award-winning forest ecologist, has a true gift for describing the complex relationships trees have built between themselves for generations. In captivating language, she explains how trees recognize and perceive one another and adapt their behaviors to benefit the trees around them, working together as a cohesive community. And, most importantly, she describes the Mother Trees, the powerful and beneficent female trees at the center of groves that feed and protect all of the others. Catherine Greenleaf is the director of St. Francis Wild Bird Center in Lyme, N.H. If you find an injured bird or turtle, please call (603) 795-4850.

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Yay! We’re Taking Brunhilde the Rabbit With Us On Winter Vacay! Ingrid Braulini - Grantham, NH

W hoa! Let’s stop and take a breath here! Traveling with your pet can be a challenge especially if you are doing this for the first time. Regardless of the type of animal, or breed, you have some things to think about right at the get-go. • Will you be traveling by car? Plane? Ship? • Will you be crossing one or more time zones, going to foreign countries, winter resorts, or hot climates? • The age and general health of your critter? • Are you traveling alone, with a partner, or with kids?

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If you are taking a leisurely ride down to Florida, or a trip to California, or wintering on the slopes in Canada, it does make a big difference. So, first things first: Make sure the animal you are traveling with will not have restrictions in any of the places you are traveling to (or through). For instance, Canada requires proof of Rabies Vaccination and if the dog is not obviously under three months old, they will need proof of age as well. In addition, make sure all the health requirements for each state or country are met before you leave. When you next visit your vet for your animal’s annual checkup, you may want to ask for a certificate of health and a medical record and make sure their shots are up to date just in case you need to get out of town or State in a hurry. It’s also important to have that documentation should your pet need care once you get to where you are going. If traveling by plane, make sure your airline will accept your pet. Not all airlines will allow all breeds and types of animals. You may need a special pet carrier. Also, if you intend on having your animal in the cabin with you, your airline may not allow it unless it is a licensed service animal. No sense in trying to carry your pet hidden in a carry-on…that never works. Ships have their own rules and regulations so check with the cruise line. Some will only allow pets in the hoitytoity private cabins on the upper decks, but most ships will insist on having them in a kennel. So that leaves traveling by car. If you are crossing times zones and climate zones it’s best to make sure your pet will withstand the changes without a negative impact. Weather and temperature changes, especially drastic ones, can have a serious impact on Winter 2022

both very young and very old animals. Don’t assume because George the Peke handled the trip to Mexico just fine the last time that he will do so this time. Your animal may have some underlying conditions, so it’s best to take the whole process slowly. High humidity is not great for cats and other small mammals and coupled with heat it can cause heatstroke. Dropping a dog or cat from winter weather into the hot southern sun and throwing in high humidity can create myriad problems, however, transitioning them quickly into highly air-conditioned air can also cause issues. That dramatic change can cause an animal to go into shock. You can help avoid this at the start by opening the windows and turning on fans for plenty of circulation and slowly dropping the temperature with air conditioning. Keep in mind how many times you have changed climate and temperature from one extreme to another only to find you’ve gotten sick. This shouldn’t need to be said BUT, be sure NEVER to leave any animal in any vehicle anywhere on your route for any length of time, especially in warm weather or a warmer climate. As mentioned before, it is of utmost importance that whenever you travel with your pet or pets, they are vaccinated and are given a clean bill of health. This is not only for your safety but also for the safety of any animals they should encounter. Also, with a medical file on your pet Whoopsie, you can be sure that any vet will be able to see her history and be better able to care for her if the need should arise. Especially important are any x-rays, lab results, results of surgical procedures, heartworm tests, vaccination records, and seizure history (should there be one). The situations where you absolutely need to see a vet on your trip? Those are any chest, head, or abdomen trauma, a prolonged or first-time seizure, arterial bleeding, a suspected fracture, poisoning, shock, breathing distress, bloat, and unconsciousness. Travel with the names of a couple of veterinarians or vet hospitals along the way and certainly the names of them at your destination. While you are at it: make sure you know who will take care of your pet while you go out to dinner in Miami, Topeka, or Rome…not all hotels, even the dog-friendly ones, will allow you to leave a pet unsupervised in your hotel room. It’s best to make sure they, Continued Next Page

Winter 2022

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and you, have a list of certified experienced pet sitters. Besides, no one wants to hear your dog barking or cat meowing from your apartment/house for the duration of your evening out. So, on a car trip to Florida, Arizona, or wherever the cold drives you, or even on a skiing trip what to bring with you besides a boatload of general health information? It would be great if you are not traveling alone and your travel companion can help you double-check everything each day before you head out. Make sure you have a comfortable carrier, favorite blankie, her toys, and stuffed animal. You will need a restraint for a dog and a comfortable carrier for whatever animal you are schlepping with you in the car, and if you are smart, a dog muzzle (you probably won’t need it but it shows you are a responsible pet owner), esp. in airports. Besides if your animal gets hurt on your trip, you may want to use the muzzle so you and no one else gets bitten. Have plenty of food of the brand your pet likes with you and a gallon jug of water for drinking and cooling down. Make sure your animal medicine chest is full and all supplies are renewed (list of essentials below). If your pet is on medication? Make sure you have enough for your trip, or until

you get where you are going. A car sunshade for the side windows is a good idea… actually, the best idea. Meds to bring with you? Benadryl (best in liquid or gel form) or another antihistamine, with your dog’s name and the amount to be given in case of allergies and insect bites. A fresh bottle of peroxide for cuts and as a vomit inducer in the case of poison. Room temperature (tepid) bottled water to wash out burns, cuts, and scrapes. A liquid bandage and something to cover it with as well as a blood-clotting agent (check your pharmacy). A rectal digital thermometer with fresh batteries… plastic only, please, and some petroleum jelly to help with insertion! A variety of bandages (not band-aids), gauze pads in various sizes, adhesive tape, and a syringe with no needle to help with liquid medicine administration. Extras you can grab: activated charcoal in case of poisoning, chemical ice pack, and individually packed sanitary napkins for heavy bleeding. Finally: rubber gloves for yourself. WOW! Who would have thunk? Well, sometimes we think Iris the pug can go and everywhere and do everything just like at home but that’s not always accurate so why not make this as easy on yourself as on them? All I can say is happy holidays and Bon Voyage to you and your pets! Ingrid Braulini is the owner of Pet First Aid & Wellness. She is a certified Pet Tech and Wellness Instructor, a NAPPS Board Member, and NAPPS Certified. For more information, visit www.PetAidClasses.com

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Top 10 most popular dog names for 2021: 1. Bella 2. Luna 3. Charlie 4. Lucy 5. Max 6. Daisy 7. Bailey 8. Cooper 9. Molly 10. Lola

Winter 2022

Top 10 most popular dog breeds for 2021: 1. Labrador Retriever 2. Golden Retriever 3. Goldendoodle 4. German Shepherd 5. Labradoodle 6. Shih Tzu 7. French Bulldog 8. Chihuahua 9. Yorkshire Terrier 10. Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

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Tucker & Emma

Adopting a Senior Dog Karen Sturtevant


e all know the reaction puppies get from us. We revert to behavior like a child with a lollipop. “He’s so cute!” we gush. “Look at her face!” “So tiny!” The accolades seem never-ending for the newto-the-world creatures. But, what about the ones past their prime, beyond the fuzzy fur phase? Often times adoptable older dogs are passed over, if seen at all, due to negative, preconceived thoughts. Why is it important for people to consider adopting an older dog? If Jenny Rossi had her way, all senior dogs would find their people. I first met Jenny Rossi one early Sunday morning at the Chittenden County Humane Society where she arrived with enthusiasm. She was ready to tackle her first morning animal care (MAC) shift. The guinea pig enclosures needed to be disinfected, the cats were howling for breakfast all the while the bunnies lounged without a care in the world. Our volunteer MAC team quickly settled into an efficient routine. After all the litter boxes were cleaned, meals served and floors mopped, it was time to get hands on with the current guests. It was during this play time, that we became friends and I discovered her love for senior dogs. I wasn’t surprised when, in addition to her regular tasks, she took the initiative to be officially trained on proper dogwalking protocols. This skill allowed her 24 4 Legs & a Tail

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access the canine wing where she and a dog available for adoption could harness up and spend time freely playing in the grassy yard or walking together. Jenny gravitated towards the more mature crowd, the-gray on-the-muzzle type. To simply recognize that Jenny is passionate about older canines is a gigantic understatement. Her merry blue eyes become teary when she chats about this topic––a topic she knows well as Emma and Tucker, her adopted, bonded seniors, can attest to. Emma and Tucker Emma and Tucker’s first days were bleak. Discovered abandoned in a wooded area in the South, the person who found them decided to keep and raise them. They were safe and best of all, together. Seven years would pass, then, due to unforeseen circumstances, the dogs would be surrendered to a shelter and find their way to Vermont. Jenny, seeking a multi-dog household with a soft spot for seniors, adopted them without hesitation. “Their personalities are wildly different. Emma is courageous but wary. She doesn’t like car rides. She’ll pant and Tucker will lick her face,” as if to comfort her. She took the longest to open us and trust, due to her being so fiercely loyal. Emma is subtle in her affection pinning Tucker while cleaning his ears or quietly laying on her beloved stuffed horse. She can also be rambunctious in her play encouraging Tucker to zoom around the yard full speed while Tucker is more apt to take his sweet canine time. “Gentleman Tuck” or “Sunshine Boy” as he’s sometimes called, loves people, the socialite of the two. Emma’s raring to go once the morning alarm rings announcing so with clicking of her teeth and shaking the tags on her collar; Tucker wants his snuggle time. “The great thing about seniors is that they’re learning their personalities and you’re learning theirs.” “Watching two bonded seniors love each other is such a journey. Just as people love people in different ways, animals love animals in different ways. I don’t think people realize there is so much nuance. I’m learning new things every day.”

can’t hear or see well, have health problems. The flip side is these individuals bring a library of knowledge, a lifespan of participation, a gift that is rewarded only with passing years. Senior dogs are in the same category. “They’ve already accumulated a lifetime of experiences. There’s an important sacredness around that,” comments Jenny. “The only bad luck they’ve had is to live longer. They survived in a human world and have had the back luck to get old. It’s an honor and a service to have a senior in your household. It’s such a calling to home a senior.”

beginning on page one for training, new owners can meet the dog where he is to build upon already-established skills. Jenny uses this opportunity to increase the human/animal bond. Working with a professional trainer, Emma and Tucker have made great strides from leash walking to dog reactivity. “Training is repetitive and frustrating, but the end result is that you’ve built a foundation block together. It’s really great for the relationship.” Not only is Jenny well-versed in her dogs’ emotional and physical needs, she continue to educate herself in other topWhat you see is what you get. ics related to canines. She recommends How many times have you heard an the following podcasts: owner of an adopted puppy comment that it’s not what they were looking for? Libby Felts and Emily Wolf Shelter puppies have mystery pasts. Perhttps://www.podtotherescue.com haps the breed of the mother is known, Dogspeak by Nikki Ivey but not the father. What arrived as a small https://dogspeak101.com/podcast/ dog, grows into an extra-large breed. What was a typical activity level for a Bitey End of the Dog by Michael twelve-week-old puppy grew into a dog Shikashio requiring hours of physical activity to https://aggressivedog.com/ release energy each day. With seniors, podcasts/ you know what you’re getting, their personalities are already developed. My enrichment bible: Canine Seniors arrive with a autobiography Enrichment for the Real World and fully-formed characteristics. Trainhttps://www.dogwise.com/canineing, habits, triggers, reactions to other enrichment-for-the-real-world/ animals and behavior challenges have Continued Next Page already been established. Instead of

Why senior dogs? There are numerous reasons senior dogs find themselves in need of new homes–some legitimate, others are due to the selfish nature or lack of knowledge of their owners. When a senior finds herself in a shelter, she’s often confused and scared—not understanding why her safe, familiar world is suddenly gone. Our society tends to stigmatize the elderly: they’re slow, they don’t understand, Winter 2022

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Health & Enrichment Is choosing a puppy or adolescent over a senior dog a promise for fewer health issues? Do you know anything that’s a 100 percent sure thing? “Youth is never a guaranteer of long life–ever,” comments Jenny. Diseases and accidents fall upon all canines, young and old, even with most diligent of owners. “It’s bittersweet immediately knowing the joy of life. You can’t take for granted and say, ‘I am going to have this puppy from 12 weeks to 12 years.’ Our time is never guaranteed. That’s an important lesson these puppies have taught me.” Puppies tend to grow up before our eyes. Seniors are already there. “Glow-up” is Jenny’s term for this transformation.“When you get a senior dog, you’re empowered to initiate those changes. Give them that good food, those supplements. Watch that change, watch that glow-up happen. As an animal steward, you can make that coat shine, make those eyes brighter. You can do all these things to enrich their lives.” Housebreaking A puppy requires constant attention. Puppies chew, have accidents and need to go out side every few hours—even during the night—to empty their little

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bladders. Senior dogs are most often already housebroken and are able to ‘hold it’ for several hours. This is important to consider for folks working outside the home. What’s the plan for during the day? Crating a puppy for 10 hours at a time isn’t fair or humane. Jenny comments, “If I had a puppy, the house would be rubble!” Consider a senior who would be content napping on a soft bed during her alone time while waiting for her hero to arrive home. Endless warm and fuzzy emotions Making the decision to welcome any animal in the home is a great teaching lesson for adults and especially children. Teaching responsibility while feeling strong emotions are beautiful stepping stones in fostering empathy and understanding. In Emma and Tucker’s home, Jenny supplies them with enrichment items designed to keep them entertained and alert. These pampered pups love their snuffle mats, chews and squeaky toys during the day. Each night before bed, they are offered an array of doggie-safe frozen delicacies, including mango, cottage cheese and chicken on lick mats. Jenny finds this activity helps them wind down and keep in nighttime routine. “Puppies aren’t the only ones who need enrichment, seniors do to. They love it.” Adoption of a dog saves two lives: the adopted dog and another who will take the shelter space. Knowing that is a strong feeling. Any adopted and rescued animal needs time to decompress and trust in his new environment. Good things can’t be rushed. With routine, consistency and patience, those who are rescued can glow-up into their true selves. It’s an amazing and rewarding metamorphosis to be a part of. The next time your family is deciding whether to adopt a companion animal, consider the seniors, the less-than-perfect, the often overlooked. These souls are just waiting to find companionship and show their unwavering gratitude. If you are unable to adopt, considering fostering. We’ve often heard one person can’t change the world. However, one person can change the world of a dog, an animal, a person. Looking into the eyes of a rescued animal is an deeply profound experience. So much behind them. Jenny realizes this and has made the decision to open her heart and home. Emma and Tucker are two of the fortunate. They are thriving, safe, learning, and engaged. This is the wish for every animal in need of a safe place. If Emma and Tucker could speak, they would gaze up at Jenny and say, “Thank you for taking a chance and loving us.” Winter 2022

Blueberry Dog Biscuits 1½ cups King Arthur Oat Flour 2½ cups King Arthur Quinoa Flour ¾ cup King Arthur Golden Flax Meal ½ cup frozen organic, unsweetened blueberries ¼ cup olive oil 1 large egg

Directions: Preheat oven to 350°. Line a baking sheet with a nonstick baking mat or parchment paper. In a large bowl, mix together all ingredients with 1 cup water to form a dough. Roll out mixture to ¼ inch thick between two sheets of plastic wrap or parchment paper. Remove the plastic wrap and cut out biscuits with a cookie cutter. Space biscuits 1 inch apart on prepared baking sheet. Bake for 30 minutes, until nicely browned and firm. Transfer biscuits to a wire rack. Winter is the season of dandruff and dry skin, and these treats are full of nutrients that will help keep your dog’s skin and coat soft and healthy. Winter 2022

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Animal Adapters Scott Borthwick - Canaan, NH

In my 40+ years of being a Nuisance

Wildlife Control Operator I have heard time and again “ I understand why this animal is in my house. It’s because we have infringed on their habitat”. I have found just the opposite. We create habitat for them inadvertently by building our habitat. Here are many examples. Squirrels are famous for chewing their way into people’s attics. However, they don’t just randomly pick a house to live in. They look for access points like dormers. 95% of the squirrel work we get is because the soffit and facia on dormers don’t fit tightly against the roof. Sometimes they will chew the access points larger giving the appearance that they just chewed their way in. Mostly it’s because of excessive weight gain from eating at the local food pantry we provide, ie: bird feeders. Bats, mice, and birds also take advantage of

these locations. Once inside they use the insulation you have provided for their nesting material. They also use insulation as a toilet. We are finding more and more bats actually hibernating in attic insulation rather than in caves. Gable end vents and shutters make great roosting places for bats. Chimney swifts have been around long before chimneys but are called this because of their desire to raise their families in unused chimneys. Woodchucks, skunks, opossums, raccoons, and even foxes are denning under decks built close to the ground. It’s nice to have a roof over their den entrances. Stone walls, old stone foundations, unused barns, and other abandoned buildings make great housing. Manmade ponds stocked with trout are ideal feeding stations for otters and mink who tend to hang around until

the food source is gone. Great Blue Herons also enjoy these locations. Culverts and small bridges make the perfect location for beavers to build their dams. Docks and boathouses are an awesome place to build their lodges as well. I have seen beaver lodges built on top of docks giving the impression that beavers have their own dock. One beaver lodge I came across was built around a wood duck box which looked like they have a mailbox. These are just a few ways that animals are adapting to our “infringement” on their habitat. In today’s modern world we are starting to address birds and squirrels setting up shop under roof-mounted solar panels. So much so that the wildlife control industry has come up with special screening to install around the panels preventing animal access. But I am sure wildlife eventually will figure out something else. Scott Borthwick owns Estate Wildlife Control. He lives in Canaan, NH with his wife Donna, two dogs, a couple of horses, and one tough old chicken named Henrietta.

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D o you ever wonder what your animal is thinking and feeling? Are there

behavior issues you’re trying to solve? Are there several animals in your household and would you like to understand their dynamics? Are you struggling with end of life decisions? Do you have questions about rescued and adopted animals? I studied with the pioneer in animal communication, Penelope Smith. I love being a professional animal communicator, so I wrote a book called Loving Animals: Conversations with an Animal Communicator. One hundred percent of the proceeds from the book are donated to animal rescue organizations. Here are some excerpts from the book.

wasps, flies, spiders, and ants. There might be more, but I can’t remember then all. Q: I would like to know more about end-of-life chats and how to know when my animal has had enough. A: A clients will want to know if their animal is in pain. I do a body scan and let the person know if their animal is in pain. Many animals aren’t ready to transition and some are. Often the clients senses it’s time and wants me to ask the animal how they feel about it. I’m just the channel to let the client know how their animal is feeling and what they want. Q: Do animals get excited when they are talking to you? A: Yes. Sometimes the animal gets so excited to be asked what they want, that the animal talks so fast, that I hardly have time to tell the client everything the animal is saying. So I have to slow the animal down, which is sometimes challenging. I start laughing and say the client, “Hold on, your dog us just talking so fast. Let me tell you what he’s saying.” Q: Do animals like to communicate with us? A: Yes. They love it. Wouldn’t you love communicating what you want and need to someone and really have them listen to you? Jeannie Lindheim has done many zoom fundraisers in the past year. She shares how animal communication works and techniques she uses to better understand animals. She tells touching stories and shares some techniques that you can use with your animal companions. There also is plenty of time for Q and A. If you know anyone who would like a fundraiser, please email her at jeannielindheim@gmail.com or go to www.youranimalspeaks.com

Q: How do you communicate with animals? A: The connection is telepathic. Everything is energy. I am a channel. My body feel the sensations that your animal is feeling through images, words, taste, sensations, and feelings. Sometimes it’s just a “knowing.” I do consultations on the telephone. It’s important that I identify a quality or some qualities about the client’s animal, to make sure I’m talking to the right animal. One client had a dog who was fourteen years old. I told the clients, “Your dog has a puppy personality, frisky and running around.” The client confirmed that this was exactly what her dog was like. Sometimes my mouth becomes dry before I call a client. When I spoke to one client, I felt her cat was very dehydrated and knew it was urgent that she take her cat to the vet to be hydrated, which she did after our consultation. She emailed me later that day, that the vet agreed that her cat needed immediate hydration. Q: What type of animals have you worked with? A: I’ve worked with dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, hedgehogs, pigs, llamas, alpacas, bearded dragon lizards, donkeys, mules, mice, rats, parrots, rabbits, goldfish, birds (parakeets, pelicans, seagulls, cockatoos, owls, blue herons, cockatiels, loons, hens, chickens), a steer, and insects including Winter 2022

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KEEPING CATS INDOORS What you do to keep them happy and healthy OUR UNIQUE FELINE COMPANIONS

In the wild, cats hunt for food, hide from predators (often by climbing), and defend their home territories. Indoors, these behaviors may look hostile (biting and scratching) or spiteful (climbing, spraying, marking), and we may not like them. The keys to enjoying cats in our lives are to provide acceptable outlets for their natural behaviors and reduce their exposure to threats.

CATS ARE UNIQUE IN A NUMBER OF WAYS • Cats do not have a daily sleep-wake cycle and may want to sleep or play at any hour of the day or night. • Dogs and primates (humans) are cats’ natural predators. By understanding this, we can learn to “get along.” • Cats are not a pack species such as dogs and humans. This makes them more independent and self-contained and also means they learn differently, which can put them at risk for conflict with others.

This checklist was developed to help you learn what indoorhoused cats need to enjoy their lives with you. When making changes, start with what is easiest! Essential resources include:

o Fresh food and water o Litter boxes o Informed owners o Scratching and climbing structures o Rest and relaxation, and safety o Play opportunities SEE DETAILS ON NEXT PAGE >> 30 4 Legs & a Tail

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Because all cats are unique, we can tell what works for most cats, but not what will work for your cat. Please use the checklist below to get you started, and then have fun exploring what works best for you, your cat, and your situation.




Our favorite books for cat owners: From the Cat’s Point of View by G. Bohnenkamp Give each cat his own food and water ISBN: 0964460114 and perfectpaws.com/cpv.html bowl in a safe, quiet place. Some cats prefer different shaped bowls, Cats for Dummies (2nd ed.) by G. Spadafori some like running water, and some may ISBN: 0764552759. not like the taste of some water. OfferYour Home, Their Territory by C. A. Tony Buffington, DVM, PhD, DACVM ing alternatives will let your cat show The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, The Indoor Pet Initiative what it likes. Change food form (e.g., dry to canned) How cats are… only when both the owner and cat want Cats are not “pack animals” like people and dogs, so they respond more to rewards to. (see “ask the cat” section under and are more fearful of punishment (hitting, yelling, “rubbing their nose in it”). informed owners) Instead, we can reward cats for doing what we want by offering food or affection. Once you learn what food and water We can make areas off-limits by using sticky tape, foil, citrus scent, or upsideyour cat likes best, don’t change with- down carpet runners in those places. out “asking” your cat first. Ask the cat! When making changes, always offer any new article, food, litter, etc., next to the familiar one so the cat can tell you if she prefers the new one to the old one.



Cats eliminate to fulfill a fundamental need. They also use eliminations as a way to mark their territory. Since your home is their territory, you can avoid elimination problems by providing an attractive litter box. There are three basic things to consider when setting up a litter box: Litter box hygiene The litter box must be scooped daily and washed weekly with mild dish detergent. Litter box type and size Litter boxes are available in a variety of sizes and shapes. Cats generally prefer large, uncovered litter boxes, about one and a half times the length of the cat. Research has shown that most cats prefer fine-grained, unscented litters. Litter box location and number 1. Cats need quiet and privacy when using their litter box.

Scratching is a natural behavior for cats. Even declawed cats retain the instinct to scratch. Scratching posts provide cats with an outlet for their instinct to scratch, and save your furniture and carpets. Most, but not all, cats prefer scratching posts made out of rough material they can shred. Scratching posts should be stabilized to ensure that they don’t move or tip over and scare your cat while she is using them. Scratching posts should be located in “public” parts of the house that the whole family uses. In multi-cat households there should be several scratching posts, both vertical and horizontal, located throughout the house.


Cats are at their most vulnerable while sleeping, so they prefer to rest in areas where they feel safe and secure. Cat beds can be purchased, but snug blankets and towels are just as appealing to cats and are easy to wash. The refuge should be a place where your cat feels safe and comfortable, for example a bedroom or back room. Your cat can retreat to her refuge when she wants to rest.


Cat play is “pretend hunting” for birds, bugs or mice. Some cats like toys that mimic their favorite prey, such as feather toys, play mice, or pieces of food rolled across the floor. If your cat isn’t interested in toys, he may prefer to be brushed or petted. Don’t let your cat “go in for the kill” on you!

2. The litter box must be easily accessible. 3. The Golden Rule is “one litter box per cat, plus one.” This information is provided courtesy of The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center. Learn more at indoorpet.osu.edu Winter 2022

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Equine Clubs, Associations & Organizations Sue Miller

S ome of you might be new to horses or this area. The prices of horses have

increased as our time of pestilence has given some people the chance to work from home with more free time to follow their passion for horses. I thought I would share some information on several riding clubs and organizations in the Vermont area. You don’t need to be a Vermont resident to join. Many of these clubs and associations have been in existence for years and are great places to meet other likeminded individuals. I know personally, that many of the organizations are always looking for people

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that are willing to serve on the board, volunteer for events, or just be active members. Membership in several of the organizations come with perks as they are affiliated with larger organizations. For a small membership fee in a local organization through the larger organizations there are discounts on insurance, tractors, feed and even purchases from your favorite online tack store and so much more. Please look into and consider joining an organization as without active members these institutions will fold. The Vermont Horse Council was start-

ed in 1975 as a unifying voice for equine enthusiasts in the state. The mission statement is: To promote and protect the interest of all Vermont horsemen and horsewomen. To provide information on the Vermont horse industry, laws and regulations affecting it, and on other related subjects. To be a means of communication between all horsemen and to provide information to the general public. To map, mark, and develop interconnecting riding trails throughout the state of Vermont. To encourage horsemen to respect public and private property rights. To take such action as the general membership directs. The Vermont Horse Council (VHC)has now partnered with Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation to keep open space for trails that include horseback riding & camping. So, if you enjoy trail riding and would like to be able to continue to access great places to ride you might want to consider joining and learning more. The VHC also has scholarships available to adults and youth. The VHC hosts exceptional educational events at low cost or free for members each year. When joining the VHC, you are affiliated with the larger organization The American Horse Council whose mission is: working daily to advocate for the social, economic and legislative interests of the United States equine industry. The Vermont Riding & Driving Association was started in 1970’s for those interested in enjoying the state riding or driving distances. This organization sets up competitive trail rides for distances of 15 to 100 miles that can be enjoyed by horseback or from the seat of your favorite buggy. Do you enjoy showing your horse? Large or small, in hand, driving, sidesaddle, western, over fences, there are shows and exhibitions you can take part of within our little state and within the region. Winter 2022

The Vermont Horse Shows Association (VHSA) is the oldest equine association in the state being established in 1931. The purpose of the club is as follows: To promote, encourage and assist in the holding of horse shows and exhibitions of horses within the state of Vermont and activities allied there-with. To assist in arranging the schedule of horse show dates to the end that conflicts may be avoided. To formulate rules, systems of classification and regulations applicable to all shows held by Horse Show Members of this Association. To encourage and promote the use of horses for pleasure and particularly to promote and extend riding activities within the state of Vermont and further to promote the organization and coordination of riding clubs. Each year the VHSA tries to affiliate with shows around the state to offer horse shows for both English and western riders. There are divisions for green horses/ponies, meaning newly trained, divisions for mini horses, & adults that don’t want to go faster than a trot. If you are hosting a show & are looking for more participants, please consider affiliating your show. The VHSA points the shows and has a wonderful banquet each year for year-end prizes. There are clubs like the Mid State Rid-

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Dog River Horse Club that offers a variety of equine activities from trail rides, to horse shows and clinics. DRHC is a family-oriented club for horse enthusiasts of all ages to encourage, stimulate and promote riding, driving, in-hand, learning, or simply enjoying the closeness of their pasture pal(s). They welcome all abilities of the person and horse, and strongly encourage varied horse events. The DRHC events are mostly hosted in Washington, VT. The Vermont Horsemans Association was started in 1972 in Castleton, VT promoting family-oriented horse activities. They too host open horse shows, an educational horse show, three open gymkhanas, and two trail rides each season. There is also an annual awards "Champ" banquet for the riders who have worked Photo courtesy of Mary Willmuth hard throughout the year. There are clubs that were started to promote specific disciplines of riding. ing Club that was formed in 1949 The Like the Vermont Hunter Jumper Assoclub holds clinics, horse shows, trail rides ciation, The Central Vermont Dressage and participates in local parades. The Association, and Working Equitation club also meets monthly offering educa- Vermont, there are many others. Look tional programs, a chance to voice your on social media typing in your favorite thoughts on club activities and plenty type of discipline to ride to find more of time for visiting with other riders information. and equine enthusiasts. The club has Continued Next Page their own property to host the shows and clinics as does the DRHC.

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The Vermont Hunter Jumper Association offers a variety of member benefits from Scholarships and Programs, participation in our Finals for the Hunter, Jumper and Equitation disciplines, to a comprehensive Year-End Awards program celebrated at their Annual Awards Banquet in February. Learn more about what benefits follow with your VHJA Membership! The CVDA is dedicated to promoting the Art and Sport of Dressage in Central Vermont. They host shows and clinics and also offer a library of information and scholarships. When joining the CVDA you are also joining the larger organization of the United States Dressage Association. Growing in population is the new sport of working equitation. The Working Equitation Vermont is a group dedicated to helping promote the equestrian sport of Working Equitation. They support the national nonprofit Working Equitation United. This sport combines the beauty of dressage, the thrill of speed events, the precision of a trail class, and the skill set of a working ranch horse & can be ridden in English or Western tack. Do you have a favorite breed of horse? Me too! I am a Morgan lover, owner and small breeder. The state has so many breed associations. Most breed associ-

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ations have programs for children with or without horses. The Vermont Morgan Horse Association was started in 1966 to promote and celebrate the Vermont State Animal. The Vermont Appaloosa Club was formed in 1971 to support the ApHC by promoting the Appaloosa breed throughout Vermont. To encourage and foster the interest, growth, and love for the Appaloosa horse by providing fellowship, events, and recognition to Appaloosa owners and those that wish they were. The Vermont Quarter Horse Association officially became a non-profit in 1976 advocating for the benefit of the breed, its owners, and the associated industry of trainers, breeders, tack shops, farriers, boarding facilities, veterinarians, trailer and truck dealers, etc who support and make a living from the breed within the state. The Green Mountain Draft Horse Association was formed to establish friendly communication and encourage the exchange of ideas for the purpose of assisting its members in the areas of breeding, exhibiting, buying, selling and promoting the varied uses of draft horses, mules, ponies and oxen. If you like working in hand (leading with a lead-rope) or at liberty (off lead) there are virtual agility competitions. Agility is much like dog agility which is asking your equine companion to walk over around and through different obstacles. These are just a small glimpse of the organizations, associations and clubs that you can join in our small state. With the disadvantage of Covid and social distancing many organizations have offered virtual competitions. Many top name trainers have begun to offer online trainings and lessons that you can take advantage of from the comfort of your favorite chair. You don’t have to be competitive in different riding disciplines to enjoy horses. There are many people that raise horses, or enjoy the connection and bond they create with these sentient beings never caring to ride or drive. To offer best practices and be aware of changing political issues and environmental impacts, it would behoove a caring horse owner to join organizations to remain in the know about the latest trends in care, feeding and training. I hope you consider looking into one of the organizations mentioned, visit their websites or find one from an online search that sparks an interest for you and your equine companion. These organizations can only be as strong as their memberships voice. Join to share your ideas. You can help shape how equines are enjoyed in the state in the future. Winter 2022

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Purchasing Your First Horse A re you ready to jump into the world of horse ownership? As enthusi-

astic equestrians at The Cheshire Horse, we understand how exciting this time is! We also understand how important it is to select the right horse to fit your needs. In this blog, we take a look at the important things to consider before you head out horse shopping. Before we begin, many first-time horse owners may choose to board their new horse (keep it at a dedicated equine facility) for the first few months. This is a wonderful idea because you will have an equine professional close by to help you with your horse’s day-to-day management. Other people may choose to bring their horse home to live in their backyard if they have the space to do so. If you are planning to move your new horse to live on your property, we recommend that you read our previous blog post in this series, Bringing Your First Horse Home. Regardless of your plans, it is important that you have a place to keep your horse before you begin horse shopping.

Beginning Your Journey As a beginner equestrian looking for a horse, it is very important to work with an equine professional or an experienced horse person that you trust. Not only will a professional have the skills necessary to find the right horse for you, but they will also prevent you from making unwise decisions from inexperience. “If you are going to be a first-time horse owner, it can be very beneficial to find a riding or driving buddy who is experienced and willing to help,” Dr. Werner of Vermont/New Hampshire Vet Clinic in Dummerston, VT, explains. “It can also be very beneficial to board your horse for a time at a facility that can help you build your knowledge while keeping experienced eyes on your horse.” Working with a professional or experienced equestrian, it is important to decide exactly what type of horse you will need as your first horse. Many beginners benefit from purchasing an older horse, one that has “been there and done that.” While there is a definite tempta-

tion to purchase a young horse to “grow with” or a green (inexperienced) horse, this should be avoided, especially if you will not be working with an equine professional or keeping your horse in a training program. It is also important to establish your budget before shopping so that you are only looking at horses that you can afford. When you are looking for your first horse, it is recommended that you purchase an older horse that is trained to perform the job that you will require of it. For example, do you want to trail ride your horse? Or do you want to compete in hunter/jumper competitions? Both of these will require different horses with different skill sets, so you will want to look for horses with similar experiences that fit your goals. Choosing Horses to Look At There are a number of different places to begin your horse search. You may find that word-of-mouth in your local equestrian community is a great start to find horses that are appropriate for

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you. Additionally, your riding instructor may know of other horse professionals that have horses for sale. To expand your search, you can also utilize the internet, including websites such as DreamHorse, EquineNow, and Facebook horse sales pages. If you are looking at horses outside of your general area, you will also want to consider the costs of going to try the horse as well as the expenses associated with trucking the horse home if you choose to purchase it. When selecting a horse, breed and color are not as impor tant as age, experience, and overall temperament. Beginner riders often prefer geldings (castrated males) due to a more placid personality, but calm mares (females) are also a wonderful choice. Stallions (intact males), pregnant mares, and foals (baby horses) should not be considered. Some breeds, Quarter Horses and Paints, for example, are known for quiet dispositions and steady temperaments. Other breeds, such as Arabians and Thoroughbreds, may be spookier (more reactive) and more excitable. While the breed can give you clues about the horse’s personality, it is important to evaluate each horse as an individual. The size of your horse is also important to take into consideration. Horses and ponies are measured in “hands” or 4-inch increments. This means that a horse that is 15 hands tall is 60 inches tall. If you see a horse advertised as measuring 16.3hh, this will mean that the horse is 16 hands and 3 inches tall, or 67 inches tall at the wither (the bony portion of the horse’s upper back where the neck attaches). Ponies are any equine that measures 14.2hh (58 inches) or smaller, while a horse is any equine that measures over 14.2hh. Generally, average adults will want a small or standard horse to begin their riding career, while many petite adults and children will enjoy large ponies. While small ponies are adorable, they may also be more difficult because full-size adults are not able to ride them. Your riding instructor can help guide you to find an appropriately sized horse that is suitable for you. As you look for horses, you may find that the ads read like an entirely different language! And, it’s true, equestrians have a vernacular all of their own! Here are some terms that you may find in your horse search and what they mean to you: Aged: Typically means a horse over seven years old. Barn Sour: A horse that does not like to leave the barn when being ridden. Barefoot: A horse that does not wear horseshoes. Cob: Used to describe a stockier built horse or pony. Winter 2022

Conformation: The way a horse is put together. Cribber: A horse that chews on fencing and stall walls and sucks on air (not desirable). Dam: The mother of a horse. Gaited: A horse that performs additional gaits from the typical walk, trot, and canter. Grade: A mixed-breed horse, not registered. Green: An inexperienced horse with little training (not suitable for beginners). Hand: A unit of measurement, 4 inches. Hard Mouthed: A horse that resists or pulls on the bit. Head Shy: A horse that does not like his or her face touched. Just Backed: A horse who had just recently been introduced to the weight of a rider not suitable for beginners). Lame: A horse that limps when it moves. OT T B : Stands for Off The Track Thoroughbred. Pasture Sound: A lame horse who is not suitable for riding. Pushy: A horse that does not respect your personal space. PPE: A pre-purchase exam. This is where a veterinarian evaluates the horse to determine if it is appropriate for your use. Ring Sour: A horse that does not enjoy being ridden in the arena.

Sire: The father of a horse. Soft Mouthed: A horse that is very responsive to the rein aids and needs educated hands to ride. Sound: A horse that is free from injury. Spooky: A jumpy horse that is often afraid of new surroundings. Weanling: A foal that has just been removed from his or her mother’s side. Well Broke: A horse that has large amounts of training, may be appropriate for a beginner rider. Yearling: A horse that is a year old. Narrowing the Search The right horse for you will depend on your riding experience and your equestrian aspirations. For the first-time horse owner, it is important to find a horse that is calm, mannerly, well-trained, and respectful of people. When you are shopping for a horse, be sure to ask as many questions as possible, including seemingly obvious questions like: What should I know about this horse’s behavior? What are this horse’s best qualities? What is the worst thing that this horse does? Who is currently riding this horse? By treating the horse buying process like a job interview, you can be assured that you are finding the right horse to fit into your family. Make sure that you Continued Next Page

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ask questions about the horse’s history so that you can learn as much about them as possible. For instance, Where did this horse come from originally? Who were the previous owners? Has it had any difficulties with riders in the past? Does it have any history of lameness? In addition to asking about the soundness of the horse, be sure to request the veterinarian records from the owner if you are seriously considering purchasing the horse. This will give you a health and soundness baseline. Additionally, here are some more questions that you may want to ask the owner: • Why are you selling the horse? • Do they have any vices (bad habits)? • How often do you ride the horse? • What does the horse do after time off? • Does the horse go out on trails alone? • How are they in the pasture? Friendly? Submissive? • How much groundwork have they done? • Do they need a firm handler? • Do they respect electric fencing? • How do they handle new environments? • How do they act at horse shows? • Are they good around cars? • How do they handle fly spray? • Are they easy to bathe? • What is their diet? • Do they spend most of their time in the pasture or in the stall? • What bit(s) do you ride them in?

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• When was the last time they had their teeth done? • Are they good for the farrier? • Are they good for the vet? • Have they been handled by children? The answers to these questions will help you to narrow down your search. Deciding on the Right Horse After you have decided on a few horses that look good “on paper,” it is time to go visit them. This is perhaps the most important step in the process. Make sure that you are hyper-observant to everything pertaining to the horse. Be sure to handle the horse to make sure that you are comfortable with them. Put their halter on, lead them, pick their feet, and groom them. You will want to make sure that you can confidently perform these actions after your horse comes home. You will want to make sure that you take your time through this process and do not rush. Before you ride the horse, ask the owner or the trainer of the horse to ride it first. This will allow you to evaluate it and see if you feel comfortable riding it. If the horse appears to be erratic or too reactive for your riding abilities, it is always acceptable to decline to ride the horse. Be sure that when you are horse shopping, you keep your safety at the forefront of your mind. Pay attention

to what tack the horse is wearing and be willing to ask questions regarding tack that you are not familiar with. For instance, if the horse is wearing a martingale or draw reins (training equipment), you may want to ask why the horse is wearing it and ask to see it ridden without the equipment before you choose to mount the horse. Prior to mounting the horse, make sure you are equipped with the appropriate apparel, including a helmet and heeled boots. If possible, have your instructor come with you to evaluate the horse. They can also give you a mini-lesson on the horse to help you ascertain if it is a good fit for you. Your instructor is aware of your skill set and experience, so they are an invaluable resource. Also, consider bringing someone with you to video the horse. This will allow you to refer back to your ride later, it also allows you to see what you look like on the horse. Having an experienced horse person that you trust is so important as you enter the journey of purchasing a horse. They will be able to tell you if the horse is sound (not lame) and will also be able to help you ascertain if the horse has the appropriate temperament and training level for you. You should ride the horse in a variety of different situations, and on different days, if possible. This will help you to determine

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if this horse will fit your needs. It is essential that you think logically through this process and do your best not to fall in love with the first horse that you try out. Make sure that you listen to this trusted horse person, especially if they tell you that a certain horse is not the right horse for you. After you have found your potential horse, you will want to have another equine professional evaluate them: your veterinarian. During this process, the veterinarian will take your desired purpose into consideration and make sure that the horse will hold up to the workload. They will perform a full soundness examination, and, in some cases, take an array of x-rays to make sure that there are no signs of underlying conditions that may cause the horse to be lame later in life. The cost of a pre-purchase exam may seem expensive at the onset, but it is well worth the money because it is a safeguard against future issues. Sometimes, sellers will allow you to take the horse home on a trial. This allows you to have a couple of weeks to get to know the horse and ride it multiple times to determine if it is appropriate for you. If you choose to take the horse on a trial, be sure that you obtain mortality insurance and loss-of-use insurance so that you are not liable if something happens to the horse while under your care. If you decide to move forward with the purchase of the horse, it is essential that you give them ample time to settle into your farm. Moving to a new home is stressful for a horse. In fact, it may take them up to three months to return to the horse that you purchased. But, with a consistent schedule and a bit of patience, your new horse will quickly become a member of your family. Generally speaking, horses are herd animals and do best with a “buddy.” Before purchasing a horse, decide if you want two horses or if you would be better served with another animal such as a miniature horse, donkey, or goat to keep your horse company. Many horses who are alone become lonely and depressed, they may also be more anxious. To make the move to your home as seamless as possible, try to keep the environment calm with a friend to keep them company. If this process of purchasing a horse seems overwhelming, there are other ways to become involved that do not include buying a horse. Consider leasing a horse, where you are able to take on the responsibilities of horse ownership without a lengthy commitment. Many barns offer leasing and half-leasing options, where you are able to pay a set fee for the use of the horse, while also taking on its expenses. Every barn’s lease program is set up a bit differently, so it is important to work with your barn owner to determine exactly what is expected of you (the lessee) and what the expectations are of the horse owner (the lessor). The nice part about leasing a horse is that you are able to feel like the horse is your very own and build a relationship with them. With proper guidance, purchasing your first horse can be a fun and exciting time. We hope that you will continue to read our blog series for more information regarding housing for horses, horse nutrition for the first-time horse buyer, and basic tack needs. This is Part 1 of a 6 part series. To read more, visit our blog at blog.cheshirehorse.com/tag/new-horse-owners At The Cheshire Horse, we carry everything that you need to jump into horse ownership. If you have any questions regarding tack, equipment, and stable supplies for your horse, we invite you to contact a member of our friendly and knowledgeable sales staff. To learn more about purchasing a new horse visit www.CheshireHorse.com Winter 2022

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Hanging in the Balance… Dorothy Crosby - Stoddard, NH

S tand up, feet shoulder-width apart, with knees relaxed and slightly bent.

Close your eyes and observe your body: does it move; how? Is it still? Is anything tight? Feel how the weight is distributed on your feet; insides, outsides, all over? Take a deep breath, wiggle your toes and observe again…. Experiment: hold your breath, lock your knees, tighten your back, drop your head….and observe what happens each time. Now, lean a little too far forward and feel what changes; what tightens, or which parts of you are affected? Then lean a little too far back and observe what happens; identify which parts of your body are changed and how. Most likely you felt some movement, even slight while breathing and standing with your eyes closed. This is normal since the earth is spinning underneath us and our bodies are a composite of moving fluids and air! Putting yourself out of balance caused some compensation, probably in the form of tightness, to maintain your upright position; each experiment in intentionally tightening or moving something made you acutely aware of your body having to work to maintain homeostasis. Sally Swift describes her fourth Basic as Building Blocks; there are five blocks, each different areas of our bodies that

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must be in alignment for us to achieve balance. Beginning with the legs and feet on the bottom, the next blocks are the pelvis, the rib cage, the shoulders, and finally the neck and head. It’s only when we are balanced over our feet – ears over shoulders, those over hip joints, hips over ankles - that we are in a relaxed state and can feel secure and achieve stability. Without balance, whether on a horse or not, we spend our entire time trying to find it, using muscles and effort to be stable and not fall! Many of my students have been working to improve their balance in an effort to also recognize and restore it – or the lack thereof! A challenging task for some, especially those either unaware of their own tension or lack of flexibility or those very aware of how much movement is generated underneath them, their instinct is to grip, tighten, or hold on in some way in order to maintain security and not fall off, or simply stay upright and in a fluid motion. It is counter-intuitive to “let go” and allow ourselves to move in places we did not choose or orchestrate! We are, after all, moving creatures with great self-control trying to stay securely atop a much larger and more powerful moving creature! But it is truly more effective and successful for both human and equine for the human to let go, relax, and let the horse move them. Only then can they truly dance together with mutual pleasure and in balance. The key is in finding the place where one balances over their own feet, even while sitting on a horse. We must sit, stand, kneel and squat all at the same time! Look at someone sitting in a chair; their legs are in front of them, not underneath, and they can feel and look in balance because the furniture under them is still and provides support. When we stand on our own, we have to be in alignment – as in Sally Swift’s Building Blocks – in order to stay upright without fighting for it. With

joints relaxed and able to bend, the various parts of our bodies can move as needed; our knees can slide and drop, our ankles can flex, and we can kneel and squat as well as stand and sit! Next time you are mounted, stand up, feet in the stirrups, and see how stable you are. You may tilt forward or backward to compensate for an alignment that needs a little help; one or more of your Building Blocks is slightly out of place. Now try dropping into your knees a little, letting them bend a bit; don’t straighten them to stand up taller. Take a deep breath; feel yourself sink first into your knees and then allow some weight to drop into your feet so that your weight is more evenly distributed down your leg. Just before sitting, tuck your seat just a little, allowing your knees to “walk” you into a sitting position. Find that “sweet spot” where your seat bones rest comfortably with your legs under them! Repeat a few times to recognize and own the feeling. Try this at a standstill and eventually a walk, observing yourself and reinforcing the position that will become your stabilizing support, regardless of the seat you ride. Life requires balance in so many areas; our horses will reflect – and appreciate – every moment we achieve it, whether in the saddle or on the ground! Owner of Equi-librium and based in Stoddard NH, Dorothy Crosby is certified as both a Level III Centered Riding®Clinician/Instructor and CHA English and Western Instructor. Director of the Riding Program and Barn Manager at Southmowing Stables in Guilford VT, she loves working with riders and horses of all ages and abilities. Recently certified with Conformation Balancing, a program for fascia release in horses, Dorothy loves the softening and changes in the horses. Dorothy offers clinics, lessons, workshops, and fascia release bodywork sessions both on and off the farm. Winter 2022

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Bravo for Bravo Sarah Tuck Gillens

I n 1956, I was just a pup. I woke up one morning six feet from the f loor,

cradled in the warm hands and silky beard of a tall man, John Tuck, Jr., a Naval Seabee officer known as Jack. My name is Bravo. I was born at McMurdo Station in the Antarctic. Jack’s job was to handle sled dogs. My job was to follow Jack around. “How’s that pup of yours?”asked an older trainer, Dutch Dolleman. “Bravo’s growing bigger every day, watches everything like he knows something important is going to happen.” Jack replied setting me down in the dog pen. Jack smelled like leather, he and Dutch were making sled dog harnesses. I ran over to Mom who sniffed me all over. She said that Dutch knew a lot about dogs and surviving in cold climates. Settlements would be built around Antarctica as the International Geophysical Year was starting, the first worldwide scientific survey of our planet. Scientists would come from all over the world to study the climate, the environment, and atmosphere. My brother

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and I do our own studies of the environment at our dog hut, “Dogheim”. We sniff the frosty air and smell penguins. We dig the hard packed ice and find more ice. We watch the sky come alive with shooting, waving colors at night, it makes our hair stand on end. “Mom, what’s your job when you are done raising us?” I asked as I burrowed into her thick fur. “We dogs are here just in case,” Mom said, “If any transport planes land and can’t get back to McMurdo, then drivers, dogs, and sleds would be dropped by parachutes for a rescue operation.” “Yikes ! I’m glad we’re not sled dogs yet!” I wandered outside and listened to Jack and Dutch. Jack had graduated from Dartmouth College and studied reindeer in Greenland. When he heard about this opportunity, he wanted the Navy to send him. He worked with the other Seabees gathered around Dick Bowers, the building leader. I loved listening to the plans for the pole. Dick was warning the guys about the dangerous, difficult adventure ahead. “No one has attempted this before. We’ll be about 850 miles inland from here and 9000 feet about sea level. We’ll be flown in by ski planes and our supplies will be dropped from the air. October is the start of summer here so we can expect temperatures to rise to around zero degrees. We will have some blizzards but the sun will be visible until March.” “What’s the first building to be erected?” asked Jack. “We’ll build a Quonset hut with a heater and cook stove. Some men may sleep in tents and some will sleep inside,” Dick answered. “We’ll use the bulldozer to even out the ice and snow for the bases of all the other buildings, if it drops from the plane safely.” “Heater and cook stove,” sounded good to my puppy ears. I wasn’t sure about bulldozers falling from the sky, that sounded scary!. Our mom taught us survival skills such as digging into the snow to keep warm in a blizzard. I was hoping these men knew how to dig in too! The time of departure for the pole arrived, but so did bad weather. After several days of frantic activity, the men and equipment settled down like new fallen snow. Piles of bags were everywhere and the sled dogs, going to the pole, were snoozing. Winter 2022

“Why aren’t they more excited?” I yipped to my brother, as I paced in my pen pleading to go. I wanted to be with the guys; Jack, Bowers, Bristol, Woody, Montgomery, Nolen, Randall, and Powell. No one had ever lived at the pole, it was an awful place. Now these men were going to build places to live for the winter and carry out science projects like: movement of glaciers, gravity experiments, seismology studies, the airglow and auroras, geomagnetism, ionosphere physics, and cosmic rays. I sensed that these brave men were anxious, but they were strong and smart too. I loved to watch them work together, joking as they got a lot done. I wanted to be part of the fun and work with Jack! On November 20, 1956, I watched two ski planes with Jack, Lt. Bowers and his crew of builders, and eleven sled dogs take off. A third ski plane carried more men, and big Globemaster planes flew along to help locate the Pole, drop the dog food, sled and harnesses, and heavy equipment. I thought my heart would break when Jack climbed into the plane and disappeared. I ran in circles in my pen until Old Dutch came over and held me tightly against his big jacket. “He’ll be back. He’ll be OK,” Dutch kept telling me. “29 degrees below zero at the pole, the men are in tents and the dogs are sleeping outside,” I heard the radioman report to Dutch. Brrrr! Supplies were streaming onto the pole damaged, because the ropes tying them to parachutes broke when released from the supply planes. One bulldozer buried itself thirty feet in the snow. Parachutes would land and sail away across the snow because of high winds. I love to chase things, but the men were getting tired of chasing them down, and wanted to solve the problem. Continued Next Page

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Photograph by: Cliff Dickey, National Science Foundation, Date Taken: Austral winter 1957

A week later the scientist, Dr. Siple, came to visit Dutch. He said that mail was delivered for the first time at the South Pole. Dr. Siple was a big man, a leader. I sat and behaved myself when he was around. He told Dutch that Jack had been asked to be the Navy officer in charge at the pole “You’re mighty lucky,” he told Siple, “Jack’s as fine as they come. This pup Bravo, you’ve been eyeing as mascot for the Pole Station will be all yours now. He’s really Jack’s dog, and Jack will insist on having him.” Jack came back to McMurdo to work out a solution for the wrecked supplies. I turned myself inside out, I was so glad to see him! Jack let me roam around with him and played tug of war with me. He tied supplies onto wooden pallets and wrapped them in canvas. Hopefully these pallets would drop safely. Besides building materials, delicate scientific equipment would be flown in by ski planes along with nine scientists led by Dr. Paul Siple. “I just heard the admiral has appointed you as the Navy support officer in charge at the pole this winter. Long, dark days in that awful cold, what are you going to do for entertainment?” Dutch said, smiling at Jack, but winking at me. “Dutch, we’ve seen most of the movies by now. The men like to read and we plan to give lectures.” Jack turned and looked at me. I sat very still except for my tail, which couldn’t help but wag. “What do you say, Bravo? Do you want to spend the winter with eighteen guys and a lot of cold weather?” Jack asked as he hugged me. I licked his bearded face and howled in delight. All I needed was to be with Jack. We were off on a great adventure!

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Sarah Gillens lives in Plainfield, NH, is an Medical Technologist and writes stories that will interest children in science and history. Finding her distant relative, Jack Tuck, led to this story about Jack’s dog, Bravo Winter 2022

T wins John Lamperti - Norwich, VT

P age and I know two lovely little twins, named Julie and Cassie. I

think their names are short for Juliette and Cassandra, but they aren’t saying. Sometimes they look alike, but other times they’re very different. Far from identical! They are staying in our house, for a while or maybe forever. We’ve become very fond of them both. They are very different little people too. When we first knew them, Julie was quite shy, but not Cassie. She wanted to make friends right away, and now we’ve become quite close. She and I hang out together often, while Julie usually just says hello and goes her own way. But there’s one little exception: Julie is always ready to help Page make the bed in the morning, while Cassie sits and watches. Otherwise they don’t offer much help with chores. But we think they are both charming, and they make us laugh. One day our living room rug seemed a bit lumpy. Page lifted up one corner and we found two ballpoint pens underneath it. Later that day we saw one of those twins – was it Cassie? – turn up the rug to hide something once more, and not for the last time. They think it’s a storage place for their toys! Julie is the adventurer. She’s a great climber and loves to visit high places; it scares me to watch her. And she goes off on her own sometimes. Once she stayed away two days and two nights, and we were very worried. But then she turned up home again, safe and sound. We decided we’d never let her do that again! I see one of them right now, taking a quick nap under a table. I love them both, although by now Cassie is my special friend. I’ve never known anyone like her. She appears at night sometimes, and climbs into bed to sleep with us. Just for a little while. Did I forget to explain? Julie and Cassie are beautiful little cats. And today we discovered some hidden depths. I said that Julie has a little ritual. Every morning when Page makes the bed where we’ve slept she comes running to “help,” or else maybe she is Winter 2022

already there waiting. It’s a game she seems to love, getting the covers thrown over her and finding her way out. This house has a spare guest bedroom which lately doesn’t get much use. Today, however, some of Page’s family are visiting and she decided to change the sheets. After laundering the used ones, she carried them to that spare room and left them on the bed to fix up later. The day got underway. We finished the Times crossword as usual and while I did the breakfast dishes Page went to make up that guest room bed. There on the bed was Julie, waiting for her to arrive so their usual game could begin. And it did. I was amazed; she and Page never make the bed in that room, always in the room where we sleep. How did Julie

know it would be the guest room this one time? I think she saw the pile of new sheets and understood what was coming, so that’s where she waited. And it worked; she got her game in a new place for the first time. Julie is one smart little cat!

And here they are. Aren’t they wonderful? – John

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A Dog on the Battlefield and the Character of George Washington Kate Kelly

G eorge Washington was said to have been a man who loved dogs and

The Marquis de Lafayette was known to have sent seven staghounds to George owned many. He was an avid hunter, Washington in a sign of friendship. A and most of his dogs would have been photo of this breed shows a likeness to used for hunting. what we know today as greyhounds. In colonial times, these dogs were great hunters, but they were bred to hunt via speed and sight; scent was not key to their hunting ability. Sweet Lips, Scentwell, and Vulcan were the names of three of Washington’s staghounds. Washington also owned Black and Tan Coonhounds. These dogs were scent hounds, and those whose names are known were called Drunkard, Taster, Tippler, and Tipsy (It would be nice to know more about this choice of names!). One source says that Washington bred the Black and Tan Coonhounds with the Staghounds, which may have resulted in Americas first fox hounds. But a story about a dog found on a 46 4 Legs & a Tail

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battlefield reveals a great deal about the character of the man who was to be our first President. The Battle of Germantown In July of 1777 British General William Howe started moving his forces toward Philadelphia in an effort to seize the city that was serving as the revolutionary capital. Washington and the Continental Army had suffered a couple of serious defeats in September of 1777, and then Cornwallis successfully marched into Philadelphia and claimed it for the British, so American spirits were low. General Howe arranged for the next move for the British, and he sent of his men off to Germantown. With winter approaching, Washington felt he had time for one more attack, and with the British forces spreading out, Washington thought his men might be able to overtake those at the garrison in Germantown. While Washington’s plan was a brave one–and if successful, it could have made a huge difference in the war. However, Washington did not accomplish his goal. He over-estimated his men’s preparedness, and the plan, which required coordination among spread-out units, was plagued by incredibly foggy weather. The men could not coordinate their movements because they could not see what was happening on the battlefield. The British were again successful, assuring that Philadelphia would remain in British hands for the remainder of the war. Small Dog Found After the battle, a small dog was found on the battlefield, and when the Americans capture the dog, they saw from his collar that he belonged to General Howe. Washington’s men wanted to hold the dog in retribution for their defeat at the hands of Howe’s men. Washington saw the situation from a different view, and he arranged for a messenger to return the dog to Howe with a two-line letter:

While many of the stories about Washington’s character seem to have been created by his earliest biographer, Parson Weems, this lovely story of kindness and gallantry is one that can be fully documented as a draft of the note still exists. It is written in the handwriting of Washington’s aide-de-camp Alexander Hamilton, and the note can be found is in the Washington Papers at the Library of Congress.

“General Washington’s compliments to General Howe, does himself the pleasure to return [to] him a Dog, which accidentally fell into his hands, and by the inscription on the Collar appears to belong to General Howe.” Winter 2022

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very old dog lived with a young boy. They were best friends. Every day they would play together. The boy could not throw far and the dog could not run fast, but they always had fun. The dog was old and did not see well. Her eyes would twinkle and her tail would thump whenever her boy came near.

Under the Dog Star Cindra Conison - Montpelier, VT

These are challenging times in which we find ourselves. Times of pestilence. Times of economic insecurity. To the outside world, the loss of a canine or feline member of the family ranks low on the list of concerns. But inside the family, there is no pain more immediate. No pain more pressing. The best that I can wish for is that a sense of grace envelops you and yours in the ever comforting light of the night sky above us all tonight and forever.

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Every night the boy would gently rub the dog’s sore hips and cover her with his blanket. The dog would lick the boy’s face and press her wet nose into the creases of his neck and they would fall asleep together. One morning, the boy woke up and called his dog. She did not come.”Where is my dog?” the boy cried. His mother gently held him in her arms and said, “She left last night for the Dog Star. Her legs were old and sore. It was time for her to return home.” “But this is her home!” sobbed the boy. “She left this for you,” said his mother, as she handed him a sheet of paper with a paw print and her tags attached to it. Days and nights passed and the boy cried and cried. One night, his grandfather came to see him. “Come walk with me”, the grandfather said. They walked through the dark and starry night. “I miss my dog”, sobbed the boy. “I am afraid that I will forget her.” The grandfather took his hand and quietly said, “Stand still...Be quiet. Put your hand on your chest. The beating of your heart is the thumping of her tail when she sees you.” You can feel her “Reach out and feel the wind...It is your dog running after her ball.” You can feel her “Lie on the grass; you can feel her soft fur touching you.” “The gentle rains are her kisses on your cheek.” You can feel her “One the coldest days, the wet snow on your neck is her nose pressing against you.” You can feel her

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His grandfather pointed to the night sky. “Look up. That shining star right there is the Dog Star. The bright twinkling starlight is her eyes forever watching over her very best friend.” The boy looked up and cried, “But sometimes nights are cloudy and we won’t be able to see each other.” “Come with me”, his grandfather said quietly. They went inside the house, and straight to the boy’s bedroom. “Look out the window. Find the Dog Star.” The boy touched a spot on the glass. His grandfather took a piece of soap from his pocket. He drew a dog star on the window. “As long as there are stars in the sky, you will always be together”, whispered his grandfather. The tears stopped, and the boy would forever sleep under the light of the Dog Star.

Under The Dog Star was actually written several decades ago for a very special boy who is now a grown man; our son. My short fable provided a small person the solace needed to process his immense grief. Over time, it has allowed the three of us to share the pain in the open which was so important. The fable has also helped many others that I have shared it with over the years. The Quirky Pet is a small pet shop in a small town. I know when a dog is simply gone from the person’s face when they enter my store. I knew their dog by name. They know that I will always be emotionally there for them. In the decades since the fable was written, a handful of dogs have transitioned from our family. A casual glance at the starry Vermont sky. For me, they all are as present as can be. In truth, the little boy forever resides in us all. I am no exception.

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Short Lower Jaw. Don’t Just Sit and Watch, Do Something Sandra L. Waugh VMD, MS - Windsor Pet Dental

Every year I examine puppies whose jaws are not growing properly. I would really like these puppies to come when they are 8 weeks of age. Treatment for these abnormalities must be started as soon as possible. Too often owners are given the advise to “wait and see” rather than taking immediate action. Many puppies get their first vaccinations at 8 weeks of age and if the jaws are not matched in length action should be immediately be taken. This is a dog who was not treated as a puppy. Dog jaws are very powerful and a large hole in the roof of the mouth can result from impact from a canine tooth.

This hole in the hard palate is what can result from a lower jaw canine digging into the hard palate over time. This is an adult dog.

Treatment: The lower canines were shortened and immediately capped and the lower incisors were extracted.

How the teeth come together is called Occlusion. In the front of the mouth the normal occlusion is very tightly spaced. Unmatched jaw lengths result in a Malocclusion. Let’s review how the jaw grows in a young dog. As the upper jaw grows forward the maxillary canines press on the mandibular canines and “push” the mandible along. As the mandible grows forward, the mandibular incisors press on the maxillary incisors and “push” the maxilla ahead. in this way the proper relationship between the jaws is maintained until the full growth has occurred. When the mouth is opened and closed, the teeth do not hit the opposing soft tissue and the dog is free of oral pain. Maxillary Canine

Maxillary Third Incisor

Maxillary Incisors

These are adult teeth. The deciduous teeth should also have this pattern.

Normal bite in a dog.

Mandibular Canine 50 4 Legs & a Tail

Mandibular Incisors Winter 2022

What happens when the jaws are not in this relationship? If the mandible is much shorter than the maxilla, the lower incisors and canines will impact onto the roof of the mouth and dig into it. This will mechanically impede the growth of the mandible leaving it permanently short or causing it to bend in the middle and bow out below.

Sometimes if the mandibular canine is close to where it should be, the soft tissue in the area can be removed, allowing the canine to go into a more normal position. This is the same dog as in the Normal Bite in a Dog picture. This puppy was lucky, as his malocclusion was not too severe. Early treatment allowed his mandible to grow a bit longer.

This dog has some adult teeth and some deciduous teeth. The canine teeth are all deciduous teeth.

Early consultation with a veterinary dentist will give the puppy the best chance to grow out a normal mandible. As time goes by, this growth will no longer occur and other procedures will need to be used to result in a painfree mouth.

Deciduous teeth might look small but they are very sharp! When they dig into the soft tissues inside the mouth it creates a great deal of pain for the puppy. Often these puppies become very head shy and reluctant to allow anyone to look into the mouth. They may not eat well due to the pain and this will affect their growth. What can be done? Removing the teeth that are impacting on the inside of the mouth has two benefits. First, it will immediately relieve the pain. Second it will allow the short jaw the opportunity to grow. However, there is a big time constraint. The adult incisors will start erupting at 3-4 months of age, and very quickly grow enough to impact the tissues on the inside of the mouth again resulting in impeding the growth of the jaw.

These mandibular deciduous canine teeth (green arrows) are digging into the hard palate. Winter 2022

Dr. Waugh is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. She also holds a Masters Degree from Washington State University of Veterinary Medicine and is owner of Windsor Pet Dental, PLC. www.4LegsAndATail.com 51

Why the Delay in Veterinary Care? M. Kathleen Shaw DVM - Vermont Veterinary Medical Association

S ince the beginning of the pandemic, pet owners have noticed that it is taking

longer to get appointments at their veterinarians for well visits, surgeries, and even urgent cases. Appointments that could usually have been scheduled in a week now have to wait for 2 or more at times. What in the world is going on?

According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, although many people adopted new pets during the CoVID pandemic in 2020, the number was actually at a 5-year low. However, there were enough new pets combined with the demand back log for existing clients that has driven the demand for veterinary services. When the pandemic first hit, many clinics closed, or saw only emergencies in the spring of 2020. This created a logjam in demand for services. As front-line workers, practices had to adopt changes related to deep cleaning after every appointment, transitioning to curbside care, and often, splitting the staff into rotating teams which contributed to scheduling and efficiency challenges. All of this takes extra time, so veterinarians were not able to see as many appointments in a day. Add to that trying to help see other clinics’ urgent cases when they were not open and the emergency clinics were overwhelmed, and it means a longer wait for clients. Before the rapid test, if an employee had or was suspected to have/been exposed to CoVID, they had to stay home for several days at the direction of the state and national medical advisors while awaiting results. In fact, many clinics are still seeing cases of CoVID which makes them even more short staffed. This, a higher work load, and less efficiency has led to increased stress levels experienced by veterinarians and support staff. This in turn leads to compassion fatigue, burn out and high levels of staff turnover in both general practice and emergency practices. The veterinary profession is facing

staff shortages, just like many other businesses and in our profession, there is significant training that needs to be undertaken to be a receptionist, technician, or assistant. We understand the frustration of not always being able to have your pet seen immediately, and veterinarians are working extra hard to try to meet the increased demand and continue to provide the best care for your pets. We truly want to help you and your pets: it is just that we can only do so much with the limited doctors and support staff that we have. Your patience and kindness during these busy times is much appreciated. Please understand that when you call, the receptionists and other support staff care deeply about your pet and want to help you. It is not a matter of ‘squeezing you in’ where they can— there are often literally no more slots for the doctors to do this and there are limited human resources. So, what can you do to help out? First of all, plan your yearly exams or new animal exams well in advance. Keep your pets on the recommended f lea and tick and heartworm preventative to help eliminate these parasite infestations and the associated skin and tick diseases associated with them. When you see you are getting low on a medication that your pet needs every day, call at least 3 days in advance, to give the clinic time to get the refill ready. If you have concerns about your pet, call us as soon as possible as it may take time to get an appointment scheduled. If your pet gets better before the appointment- please call us as soon as possible to cancel the appointment: so that the appointment time can be used for another animal. Be aware that the animal emergency clinics, just as human ERs will triage patients and the critical cases will get priority. We are all in this together and we thank you for your patience and kindness while we continue to work to provide you and your pets with the best medical care. The Vermont Veterinary Medical Association (VVMA) is a professional organization of 380 veterinarians dedicated to compassionate animal care and quality medicine.

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Help For Your Pet Sue Skaskiw - VVSA Humane Society Director / VSNIP Administrator

T he VT Spay Neuter Incentive Program (“VSNIP”), under the oversight

of the VT Economic Services Department, administered by VT Volunteer Services for Animals Humane Society, helps financially challenged Vermont residents spay/neuter cats and dogs for $27.00. The balance is paid by fellow Vermonters when dogs are licensed by an added $4.00 fee. This is the major funding for this important program. Funds are limited by the number of dogs licensed, which is required by law. A current rabies vaccination is required to register. A rabies vaccination can be administered after 12 weeks of age, and dogs are required to be licensed by six months of age.

Look for Rabies Clinics in March, call your veterinarian and ask the cost of only a rabies vaccination, or call your nearest Tractor Supply Store for their monthly Rabies Clinic schedule. Rabies IS in Vermont and it IS deadly To receive a VSNIP application, send a S.A.S.E to: VSNIP, PO Box 104, Bridgewater, VT 05034. Indicate if it’s for a cat/ dog or both. For more information, call 802-672-5302. VVSA is also seeking volunteers to help with a variety of programs, including the administration of VSNIP. Our office is in Bridgewater. Experience in Excel data entry, Outlook Office 365, typing proficiency, and basic phone skills are necessary. Must be vaccinated, a non-smoker, no perfumes and like cats :) Please see our website www.VVSAHS .org The animals thank you in advance! Together We Truly Do Make A Difference!!

Why License? Licensing a dog: 1) helps identify your dog if lost, 2) provides proof your dog is protected from rabies in the event your dog is bitten by a rabid animal, but would still need immediate medical attention, 3) if your dog bites an animal or person – which could result in quarantine or possible euthanasia to test for infection, and 4) helps pay for VSNIP, addressing the population situation we have in Vermont. Farms with cats should especially be aware that one rabid cat or dog can affect an entire population of animals on the premise. The answer is neutering through VSNIP which includes a rabies vaccination and the first of the of the distemper series. Winter 2022

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Cognitive Dysfunction Catherine MacLean,DVM

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I f you have ever had a senior pet, you may have noticed that as they age

their behavior can change. Just like people, cats and dogs can get behavioral changes that can look a lot like changes we see in elderly people with dementia or Alzheimer’s. Cognitive dysfunction usually presents itself later in a pet’s life. It usually has a slow and gradual onset. Just like the rest of the body, the brain begins to deteriorate as our pets age. In some cases, the deterioration causes changes in the physical and chemical makeup of the brain resulting in a decrease in your pet’s cognitive function. All senior pets are at risk. One study that was done on 180 dogs between 11-16 years of age showed that 28% of 11 to 12-year-old dogs and 68% of 15 to 16-year-old dogs had at least one sign of cognitive dysfunction. Clinical signs of cognitive dysfunction that may be seen include loss of interest in food, altered sleep/wake patterns, difficulty being able to move around, disorientation, staring into space, yowling or barking at nothing, reduced hearing and eyesight, anxiety, restlessness, loss of housebreaking skills, and obsessive behaviors (i.e. excessive barking, licking, etc.). There is no specific diagnostic test for cognitive dysfunction. If you notice any of the clinical signs mentioned above, you should speak with your veterinarian. A good physical exam and neurological exam may be needed to rule out other possible underlying issues. Blood work may also be recommended to rule out other potential causes for some of the behaviors listed above. Once a diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction has been made, a plan should be formulated on how to best manage the signs that you are seeing. There is no way to prevent cognitive dysfunction and there is no cure for it. There are treatments to help with some of the behaviors that may be seen, and there are supplements available that may help slow the progression of the disorder and support brain function, but there is still no cure. A diet by Purina was developed for dogs a couple of years ago called Bright Minds. The diet is rich in brain boosting supplements that helps the brain get more glucose which in turn helps with memory function. Purina did studies with the Bright Mind diet and they showed that the diet did help improve cognitive function. There are supplements which may help brain health such as L-deprenyl Winter 2022

and SAM-e. There are very few studies on these two supplements, but the studies that did take place were promising. For animals that develop sleep disturbances, supplements such as melatonin can help normalize an animal’s sleep pattern. Before using any supplement, make sure that you consult your veterinarian for the proper dose and to make sure that the supplement will not interfere with medication your pet is already on. Remember, cats and dogs are not small humans, and they metabolize medicine and supplements differently than people do. Environmental enrichment can also really help keep an older pet’s brain sharp. Teach them new tricks, find problem solving toys and games to play. Keep their minds engaged! One of my favorite things are puzzle balls which makes the pet work for their treats or meal. It gives them exercise and helps keep their mind engaged. Watching your pet get old can be frustrating and heartbreaking. I watched my Labrador Lily pace through the house at night when she was still alive. Sometimes she would get stuck in a corner and couldn’t figure out how to get out of it. You would have to go over to her and turn her around. Now I have a cat that will randomly walk through the house at night yowling. Animals with cognitive dysfunction can still have great lives. Hopefully as research progresses on the human side, we will see new treatments become available for our pets. Dr. MacLean completed her Bachelor of Science from Penn State University, her Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine from Atlantic Veterinary College, and her pet acupuncture certification from Chi Institute. Her areas of special interest include general practice and acupuncture. She opened Sugar River Animal Hospital in 2013, and she has been practicing veterinary medicine since 2010. Dr. MacLean’s family consists of her husband Matt, her daughter Katarina, and their three pets: Jack and Misty, two cats, and Arrow, a dog. Winter 2022

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Becoming Broadly Accepted, but Dosage Questions Remain Peter Kenseth

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CBD is becoming increasingly more accepted as a beneficial supplement for humans, and like many human trends, it is crossing over into the pet landscape. At SuperZoo 2021 (August 16-19th in Las Vegas), it was clear that the pet industry might be reaching “peak CBD,” as over 20 companies promoting CBD-based products were present at the show. Product differentiation is becoming increasingly more common. Some companies continue to market multiple benefits associated with CBD in all-in-one products, but many companies are beginning to combine CBD with other ingredients to create products that can be marketed with specific functional claims. companies are now marketing separate CBD products for dogs and cats, and for different indications (calming, joint/mobility, etc.). Products are now available in several forms, including tinctures, balms, treats, chews, powders, and creams. In addition to the proliferation of CBD-based products targeted for specific indications, and the emergence of dogand cat-specific offerings, another key indicator of CBD’s growing acceptance was Martha Stewart CBD’s (Canopy Growth) announcement that it had obtained a placement in Wegman’s. Although CBD is not FDA-approved for humans or pets, and there are no approved uses of CBD in Winter 2022

animals, many companies, including Pet Releaf, EllePet, and Canopy Growth have completed studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of CBD in pets. Other companies at SuperZoo, including Prospect Farms and Paw CBD mentioned that they had trials in progress. Prospect Farms is building a trial with leading vets from AirVet and UCLA Cannabis Lab, while Paw CBD has an ongoing study with Colorado State University, studying the effects of effects of the company’s patent pending, proprietary cbdMD branded cannabinoid blend on dogs that suffer from osteoarthritis. CBD has been shown to promote calm behavior, reduce anxiety, and alleviate pain. As such, it is marketed to pet owners as a potential remedy for anxious or aggressive behavior, and for joint/mobility issues. Pet owners seeking an alternative remedy for any of these conditions might benefit from exploring whether CBD is a viable option for their pet. The existing clinical studies show that CBD is well tolerated by dogs, but there is not as much research on the use of CBD in the cat population. Because CBD is not FDA-approved, most U.S. veterinary medical licensing and pharmacy boards are advising veterinarians against discussing, recommending and selling CBD products until such time when it is approved. However, Canopy Animal Health notes that 29% of veterinarians are asked about CBD products on a weekly basis, and that interest in CBD-based products is higher in states where recreational marijuana has been legalized. In the absence of FDA-approval, the next big question surrounding the use of CBD in pets will likely be around appropriate dosing levels. Given that there are no guidelines around dosing in humans, finding appropriate CBD dosage levels in pets may be a challenge. I take CBD myself, and generally use around 30mg/ day. However, CBD companies market capsules containing 100mg of CBD. Given that CBD contains very low levels of THC (if it contains any THC at all), there is a generally accepted guidance that “dosing” is a matter of personal preference. At SuperZoo, the majority of the companies promoting CBD-based products for pets marketed treats, chews, or tinctures that contained 10mg of CBD per dose. However, a few companies noted Continued Next Page

Winter 2022

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that higher levels of CBD were required to achieve optimal results in the pet population. I talked to one of the owners of LIX, an Oregon-based pet CBD company, and told her that I generally gave my dog, Peony, about 7.5mg of CBD with each meal. We rescued Peony almost 5 years ago, and she’s always been a somewhat nervous dog, so soon after I began taking CBD, I started giving it to Peony as well, to see if she would experience the same calming benefits that I had noticed. “Oh, that’s much too low,” she replied. “I would bump that up to 20mg, and see if you notice any difference. We know

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that when we’re treating pets with anxiety, you have to give higher levels of CBD. There are examples in humans who have been given CBD to help combat conditions like PTSD – we know that CBD can help to heal the brain, but it has to be given in high doses to make a difference.” When I walked away from the LIX booth, I pondered about whether I should change Peony’s CBD dosage when I got home. Amazingly, it didn’t take long to find another proponent of a higher CBD dosage in dogs. Canopy Growth, which is one of the largest cannabis and CBD distributors in the world, had a booth at SuperZoo to promote their SurityPro and Martha Stewart pet CBD products. The CBD content in both of these brands is on the high end of the spectrum. The SurityPro Multi soft chews for large dogs (51-130 lbs) have 57mg of CBD per chew. The directions on the package recommend 1 chew per day for dogs that are 51-85 pounds, and 1.5 chews for dogs that are 85-130 pounds. When I remarked that this was almost twice the amount of CBD that I took on a daily basis, the reps at the booth told me that the company’s research had found that to achieve meaningful results, dogs should be given a ~1mg of CBD per pound of body weight. “You’re not a dog,” they told me. “The way you’ll metabolize CBD is different than how your dog will metabolize it.” I’ve tried increasing Peony’s CBD dosage over the past few months, and while upping her dosage has been beneficial to an extent, I’m still working to find an optimal level. The science behind CBD is still relatively unstudied, in both humans and pets, and although there is clearly tremendous promise for what CBD might be able to offer in terms of anxiety reduction and pain relief, the decision on whether or not to use it, and at what levels, will likely remain a personal one for the foreseeable future. Winter 2022

DOGGIE DAY CARE Pat Jauch Caledonia Animal Rescue, Inc.


hen you must be away from home, finding appropriate care for your companion animal is essential. Ideally, having someone come to your home to care for your pet will create the least disruption in its daily existence. If this is not possible, other avenues must be explored. Alternatives may include having your pet stay with friends or relatives, stay at a kennel, or possibly being boarded by your veterinarian. Registering your dog for a boarding session at a kennel can be as complicated as enrolling your child in daycare. What may seem like a simple task can develop into a major event, both for you and your pet. However, the questions that you need to ask, as well as the requirements of the boarding facility, are important for the well being of your pet. First of all, you will be away from your pet. This will cause separation anxiety and, in an unfamiliar environment, your pet’s routines will change. Feeding times may vary. Elimination options will not necessarily be on your pet’s routine schedule. There will be unfamiliar people handling your pet and taking care of its needs. This can lead to a lot of stress for the animal. In order to make your pet’s stay as pleasant as possible, check out the facility in advance. Are there special requirements for feeding? Does the kennel require you to provide your own food or are all the guests fed one brand of food? Will this create any problems for your finicky eater or for the one with the delicate digestive system? What vaccinations are required? Has your pet had all of them? Diseases, such as kennel cough (parainfluenza), can be spread rapidly when multiple animals are in confined surroundings and may result in dire consequences, so be sure that your pet is immunized. What will your pet do while you are absent? Does the kennel have a program Winter 2022

for human interaction that will lessen your pet’s loneliness while you are away? Are there options for your pet to interact with other animals? If your pet becomes ill are arrangements in place for him or her to receive veterinary care? How about exercise? Are there adequate facilities for your pet to run and play? Thorough research can help you choose the best option for your companion animal. Know your pet’s limitations and make wise choices when confining him to the care of others.

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Winter 2022



Winter 2022

What’s on Your Cat’s Mind? 10 Most Heartwarming Dog Stories Great Winter Reads Your First Horse Help For Your Pet

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Doggie Day Care Pat Jauch

pages 61-64

CBD: Becoming Broadly Accepted, but Dosage Questions Remain Peter Kenseth

pages 58-60

Cognitive Dysfunction Catherine MacLean DVM

pages 56-57

Help For Your Pet Sue Skaskiw

page 55

Why the Delay in Veterinary Care?

page 54

Short Jaw Sandra L. Waugh VMD, MS

pages 52-53

Bravo for Bravo Sarah Tuck Gillens

pages 44-46

Twins John Lamperti

page 47

A Dog on the Battlefield and the Character of George Washington Kate Kelly

pages 48-49

Hanging in the Balance Dorothy Crosby

pages 42-43

Equine Clubs, Associations & Organizations

pages 34-37

Loving Animals: Conversations with an Animal Communicator Jeannie Lindheim

page 31

Animal Adapter Scott Borthwick

page 30

Adopting a Senior Dog Karen Sturtevant

pages 26-29

Jake's Friends Fund Jackie Stanley

page 19

Draft Trash Pickup

pages 16-18

10 of the Most Heartwarming Dog Stories From History Aaron Short

pages 8-11

Nature Books for Winter Reading

pages 20-21

A Humane Agent for the Monadnock

pages 14-15

What is UVDART

pages 12-13

Celebrate National Answer Your Cat's Questions Day

pages 5-7
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