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Tr a n s f o r m - i n g (with) materials A journey to an elastic mind Master Degree Project, 2019 MFA Programme in Design

Ting-Hsuan Chang

Academy of Design and Crafts, HDK University of Gothenburg


Abstract

This project started with reflecting on the consumption society where the efficiency and productivity were prioritized. As mass production is still the dominant way for manufacturing, everything is expected to be in control in order to create the equally good products. Since the environmental context shapes people’s behaviors and thinkings, this standardized value limited people in some ways.

Keywords: Time Material Materiality Transformation Perception

With the intention to arise awareness on this situation, this project explored how the surprising properties of materials with time aspects can break the norm and stimulate more reflections on the relationships between human and objets. By experimenting with materials, capturing the visions, embodying the abstract through making, testing and modifying with feedbacks, several objects were designed as an outcome that commented on the consumption society by revealing the inconsistency between the material and materiality. How those transforming objects would work and contribute in different contexts was partly tried out as physical experiences for different audience. Not only the produced objects, the process of the project together with the final objects could also be seen as a whole that shifted people’s perspectives as ‘a journey to an elastic mind’, in contribution to design discourse involved in time and material with critical thinkings.

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Abstract


Table of Contents

Abstract

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Table of Contents

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Introduction

03

Literature Review Design Question

04 13

Method Description

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Structure Exploration Materialization Mediation

14 15 17 18

Project documentation

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Description of process Description of result

19 29

Conclusion

43

Acknowledgment

46

Reference

47

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Table of Contents


Introduction

The project started with reflecting on the society with interwove researching and reading, which were organized into literature review and developed to the design questions. In this section, I put the literature review which was written in the beginning of 2019 to frame the background and foundation of this project.

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Literature Review

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Desgin Questions With the reflections from the researching phase, I found my interest in the perception of time in design practice with the focus on materials. I also saw the potential of the physical experience of ‘time and material’ to be something that could trigger more inner reflections and critical thinkings on the relationships between human and the physical world. Thus, I formulated my design question:

How can design present the transformations of materials as a catalyst for people to reflect on the relationships between daily objects and human in mass production society?

The question was broken down into mainly three parts that structured the methodology of the project, which was elaborated in the following section.

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Introduction


Method Description Structure There were three main phases with several methods conducted in this project. (Fig. 1) In the EXPLORATION phase, part of methods from Material Driven Design were borrowed to explore more expressions of materials. It started with tinkering with materials as a way to understand materials’ properties and qualities. During the experimenting process, several tools, such as camera and writing, were used to capture the aesthetic, meanings, performances into visions that provoke spectators’ emotions. In the MATERIALIZATION phase, by associating the material visions to how people interact with objects in daily life, ideas of objects making were developed and executed as tryouts. Referring to Material Driven Design, the process was the ’journey of a designer from tangible to abstract, and then from abstract back to tangible.’ * In the MEDIATION phase, the objects made from the previous phase were designed to build the experience and narration as an encounter for viewers, with the aim to stimulate reflections and debates on people’s ways of living with artifacts in current society.

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Karana, E., Barati, B., Rognoli, V., & Zeeuw van der Laan, A. (2015). Material driven design (MDD): A method to design for material experiences.

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Fig.1 The structure of the methodology

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Method Description


EXPLORATION Material Driven Design (MDD) facilitated designing for material experiences. It was argued that the ‘material’ elicit meaningful user experiences in and beyond its utilitarian assessment. This requires qualifying the material not only for what it is, but also for what it does, what it expresses to us, what it elicits from us, and what it makes us do. The figure on the right (Fig.2) illustrates the MDD Method with four main steps as: (1) Understanding The Material: Technical and Experiential Characterization, (2) Creating Materials Experience Vision, (3) Manifesting Materials Experience Patterns, (4) Designing Material/Product Concepts. But without having products at the end in this phase, I only referred to part of the steps and transformed into: Tinkering with SOFT materials and Capturing visions.

Fig.2 Material Driven Design method.

Tinkering with SOFT materials The project started with experimenting materials to see how they transform over time. The word ’experiment’ here means ’(n.) A course of action tentatively adopted without being sure of the outcome’, which had no hypothesis to test, but only surprise to be found. While the word ’tinker’, which means ’(v.) attempt to repair or improve something in a casual or desultory way’, indicated an ongoing process to moving forward based on the casual findings. In this step, it was necessary to be naive and throw away all the pre-knowledge. Only by doing so, the materials could really tell us about who they are without any of our expectations. I chose some soft materials to experiment with. The soft here did not mean the physical softness but, borrowed from Warren Brodey’s words, was ‘the property that provide instantaneous feedback and thereby allow infolding with time, memory, energy, and relation’.* With this property, the nuance of changing could be observed more easily. There were ice(water), sugar, wax, rice, agar, latex. Those materials were put in different settings as follows: changed temperature; changed humidity; combination with other materials; different shapes and sizes; different textures and colors; added forces. The focus was not only the result but also the changing process with time aspect.

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Oxford Dictionaries: experiment (n.) -A scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact. -A course of action tentatively adopted without being sure of the outcome.

tinker (v.) -Attempt to repair or improve something in a casual or desultory way.

Warren M. Brodey (1967). Soft Architecture: The Design of Intelligent Environments.

Method Description


Capturing visions In the MDD method, it was defined with four levels of materials experience as: sensorial, interpretative (meanings), affective (emotions), and performative. Each of these components of materials experience is highly intertwined, subject-, object-, context-, and time-dependent attributes.* The materials were changing continually, sometimes at a speed that human could barely perceive. Thus the action of taking pictures and filming were to record single moments that could be enlarged, accelerated, slowed down, in order to make the nuance perceivable. With the four aspects of experience, the outcomes of the experiments were captured into pictures, videos, graphs and words as investigation, documentation and reflections.

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Karana, E., Barati, B., Rognoli, V., & Zeeuw van der Laan, A. (2015). Material driven design (MDD): A method to design for material experiences.

Method Description


MATERIALIZATION After collecting the visions of material experience from the experiments, I started to make things in the forms of daily objects with soft materials. Quick sketches and loose association were used to just have a rough idea to associate the daily life experience and the material experience. Then I went to loose making part, where more insights could be gained by deep engaging with the materials.

Associating experience: Objects and Materials In this step, it was like playing with the conflict between the notion of an object based on our daily experience and the visions of material experience. By associating two elements randomly and intuitively, I brainstormed some rough ideas and see which ones could bring out the conflicts that provoked the reflections. The ’object’ here was a symbol of ways of living instead of a functional thing. It represented an understanding towards actions or some needs in our daily life. A table was not a table, it was a temporary outcome that was supporting the objects on top, being shaped by the wiping, and standing on the ground. The outcome was embodied in a form of the table, while the material was trying to escape from the fixed form of object with its inner force and outside force. The physical elements, such as shape, structure, weight, texture, smell, softness, warmness, light, and movement, were used and emphasized to enhance the sensual experience.

Making objects According to MMD, physical encounters with materials (or the aesthetic experiences that derive from hands-on manipulation of materials) can positively influence the creative process.* Only by physically engaging with the materials could one deeply understand about the entangled relationships in between materials, other agents, interactions, process, movements, and the surroundings.

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Karana, E., Barati, B., Rognoli, V., & Zeeuw van der Laan, A. (2015). Material driven design (MDD): A method to design for material experiences.

Method Description


MEDIATION When the transforming is present, how people will react to it? What can be the definition of one object ? And when do we see an object as a table and when do we not? In this step, a series of daily objects were made to build the a scenario for audience to experience. It was aiming for present the work in some kind of exhibitions. The objects acted as the meeting point for people to experience the materials and the conflict between material and materiality. To build a thorough experience, the scale was important. Thus I chose to make a series of object to illustrate the concept instead of one single object. It was more like sketching a landscape of daily life with unordinary objects. In this landscape, the viewers were expected to immerse in the space and associate what they saw to their own life experience.

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Method Description


Project Documentation

Process The process of this project could be seen as a iteration of perceiving and making. I, as an observer, perceived from the material and the environment and then be transformed with new perspectives. The new insights were embodied into tangible medium, not only for myself to re-perceive but also for others to understand. This was a process of internal iteration of interpretation. From tangible to abstract, and from abstract to tangible and then back to abstract, by the iterative process the imagination was opened up based on the physical experience.

#1

Talk to me

Tinkering with SOFT materials

What is material? What does it do? How does it feel? Is it speaking? It was time to see material as MATERIAL, not the material that we used to build something, but the material that spoke on its own and acted in different ways. We had different languages, all I can do was trying to speak to it, and wait for its response. At first, I focused on the experiments with agar, which was a jelly-like substance that obtained from red algae. It was a bio material that was developed to be used as sustainable material. I chose it because of its accessibility and its connection to the ocean and living entity. I observed how the agar drying with different variables like concentration and shapes, how the color changed in different phases, what textures can there be, and what shapes can be so different at every moments. Fig. 3 Agar was drying differently in different conditions

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Project Documentation


Fig. 4 Expressions of agar

Frozen before drying

High concentration

Low concentration

Added sugar

Added air

Heated

Back to water

Dried with metal

Color marking

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Project Documentation


Then I went for other materials that were common in daily life, like sugar, wax, salt, latex, etc. X is X. But X can also be more than X. I changed the condition and saw how the materials react and flow. Fig. 5 Expressions of different materials

Rice

Salt

Latex

Paper

Sugar

Wax

Ice

Soap

Fabric with agar

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#2

I’ll write a poem about you

Capturing visions

Aesthetic

Meanings

Emotions

The process always looked like a mess. But it was a beautiful mess. I always took pictures when I saw something beautiful. It was an intuitive action. The pictures looked normal if I took it just as documentation. But with some specific layouts and focus, the pictures could speak. And I always found new insights from the pictures I took. I took a lot of pictures during the experiments as documentation but also to explore different ways of seeing. It was aiming to find more aesthetic.

There could be many different ways to interpret a picture. So I also wrote notes to record what I saw and what I touch, and also what those experience made me think and feel. It was not only a way to dig deeper to find different meanings of something we think was common, but also a way to open up imaginations.

The words with images I used to describe the materials connected to my personal feelings. It was not a scientific description but more like a poem or diary that provoked feelings and reflections. The transforming can be fragile, absurd. It can go from round to sharp, from hard to soft, from nothing to thriving. The feelings could be warm, angry, desperate, or very mixed.

Fig. 6 Connecting to emotions

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Project Documentation


Performance All the forces cause movements. I tried to capture the movements around the materials. I found myself really obsessed with it. When the material was moving, it was showing the different time passing from our standard time. It was like the material was living its own life. I saw a clay yawning. The dynamic made the material alive, like what Jane Bennet argued, ’ Everything is alive, interconnected, and in process: not only plants and humans, but rocks and air.’

Jane Bennett (2010). Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things

Fig. 7 Yawning clay

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Project Documentation


A reminder During the process, I also transformed the observations into graphs. After some discussions, I realized those graphic could be confusing to others. But, they were important to me to see things through different perspectives. Those graphs acted like a visualization of a framework for understanding the abstract and the invisible. That was my internal dialogue with myself to confirm what I was thinking. I did not show them as result, but they acted as a reminder throughout the whole process of my project.

Fig. 8 Mapping force

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The hidden force In the experiment process, many things turned out as not I wanted it to be. Because I did not controlled the conditions of the environment as a place for scientific experiments, but just an ordinary place contained the things happening in our daily lives. Things were out of control, or say, were affected by something I did not see. I tried to map out the entangled factors that affecting the outcomes.

There were many invisible force acting from the environment constantly, like the gravity and humidity. And me as an operator was part of it as well. All of those force was added to materials. And the time here, allowed the materials to change in different properties and so can be perceived through me as a receiver. And there were some tools that I used that was also affecting how I perceive. All those observation changed how I think of things and how I behave, and so transformed me as the adding force which affects the system in return. That was the entangled relationships. And by making and being part of it, I can attempt to understand it physically and mentally.

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The three timelines Reflected from the emotionally durable design and Material against materiality, I saw objects with three different timelines, which were (1) Duration of attachment, (2) Duration of serving, (3) Material lifetime. It was aiming to illustrate how humans’ attachment could affect the lifespan of a functional object, and how it made the gap bigger between the material and materiality. And also the framework was used to categorize some daily objects in people’s life. It was not a finished graph, and there was some ambiguity left to be clear out. However, I stopped. I was reluctant to accept the fact that I put the duration of human attachment on the top. The dominance was contrary to the experience I got from the material. In addition, when I tried to decide the start and the end of the duration of serving, I realized it could always be extended or transformed.

Jonathan Chapman (2005). Emotionally Durable Design: Objects, Experiences and Empathy Tim Ingold (2007). Materials against materiality

When does the table become a table and when does it end? And when do we see an object as a table and when do we not? If I put a book on a chair, did it make the chair a table? The subjective perspectives can change so much and made everything too uncertain. I realized there were so many things underneath to be discuss and define. But I stopped. I stopped drawing graph but tried to continued with the physical experience in order to embody this reflection and to see where it led me to. As for this graph, I will keep it as a reminder that how I can see things differently with a temporal scope, and there was a hierarchy that caused by a human-centered thinking.

Fig. 9 Timelines and the categorization

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Project Documentation


#3

A poem about us

Associating experience and Making objects

Daily objects construct our daily life. It represents our needs and desires. In this practice, I tried different ways to present the transformation of materials in the forms of objects. And tried to combine some other sensual experience and notions in different settings. It could be seen as an intervention to a certain way of living, or a proposal that showed how we can live differently. They were also the pieces of poems about the relationships between human and objects., and everything that was part of the network and kept affecting each other.

Tick, tick, tick... How much time do you need to finish the water in the cup? How much time does a cup last for? Do you hear it’s ticking? Tick, tick, tick‌

Fig. 10 Cups in different materials

I displayed three cups with different materials, such as ice, agar, and glass. Three ticking sounds were played along side each cups in different frequency and speed. Listen to them.

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Project Documentation


Keep breathing I imagined every objects were alive. They were all breathing, but in a extremely low speed, or in a micro scale that human could not perceive. The lamp was breathing. It would breathe to death when the skin could not afford more stretching, just like every creatures in the earth.

Fig. 11 Breathing balloon

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Project Documentation


Living companion It was so easy to take the things around us everyday for granted. But we did not see the living entity in this way. They were alive. They were active, and might not be dominated by human. The vase died, then grew the microorganism.

Fig. 12 Drying agar vase

Reproduce from transforming As a product designer, I was familiar with moulding as a way to reproduce objects. The worn mould would be ditched since it could not create the same shape. But if the aging was unavoidable, can it be a source for creating new things? In this practice, I used the worn latex mould as a new mould to create unexpected shapes. It was a cooperation with me, the material, and time.

Fig. 13 Transforming latex mould

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Result

After the object making process, the tryouts were modified into five objects with materials that were transforming in response to the environment and time. There showed a ‘timescape’ with those objects that had its own time pace. I regarded it as a comment on the mass production society with the intention to arise awareness and reflections on how we treat daily objects and materials in a dominant way. And also it could be a proposal on what the different relationships could there be between objects and people when the materials were escaping from people’s expectation. In this phase, those objects were displayed as installations with the assumption for being shown in a context of exhibition. But besides the installations, a performance using ice jewelry acted as an example of how these objects could be experienced in different context. As for the documentation of the material experiments, they were collected as archive for future application.

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#1

The Timescape They seemed just like the modern products that we would buy at the stores. But they react to the temperature, abrasion, humidity, and gravity in a more visible way. Their visible movements dragged spectators’ attention, giving the objects their own voice to speak. Every is flowing.

Fig. 14 The Timescape

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Fig. 15 The Flowing Light: Before

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Fig. 16 The Flowing Light: After

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Fig. 17 The Stretching Surface: Before

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Fig. 18 The Stretching Surface: After

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Fig. 19 The Melting Mountain

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Fig. 20 The Collapsing Softness

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Fig. 21 The Eroding Balance

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Breaking the norm

Analogy to other objects

Comparison: Planned obsolescence, biodegradable materials,

The unexpected application of materials created an effect of surprise, which stimulated reflection on how we take things for granted. The power was that it was not just a slogan but a concrete evidence that you can see, touch, feel. Things can be different.

The objects seemed odd. But if we think about it, everything in our life was samely transforming constantly. It was just that the pace was not perceivable to human. The objects that were visibly transforming opened up people’s imaginations towards other objects around with time aspect. The forms is an analog to other objects. They are not final products but just a tryout and there can be other objects with different materials.

Some people related the objects to planned obsolescence in terms of the product lifespan. The difference was that the intention of planned obsolescence was to make people buy more. And the material was left as waste when the product end its life. While the objects made in this project followed how the material flowed. In this case, planned obsolescence could be forgivable. It was also like using biodegradable materials. But the materials I used was not really degraded but just transforming or shifting between different phases. But it also dressed out the discussion on degradation since it was argued that it was not that easy to degrade those materials.

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Project Documentation


#2

The Ice Club

I participated in a study group in Skogen, an art center that cultivate spontaneous art events. In this study group, we used ice as symbol and media to understand or just to discuss about the present. At the end we had a performance convey our reflections and invited people to experience.

The performance was on a stage. Firstly we asked the audience to wear these ice ring and walked around the stage. On the stage there were three people standing still like statues and wearing ice jewelry. One participant was filming and projecting the live recording to the screen. The jewelry was melting, People were walking. The statue changed positions several time and melted to the floor at the end with the ice. Things were happening in different pace on the stage. The ring was hurting audience’s hand. It was too small at the beginning, then it fits, and then it escaped and disappeared.

Fig. 22 The Ice Club

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The performance can be a really strong experience that stimulate reflections and conversations. The objects here were the props for the performance but also they created the performance. Without the explanation it can actually open up audience’s imaginations and reflections.

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#3

The Archive The documentation of the process was archived as images, words, and videos for future use and inspiration.

Fig. 23 Documentation of material experiments

Fig. 24 The video of material perfoemance collage

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#4 Contextualization The objects were made with the intention to be shown in a context of exhibition. I used the reviews we had during the course as the tryouts to set up the experience as a small exhibition. However, during the process, different possibilities on the contexts were discussed. Without enough time to try out how the objects work in different contexts, I wrote down speculative descriptions for different contexts to have further discussions.

In an exhibition

As a critique on a current society, I could see this project being exhibited in a exhibition that addressed the contemporary social issue. People who would go to this kind of exhibitions usually have interests in art, design, social issues. They go to this kind of exhibitions with the expectation to be inspired. In this kind of informative exhibition, people see the works in a more speculative way as readers and spectators. They spend time with the work consciously and attentively. With a clearer theme, the messages that the work mediated could be guided and well narrated. And the feedback and further conversations could also happen alongside the display which could be arranged to complete each other. The objects were planned to be displayed in a room scene that looked like the room picture people would see in a lifestyle magazine. The display symbolized the daily life. While the objects could be connected to people’s daily experience in this consumption society, but with the disturbance of transforming materials. The materials were actively telling a story about its life, which was usually ignored in people’s daily life. With description of the project, the intention, meaning, and possibility could be conveyed further. Compared to an article that commented the society, the tangible objects made it easier to connect the concept to audience’s own experience. It became more possible to imagine how it will happen in real life, but with a distance to really be in the real life. The distance was necessary for keeping the contrast between the norm and the designed scene, in order to drag attention and stimulate reflections.

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Fig. 25 Review 4

Fig. 26 Review 5

Fig. 27 Review 6

Project Documentation


In a performance

In daily life

The transforming process of materials could also be seen as a performance, or as part of a performance. A performance requires more aesthetic experience in order to open up audience’s world. The format could be wild since the audience usually watch a performance with an open mind that welcome surprise. Take ‘The Ice Club’ for example, people who went to the performance were particularly interested in art. They liked to discuss with the artists on the meanings behind or just reflect by themselves. In the performance, the ice objects were used as a metaphor of the passing of time and for people to engage with as a physical experience. The meaning behind the settings was conveyed without words. The audience got what they felt. Compared to the exhibition, the performance might be less informative, but much more strong for arising the feelings. The ephemerality of a performance could strengthen the experience and enlarge the nuance.

What would happen if those objects were put into daily life? What if we could have them like how we buy the furnitures from a store or from a website? When we imagine how the objects exist in daily life, there are many different aspects to discuss, from how the objects and people meet each other to how they say good bye. In terms of buying, when the object’s life span was much shorter, people might buy it depends on how much time they need to use it for, and were forced to adjust their needs. During the interaction, the different phases of the transformation might become the markings of the time. Imagine to say ‘I have half of the cup time to finish the drink now’ when the ice cup melt into half. It might also change how people see what the object is. When the surface of the table is eroded and difficult to put anything on it, is it still a table? Will people cherish the objects more with the reduced time or care less since it will disappear soon? The more specific questions would be brought up when I imagine the objects in daily life context. It will definitely change people’s life and the relationships between the objects and people. But it also had the risk to ‘become the norm’ and so lost the power to stimulate reflection. When all the changes melt into real daily life, they will become the things we take for granted as a new ‘norm’.

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Conclusion

To answer the design question :

How can design present the transformations of materials As a catalyst for people to reflect on the relationships between daily objects and human in mass production society?

this project produced several objects that revealed the inconsistency between the materiality and the material, in order to broke the norm of daily life. It challenged the assumption of ways of living with the transforming objects, and stimulated people to reflect on other possibilities of ways of living with artifacts. In the research phase, the focus was more on ‘design and time’, which add philosophical aspects to this project with the reflections on the existence of objects with temporal scope. The material experiments in the first phase dig more insights on the expressions of materials and how it could provoke human’s emotions. Those insights were applied into the next phase in order to let the materials fight against the ‘materiality’, which was the ‘form’ of objects that represented the human’s daily needs. The final series of objects was a critique on the consumption society. It could conveyed different levels of messages in different contexts. The process of the project together with the final objects could also be seen as a whole that shift people’s perspectives as ‘a journey to an elastic mind’. I could see the changes in myself about how I think of the material and how I treat it from a dominant position to a more humble stance.

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Conclusion


Contribution in design discourse In response to Temporal Design’s calling to designers to design against the dominant narrative of the industrial time, this project presented the ‘material’s time’ that allowed people to experience a different time pace. This encouraged people to think differently to against the dominant narration of time that controlled people’s life. Furthermore, the project could be one example practice of Temporal Design for other designers to refer to. It also showed how the time aspects affected the design practice and how designers could treat materials differently. This temporal scope also provides new possibilities to Material Driven Design. A certain proportion of the process was to explore materials with MDD method, but with a focus on transforming process. The expressions of materials and how people would perceive the changes could be explored more in different situations and time durations. Not just see the changes as ‘aging’ but as a duration of things to be unfold with nuance. This project provided a different perspective to materials and also a possible subject that could be studied further more. As a critique, this project challenged the assumption of how people lived with objects with the transforming objects. It could be an example project for critical design but also there was some difference which could open up other possibilities to be explored in the future. The focus on the materials experience gave the project a concrete base that was different from some critical design that used fiction or symbolism as method. By focusing more on the aesthetic experience instead of using the humor and the weirdness to provoke feelings, the project created comparably positive attitude for commenting.

Jeffrey Bardzell and Shaowen Bardzell. (2013). What is “critical” about critical design?

Lastly, for a traditional Industrial design process, this project provided a temporal perspective towards material use that could be used to reviewed the current process with the consideration of product and material lifespan. And the position of designers might shift from the dominant place to an equal level. I believe this shift could benefit the pursuit for sustainability. In addition, the new relationships between the transforming objects and people opened up other subjects to design for.

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Conclusion


Future Development

The objects itself had the affordance for attachment and functions, they could bring out different outcomes and create new relationships. It was suggested to have further investigations to see how the objects work in different contexts and create values for different people. And the argument of the separation between material and materiality made it possible to also develop more transforming objects that could provide new ways of living in this artificial world. And not only acting as a comment, the objects had the possibility to be tried out in a real life as an intervention.

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Conclusion


Acknowledgment Thanks to my tutors, Mattias Gunnarsson and Hanna af EkstrĂśm, who supported me through the project with their patience and wisdom. Thank you, Judith Sent and Onkar Kular, for being my reviewers and giving valuable advice and insights. And thanks to my examiner, Jonas FridĂŠn Kihl, for leading the course and all the supports. Also, thanks to all the teachers and technicians for the tutorings and inspiring conversations on my project. A warm thank you to my lovely group, FLUX, for all the laughs and tears. I learned a lot from all of you. Thanks to my talented classmates, for every talks or just a pat on the shoulder without words. You know I know. A big thank you to Chih-wei, for many deep conversations and genuine sharing. And thank you, Hwa, who had seen all my ups and downs but still being there with all her kindness.

Most importantly, I would like to thank my parents and family in Taiwan, for always being there for me no matter what, and with all the love.

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Acknowledgment


Reference Jonathan Chapman. (2005). Emotionally Durable Design: Objects, Experiences and Empathy Larissa Pschetz. (2014). Temporal Design: design for a multi-temporal world Tim Ingold. (2007). Materials against materiality Christopher Tilley. (2004). The Materiality of Stone: Explorations in Landscape Phenomenology Seher Erdogan Ford. (2016). Designing Stone: Temporal Representation of a Timeless Material Thom van Dooren, Eben Kirskey , Ursula Munster. (2016). Multispecies Studies : Cultivating Arts of Attentiveness Miroslava Petrova. (2017). Design for Ephemerality – Idiosyncrasy and Challenges Thomas L. Dumm. (1999). A Politics of the Ordinary Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby. (2013). Speculative Everything Warren M. Brodey. (1967). Soft Architecture: The Design of Intelligent Environments. Karana, E., Barati, B., Rognoli, V., & Zeeuw van der Laan, A. (2015). Material driven design (MDD): A method to design for material experiences. Jane Bennett. (2010). Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things Jeffrey Bardzell and Shaowen Bardzell. (2013). What is “critical” about critical design?

Transform-ing (with) materials

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Conclusion


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