Page 1


Content Wedge …………………………………………………………………… 2

An Island with Ocean ………………………………………………………………….. 6

From Myth to Orchid Island .……………………………………………………………….. 14

From Novel to Orchid Island .……………………………………………………………….. 35

Voice of Orchid Island …………………………………………………………………. 67

Coming to the End ……………………………………………………………….. 76

Reference .……………………………………………………………….. 81



One day afternoon, we were in a café

One day, in the afternoon, we sat in a café and read our own books. The café was full of the smell of coffee and latte. The smell was rich and aromatic. We focused on the words of the books. Suddenly, one of my teammates looked up and asked,” so… how do you feel about the books?” 2

“It’s like another world totally different from Taiwan.”

“Well, it’s really beyond my imagination.” “I agree.”

Orchid Island is a paradise-like island.

We were reading the indigenous literature of Orchid Island composed by Syaman Rapongan and were impressed with the rich and unique marine humanities and culture in Orchid Island. Orchid Island, or Lanyu (蘭嶼), is on 3

Taiwan’s doorstep- two and a half hours by ferry from Taitung- but it is a world apart. Home to the Tao (officially, Yami) indigenous people, it has a culture, lifestyle, traditions, cuisine, and sense of time and space that are not the same as those on what the Tao call “the mainland.”

Although Orchid Island is one of the parts of Taiwan, as Taiwanese, we seldom have the chance to visit this small but marvelous island. No matter to the people who come from other countries or those who settle in the cities of Taiwan, Orchid Island seems to be covered with the veil of mystery. Thinking of lots of unknown aspects of Orchid Island, we shifted our attention to the books spread on the table. And then, we looked at each of the titles of the books. There are journals, legends, and novels which invariably cover many things on the 4

Orchid Island, such as festivals, customs, food, belief, and more. At that time, it seems that the sea breeze depicted among the pages touched across our faces gently. Without saying a word, we believed that we will get inspiration from those materials. From the following we wrote, not only can you know the superficial knowledge of Orchid Island but also understand the deep culture and many traditional stories behind Orchid Island. Now, let’s set out on the journey of literature and sail to the mysterious little island.


An Island with Ocean Overlooking Orchid Island

A local Tao is making dried flying fish

Tao Tao, the Most Unique Indigenous People in Taiwan The Tao differs a lot from the aboriginal 6

tribes from Taiwan due to their isolation. Because of the high temperature, humidity, strong wind, and the big group of migratory fish brought by Kuroshio Current, their economic activities mainly depend on both farming and fishing. Aside from planting Wakei and Kadai, the Tao also build the puzzle canoes to go fishing on the sea. Instead of revolving around hunting, war and the mountains, their culture revolves around the ocean and fishing.



Orchid Island is located in the southeast of Taiwan

Orchid Island is an off-shore island located in the south-east of Taiwan Main Island. Because Orchid Island is surrounded by the sea, the culture of Orchid Island is very different from Taiwan Island.



Old photo of Tao in Orchid Island

The aboriginal in Orchid Island are called Tao that means “people” in their language. However, you also can hear the name ‘’Yami’’. In 1891, Japanese anthropologist calls them “Yami” that means “northern islanders” Now both names are used but the local in Orchid Island prefers the name, Tao.


Food In Orchid Island, they see Ketangs, Kadais, Wakei, and other cops as staple food. The nonstaple food is fish. Tao sees fish as a sacred symbol. In Tao, the fish is even categorized into three types: Oyod (good fish), Zahet (bad fish), and Kakanen no raraker (elderly fish). Everyone can eat good fish, which are good-looking, mild, fresh and tender, but it is hard to be caught. Therefore, good fish is often given to women and children to eat first. If a husband cannot catch good fish, a wife even has the right to refuse making love. Bad fish, which is predatory fish with rough skin and dull color, is only for men. If there is bad fish on the table, the male needs to use sharpened sticks to eat to avoid contaminating other foods. Elderly fish, which is ferocious and weird-looking, is for old men who have experiences of dealing with


and eating.

Kakanen no raraker(fish only for the elderly)

raet a among(fish only for men)

oyod a among(fish for all Tao)


Residence In Orchid Island, we also can see the most eye-catching traditional elements, semisubterranean dwellings, which were made of stone, wood, and thatch. Semi-subterranean dwellings were built low to offer protection against heat and typhoons.

Tao’s semi-subterranean

Besides, the house also can avoid flood. When the locals dig the foundation, they would pave the cobblestones so that the water would 12

penetrate into the ground naturally and flow into the sea through water channel. The ancestors in Orchid Island used their wisdom to make their homes avoid natural disaster. If you come to the island and want to visit semi-subterranean dwellings, there is an information you need to know. Some elderly people in the island don’t like tourists or strangers run into their homes. Therefore, you need to ask the local take a tour for you if you want to visit semi-subterranean dwellings,


From Myth to Orchid Island “How about the book, The Myths in BaDai Bay?” My teammate broke the tranquil of reading and asked me. “Originally, I thought the stories are the legends talked to the children in Orchid Island, but I found there are many Tao’s valuable cultures in these myths. “


The Myths in Ba-Dai Bay 八代灣的神話

Indeed, local cultures are the best elements to tell stories. In the book, The Myths in Ba-Dai Bay (八代灣的神話), the author, Syaman Rapongan(夏曼˙藍波安), a famous local writer in Orchid Island, recorded many Tao’s legends that he had heard from his father and villagers when he was little. In these myths, many Tao’s unique cultures are mentioned, such as the traditional houses, semi-subterranean dwellings, categorizing fishes to men, women, 15

and old men to eat, and Alibangbang (flying fish) festival. The author uses the elements of the sound of waves, fish elf, awe to God and Sprit of Ocean to tell stories. we think this is why people call his works ‘’marine literature’’. These elements are strongly different from the ones of the aboriginals living in mountains in Taiwan. “Legend is shorter. Could you share one of the stories to us first?” another teammate seemed to be interested. She raised her smile and asked “Of course. Then I want to share a story that the author described most vividly and clearly.”


<Little boy and Big Shark> In Orchid Island, there is a famous traditional myth talking about a little boy making friends with a shark. The people in Orchid Island describe the shark as a creature with half-human and half-ghost spirit. Once upon a time, there was a couple who had been married for eight years and didn't have children. They were respected and loved by everyone in the village because they always smiled to people and they never spoke ill of others. The people in the village loved coming to their yard and telling stories. Once upon a time, the wife found she seemed to be pregnant and told the news to her husband. Her husband was over the moon but he asked her wife not tell others because they did not know whether this was a truth or not until the wife's belly really became bigger. Six months later, the wife's belly had become bigger and bigger through the time. 17

They told the good news to the villagers and everyone brought blesses to them. When the baby, a little boy, was born, each villager came to see him. The little boy's birth brought happiness to the whole village. After several years, the baby grew up and he was ten years old. One day, the couple told the boy, “We need to go to a far place to dig Wakei. If you are hungry, you can eat some Wakei in the pot or go to reef area to find some shellfish to eat.” “Please don't worry about me. I can take care of myself.” the little boy replied their parents confidentially. After the little boy's parents left home, he took his Wakei to reef area. Along the way, he picked up the eatable shellfish and walked for a long time. Suddenly he found a natural cave where was a clean beach that could accommodated with five children to play inside. The place was very beautiful and hidden. The 18

boy was glad to find the wonderland. Sitting on the beach and eating the Wakei, he said, “Everyone, let me share the serenity and mystery with you.” At the moment, there was something rising in the sea. The creature opened the mouth slowly and showed saw-shaped teeth. The creature said, “I'm glad to be Kowyowyod (it means intimate nickname in the friendship between human and beast) with you.” The little boy was astonished and his body was rigid like a doll made of mud. He was too surprised to speak a word. The big creature, shark, thought, the little boy may be scared about its ugly face and it started to be shamed on its own appearance. In order to wake the little boy, the big shark dove into the sea, and the wave sprayed to the little boy's thighs. The big shark thought the way may make the boy awake through the serial actions-dove, rose, dove, rose...


When the sun gradually fell, the little boy finally couldn't help but said, “Kowyowyod, what are you? I want to make friends with you.” Listening to the little boy's words, the beast slowly floated to the surface of the sea, but it not dares show its big teeth. It said, “I'm willing to make friends with you, too. Please don't be afraid. Although I am ugly, I am kind. Human called me Zokangn (shark in Tao' s language), which means the ugly creature that bites people.” The boy took a Wakei to the big shark and said, “I'm glad to meet you. The Wakei is for you.” To human, the little Wakei was just a little thing. However, to the shark, the gift was invaluable because sharks were seldom respected by human. Mankind always were afraid about them. Therefore, the big shark loved the little boy very much. The shark said, “In order to requite your 20

Wakei, I want to take you to see the world under the sea. The area of the sea is all mine. No other fish dare to bully you. Are you willing?” The boy’s dream was to play under the sea and he was happy to accept the shark's invitation. The shark took the boy to the near bays. The boy asked the shark to take him to the sea offshore. However, the sky turned dark. The shark was worried that the little boy's parents couldn’t find him and took the boy to the cave where they first met. The shark said, “Kowyowyod, please come here earlier tomorrow. I will take you to other islands and see the wonderful world under the sea.” “Ok.” the boy patted at the shark's gill gently. Next day, the boy's parents went to the mountain to work as usual and the boy came to the cave as the promise with the shark. Arriving the cave, the boy found the shark had waited in 21

the cave. Both of them greeted to each other, then the boy rode on the back of the big shark immediately. The boy's stance controlling the shark was like a prince of the sea. Especially the stance standing on the back of the big fish made him like the king of the ocean. He asked the shark to the shore where was full of children to show off his heroic bearing. On the shore, there were many children who were playing. Seeing the little boy, those children all praised his skill of swimming and thought how the little boy stood on the sea and didn't fall down. Later, the shark jumped out of the sea. The big body scared everyone witnessing the view. Suddenly, the shark and the boy plunged into the sea and didn't float anymore. The people on the land kept gazing the sea level to hope there was even a little black dot. However, they didn't see anything. The children cried and kept shouting the boy's name. A young man who was good at running ran to the mountain to tell the boy's parents the news. When the shark dove into the sea, it slowed its speed to make the boy see the 22

wonder under the sea clearly. The boy was amazed at the beauty in the sea world. There were a lot of seagrass with different colors swaying through the currents as if they were dancing; there were a lot of reefs with various shapes; there were many kinds of fish swimming around the shark and the boy. These wonderful things even made the boy forget to float out of the sea to breathe. Instead, he lay on the shark's dorsal fin and fell asleep. Later, the shark found his Kowyowyod sleep so it floated out of the sea immediately. Now, the place they were was too far to see Orchid Island. The shark swam back toward the Orchid Island. The strong sunshine burned the boy's little shoulders and back. The little boy patted at the shark's back and said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Kowyowyod, please let my body soak in the water and only make my head on the surface of the sea.â&#x20AC;? The shark listened to the boy's words and sank down slightly to avoid from the boy's little 23

body being burned. The shark's speed was so quick that they have arrived the sea area near the village soon. Gradually, the boy recovered and was full of energy again. He asked the shark, “Could you show your skill of jumping out of the sea again?” “Of course, if that can make you happy, I can do any action.” Then, the shark jumped out of the sea and its tail was far from the surface of the sea. When it fell down, the three-to-four-layer spray was splashed to the sky. The boy drank the seawater and shouted happily, “Thank you, Kowyowyod.” “You’re welcome, my only friend.” The shark replied. On the other hand, when the little boy’s parents heard their only son was taken by a shark, they ran to the village whether how strong the sunshine was and how rugged the way of the 24

mountain was. As soon as they arrived the home, the father immediately wore the helmets of knees and held the long-handed bayonet; the mother cried and kept praying. The couple walked toward the beach sorrowfully. The father did the exorcism ceremony; the mother sadly kneeled on the ground, held the engraved wooden hoe to beat the roadside, and prayed painfully, ‘God! Please help my son!’ The all villagers following the couple were touched and shed the tears. All people in the village gathered in the beach and shouted the boy’s name. Later, not seeing the miracle appear, all villagers fell into the atmosphere of sorrow. Suddenly, a girl happily shouted, “There! There! The little boy appears!” At that time, the shark and the boy was playing. The all villagers opened the eyes and hoped to see the little boy on the back of the shark. However, because the shark jumped up and fell down, it is hard to see the boy’s little 25

body. The hope was broken. The all people sank into the atmosphere of sadness and quiet again. Seeing the beach more clearly, the shark slowed its speed. It told little boy happily, “Look! There are a lot of people on the beach. What happened?” The boy thought that may be because of him. Human were afraid of sharks, which were thought to be ugly and would eat people. Thinking about that, the boy suddenly shed the tears and he didn’t know how to face the villagers, including his parents. The shark seemed to know what its Kowyowyod thought and it asked the boy, “Face the villagers directly, or take you to hide?” Later, the boy replied, “Hide. That may be not good for me, but I am afraid to face my parents. Besides, I am more afraid the villagers would take Cinalolot (lance in Tao’s language) to hurt you.” The shark was not scared at all. It said, 26

“Don’t worry. I have the spirit of half human, I can talk, and I can communicate with your villagers. Maybe I could become Kowyowyod of the all villagers. Is it not good?” “Why didn’t I think of that? I am a fool!” The shark asked, “Then, do we swim to the villagers directly?” “Of course. I want to stand up to perform my skill and my brave to let everyone surprised.” the boy said and stood up immediately. Then, he caught the shark, saying “Swim! Kowyowyod!” The shark divided the sea into two sides that were like a jungle channel among white waves. The view scared the all villagers on the land, especially the little boy’s parents. They still couldn’t see the boy on the shark’s back because the shark is too big. Each villager fell into sorrow; the boy was excited, lying on the back of the shark. The shark 27

slowly closed to the coast until the distance was approximately the long of a half boat. The villagers gazed at the shark and was ready to take the big strides to escape. The shark’s terrifying face finally showed on the beach and faced the little boy’s parents directly. The villagers shouted, “Amiyan So Pozak!”(There are a goast!) Something was going to break out on the originally tranquil beach. At that time, the shark shouted, shook out its all energy, and said, “Everyone, my all relatives, please don’t be afraid.” “Oh! Why would the beast talk?” the people stopped the striding feet. Only the little boy’s parents sat on the beach without moving and stared at the shark with a lot of tears on their faces. The parents asked, “Sorry, we don’t know how to call you. Where is our baby?” 28

The shark replied, “My dear friends, I am the animal in the ocean. It is my fault. I obeyed the boy’s will.” At that moment, the boy was damp and crawled out of the shark’s mouth. “Oh! I am here!” the boy stood in the mouth of the shark. He was shamed but excited, then he touched his Kowyowyod’s nostril. The little boy ran into his father’s arms directly. Then, the people touched the boy’s hair and skin by turns. The atmosphere of joy filled the tranquil village again. Everyone wanted to talk with the little boy. The boy shouted, “Kowyowyod!” “I am here!” At that time. Everyone transferred the goal of joy and walked toward the shark to express their appreciation. Tomorrow, next month, next year, every day we will play, surf, and dive together. 29

The shark’s tail, gill, and body soaked in the water slowly. The golden shine of sunset lit up the shark’s way back to the sea. Its strong tail had become smaller and smaller, and the shark didn’t turn its head to see the boy. It didn’t come back to find the little boy any longer. Only the boy came to the cave where they first met every day, every month, every year to wait the shark. When the boy had become grandfather, he still waited the shark as usual. However, he still didn’t see the shark’s coming. “Kowyowyod. Kowyowyod.” The sound kept echoed in the cave. The volume of the sound was from shout in high voice to sight in low voice. The story just ended here. The writer heard the story when the villagers gathered in a senior’s yard to share stories. From then on, the writer’s father kept telling the story to the writer until he learned the story by heart. No wonder the story is the one that the author described most lively and in detail. 30

In the myths, we can see Tao’s language and special customs. For example, in the story, we can read ‘’Kowyowyod’’ repeated several times in the story. This means intimate nickname between the human and the beast. That reflects the boy and the shark’s deep friendship. Besides, ‘’Zokangn’’ means shark in Tao’s language. Zokangn represents the creatures which are ugly and may bite people. To Tao, the sharks are evil and scary. ‘’Cinalolot’’ means lance, which Tao’s men bring by their sides when they attend funeral, catch Alibangbang during the night, or visit other villages to expel the evil spirits. That is because people in Orchid Island believe all the things on earth have spirits. They are rather afraid of Anito (evil spirit). People will blame bad things on Anito, which is so-called the evil spirits. In the story, when the boy’s parents thought the boy was taken by the shark, his father took Cinalolot to expel the evil spirit and his mother took the engraved wooden hoe to pray to the God. Those behaviors reflect the traditional customs in Tao.


The cake of Ketang on Taoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Crab Festival As for the habit of food, in the story, the

parents told the boy could eat Wakei or found shellfish by himself if he was hungry. In Orchid Island, people take Wakei(sweet potatoes), Ketang(taros) and Kadai(millet) to be staple, and take fish as the important dish. The women are responsible of agriculture, and men are

Wakei 32

responsible of catching fish.

Taoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Kadai Festival


In addition to the cultures and customs, there are often some morals in these myths. In the story, the shark’s ugly appearance did not make the boy feel sick. Instead, he felt the kindness of the shark and was willing to make friends with it, so the boy got a wonderful friendship with the shark. In our opinions, the Tao may want to convey the idea “don’t judge book by its cover” to their children by the story. Reading the interesting myths in Orchid Island not only makes us understand Tao’s cultures more deeply but also makes us understand the values in theirs and our life.


From Novel to Orchid Island After listening to the story “Little Boy and Shark” in The Myths in Ba-Dai Bay, we were touched. For a long time, none of us said a word. “Wow, I… I don’t know that even a myth can express so many ideas and feelings…” “Indeed, then how about the novels of Orchid Island?” We looked at the other three books on the table. They were “The Relationship with the Cold Ocean”, “The Death of Mgalumirem”, “Old Man of The Sea”, which are all written by the author, Syaman Rapongan. “They are awesome, and they are definitely the best representations of Orchid Island. Although we didn’t have the chance to visit there, by reading those novels, we can know this island in a literature aspect.”


The Relationship with the Cold Ocean

The Relationship with the Cold Ocean 冷海情深

Syaman Rapongan’s father once said to him:” My kid, you have to keep the personality of loving the ocean. Because of the ocean, you, I, and the whole tribe can be here.” The name of this book” the Relationship with the Cold Waters” obviously points out the theme of the story. Even though the wave of the ocean is so strong that sometimes it seems to be heartless, it will be Mother of Tao forever. She, 36

the ocean, opens her arms at any time waiting for her children coming to her. She also provides the Toa with sufficient fish. The Tao is afraid of her, respect her, and love her deep. The two articles, "The Kuroshio Boat" and "The God of the Sea ", are discussed with the elders for elegance Tatala. Yet, the former article is about a fishing boat, and the latter one is about sacrificial ship.

the eleganceTatala

â&#x20AC;&#x153;the Daughter's Birthdayâ&#x20AC;? is the description of Syaman on his daughter's birthday. Sayman and two of his friends go to Little Orchid Island to catch lobster to 37

his daughter. In the process, there are thrilling, sentimental, and vivid description. As a reader, even though it is still long time for us to become a mother or a father, we can understand how much he loves his daughter and would like to give her a memorable birthday with Tao’s tradition. In the " Kuroshio Parent Boat", it is about Syaman and his father going to the mountains to painstakingly cut wood which aims to complete a beautiful Tatala. As a result of the completion of the father and son, Sayman called this Tatala "Parent Boat." However, what is the motivation to build a Tatala with his father? Why did Syaman ask his father to teach him to make a Tatala? Syaman has left Orchid Island for a long time, so he forgot much of Tao’s tradition, such as catching Alibangbang and making Tatala. At the same time, the local Alibangbang festival is around the corner, in order to catch a little more Alibangbang, it is necessary for Sayman to prepare first. After all, as the saying goes " Good craftsmanship depends on use of the right tools ". What’s more, to earn the respect from his 38

father and others again, he must build a useful Tatala. Indeed, Syaman wins the applause during the Alibangbang festival. In addition, this praise also washes away the name "Hanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Tao", which makes him feel shameful. Syaman describes the elders who want to build a sacrificial ship in "The God of the Sea". The three elders he wrote are his father and two uncles. However, they disagree with one another and cause disputes. This also reminds Syaman of why the older generation is so supportive and promotes the traditional Tao to other generation. They are all in their 70s, but they still build Tatala to catch fish and praise to the God. By contrast, the younger generation was born all strong, but they forget every of the ancestors left to them, such as the rules, taboos and habits. All day, they watch TV, eat and drink, and do other entertainment that are spread into Orchid Island by Han. None of them dive into ocean for fish or cut woods to make a Tatala. It's no wonder that some of the elders, Syaman and we readers start 39

to doubt whether the traditional custom is probably only suitable for the older generation. As for this point, Syaman is deeply distressed, but how much can he help with this trend? The end of this article says: "My only way is to work hard to record the seasmelling works." How much can a person's tiny power to change the whole tribe? We think that he probably can only record it and give the future generations to appreciate those activities once existed in the Tao in his countless marine literature. The most representative article in this book is "The Relationship with the Cold Waters". This article is not only involved in the sea, diving in the process of water shooting fish, but also consists a little of a familyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gunpowder. At the beginning of this article, the family begins to be against Syaman going to the sea to shoot fish. The reason is that he goes to the sea in very early morning and returns home late. Although the sea usually looks smooth and quiet, sometimes it is inevitable that there will 40

be sudden wind and serious wave. As a result, Syaman’s security is in the danger when he is under the sea at night. The financial situation of his family is unsatisfactory. They cannot afford the tuition with the fish he catches. Nonetheless, he is still shooting fish every day because he loves the ocean, loves the bottom of the ocean, and myriad of marine creatures. One day, he went to catch fish as usual, but he didn’t go back. According to the custom, it’s dangerous for a man in the ocean at night, so the whole family were looking for him. When he came home, he showed his fish and this situation was sympathetic for us. Syaman and maybe other men in the tribe go to catch fish for minimal money. They cannot give up fishing, give up the ocean, and give up the tradition even though they have the chance to do other works to earn enough money to survive. Why? Because the ocean is the real love for Tao people. The most interesting part is the reaction that his friends and relatives had when they could not 41

find Syaman.: The elder brother wearing special helmet and armor, the weeping mother, the abused wife, and the distressed others. It seems to be exaggerated to be unreal, but it vividly shows the deep-rooted Anito beliefs of the family and the close affection of the clan. Among â&#x20AC;&#x153;the Sea Pilgrimsâ&#x20AC;?, one day Syaman went to Lanys Hunior High as the Chinese contemporary teacher, but he still went to date with the ocean early in the morning. His students had heard of his experiences in the seabed, but they did not believe. So, Syaman then took them to see the fish in the waters and taught them as well. He teaches this generation, or "new human" that traditional culture is interesting and rich. In this story, there is a strong contrast between the traditional labor, such as Syaman Rapongan and the modern laborer such as the student he taught. The former group of people owns the high labor force; the latter appears to be more pampered. This is the same as Taiwan's current family situation: the parents work hard 42

to make money, but children take it as a normal situation. If we are not trying to improve this phenomenon, the future of the time will somehow be miserable. In the whole story, Syaman Rapongan was in the dilemma of two power. When he is back to the Orchid Island, he was laughed by the clansmen that he had already forgotten the tradition of Tao. His father looked down on him for that he thought Syaman was a non-productive consumer. In fact, he originally thought the taboo which the elders reminded them to avoid and the superstition were useless. Time flied, he was gradually “Taolized” and he began to doubt the culture and ideology of Han. “Father used practical actions to reflect the real value of Tao men. In front of me is the fresh fish owned by hard-working labors. Those people who are willing to work for the tribe can be respected and have confidence. All the things destroy everything I believed outside my home island.” Evert time, when he catches fishes, he is 43

named” unable men” because he could not catch fish quickly. Syaman practiced hard and he wanted to make up the time he had lost on the island. This is one of the dilemmas of his own selfidentity between Han’s and Tao’s culture. And the Tao culture wins. Another dilemma is the contradiction of economy. Tao men are proud of catching lots of fish by themselves, but can those fish send children to school? In modern society, people cannot set fulling themselves as the only goal in the life. Tao student who learned in Taiwan go back the Orchid Island and fall in love with the ocean again; however, they are asked to go to work and catch fish. It’s so ironic! But this time, can Tao culture wins? Syaman understands that the people of the Orchid Island do not care that how many books he has published or what school he graduated because in Orchid Island, the standard to measure a man's ability is to shoot fish, build 44

Tatalas, dive and other skills related to the ocean." From Syaman to the sea, to the home; from unfamiliar to familiar, from alienation to love, the ocean is so changeable, but still stays charming. We can learn about the way of life and habits of the Tao. It also conveys the the common aspiration of the indigenous ethnic groups in Taiwan: Please look fairly at the indigenous ethnic groups and accept the aboriginal culture. Without a doubt, the native ethnic groups live much earlier in this land than the Han. Then we should be respectful them, know them and even support and encourage them. Aborigines are a group of people who love mountains, water and nature. Taiwan is surrounded by the sea, and the islanders tend to ignore this advantageous feature and continue to develop their careers on land. The technology has been improving, but we have forgotten the nature of the original style. All this book brings to us is to awake us to cherish and love the nature. Although the government is constantly promoting aboriginal traditions and cultures, and 45

modern people also try to understand the lifestyle and habits of aborigines, to truly understand an ethnic group, we have to know all cultures, including lifestyles, languages, traditional costumes, living environments and so on. We are not specialized researchers or experts, it is difficult for a person to get a deep understanding. In view of this point, there are also a large number of aboriginal writers who are engaged in writing in an attempt to enable the readers to have an in-depth understanding of the aboriginal population by reading.


The Death of Mgalumirem

The Death of Mgalumirem 安洛米恩之死

When mentioned Orchid Island, the Tao, and the marine literature, Syaman Rapongan is the first name popping up into our mind. He is a wellknown aboriginal author who has written a big amount of works. The creation about the ocean 47

of Syaman Rapongan has not been stopped since the 90th. Since we were in childhood, we have read a lot and the genres we have touched vary; however, we seldom get the chance to read the marine literature. Syaman Rapongan is one of the greatest marine literature writers. He creates these works based on his homeland, Orchid Island. Syaman interprets the Tao culture, customs, people, and the ocean into his works. When opening his books and looking into the words and the sentences, sometimes we seem to hear the sound of the strong waves in the rainy days; sometimes we seem to feel the touch of the gentle wind in peaceful shiny days. The salty wind blows into our hearts, and at the same time, it brings us to the isolating island, Orchid Island. The death of Mgalumirem, the latest work of Syaman Rapongan, is the very first time we can float in the ocean of his works. Marine literature combined with indigenous literature is totally different from the books of land, the Han 48

and the city. As “land” readers, to fully experience the beauty of ocean, just like a beginner of diver, before sinking into the sea, we have to be well-prepared. And then, we can get into the water, into the sea, into the world of Tao, slowly and slowly. The scenes of the whole story are simple and lively. The story mainly focuses on the life of Tao. But what kind of life? Before reading this book, we are like other people that the life of indigenous people is not complicated. Those who live in the mountains feed themselves by wild boars or the vegetables that grow in the mountains. As for Tao, all they have to do is ship out and catch the fish. We never think of what their real life is. We don’t know how they support themselves, and either do we understand the stories and the rules of the festivals they hold each year. From the book, we know that the Tao actually differs a lot from other aboriginal tribes which usually live in the mountains from Taiwan because of the isolating location. Due to the high 49

temperature, humidity, strong wind, and the big group of migratory fish brought by Kuroshio Current, their economic activities mainly depend on both farming and fishing. Far away from our first impression, the Tao not only catch fish but they also make their lives by planting Wakei, Soli(otter), Ketang, and Kadai. Each family has their own lands to plant those crops. On their dining table, there is fresh fish caught from the sea accompanied by Wakei, Ketang, and Kedai. Unlike other tribes, they seldom plant rice corns because they think the process of planting rice corns is complicated and the harvesting is not so abundant as Ketang and Kadai. Traditionally, Kadai is used to give to the Anito, or the devil, to pray for their healthy if the family member is sick. As the we mentioned in “The Myths in BaDai Bay”, the Tao is afraid of the Anito, which is the most vicious and frightening word in their customs. From the norms and the taboos to the routes they walk every day, Anito spreads almost everywhere in Tao’s life. The extent of the fear to 50

Anito is as strong as that of the respect to it. In the story, when Mgalumirem is going to catch fish at night, he is stooped by his grandmother and his mother. “Mgalumirem, don’t go to catch fish at such late night. Anito will curse you and it is dangerous when Anito strolls on the surface of the sea.”

the sculptures of Anito

It’s clear that Anito is their belief and the Tao do not dare to resist it, especially the elders. It is not that limited to the younger generation 51

for that they are influenced deeply by the Christian. Instead of Tao’s traditional belief, the youngers believe more in the foreign religious, such as the Christian and the Catholicism. Although in the modern life, they have been influenced a lot by those religious, they still hold Tao’s traditional festivals according to their lunar calendar. Most of their ceremonies are related to the ocean for that Orchid Island is surrounded by the sea. And the most important aspect of holding the festivals and the ceremonies is to celebrate a rich catch of fish. Of course, their festivals are also very different from other tribes’. Every Tao man has his own Tatala, which we called puzzle canoe, to support his family. Not only does a traditional Tao but also those who worship Jesus have to own a Tatala to catch fish in the sea. As a result, Tatala is not only the important transportation tool for the Tao to support themselves but also one of the primary property. The young Tao man will be proud if he is able to build a delicate and distinct Tatala 52

based on the instructions given by his father. In the story, Mgalumirem’s teacher, Mr. Chang forgets how to build a Tatala and cannot catch fish, so he is laughed at by other people and has a shameful nickname” The disable man”. As soon as the Tatala is completed, in order to pray for the safety of the first sail of the new Tatala, they will hold the “Tatala Launching Festival”. It is a solemn and sacred ceremony. Every tribe should participate the new Tatala launching festival; therefore, it’s also the activity that can bring all the Tao together. This ceremony often takes several months to finish. The whole process costs numerous money. The expense includes the material and carving fees of building Tatala, the Ketangs and the meat given to friends during the ceremony. The spending is so much that most of the Tao cannot afford. The consequence is that in recent years, there are less and less Tao willing to make a Tatala.


Except for Tatala launching festival, the Alibangbang Festival is the other major Tao celebration that can bring the whole Tao together.

the dried Alibangbang on Alibangbang Festival Mgalumiremâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mother once told him the

story behind the Alibangbang Festival when he was young. Long time ago, a Tao found a group of fish which has long wings attached to their bodies, Alibangbang. The Tao then began to catch this special kind of fish and cooked them with shrimps and shells later. Consequently, some Tao were diagnosed with strange disease as well as 54

the fish. One night, the leader of the Alibangbang, mavaeng so panid, told Tao’s elder what they have to do to deal with the Alibangbang to avoid the strange disease. From then on, the Tao started to worship Alibangbang and set regulations of eating and catching them, the ceremony included. In the beginning of the main Alibangbang season in spring, Alibangbang ride the Kuroshio Current north in huge schools. Tao men wear their traditional ritual dress of loincloth, rattanvest armor, and silver conical helmet. In addition to Tatala, the helmet is Tao man’s most cherished possession. Covering the entire head, with slits left for the eyes, the helmets, made with silver from Spanish and Japanese coins beaten into strips – the Tao did not smelt metal – are only seen on special days. Normally, most people misunderstand that the life of indigenous people is simple and quiet. It seems that they don’t have to be worried about anything bothering us. If that is the image you thinking of when mentioning the aborigines, 55

you are wrong. Frankly to say, the life of them is far away from pristine. Mgalumirem, the main character in the story, is a descent of navigate family. He is proud of his family, but he cannot get acquainted with the modern life. What’s worse, he is considered to be insane. The reasons why he is thought to be strange are that he doesn’t accept compulsory education and cannot write and read Han. In addition, he hates working in the church to spread evangel of Jesus Christ. No need to say, Mgalumirem refuses to work as the government officer in the organization of Nationalist. Yet, what he doesn’t or even despise to do is most of his family and tribal people do. Superficially, no matter to readers or the Tao, in modern days, Mgalumirem is the one who is crazy. However, to say the truth, those who are under cultural colonization and ignore the destruction of their ancestors’ culture can roughly be divided into two groups. One is those who stick to the fishing tradition but hard to support themselves; the other is those who 56

follow the colonialists and accept sinicization or westernization. Whose life is more complicated and “crazy”? We don’t know the answer. Tagangan, mu jyangayi do gak-ku? (Tagangan, why don’t you go to the school?) Yaji makangai o vatevatek do uwu ko. (I cannot load those Han words into my head.) Kama li-hai mo Ngalumirem. (Ngalumirem, you are great!) Tuka macilulu jya ken am, jika unib. (You just follow me and don’t be scared.) That is a conversation between Ngalumirem and his only one apprentice, Tagangan. Both of them are looked down by others for they don’t be serious in school. The reason why they go to school is to have free lunch, so many people call them Mr. Zero(零分先 生). But, they don’t mind. As a teacher who can dive and catch the fish easily, Ngalumirem teaches Tagangan how to survive in the ocean and the techniques he will need when fishing. 57

These two men experience everything related to the sea. They are free and like the fish enjoying the marine life. Conversely, Priest Chou and Mr. Chang, who represent civilization of Orchid Island, in Ngalumirem’s eyes, they are inferior people who leave the Tao tradition behind and turn to the Han’s education system and western religious. It’s unreasonable for Ngalumirem. Contrast to the priest and the teacher, Ngalumirem, who is considered to be lunatic, is the person who is equipped with all the skills that a Tao needs. We think that this kind of feral gene is destined to reject assimilation education brought by the colonialists. In such a long time, we, as Taiwanese, have kept saying:” We are the citizens from a small island country but we do good things.” We never doubt it. Is it really the truth? From the Death of Mgalumirem, we learned that in their eyes, we become the colonialist who are from the mainland and care only about our own development bully the Tao. We even put the 58

nuclear waste on Orchid Island, where is the Taoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s homeland originally, without their permission. The book is in tribute to the death of the navigator family. Along with the changes in lifestyle, environmental destruction, customs and the loss of the fishing boat building skills, Night Sailing, diving and hunting fish, those beautiful scenes and the days which are in harmony with the sea might fades into the history of a tribe or one page in the book of travel. After the low-tide of colonial, a lot of colonyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s culture has become different. Nonetheless, there are still new- born little seedlings trying to carry on the past and innovate in the ash of culture. How long do we notice that those cultural branches are the few roads for the minority to pass on their tradition? We cannot ignore those branches because as long as there are still who can hear, there are people who can pass on the stories, care about it and willing to pay for the faded culture. 59

In our imagination, what is Tao’s ocean look like? Before reading this book, we think the ocean is like the battle between humans and sea; however, now, we know that for this marine tribe living on the isolated island, it’s no need to set war with the ocean, the sea. They don’t have to fight with the waters, but they live harmony with it. The Tao belong to the sea, and they are the son and daughter of the ocean.


Old Man of the Sea

Old Man of the Sea 老海人

“Men live in the new generation is no longer dauntless enough, much more cowardly compared to their elders when they talk more than they do.” 61

In the beautiful months (June and July), the Tao exchange their fish caught from the sea and food they harvested. As a “lunatic” called by the whole tribe, Mgalumirem is the only one who is left alone. He stares at the skyline getting up and down with tides moving back and forth like a normal Tao does. His two eyes gleams with jealousy of others who are about to depart from the seacoast, murmuring nonsense with a glass of rice wine held in his skinny arm. For Mgalumirem's uncle, this kid has his own perspectives and logics to deal with the world around him. It is reasonable and distinct, but he never shows respect to anyone including children in the village. He regards them as “inferior normal humans” but views himself as “a superior madman”, which later becomes his famous dictum when people talk about him at their leisure. However, he used to be a big dreamer who wanted to study in mainland Taiwan and contributed his knowledge to Orchid Island as one of new generation who no longer pursues to become a talented fisherman like their grandparents. When he is drunk, he says it was the pet pigs that bit his new shoes given by 62

his elder brother and destroyed his dream of being an intellectual. He was once laughed by his classmates and even the school capital because he had no other shoes to wear but those bitten shoes to wear. From that day, he lost his dignity and passionate for the world. In his “refrigerator”(the area where a Tao often goes to catch fish with great fish catch) in the ocean, Mgalumirem is throwing a speargun into darkness under the level which few of Taos can reach. Staying calm and having a peaceful soul are what make him a superb fisherman when it’s needed to dive deeper and longer than others. He knows where to shoot some particular kinds of fish and what a “wind of ocean” (ocean current) can bring to a Tao like Lembus rudderfish. Staying in the ocean makes him forget his loneliness on the land. In eyes of Tagangan, his loneliness seems to be rescued by staying in the ocean. When the two lonely people get together, their hearts melt with the feeling of accompanying by each other. Having gone through similar experiences of childhoods, they share their souls- as partners while diving 63

fish. As Taganan’s senior, Mgalumirem shows how to catch a sea chub, an action which needs strengths and patience. He tells the knowledge about ocean. For example, the dangerous place where two currents encounter is full of precious sorts of fish. He also teaches Tagangan to predict the climate by observing the sunrise and winds. They have a great catch including “smart fish “for women and some “stupid fish” for men today. Tagangan can’t help respecting more for his generosity of teaching. For a Tao, it’s honorable to tell the story of how large or how much fish he caught especially large fish more than 45 kilograms. On the night of sharing their catch and stories, Tagangan listens to the stories of how Mgalumirem caught fish carefully and makes up his mind to be a” noble diver” ((skilled diver). “Papataw” and “Pipilapila” (April to June) are the two months when Tao catch Alibangbang at night. In this moment, Alibangbang, waves going up and down and the dark sky are people like family of a Tao. It’s the thing always taught by Tagangan to his two sons. At his age of 61, he 64

doesn’t have experiences of working in Taiwan as much as them, neither does he know legends or myths of Taos as much as the elder do. He is unable to build a Tatala though. Even if he owns an electric ship to realize his dream of braving the wind and waves, he is still bothered by money issue -insufficient income. He has no belief, and no goal. As time goes by, there are only the depth of wrinkles on his face and the sense of disappointment left in Tagangan’s life. But he never forgets the generosity Mgalumirem gave to him in his adolescence, so he often visits him and gives food to him since Mgalumirem lost his parents and stopped diving. Seeing how his teacher lays on the bed like a rather wounded spearfish, he can’t help sighing with sorrow. There should be old tunes and hymns representing the union of Taos and the ocean sung by the elder in this peaceful night. They sing not because of showoff of how well they can sing but because of informing their presence on the ocean. If someone sings back, it means that they are not along. However, what’s in Tagangan’s sight is electric ships bashing all around the sea. Taos are selfish and rude. They 65

only care about themselves. They catch fish by modern equipments, believe in foreign God and grow up under Hen’s social media. They never get a chance to be nourished by the grooves of the massive ocean like the uterus of a woman. Living in the middle generation makes him think so much. Taos like Tagangan are people live in Orchid Island now, they witness the transformation of this small land. But there is one thing both the new and the old always say to each other, “Maka sagaz ka mo katowan.” (Wish you have souls of big fish.)


Voice of Orchid IslandReflection of Interviews After reading a lot of literature about Orchid Island, we were cuious of how others see this place. “Aren’t you curious about how others see Orchid Island? What’s their impression of this island?” “You are right. But, how do we know others’ opinions?” “Um… maybe we can create a questionnaire for them to fill?” “Oh, so smart you are!” Therefore, we started to create a simple form to collect other’s first impression Orchid Island. Immediately, at the time we finished that form, we passed it to every person we know.


the questionnaire we created

We were excited at how they will response the questionnaire. Soon after, we received the first response and other responses came one by one. Not far away from our imagination, their first impression of Orchid Island is similar to what we thought before reading those literature. Those responses are nothing more than aboriginals, ocean, thongs, flying fish festival, tranquil atmosphere, which were the superficial aspects of Orchid Island. However, to our surprise, few of them 68

mentioned nuclear waste, which is not known to people. This result makes us think of that some books also written about the issue of nuclear waste. Taiwan Power Company(TPC) originally decided to put the nuclear waste in Orchid Island temperately. Then they would abandon those nuclear waste to offshore and this process is technically called Ocean Dumping. But at this time, the international community forbade dealing with the nuclear waste by ocean dumping. They set the law because that if the nuclear waste casks are not replaced regularly, the nuclear waste may leak and cause serious environmental pollution. The international community then founded Greenpeace to ensure each country comply with the law. If country does ocean dumping, it will be punished. TPC later decided to landfill the nuclear waste which means that they had to keep the nuclear waste in Taiwan. So, they built land-based LLRW repository in Orchid Island. Before, the issue of building Lungmen nuclear power plant had been debated by the 69

public, but few of us know that there is also another fight related to nuclear waste in Orchid Island for a long time. Deep under the moat are 97,672 nuclear waste casks. In the novels, Syaman Ragponan wrote that some people lack the awareness of a crisis, and they thought that putting nuclear waste in Orchid Island is just a policy. On the other hand, other residents have protested many times to protect their homeland and their family. They try hard to convey their voice to the government. To their disappointment, the government do not respond their appeal. No one wants to live with the dangerous nuclear waste, but the people living on the Orchid Island do not have choice. In order to let the nuclear waste leave their homeland, they have fought, they have bled, and they have shed the tears. Although the nuclear wasted did not be transported to Orchid Island since 1996, the 97,672 casks still remain there.


the nuclear waste casks

Who is not afraid? The people in Orchid Island even commented” The repository is where bury Anito (evil spirits).” The ocean is part of Tao’s life, but it now hides a danger that they cannot see and cannot understand. They are forced to grow up with the nuclear waste. We live in different places, but in the end, we are all Taiwanese. We pay attention to Lungmen nuclear power plant, and we should also care about the serious nuclear waste issue in Orchid Island. We cannot ignore the issue and sacrifice their rights only because they are minority.


Besides, we noticed that there is an interview of Syaman Rapongan in the book, the death of Mgalumirem. And we have learned and reflected a lot. “The government always threw bad things to our island.” Syaman said. What does he mean bad things? According to the interview, the bad things include nuclear waste and interior teachers. Those teachers are reluctant to come to Orchid Island, which is a remoted and isolated island. They cannot come home regularly because the transportation there is inconvenient. Their responsibility is to teach the Tao’s children. However, most kids are not willing to come to school only for learning. They don’t like studying nor do they like writing. The motivation for them to sit in the classroom is to have lunch. As a result, some teachers discriminate those who cannot write or read Chinese words. However, to Tao’s children, the best classroom for them is the ocean. For them, their life is tied with the ocean. They can learn how to catch fish, dive, and build Tatala in the sea. 72

Take Mgalumirem for example, he takes extreme ways to protect the traditional culture and exclude other cultures. He also is not willing to learn Chinese words. On the other hand, his teacher, Mr. Chang, who accepts Han’s education lose Tao’s traditional customs. He is unable to catch fish in the ocean or build Tatala. All he can do is sit in the classroom and correct students’ homework. In our opinions, Mgalumirem’s and Mr. Chang’s reactions to foreign cultures are too extreme. One rejects, while the other obeys. Mgalumirem cannot accept any foreign culture and denies to look those in the eyes; Mr. Chang leaves his own culture behind and follows the Han’s blindly. We think that both of them are not right. When the foreign culture comes to the Orchid Island, at first, the Tao would resist it. However, sooner or later, they should accept it gradually. Syaman Rapongan is a good example. He accepts Han’s education and Han’s culture, but he never forgets his root. After he lives in Taiwan for years, he goes back to Orchid Island. He settles down there and starts to use Han’s words 73

to describe, to depict, to introduce Taoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s culture to Hanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s society and even other countries. He tries his best to contribute to his homeland. He also shows his respects to both cultures. Likewise, we Taiwanese had been colonized by Japanese, Americans, Spanish, and Dutch. We then successfully integrate all these cultural elements together and develop our special local culture. We are not the natives who grow up or live in the Orchid Island, but we think we can give those who have dilemma between accepting the new and remaining the tradition a suggestion. When you are confused about how to deal with conflicts between tradition and the new, do not reject the new comer or get rid of the old at once. For example, if you are an aborigine and you are required to learn the Chinese words, basically, you have to learn it first. At least, you should know how to read and write in another language that most people can understand. The reason is that you can communicate with people who are from different culture and use it to make a live. For instance, Tagangan, Mgalumiremâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s apprentice, learns Chinese words 74

to works and makes money in Taiwan. Syaman Rapongan creates his literature by Chinese words. Accepting other cultures doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t mean abandon our own culture; that is, we have a new way to introduce our unique culture to the whole world. Time flies, the culture changes with it. We cannot live with no changes; yet, not only the Tao but we also have to learn how to flow with those changes. How to integrate the tradition with the new is what every person in different cultures has to learn.


Going to Orchid IslandTransportation of Orchid Island Until now, you have been equipped with both superficial and deep culture knowledge of Orchid Island. We guess that you are interested in taking a travel to this little but marvelous island! As you know, this is an isolated island which we have to spend some time to get to. As a result, the transportation methods are provided below for you to take as reference. Now, what are you waiting for? Pack your stuff and get the ship to Orchid Island with us!



the plane flying to Orchid Island

There are seven flights per day provided by Daily Air Corporation. From Taitung to Orchid Island, it takes you 30 mins and costs you NT$1480 for one-way trip. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suggested to book tickets as soon as possible because the planes have fewer seats than normal planes do. *Scheduling is unreliable in the winter months because of the weather condition. Please prepare extra cash in case of cancellation of flights which happen commonly.



the boat to Orchid Island and Green Island

Boats running between Fugang Harbor (Taitung) or Houbitou (Kenting) and Orchid Island are available from April to October. Schedules might be changed depended only on weather conditions but on the number of passengers. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suggested to book one day (or less) in advance and verify with the travel agency in Taitung on the day of travel. *Boats going from Orchid Island to Green Island twice a week are available during the 78

summer months. Still, cancellation of service is common.

Finally, you arrive in Orchid Island, the paradise-like island in Taiwan. You are looking forward to the upcoming travel, but you don’t know how to transport in the island. Looking around the space field, you are confused. The sunlight is above you head, buy it seems that you are trapped since you don’t have any transportation tools with you. What do you have to do? Waiting for someone to help you or going home directly? Don’t worry! Following are the advice we offer, and you can start your journey after having the transportation tools.


Bicycle Walk for 10 minutes from the airport, bicycle rentals are offered at Lan En Foundation. It costs NT$250 per day.

Car & Motorcycle Services from rental shops or arrangement of rental provided by any hotel or homestay are two ways to travel around Orchid Island. It costs NT$2000 for car and NT$500 for scooter per day. *Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s suggested to rent a car in winter months because of the slippery road.


Coming to the End “If this island doesn’t exist, I would not be here.” “Where is your face, Ocean…” The sun had already set, but none of us noticed. We sank in the ocean of the classic four works of Syaman Rapongan. At the beginning, we remembered that the smell of café surrounded around us and we enjoyed it. However, after concentrating in the stories, we even forgot to drink sip of café. The rich and aromatic smell of café was replaced by the salty and cool sea wind which blew in our hearts and was triggered by those marine literature. Our first impression of Orchid Island became different. At first, Orchid Island is only a paradise-like place for us to travel. Yet, now it is an island with rich and 81

ancient stories. This little island just beside the mainland Taiwan; however, seldom Taiwanese actively go to know the many stories of it. What we or you look so far is the superficial side of Orchid Island. Likewise, Taiwan is only a tiny place in the world. The world map may not conclude this island. Somehow, Taiwan once was a forgotten island by other people. If there is not the rapid development of economy and technology, Taiwan might not have the chance to stand on the international stage and be seen to the worldwide. Even today, not every person knows what had once happened in Taiwan. Like Orchid Island, Taiwan has abundant stories. They are waiting for you and us to dig out. The cafĂŠ shop is ready to be closed. We packaged our staff and when we saw the 82

books on the table, from the desire in our eyes, we knew that each of us long for more books related to this island to read. Maybe, when we stepped out of the cafĂŠ, we would not remember the smell of the latte or black coffee, but everything in the books will definitely remain in our minds.



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Old photo of the people of Orchid Island. (1931). Japanese. othree. (2010, 9 14). Traditional Tao Building in Orchid Island. Rapongan, S. (1997). 冷海情深. 聯合文學. Rapongan, S. (2009). 老海人. 印刻文化. Rapongan, S. (2011). 八代灣的神話. 聯經出版. Rapongan, S. (2015). 安洛米恩之死. 印刻文化. Roberts, C. (2011). Taiwan's paradise island fights to save its identity. BBC News. TOUR, M. T. (2015, 10 28). Journey to Another World – Orchid Island. Retrieved from Taiwan Scene: /28/journey-to-another-world-orchid-island/ Tsun-wei, C., & Hetherington, W. (2017, 8 2). Lanyu residents demand removal of nuclear waste. Retrieved from TAIPEI TIMES: hives/2017/08/02/2003675764 Welcome to Lanyu. (n.d.). Retrieved from Lonely Planet: -islands/lanyu 王菡. (2015, 8 25). 夏曼 · 藍波安,翻譯海洋 85

的男人. Retrieved from Initium Media: 張耀仁. (2015, 10 2). 【書與人】翻譯海洋第

一人 - 夏曼.藍波安談《安洛米恩之死》. Retrieved from Liberty Times Net: er/922897

黑翅膀傳說:飛魚季與達悟人食魚禁忌背後 的科學. (2017, 4 1). Retrieved from Pan Sci: 藍漢傑. (2015, 7 2). 海洋的眼睛 夏曼.藍波 安. Retrieved from MINT: nterior/content-3339.html



Orchid island impression