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GREETINGS 449TH VETERANS, SECOND GENERATION MEMBERS AND FAMILIES! Welcome to the 2017 Issue of LatePass! As the 2017 issue of LatePass goes out, I want to take this opportunity to thank all those who worked so hard planning and orchestrating our 23rd 449th Bomb Group Reunion in New Orleans in September 2016 — a special few days of memories and companionship.

The Flying Horsemen 449th Bombardment Group (H) B-24 Aircraft Long Range Heavy Bomber WWII European Theater 15th Air Force, 47th Bomb Wing 449th Bombardment Group Bomb Squadrons: 716, 717, 718, 719 January 1944 – April 1945 Grottaglie, Italy Bombardment Targets Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania, Yugoslavia 254 Combat Missions In 475 days of combat, 111 B-24 bombers lost, 199 Axis fighters destroyed Personnel Loss/Interred or Evaded 393 KIA / 63 DED (other deaths) 359 POW / 186 Evaded / 9 Interred Distinguished Unit Citations (DUC) Bucharest, Romania, April 4, 1944 Ploiesti, Romania, July 9, 1944

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On Wednesday evening, we opened the reunion with a Get Acquainted Party honoring the 11 veterans and 3 widows who attended. Several second and third generation members came in 1940’s outfits, and we sang songs and caught up with each other. Thursday began with a special visit to the National WWII Museum. We started in the Victory Theater with the first showing of Beyond All Boundaries, a multi-media production narrated by Tom Hanks. After the movie, members toured the museum at their own pace, visiting the D-Day and Home Front exhibits, the Campaign of Courage displays of the European and Pacific Theaters, and the US Freedom Pavilion with a collection of tanks, trucks and aircraft. Although the museum had fantastic displays, after the tour, we did tell the museum staff that they were remiss in not having a B-24 in their collection! Thursday Night was Squadron Night for the Flying Horsemen and this year, all four squadrons celebrated together. Johnie Webb, from the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency, gave us an update on the recovery efforts for the Hansen and Kendall crews. On Friday, many went on a planned tour of the city and Mardi Gras World. Throughout the Reunion, the PX and Memorabilia Room was open for browsing and buying. Friday Night was a free night and many of us sampled the fine cuisine of New Orleans. Saturday began with the business meeting breakfast. We then had the Memorial Service honoring those 449th veterans who had recently passed. Our Chaplin, Rev. Denise Trogdon, spoke about the meaning of ‘Maximum Effort’ and families presented red roses to honor their loved ones. Saturday evening, the Reunion Banquet and closing ceremonies were held at the National WWII Museum in the Louisiana Memorial Pavilion. Following the Posting of the Colors, the Honor Guard from the 377th Theater Sustainment Command (TSC), presented a moving explanation of the Missing Man Table. During dinner, we were entertained by the Big Easy Jazz Band. Our speaker, William Detweiler, Consultant for Military and Veterans Affairs, The National WWII Museum, gave us insight into the building and development of the museum and future planning. As a gift to the museum, Mr. Detweilor was presented with a framed print of “Just a Bad Day” and the 449th BG Books I-VI. Sunday morning saw most of us leaving for home. Everyone agreed that the New Orleans Reunion was a great success! We are busy planning for the 24th reunion in San Antonio, Texas, with more information to come.




KENDALL CREW | DOWNED JAN 30, 1944 NORTHERN ITALY Original Combat Crew: Front row (L-R) Hill, McGuire, Kendall, Porter Back row: (L-R) Gavalas, Lamarca, Gann, Herrington, Thompson, Grooms KENDALL CREW – MACR 2711 On 30 Jan 1944, B-24H #41-29217 with a crew of ten was hit by a fighter and anti-aircraft fire during an attack on Udine, Italy, lost altitude and seen to crash on coast of Adriatic Sea on Isle of Morgo. There was one survivor and American Graves Registration Service (AGRS) recovered two bodies, which had reportedly been removed from the crash site, from a local cemetery on adjacent island of Grado.


In 2010, a small team investigated a crash site in a marsh located in an environmentally protected European Union nature preserve and later correlated it to this missing B-24. The Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency put a series of plans into motion to assess the strategies to recover this lost crew. Then in May 2014, DPAA archaeologists with experts from the Army Corps of Engineers conducted an on-site survey at this location. They determined that the primary concentration of wreckage is believed to lie 10 to 15 feet below the surface of a duck pond and will require an extensive amount of excavation with special engineering and logistical considerations needed for a successful recovery. The US Army Corps of Engineers provided DPAA a cost estimate for developing a statement of work for environmental assessments and engineering for this site. According to the plans, the first step involves engineering work to prepare the site for excavation. Once that is complete, an actual excavation can take place. The site also contains unexploded ordnance, so Explosive Ordnance Disposal factors need to be considered during excavation planning.

Great-Grandson of Don Lapham (719th) Makai Perez carrying on the legacy in 2nd Grade. It’s his favorite shirt!  



449th Bomb Group Association Officers | 2017 President: Floyd H. Trogdon, BrigGen/Retired, 719th Vice President: Richard Lapham, 2nd Gen, 719th Secretary: Mary Crowley, 2nd Gen, 717th


449th BG Museum: David Duane Livingston Memorial Museum Dan & Carol Livingston, 2nd Gen, 718th

PX Officers: Gary Smith & Debbie Utz, 2nd Gen, 717th Reunion Chairman: Lloyd Rosen, 2nd Gen, 719th

Treasurer: Richard Lapham, 2nd Gen, 719th

Chaplain: Rev. Denise Trogdon, 2nd Gen, 719th

Veterans Correspondence: Deborah Hill, 2nd Generation, 718th

449th BG Historian: Mark Coffee, 2nd Gen, 718th

Executive Assistant: Rod Miller, 2nd Gen, 716th

Legacy Project: Alan Davis, 2nd Gen, 716th

Archives Manager: Denise Riegel, 2nd Gen, 718th

Public Relations: Sandra Latta, 2nd Gen, 718th

Social Media Research Tad Garner, 3rd Gen, 717th

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“I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of liberty, of patriotism, and everything dear to the American character...victory or death” Col. William Barrett Travis Commander Alamo, February 24, 1836 I wanted to find something that might bring some connection between the 449th and the city of San Antonio. However small, just something that would connect. Perhaps there were 449th personnel who might have been stationed here, or maybe a B-24 present at the Lackland museum, but no luck. I had all but given up when I bumped into a quote by Col. William Travis, commander of the 200 brave men that defended the Alamo. The connection was made - over one hundred years has transpired between the Alamo and Grottagile, but these men were made of the same metal, men of honor! An instant thought of 4-4-44 flashed through my mind! For me, the Alamo will hold a special fascination. Men fighting for liberty against impossible odds, outnumbered, bombarded for hours, fighting against a fanatical enemy bent on killing every defender within the walls of the Alamo. Not so much different than being

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hammered with deadly flack and encountering vicious attacks from ME-109’s by a ruthless enemy dedicated to destroying each plane within the 449th Bomb Group and killing all crew aboard. Our hotel is centrally located right on the River Walk. Walking distance or a short trolley ride from the Alamo, The Missions, Tower of Americas, Texas Cultural Center, La Villita Arts Center, River Barge Tours, Ripley’s Believe it or not Museum, Buckhorn Saloon & Texas Ranger Museum, Witte Museum and River Central Mall. Great time to put on your best sandals, slip on your favorite 449th T-shirt, hit the River Walk and check out town. Holding back the best for last, the Banquet! The 2017 Banquet will be held at the Tower of Americas. First constructed as a theme structure for the World’s Fair in 1968, the observation tower stands 750 feet and was the

highest observation tower in the United States until 1994. For those third generation folks attending the reunion, you might want to skip the elevator and try hoofing it up the 952 steps to the top. The current time record is 5 minutes and 18 seconds, set on January 29, 1981. The tower slowly rotates 360 degrees providing panoramic views of the entire city. A fabulous buffet dinner awaits us, which includes soup, salad, a choice of beef, pork and seafood entrées, pasta and vegetable sides and dessert catered by the Chart House. Great food and all you can eat! Looking forward to a very relaxing reunion, visiting with special friends and once again creating a memory not soon forgotten. And most importantly celebrating the accomplishment and legacy of these special men that sacrificed so much to give us the freedom we enjoy each and every day.


THE DECISION We have finally decided the location and date of our next reunion. As you all will recall, the vote between Long Island and San Antonio came down to just one vote at our last meeting in New Orleans. The painstaking evaluation process has been no different, a very tight race, albeit for very different reasons. Long Island presented a wide variety of opportunities; beautiful hotels, diverse venues for both the Squad dinner and Banquet, unlimited possibilities for interesting tours and a strong military presence featuring Mitchel Air Base. During WWII, Mitchel was actually a staging area for newly delivered B-24s and many of our 449th crews picked up their aircraft before making the Atlantic crossing to Grottaglie. San Antonio also features excellent hotels just adjacent to the famed Riverwalk. There is a history in close proximity to the hotel, including the Alamo, several missions and museums featuring aspects of the early west. The Joint Base San Antonio with Ft Sam Houston, Lackland and Randolph Air Bases are in close proximity. Transportation costs are minimal and you can hop a ride down the river for $7.00. At first glance, Long Island appeared to have a slight edge over San Antonio considering the diverse nature of the city and the fact that members of the 449th had been involved with Mitchel air base. However, upon further investigation it became clear that it was cost prohibitive to have our reunion in Long Island (example: transportation costs both private and group). New Orleans was also quite expensive and the board decided to subsidize the reunion costs for the squad dinner and banquet to the tune of almost $9,000 last year. Unfortunately we do not have the funds this year. U.S. New & World report ranked San Antonio #8 Best Affordable, #11 Best Historic Destination, #12 Best Weekend Getaways. So, the reunion will be in San Antonio on October 12th, 13th and 14th. The final decision was based on significantly lower costs and the fact that the average temperature for that time period is 80 degrees. The highlight of the reunion will be the banquet to be staged at the revolving Chart House restaurant atop the Tower of Americans with a varied menu guaranteed to please all. Looking forward to another fun and memorable reunion.

The WWII Flying Horsemen 449th BG Association

Save the Date! Never Surrender

San Antonio, Texas Oct 12-14, 2017

BANQUET / Tower of Americas Tours: Fort Sam Houston, Market Square, Historical City Tour, Riverwalk, Alamo

CALLING ALL Veterans, Widows, Family, 2nd & 3rd Generation and Friends ALL are encouraged to attend this event! EVENT EXCEPTIONALLY HANDICAPPED FRIENDLY Holiday Inn San Antonio Riverwalk 217 N. St. Mary’s Street, San Antonio, Texas 78205

P: (210) 224-2500 F: (210) 527-9589 Please reference 449th Bomb Group

In order to reduce costs and accommodate the suggestions of many of our membership, we will be reducing the reunion to three days. It will be easier for many to attend, reduce cost for hotel and food, while having little effect on the quality of the reunion.


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SAN ANTONIO | OCT. 12-14, 2017


persons attending.


Are you the Veteran or Spouse?



If NO, please state relationship & Veteran’s name: Name(s) of all attendees as they will appear on the NAME TAGS:


I will have a total of


persons attending.

Are you the Veteran or Spouse?

Assgn.: Yes


If NO, please state relationship & Veteran’s name: Name(s) of all attendees as they will appear on the NAME TAGS:

Home Address: City:



Zip Code: Check if appropriate:

This is my 1st reunion



I have attended

Please make check payable to: 449th BG Association

# of Reunions

Mail check to: Deborah Hill / Reunion Register 4335 West 1325 South Cedar City, Utah 84720

Phone: New Home Address You will be traveling by:

New Email Address Plane


Please call if you have any questions. Home: 435-867-8925 Cell: 714-658-6802 Fax: 714-846-0965

HOTEL RATES: $131 per day for our members and are applicable two days before and after the reunion. Please reference 449th Bomb Group Call directly to the hotel: 210-224-2500 | Online: www.holidayinn.com/sat-riverwalk Holiday Inn San Antonio Riverwalk 217 N. St. Mary’s Street San Antonio, Texas 78205 210-224-2500

REUNION & HOTEL REGISTRATIONS must be made by Sept 21, 2017 * Hotel is located downtown on the riverwalk and within walking distance from many major attractions. * Please note that the hotel rate is significantly less for any hotel in the area given the time of year and incredible location.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION Need assistance call: Deborah Hill (449th BGA), phone number above. • TRANSPORTATION Distance from the airport to the Holiday Inn Riverside is approximately 8 miles. •S  UPER SHUTTLE is San Antonio International Airport’s authorized and single shared- ride shuttle service. There is no free shuttle service for any hotels. Shuttles depart from 7 a.m. to 1:30 a.m. daily to downtown hotels every 15 minutes. Passengers may purchase tickets at the airport’s baggage claim area. Cost: $19.00 per person to downtown hotels or $34.00 for a round trip ticket.

Book online and receive an additional discount. saairportshuttle.hudsonltd.net/res •T  AXI SERVICE: Yellow Cab — All passengers can ride in a Yellow Cab for the price of ONE! Approximate cost: $30 one way. •B  ook early to get the best accommodations (view & handicapped facilities if necessary) Complete this form and send Original with your remittance. Please retain a copy for your registration. REFUND POLICY: If a crisis forces a cancellation, refunds will be available for all items, except registration fee / September 21, 2017.

SAN ANTONIO | OCT. 12-14, 2017 Registration

EVENTS & ACTIVITIES Veteran (Accompanied by a Spouse or ONE Traveling Companion) OR Primary Family Member





Each Additional Family Guest (all ages) $15 Oct. 12 8:30 AM- 4:30 PM — Bus to Fredericksburg — National Museum of the Pacific War $35 •M  UST SEE: 1hr 20 min travel time in a private coach to the Fredericksburg, the boyhood home of Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. This quaint town settled in 1846 by German immigrant families is on the National Register of Historic Places and many building retain traditional German and frontier styles. The National Museum complex is home to: The Admiral Nimitz Museum, George Bush Gallery of the Pacific War, the Plaza of the Presidents, Japanese Garden of Peace, Memorial Walk, and the Pacific Combat Zone. The recent multi-million dollar expansion is so thorough; tickets are good for two days. Limited bus seating for the first 55 registered. • Lunch on you own. Very Handicapped friendly. Cost: Bus transportation only • Pay museum admission apon entry: WWII Vets FREE; GROUP Price is $8


3 - 6 PM REGISTRATION / PX & Memorabilia Room Gathering 6:00 PM GET ACQUAINTED PARTY Appetizers / Light Buffet *The 1940’s evening will come alive with vintage dress, song & entertainment! $29 Oct. 13 10:00 AM – 3:00 PM Tour: 5 hours with an hour lunch. Fort Sam Houston & City Tour $35 •T  OUR BEGINS: First, a visit to Fort Sam Houston. As one of the Army’s oldest installations it is now part of Joint Base San Antonio. At Fort Sam Houston Museum visitors will learn everything about the Army’s 9th oldest installation, from its imprisonment of Apache chief Geronimo to the birth of military aviation in 1910. Exhibits chronicle ten major periods of development from the 1840s through the present day, including the events, uniforms, weapons and equipment of each era. • LUNCH (on your own) – at the historic lively Market Square. Described as the largest Mexican market outside Mexico, you will enjoy gourmet Mexican cuisine at either Mi Tierra or La Margarita restaurants. •C  ITY TOUR: Learn of the 300-year-old city history, the pivotal events that shaped its culture and hear the stories behind historic saloons, hotels and plazas. Tour through the city admiring the architecture of the Spanish Governor’s Palace and Mission San Jose, stopping to see the oldest standing church building in Texas, San Fernando Cathedral established in 1731. Saving the best for last, we will explore the Alamo. In 1836, though vastly outnumbered, James Bowie and famed frontiersman Davy Crockett, held out courageously for 13 days before the Mexican invaders finally overpowered them. For Texans, the Battle of the Alamo became an enduring symbol of heroic resistance to oppression and the struggle for independence. • Price of lunch not included • Handicapped-friendly


6:00 PM 449th SQUARDON DINNER $38 Oct. 14 BREAKFAST On your own 10:00 AM MEMORIAL SERVICE

12:00 – 4:00 PM Exploring the Riverwalk • This afternoon is free to explore at your pace and leisure. Rated as one of the “2017 must visit cities in the US.” • Catch some lunch, stroll, people watch, shop • Step aboard a Riverwalk barge for an exciting and entertaining narrative of the city’s rich history. The cruises are about 35 minutes long and covers one and a half miles. Tickets purchased individually. ($7 Senior; $10 Adult) The Station is two blocks from hotel. • OR “skip the barge, ride the water taxi.” With 39 stops, has boarding ramps and accommodates wheelchairs. Head to the Buckhorn Saloon and Hall of Horns to quench your thirst. 6:00 – 10:00 PM BANQUET - Tower of Americas 6:00 -7:00 Cocktail hour — Enjoy the view • The Tower of the Americas is going to be touted as one of the most unique 449th banquet settings yet. The Tower’s revolving restaurant will provide us with a gorgeous panoramic view of the Alamo City. It was originally built as the theme structure of the 1968 World’s Fair and was actually the tallest observation tower in the United States until 1996. • Business attire • Cost includes shuttle bus transportation • Very handicapped-friendly TOTAL



In late February, The DPAA Regional Director for European and Mediterranean operations will be meeting in Germany a representative of the Corps of Engineers who has coordinated the studies we’ve requested and paid for. The intent of the meeting is to get the copies of all the studies that have been conducted, and to get an update on where the Corps of Engineers is in the permitting process. In advance of those meetings the Corps of Engineers has supplied DPAA with a slide presentation outlining the work conducted jointly in 2014 to investigate the site, subsequent Corps of Engineers geotechnical investigation and survey, and the steps still to be taken toward excavation of the site. Once the Europe Mediterranean Regional Directorate has received the Corps of Engineers test results and engineering recommendations, the excavation will be planned and executed as recommended. HANSON CREW – MACR 12511 On 28 February 1945, B-24J #42-51642 departed from Grottaglie Air Base and did not return from a bombing mission on the Isarco/ Albes railroad bridge. The entire crew of eleven was killed in the incident and six crewmembers have not been recovered. The aircraft was last sighted losing altitude nearing the Alps on the Italian-Austrian border. The recovered crewmembers were found along a 150 km stretch of the Adriatic coast in Italy, suggesting that the aircraft crashed in the water. In August 2013 DPAA received information that Italian divers recently found possible human remains and aircraft wreckage including a partial serial number that corresponds to MACR 12511 at an underwater site near Grado, Italy.

HANSON CREW | DOWNED FEBRUARY 28, 1945, COAST OF NORTHERN ITALY Original Combat Crew: Back row: (L-R) Cpt Hanson, Sgt. Cox, Lt Betz, Lt. Fermano, Sgt Brady, Lt GermanFront row: (L-R ) Sgt. McGraw, Sgt Acompora, Sgt. Turpin, Sgt. Nally Based on this information, DPAA dispatched an Underwater Investigation Team to investigate the site in May 2014. The team confirmed the site as being that of MACR 12511 and recommended the site for recovery. From 25 August through 13 October 2015 an Underwater Recovery Team from DPAA conducted recovery operations at the site, recovering human remains, personal effects and artifacts. The remains recovered from the site were taken to DPAA for analysis. Once the remains arrived at the laboratory they had to go through a desalination process to remove the salt from the remains. This process, which is completed, is necessary to protect the remains from damage that can occur due to crystallization of the salt. The remains have undergone laboratory analysis and DNA testing. The laboratory estimates the Identification Packets will be completed within the next 60 days and will be sent

to the Army Casualty Office at Fort Knox. They will then make an appointment with the primary next of kin to arrange for a meeting to present the identification to the family. Unfortunately, the pace of identifications has slowed due to the retirement of DPAA’s primary Medical Examiner. The replacement is due to arrive this summer. The second Medical Examiner provided to DPAA by the Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System will continue to validate/authorize identifications in the interim. The 449th Bomb Group Association has closely followed DoD’s work on these cases and we honor their commitment to their fallen brothers who have not yet returned. We are proud of the support from veteran’s organizations and will diligently continuing working to bringing Americas fallen heroes home.


James Burnett/ Lt. Col. USAF Ret., Harvey Gann/POW, Robert Geisert/POW, Bill Hamill, Wayne Kennedy, Dale Martz, Reese Mathieu Jr, Vernon Petersen, Bud Rosch, Floyd Trogdon/ B/Gen USAF (Ret.) Edward West

449th Flying Horsemen | 449th.com



Lone Wolf Operations MARK COFFEE, 449TH GROUP HISTORIAN (For documentation and research contact 449historian@gmail.com)

The Fifteenth Air Force was constituted in the fall of 1943 for two main reasons. First, to be able carry the Combined Bomber Offensive to targets in southern Europe and the Balkans that were unreachable from England. Secondly, the promise of better operating weather in Italy that would allow continued pressure on German air defenses when weather inhibited operations from England. In practice, “sunny” Italy proved to have less than ideal weather from late fall through early spring. The 449th was able fly only 6 missions in March 1944 due to bad weather. Additionally, the same frontal systems that shut down airfields in England would generally sweep over southern Europe obscuring target areas. The advent of H2X radar in late spring of 1944 allowed some measure of bombing operations during bad weather conditions although both reliability and accuracy of radar bombing was initially poor and the number of available radar equipped ships (called Mickey ships) was limited. Bombing by radar, termed pathfinder force (PFF) methods, was a work in progress. In an effort to improve PFF results, the 15th AF set aside two B-17 and one B-24 radar equipped Mickey ships to fly night reconnaissance missions. Photographs obtained by these missions improved radar intelligence and aided in preparing PFF target and navigation material. Approximately 20 night reconnaissance missions were flown extending deep into German territory without loss or positive encounter with enemy night fighters. Some important conclusions were drawn from the reconnaissance missions. Navigation by PFF methods was feasible in cloud cover and darkness. Enemy night fighters were not believed to

have been committed against individual highflying aircraft, thus the threat to single aircraft operations was minimal. Thus bad weather could be penetrated in relative safety as long as extensive turbulence and icing areas were avoided. The additional experience gained in night flying and navigation preparing for the Southern France invasion in August added to the confidence that single-sortie PFF attacks were feasible. Thus were born the Lone Wolf tactics.

on 25 October, 1944. The target was an aircraft factory at Klagenfurt, Austria and six aircraft were dispatched at 10 minute intervals. At bombing altitude over the target cloud cover was sparse and three of the six aircraft returned to base without bombing. On 26 October, a force of 12 aircraft were sent to the marshalling yard at Innsbruck at 1-minute intervals. Again, the force broke into clear weather near the target. Five aircraft returned early and seven bombed visually.

Lone Wolf bombing operations were coordinated attacks by a force of unescorted individual bombers making bombing runs under non-visual conditions, either day or night. Targets selected for Lone Wolf attacks were high priority installations, many deep in enemy territory and generally heavily defended by flak and fighters. Bombing was accomplished by radar guided PFF methods. Lone Wolf missions were only flown when 10/10 cloud cover was forecast in and around the target areas. The cloud cover largely negated enemy defenses. Standing orders required the Lone Wolves to return to base if visual conditions were encountered.

The 449th participated in its first Lone Wolf operation on the night of 30 October when 2 of its aircraft joined 4 others from the 47th Wing to attack the Klagenfurt marshalling yard. The Babits crew of the 718th Squadron turned back due to failure of the Mickey radar, and the Faust crew of the 719th bombed on dead-reckoning when their Mickey set failed at the Initial Point of the bomb run. On 3 November, the 15th AF sent 74 aircraft on Lone Wolf missions to targets in Austria and southern Germany. The 449th sent three aircraft to bomb the oil refinery at Moosebierbaum but two had to turn back with engine failures.

A few modifications were required to turn normal Mickey ships into Lone Wolves because of the expected weather penetration. Lone Wolves were given an over-all dark gray camouflage paint. The H2X radar set was equipped with de-icing and pressurization systems. Flame dampeners were installed on engine exhausts to lessen their visibility on night missions. Crews considered proficient in night and bad weather flying and navigation were given additional training to increase their efficiency. The 15th AF staged the first experimental bombing attack by Lone Wolf aircraft during daylight

On the night of 12/13 November, the 449th sent three ships as part of a 31 aircraft maximum range mission to the Blechhammer South oil refinery. The aircraft encountered clear conditions just prior to the target and were able to bomb visually. Surprise was achieved and the refinery was in full operation with lights on when the first aircraft arrived over the target. The first bomb string set fires visibly marking the target for the following aircraft. This was also the first Lone Wolf mission to incur losses as two aircraft crash landed and two were missing. The three 449th aircraft all returned safely. Paul Corkill was flying as navigator with the crew (CONTINUED ON PAGE 9)


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Ship #39, 44-49047, 718th Squadron showing H2X radar in place of ball turret and overall grey camouflage applied for Lone Wolf operations piloted by George Babits of the 718th Squadron. One of his heated boots failed during the mission and he suffered severe frostbite to his toes in the frigid conditions at high altitude. The Mickey radar aboard was not working and was unavailable as an aid to navigation. Despite his injuries, Corkill successfully navigated the aircraft over the target on time and the aircraft made a good bombing run. Corkill was hospitalized after the mission where he lost part of a toe and sent home after 43 missions. He was authorized the Distinguished Flying Cross for the mission, but since he had been sent home, he was unaware of the award until he contacted the 449th Association in 2013. He finally received his very belated DFC in October of that year. On 12 December, the 15th AF flew another day Lone Wolf mission to Blechhammer. A new wrinkle to the tactic was added where two-ship formations spaced at one minute intervals flew each with a Mickey ship leading a non-radar equipped ship. This required close formation fly-

449th Flying Horsemen | 449th.com

ing in clouds but doubled the striking power of the attack. Pilots reported little difficulty in maintaining formation with the lead aircraft, and it was thought that the tactic could be expanded to three or four ship elements. At the end of 1944, the 15th AF published a report on the state of the Lone Wolf tactic. To date, 627 aircraft had been dispatched on 16 missions. Forty seven percent of the aircraft had bombed the assigned target, 23 percent had bombed alternates and 29 percent had aborted. Four aircraft had been lost and 13 reported as missing in action, an attrition rate of 2.7%. Attrition on normal missions over the same period was less than 2%. The 449th had participated in 10 of the 16 missions, of which 5 were night missions, with no losses. Results achieved were in most cases difficult to evaluate due to the nature of blind-bombing, where neither strike photos nor visual observation were possible. Additional to whatever bomb

damage was achieved, the Lone Wolf attacks had a harassing value to the enemy that had become accustomed to relative security during periods of darkness and bad weather. It was felt that even light attacks carried out around the clock and in bad weather destroyed the enemy’s sense of security and maintained psychological pressure upon him. The disruption, loss in time and efficiency was considered a significant strategic effect. The report judged the Lone Wolf tactic as a sound method of sustaining pressure on the enemy when bad weather caused “stand downs” of normal operations. While radar bombing was in its relative infancy, these operations were the predecessor to the all-weather capabilities of the modern Air Force. Source material for this article includes “Operational Employment Of Lone Wolf Tactics” by the Fifteenth Air Force, and mission folders of the 449th Bomb Group.



THANK YOU, THANK YOU, THANK YOU! When we think of the PX, the names Lynn and Rick immediately come to mind. I don’t think I have ever seen these two apart, a team in the truest sense of the word. With Lynn handling inventory/ sales (there has been talk that Lynn could sell a snowball machine to an Eskimo) & Rick steadfastly at her side taking in the money and accounting for every penny, the 449th has realized record PX sales the last several reunions! Unfortunately Lynn has encountered some health issues and they will no longer be handling the PX duties. The good news is that she is doing well and they are planning to join us in San Antonio for our reunion in October. The Morans took over the PX from Veteran John and Jean Aulner in 2013. We are fortunate that Gary Smith and his wife Debbie have stepped up and volunteered to take over the PX duties from Lynn and Rick. Gary has already been exposed to inventory duties – squad pins, patches, key chains, mouse pads, books, hats, men’s T-shirts, women’s T-shirts, bumper stickers, etc. – and, of course, hauling the inventory to and from the reunion. LYNN & RICK MORAN

We all owe Rick and Lynn a great deal of gratitude for their contribution of effort, time and energy to make the PX a very successful part of the 449th BGA. Look forward to seeing you both in San Antonio.

A THOUSANDS WORDS... It has been said that a picture is worth a thousand words. I whole-heartedly agree with this statement, depending on the quality of the picture and the skill of the person who took it. In the case of the 449th, we have both, high quality pictures taken by a skilled photographer. Thanks to the efforts of Bill Petersen (son of Veteran Vernon Petersen) we are accumulating an excellent pictorial legacy of the veterans of the 449th. Ever since I met Bill several reunions ago, I don’t think I have ever seen him without a camera in this hand... at the ready to catch any opportunity for the perfect picture! Thanks Bill, keep up the great work!


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Contact Gary Smith: 449thPXstore.com

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My Visit

THE YANKEE AIR MUSEUM A few days after our 2016 Reunion I was visiting with a friend of mine and he asked how the re u n i o n had gone. After bragging about what a great experience it was the discussion changed to various air shows and museums in the Midwest. It was then that I learned about the attempt to save a portion of Willow Run. For those who might not be familiar with Willow Run, it was a factory erected by Ford to build B-24 Bombers used in WWII.


In January, 1941 Charles Sorensen, Ford’s executive vice-president of manufacturing, made a promise that “Ford can build one bomber an hour.” That promise resulted in Ford’s Willow Run facility. By the spring of 1944 the Willow Run factory was producing a bomber an hour and the time to complete a bomber from start to finish was just seven days. You can read the story of Willow Run in a book by that name by Randy Hotton and Michael Davis. After hearing about Yankee Air Museum’s effort to save Willow Run I found a contact for the organization. I shared information about the 449th BG (H) with them, including information related to Two Ton Tessie. It may be one of the most famous B-24s flown by the 449th as there are pictures of Gloria Swanson with it in the Willow Run factory. I

also shared a copy of “Book IV Maximum Effort” and “Escape I Must”. For this I was put on their email list. Early this year I received a schedule of their upcoming events and noticed that on February 1st they were having a presentation on their efforts to save Willow Run. I talked my wife into letting me attend. The presentation was held at The Yankee Air Museum facility at Willow Run Airport. Dennis Norton presented a slide show covering from the effort to purchase a portion of the building and their efforts to stabilize and renovate it through the end 2016. In addition, he presented current plans for the new museum. All together this is an amazing $20 million project. Before coming back to Chillicothe I had breakfast at “The Bomber” restaurant in Ypsilanti, MI.

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Its Bomber Breakfast was featured on Food TV’s “Top Five Over Indulgences”. I can attest to the fact that it can easily feed four adults! I would highly recommend a visit to Willow Run and the Yankee Air Museum for anyone interested in aviation history and WWII aviation in specific. They’d appreciate your support of their efforts to “Save the Bomber Plant”. And the leadership of the 449th BG Association will be exploring the possibility of ways the new museum might share the stories of one of the most decorated units to fly Willow Run’s B-24s. For more information, check out the following websites: http://www.savethebomberplant.org http://yankeeairmuseum.org http://bomberrestaurant.net

According to historian Mark Coffee’s records, 124 of the 449BG (H)’s planes were built at Willow Run and an additional 61 were built from knock down kits manufactured there. They include all three planes lost by the 718th Squadron during the January 30, 1944 raid on the Udine Airdrome.


“Those who wait for the LORD shall renew their strength.” A NON-DENOTATIONAL SERVICE, DEVOTED TO THE AIRMEN OF THE 449TH BG

Excerpts from the Memorial Service – In May of 1943, a community of brothers was created and the bonds among them endure today. It must have been terrifying for those young airmen, away from home in a foreign land, facing many dangers. The friendships formed in that journey were sealed in their common vision and tested under great stress. God dwelled in the midst of them inspiring bravery and hope to persevere even in the darkest times. A reverence for liberty and justice kept them going for 254 missions, and a God of peace instilled in them a greater vision. If they lost sight of that vision, they had to be hope for each other. Liberation is at the heart of God’s desire for humanity, and these men served God well. Some were lost before they could see the fruits of their labor. Others were left to tell the story. Despite the horrors of war, God’s love prevailed. Many of them did just that and we are here today honoring them, and the men who returned from battle to give us all a better life. For those who returned- many have carried the powerful wounds of war so that new generations could be liberated. We have gathered today to create a sacred time and space to honor those we love and have lost and you who served, who stand among us. Remembering that the liberty we now enjoy was based upon toil and sacrifice, we give thanks for their service and to the God who stands with all who are oppressed and suffer. MEMORIAL SERVICE | ROLL CALL OF HONOR Red Rose — coveys respect, love, and courage At the end of each Memorial service the Roll Call of Honor is read. It consists of known deceased airmen who have passed away within the last year, airmen whose names have not previously been acknowledged and the names of the deceased airmen from the state in which the reunion is being held. The Roll Call of Honor also includes the names of airmen whose families are in attendance. A member of the family is given a Red Rose to be escorted and placed on the Missing Man’s Table. Memorial Service ~ Roll Call of Honor – San Antonio Red Rose ~ October 14, 2017 As part of this sacred and honorable tribute given to our fallen heroes each year, it has come to our attention that there are families who have not been able to attend the service, but wish to have their AIRMAN’S name or a specific CREW to be included in Roll Call of Honor, Memorial service. PLEASE SEE BOTTOM OF PAGE 14 for additional information.

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Home of the 449th BGA Archives & Memorabilia

Dan and I looked forward to traveling east for the 23rd Reunion in New Orleans and before we knew it September had arrived. We bought the biggest suitcase we could find to pack small 449th mementoes, photos, uniforms, posters and storyboards for display as part of the “PX experience”. That translates to sharing stories, purchasing 449th items and viewing-not only the items we brought to share-but many photo and memory books and documents toted in from other 449th members. The room selected at our hotel for gathering was a real treat being on the 16th floor. Views of the city were outstanding and allowed us to enjoy ships moving up and down the Mississippi as well. We want to especially thank Alan Davis for his exceptional efforts through, not only the Legacy Project he administers, but creating many works of art he donated for the raffle to generate money for the 449th and gave attendees a chance to place a winning bid. The David Duane Livingston Memorial Museum has been a hub of activity building special projects such as the cockpit section. We recently acquired from Australia an original instrument panel control plus fuses. Dan Is working from original tech orders from WII to replace reproduction parts with these authen-


tic parts, including switches and lights. We are constantly updating displays as artifacts become available. Our goal in this endeavor is to honor all veterans. We’ve had a number of visits recently for tours and chats about war experiences. Jack Ferris, a Navigator with the 484th, and Tom Bradley, a Tail Gunner with the 455th, came by in early January with family members. Working our way through the Museum, we came to the Navigator’s display. Jack lingered a bit then singled out one the Navigator maps laying on the table. He studied it, peering closely, then he found on that map the city of Weiner-Neustadt where he had been shot down. He described where the plane veered after the shoot down, then where he parachuted, landing in a friendly region and making his way back to his base. He went on to fly another 26 successful missions. Tom was observing the conversation and stepped closer to have a better look then found this is also where he had been shot down December 1944. He also was able to return to subsequently fly another 25 successful missions. The thought that this one particular map happened to be displayed there was an amazing coincidence. We asked them both to sign it adding a special significance to the display.

A couple of weeks ago, our longtime friend, Herb Kwart, who was a Bombardier with the 381st, stopped by with his friend, Dave, a retired Highway Patrol officer for a tour. Herb is a mainstay for local groups giving talks about his war time experiences in a B-17-including 35 missions over Germany. Herb and Dave, who had not visited before, enjoyed the exhibits and enhancements added. Last year we had the privilege of attending a Legion of Honor award ceremony for Herb and several other veterans at the French Consulate in San Francisco. He and several other vets were each presented a medal and thanked for their service in the war. The country of France bestows this tribute on those who have served in France defending liberty. We were fortunate to arrange a ride in the nose section of a Collings Foundation B17 for Herb a couple of years ago, from Paso Robles Airport to Moffett Field in Santa Clara, CA. He enjoyed it immensely though he noted it wasn’t quite as easy to get around the plane so many years after the war. Though the museum takes constant attention to maintain as we change and expand exhibits we are immensely rewarded by meeting veterans and those interested in their sacrifice and the history of conflict.

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MEMORIAL SERVICE — ROLL CALL OF HONOR — RED ROSE Walking the Red Rose — Roll Call of Honor Coveys Respect, Love, and Courage

San Antonio - October 14, 2017

At the end of each Memorial service the Roll Call of Honor is read. It consists of known deceased airmen who have passed away within the last year, airmen whose names have not previously been acknowledged and the names of the deceased airmen from the state in which the reunion is being held. The Roll Call of Honor also includes the names of airmen whose families are in attendance. A member of the family is given a Red Rose to be escorted and placed on the Missing Man’s Table.

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AIRCRAFT NOSE ART It is believed that aircraft nose art began in WWI by Italian and German pilots. Much of the early art consisted of embellishing a squadron insgnia or painting a mouth beneath the propeller. True nose art appeared during World War II by both the Axis and Allied air forces and was generally believed to be for practical reasons of identifying units. Though never approved by the AAF commanders, it was tolerated in an effort to boost aircrew morale. Eventually, nose art of the Allied AAF, evolved to express the individuality of crews (air & ground), evoking memories of home and peacetime life or as a kind of psychological protection against the stresses of war and the probability of death. Many of the illustrations depicted were of loved ones, cartoon characters and pin-up girls. Note: It is estimated that more than 240 individual B-24’s were assigned to 449th during the 16 months of combat. During that period of time, the 449th BG lost 111 B-24s. As planes were lost, they were replaced by new aircraft or by transfers from other bomb groups. Many of the later aircraft were silver in appearance and were referred to as “Silver Jobs.” Those aircrafts were generally not named or nose painted.

THE LAST OF HIS KIND Aircraft Nose Artist


719th Geisel Crew, Ball Gunner / Original 449th Cadre

He is the last great known 449th BG nose artist. John passed away Feb. 25, 2017 at the age of 96. In his later years, he painted many flight jackets for the 449th BG airmen. Pictured is a jacket with the B-24 Mis Chief, 717th, Ivers Crew.

“Lonesome” was an original cadre ship assigned to Geisel’s crew who flew her overseas in December ‘43. She completed 52 combat sorties. After suffering battle damage Lonesome was sent to Gioia, Italy depot for repairs and reassigned to another 15th AF Bomb Group. Completing many more missions, she survived though the end of the war.

MEMORIAL SERVICE — ROLL CALL OF HONOR — RED ROSE Walking the Red Rose — Roll Call of Honor Coveys Respect, Love, and Courage

San Antonio - October 14, 2017

As part of this sacred and honorable tribute given to our fallen heroes each year, it has come to our attention that there are families who have not been able to attend the service, but wish to have their AIRMAN’S name or a specific CREW to be included in Roll Call of Honor during the Memorial Service. For a minimal donation of $25 (to cover expenses: rose, program and postage) your airman’s name will be placed on the Roll Call of Honor and read within his squadron. A RED ROSE will be escorted down the aisle when the name is read and then placed on the Missing Man Table. The Red Rose will remain on the Missing Man Table for the banquet held later that evening. After the reunion, a Memorial program will be sent to you.

In honor of Airman / Crew

For those who would like to have their AIRMAN’S name read or that of a specific CREW, Please enclose a check $25 with this request to:

449th BGA – Legacy Project Alan Davis 370 Braewood Dr. Chillicothe, OH 45601-2171

Squadron (if known)

Given in honor by Non-Profit Organization Federal IRS Tax Exempt, Int. Rev. Code 501 © (19) #43-129704 Beautiful (Limited Edition) High Quality Print 16

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$200 DONATION Artist ~ Todd Price


• Autographed by Harvey Gann 718th BS, Kendall Crew, only survivor • Painting is loaned to the DPAA in Hawaii Final placement - Pentagon, Washington DC • Unframed print (approx size: 25” x 15”) • High Quality Print • Certificate of authenticity and registered number • 449th BGA letter for tax donation/nonprofit organization, and free shipping)

Let all remember, sacrifice does not have a price and that the price of our freedom today was not cheap! Your purchase helps preserve the 449th BG legacy and the memory of the young airmen who gave their all. Mail your order and check to: 449th BG Legacy Project, Alan Davis: 370 Braewood Drive | Chillicothe, OH 45601 | ardforchillicothe@gmail.com


Names Read at Memorial Service 716th Squadron MEDICAL CREW* 716th J. D. Belvin 716th Calvin “Ted” Beale* 716th Robert W. Bilodeau* 716th Kenneth Blake, Jr. * 716th Albert Bridgham 716th Gerald Burgess 716th Waldo L. Cain 716th Noble E. Deer* 716th Arnold Dehn, MIA 716th Paul Farrell 716th Howard Hanson* 716th Donald Hoglund 716th Eugene L. McGowan 716th Thomas McGraw, MIA 716th Col. Jim Miller 716th Einar O. Niklason* 716th Jesse W. Priest* 716th Victor Reiss 716th Albert E. Richard, Jr 716th G. Robert Ruff

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716th 716th 716th

Floyd F. Shanley Solomon Weiss Oscar M. Wilkins

717th Bomb Squadron 717th Allen D. Benson 717th Wesley J. Butts 717th Ira D. Clare 717th Jim M Coley 717th Steve P. Coulis* 717th John Desmond* 717th James R. Edwards* 717th Eugene J. Gallagher 717th Wally Green 717th Roy A. Jones* 717th Robert L. Kaley* 717th John (Jack) McCarthy* 717th Lloyd Ray McNeil 717th James “Bud” Mueller* 717th Jack Newman 717th Charles G. Niernberger 717th Charles G. Ponticelli 717th Charles G. Radcliff 717th Charles G. Schwartz 717th Charles G. Trumbull* 717th Charles G. Underwood 717th Charles G. Voelker 717th Charles G. Wehr


Charles G. Whalen

718th Bomb Squadron 718th Leo Alpert 718th Robert C. Anderson 718th Mack Baker 718th Allen Carrico 718th George W. Chudyk 718th Morris Coffee 718th Thomas F. Duffy, Jr 718th Isaac (Ike) Dugas 718th Delbert Durham 718th Nick Gavalas, MIA* 718th Lt. Col. Robert Gettens* 718th Charles Gran 718th Given Grooms, MIA* 718th Pershing J. Hill, MIA* 718th James J Irwin 718th J. Edward Latta 718th Preston L. LeBlanc 718th David Livingston 718th Charles C. Lynn* 718th Richard J. Macak* 718th Harry E. May 718th Harry McGuire, MIA 718th Rodger Meek, EVD (CONTINUED ON PAGE 19)




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THE LEGACY PROJECT HONOR ROLL “Legacy = Something received from a predecessor or from the past.” BY ALAN DAVIS, 2ND GEN, 716TH

The 449th BG Association was initially formed to give those who served in the 449th BG (H) an opportunity to meet and to share news about their lives and stories about their service. More recently it has become an opportunity for their children, grandchildren and others to gain a better understanding of the service and sacrifice behind the legacy of freedom they received from those who served. In a few short years the opportunity to have that first hand experience with the veterans of the 449th BG (H) will have past. But the importance of sharing the stories behind their service and sacrifice will become all the more important. How that will be best accomplished is still left to be determined. However, beginning the process of ensuring those efforts will be successful shouldn’t be delayed. At the last reunion I was given the honor of being asked to serve on the Board of Directors of the 449th BG Association. In addition, I was asked to fill the role of coordinating the fund raising efforts required to keep the memory and stories of the 449th BG alive. I gladly accepted the responsibility and challenge of that assignment. While the Board solicits ideas on what should be done to accomplish that goal, some immediate needs come to mind. Continued efforts on building the groups outstanding website, on creating meaningful documentation on the 449th BG and its service members, creating an archive of material related to the 449th BG and ensuring that the necessary funds are available to continue reunions are just a few of the possible items that will require resources. The leadership is looking for ideas for both projects and for fund raising from its members. Later this year they will introduce an initial plan for both. In the meantime, I would urge you to consider what you might do at this time: - Purchase of the “Just a Bad Day” print? - Support the 2017 Reunion through a gift? - Add the 449th BG Association in your estate plan? - Encourage others to support the goals of the 449th? In the meantime, please send me your ideas on other ways the 449th BG Association can ensure the necessary resources are available to continue these efforts.

Alan R. Davis 370 Braewood Drive Chillicothe, OH 45601 449thLegacy@gmail.com

Website UPDATE!



Names Read at Memorial Service (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 17)

718th 718th 718th 718th 718th

James D. Northway Charles O’rrico* Albert Petak James H . Rickel* Rocco J. Ruggiero

719th Bomb Squadron 719th Emil Baer* 719th Arthur B. Benson 719th Alvin Charnes 719th John H. Cyrus 719th Walter J. Dillon* 719th Richard (Dick) Downey* 719th Paul C. Evilsizor 719th Paul Fuller 719th Reginald F. Johnson* 719th Donald Lapham 719th Percy J. LeBlanc 719th Harry Mahoney 719th Max W. Minton* 719th Fernando O’Dell 719th Charles Putnam* 719th Ernest Ruler 719th Herbert J. Schute, Jr 719th Joseph J. Taormina 719th Donald D. Van Lier 719th James Robert Ware* 719th Sheldon Zimmerman State of Lousiana LA St. H. Grady Ballenger LA St. Lester Blackwell LA St. Julian Caldwell LA St. Lucius Carter LA St. Edmund Cordery LA St. William Daniel LA St. Horace Greer LA St. Paul R. Harper LA St. Franklin Henderson LA St. Stacy Jeffcoat LA St. John A. Joseph LA St. Robert Koons LA St. Lacy Overton LA St. George Parker LA St. Antonio Romano LA St. Lloyd Smith LA St. Ralph H. Thompson LA St. Luther Wilson LA St. John Wood (CONTINUED ON PAGE 20)

449th Flying Horsemen | 449th.com


449th Bomb Group


Mary Crowley, Secretary 2nd Generation 16292 Content Circle Huntington Beach, CA 92649 Phone: 714.840.1805 Fax: 714.846.0965 Email: 449thSecretary@gmail.com

The term LATEPASS refers to the control tower CALL SIGN at Grottaglie SPRING 2017 NEWSLETTER 449th Bomb Group Association 716 - 717 - 718 - 719 Bomb Squadrons

Info RE: Mailing List / Removal / Deceased Member Please report any changes, or removal, of your mailing address or information regarding a deceased Veteran to Mary Crowley.

For WWII 449th BG documentation and research, please contact: Mark Coffee / Group Historian 449historian@gmail.com

*No membership dues assessed. Reprinting in whole or in part, without written permission, is prohibited. All rights and contents are reserved by the 449th BGA, A Not for Profit Organization, funded by member donations and contributions. Contributions to the 449th BGA are deductible on IRS1040 Schedule A, if not made for merchandise or services.


Shirley Jean (#1) * Cunningham Crew Crew John Cunningham Crew Paul Land Crew Paul Farrell Crew Thomas McGinnis Crew James Linton Crew Wayne Kennedy (Living) Crew Kenneth Blake Crew William Maynard Crew Frank Wise Crew Joe Fleming

Weaver Crew * Pilot - “Last man standing” Crew John Weaver (Living) Crew Jacques Meyer Crew Lincoln Robinson Crew Kenneth Rimmer Crew Thomas Silvestri Crew Leland Stalker Crew John Yarbrough Crew Steven Wirtes Crew Reginald Johnson Crew Richard Berzinski

Thunder Bay Babe* 24 Mar ‘44 Ridgeway Crew 6 KIA 4 POW Crew Warren Ridgway Crew Joseph Whitlock Crew John Lacastro Crew Joe Smith Crew George Potts Crew Jack Newman Crew John Colson Crew Frank Riggs Crew LeRoy Tripp Crew Raymond Rabent

Johnson, R. Crew* Crew Robert Johnson* Crew Robert Hoffman* Crew Scott Guckes* Crew James Hopkins* Crew Vernon Isenhower* Crew Harvey Nathason* Crew Ted Beale* Crew Edwin Wasilewski* Crew John Ducic* Crew Michael O’Keefe*

Lurchin Urchin* 31 Jan’44 Thompson Crew 3 KIA 7 POW Crew Col. Darr H. Alkire* Crew Elliott A. Thompson* Crew James H. Gallaher* Crew Wilbur N. Rasmussen* Crew George W. Gordon* Crew Steven Babiec* Crew Wayne W. Ross* Crew Lloyd G. Buehrer* Crew Samuel W. Scott* Crew Tony (Lopez) Pompa* Crew Arnold R. Cain* Additional WWII US Armed Services Theodore E. Heglar, Ariman 4th AAF Winchester Kerth, Army TEC 4 US Army John M. O’Connor, USMC 2nd Marine Division Robert Schack, Airman AAF-C15 Arthur R. Strauss, Airman Ordnance, 8th AAF

Names that appear are known deceased airmen who have passed away since Sept 2015 and airmen who have not previously been acknowledged. BOLD NAMES indicate: In honor of 449th BG airmen, family members were in attendance at the 2016 Memorial Service BOLD NAME* (With Asterisk) RED ROSE-Legacy Donation. A RED ROSE was escorted and placed on the Missing Man Table for airmen who families have donated to the Legacy Project

Profile for 449th Bomb Group (WWII)

Late Pass – Spring 2017  

Late Pass – Spring 2017

Late Pass – Spring 2017  

Late Pass – Spring 2017

Profile for 449th

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