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MICROSCOPES and your Biological Research


Fact: Write this down and memorize !

1 mm = 1,000 Îźm (and visa-versa)


Your microscope is used to observe things that are less than 4.5 mm (4500 Îźm) but more than 0.01 mm (10 Îźm)


photograph

test diagram

Parts of your microscope


Test : Q 1 - 16 Give correct name Q 17 - 32 Tell the function

28

29 30 31 32

12

13

1

17

2

18

3

19

4

20

5

21

6

22

7

23

8

24

9

25

14 15 16

10

26

11

27


Eyepiece lens


Eyepiece lens

THE EYEPIECE LENS MAGNIFIES 10x (IT WORKS AS A TEAM WITH THE OBJECTIVE LENSES BELOW)


Eyepiece lens Body Tube


Eyepiece lens Body Tube

THE BODY TUBE HOLDS THE EYEPIECE LENS AT THE PROPER FOCAL DISTANCE TO WORK WITH THE OBJECTIVE LENSES


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot

THE EYEPIECE PIVOT ALLOWS YOU TO ROTATE THE EYEPIECE SO ANOTHER PERSON CAN VIEW WITHOUT MOVING THE WHOLE MICROSCOPE (which could move the specimen out of the field of view)


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece

THE REVOLVING NOSEPIECE ALLOWS YOU TO CHANGE BETWEEN THE LOW, MEDIUM, AND HIGH POWER OBJECTIVE LENSES


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Objective lenses


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Objective lenses : medium low

THE MEDIUM POWER OBJECTIVE LENS magnifies an additional 10x

high THE HIGH POWER OBJECTIVE LENS magnifies an additional 40x THE LOW POWER OBJECTIVE LENS magnifies an additional 4X


10x

TOTAL MAGNIFICATION

Low power objective lens 4 X 10 = 40x 10x 4x

Medium power objective lens 10 X 10 = 100x

40x High power objective lens 40 X 10 = 400x


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Objective lenses Stage


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens High power objective lens Low power objective lens Stage The stage is used to hold the microscope slide for viewing.


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens High power objective lens Low power objective lens Stage NEVER PLACE SPECIMENS ON THE STAGE WITHOUT USING A MICROSCOPE SLIDE !


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Objective lenses Stage Substage diaphragm


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens High power objective lens Low power objective lens Stage Substage diaphragm The substage diaphragm is used to adjust the amount of light passing through the slide.


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Objective lenses Stage Substage diaphragm Light source


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens High power objective lens Low power objective lens Stage Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Arm

Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Objective lenses Stage Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Arm

Eyepiece lens

The arm is used to carry the microscope

Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens High power objective lens

Stage

Low power objective lens

Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Arm

Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece

Coarse adjustment knob

Objective lenses Stage Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Arm

The coarse adjustment knob is used to focus using low or medium power

Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens

Coarse adjustment knob

High power objective lens

Stage

Low power objective lens

Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Arm

DO NOT USE THE COARSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB FOR HIGH POWER !

Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens

Coarse adjustment knob

High power objective lens

Stage

Low power objective lens

Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Arm

Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece

Coarse adjustment knob Fine adjustment knob

Objective lenses Stage Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Arm Coarse adjustment knob

Fine adjustment knob

The fine adjustment knob is used to focus and is THE ONLY KNOB FOR HIGH POWER

Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens High power objective lens

Stage

Low power objective lens

Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Arm Coarse adjustment knob

Fine adjustment knob

HINT: don’t turn your fine adjustment knob more than 1 or 2 turns if you are using it with low or medium power.

Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens High power objective lens

Stage

Low power objective lens

Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Eyepiece lens Body Tube Arm

Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece

Coarse adjustment knob Fine adjustment knob

Objective lenses Stage Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch

Base


The base is used to carry the microscope Arm

Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens

Coarse adjustment knob

Fine adjustment knob

High power objective lens

Stage

Low power objective lens

Substage diaphragm Light source

Base On/off switch


Eyepiece lens Arm Stage clips

Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Objective lenses

Coarse adjustment knob Fine adjustment knob Base

Stage Substage diaphragm Light source On/off switch


Arm

STAGE CLIPS: USE FOR PERMANENTLY MOUNTED SLIDES ONLY DO NOT USE FOR PLANKTON

Eyepiece lens Body Tube Eyepiece pivot Revolving nosepiece Medium power objective lens

Stage clips

High power objective lens

Coarse adjustment knob Fine adjustment knob

Stage

Low power objective lens

Substage diaphragm Light source

Base On/off switch


Test : Q 1 - 16 Give correct name Q 17 - 32 Tell the function

28

29 30 31 32

12

13

1

17

2

18

3

19

4

20

5

21

6

22

7

23

8

24

9

25

14 15 16

10

26

11

27


MICROSCOPE RULES


1. ALWAYS CLEAR YOUR DESK NO BOOKS, NO BACKPACKS, NO BAGS; (Data sheets and plankton booklets are OKAY)


2. ALWAYS CARRY YOUR MICROSCOPE WITH TWO HANDS:

ONE HAND ON THE ARM of the microscope

ONE HAND UNDER THE BASE Courtesy of Winona State University, Minnesota

( MICROSCOPE IN THE UPRIGHT POSITION.)


3. ALWAYS BEGIN AND END ON LOW POWER. (move the stage up close to the objective lens to start)


Microscope slides (in rear sink)

Lens paper (on front desk)

Cover slips (on front desk)

4. USE LENS PAPER ONLY FOR CLEANING LENSES (Do not use paper towels, rags, or your clothing)


5. Proper starting technique: 1- LOW power, stage up close to objective lens 2- Get maximum light 3- Center object directly under lens 4- Focus slowly


6- Steps for using high power: 1- Place a cover slip on your specimen.

plankton

Cover slips (on front desk)


6- Steps for using high power: 1- Place a cover glass on your specimen. 2- Scan under LOW to find specimen. 3- Center and focus object under LOW. 4- Revolve nosepiece and "click" medium power objective lens into place. 5- Center and focus object under medium 6- Revolve nosepiece and "click" high power objective lens into place. 7- Center and focus object under high power. Use FINE adjustment knob only. 8- Return to LOW power for next specimen.


RULES QUIZ: 33. This quiz is about using your _________________. 34. Your desk must be ________________ before using a microscope. 35-36: Name the two microscope parts that are used when carrying a microscope. 37-38: Name the two parts of your body that are used when carrying a microscope. 39- Always begin and end with the __________ lens in place. 40- A microscope is required to view specimens smaller than__________. 41- The __________ _____________ knob may be used with any objective lens. 42- The __________ _____________ knob is the only one to use with the high power objective lens. 43- If the eyepiece lens is 20x and the objective lens is 10x, what is the total magnification? 44- What is the only thing to use if you have a dirty lens? 45- A __________ _____________ must be placed on specimens before the high power objective lens is used. 46-47: Name two lenses that have a 10x magnification. 48- If you know you will need high power magnification, which lens should you use first ?


ESTIMATING UNDER

A

SIZES

MICROSCOPE


FIELD

WHEN YOU LOOK INTO A MICROSCOPE YOU WILL SEE A CIRCULAR AREA OF LIGHT. THIS IS CALLED THE “FIELD OF VIEW,” OR SIMPLY, THE MICROSCOPE “FIELD.”


FIELD DIAMETER

WHEN YOU MEASURE SPECIMENS UNDER A MICROSCOPE YOU WILL NEED TO KNOW THE FIELD DIAMETER FOR EACH OF YOUR 3 OBJECTIVE LENSES.


4.5 mm (4,500 μm)

MEMORIZE YOUR LOW POWER FIELD DIAMETER


1.8 mm (1,800 μm)

MEMORIZE YOUR MEDIUM POWER FIELD DIAMETER


0.45 mm (450 μm)

MEMORIZE YOUR HIGH POWER FIELD DIAMETER


ALL 3 LENSES TARGET THE CENTER !!

...HIGH POWER ...MEDIUM POWER

YOU SEE THIS MUCH WITH LOW POWER


Low power

HOW LONG IS THIS FISH LARVA ?


4.5 mm or 4500 Îźm

Low power

HOW LONG IS THIS FISH LARVA ? Approximately the same as the diameter of the field.


Low power

HOW LONG IS THIS CALANOID COPEPOD ?


1

2

3 Low power

HOW LONG IS THIS CALANOID COPEPOD ? 1/3 rd of the field diameter, or 1.5 mm (1500 μm)


Specimen is slightly less than the field diameter, still 1.5 mm (1500 μm) Field diameter 1.8 mm (1800 μm)

Medium power

THE SAME CALANOID COPEPOD IF VIEWED UNDER MEDIUM POWER


Medium power

HOW LONG IS THIS Coscinodiscus ?


Approximately 9 cells would fit across the diameter

1 2 3 4 5

Diameter = 1.8 mm or 1800 Îźm

6 7 8 9

Medium power

HOW LONG IS THIS Coscinodiscus ? 1/9 th of the field diameter, or 0.2 mm (200 Îźm)


high power

HOW LONG IS ONE Lingulodinium ?


Approximately 10 cells would fit across the diameter 11 would Fit ! Diameter = 0.45 mm or 450 Îźm

high power

HOW LONG IS ONE Lingulodinium ? 1/11 th of the field diameter, or 0.041 mm (41 Îźm)


SUMMARY: HOW DO YOU CALCULATE THE SIZE OF A SPECIMEN UNDER YOUR MICROSCOPE?


SUMMARY: HOW DO YOU CALCULATE THE SIZE OF A SPECIMEN UNDER YOUR MICROSCOPE? 1. MEMORIZE THE 3 FIELD DIAMETERS LOW = 4.5 mm, or 4,500 μm MEDIUM = 1.8 mm, or 1,800 μm HIGH = 0.45 mm, or 450 μm


SUMMARY: HOW DO YOU CALCULATE THE SIZE OF A SPECIMEN UNDER YOUR MICROSCOPE? 1. MEMORIZE THE 3 FIELD DIAMETERS LOW = 4.5 mm, or 4,500 μm MEDIUM = 1.8 mm, or 1,800 μm HIGH = 0.45 mm, or 450 μm 2. ESTIMATE WHAT FRACTION OF THE FIELD DIAMETER YOUR SPECIMEN IS. (HOW MANY SPECIMENS WOULD FIT END-TO-END)


SUMMARY: HOW DO YOU CALCULATE THE SIZE OF A SPECIMEN UNDER YOUR MICROSCOPE? 1. MEMORIZE THE 3 FIELD DIAMETERS LOW = 4.5 mm, or 4,500 μm MEDIUM = 1.8 mm, or 1,800 μm HIGH = 0.45 mm, or 450 μm 2. ESTIMATE WHAT FRACTION OF THE FIELD DIAMETER YOUR SPECIMEN IS, (OR FIND HOW MANY SPECIMENS WOULD FIT END-TO-END) 3. MULTIPLY THAT FRACTION TIMES THE FIELD DIAMETER (OR DIVIDE THE NUMBER THAT FIT INTO THE FIELD DIAMETER)


QUIZ: Tell the LENGTH (maximum dimension) of ONE specimen. Give answers in both mm and Îźm. [H = high; M = med; L = low] 50

49

L 52

51

53

M

H

M 54

H

L


THE

END

Microscope  

Parts, functions and tips for beginners using a compound laboratory microscope.

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