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Landscape Plan for

That’s-a-Plenty Farm 36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, Massachusetts

ZACH MERMEL FALL 2010

CONWAY SCHOOL OF LANDSCAPE DESIGN 332 SOUTH DEERFIELD ROAD, CONWAY, MA 01341

INDEX

Project Overview....................................................1 Context...............................................................2 Existing Conditions.................................................3 Analyses Summary.................................................4 Recommended Design............................................5 Recommended Design: North & South Areas............6 Recommended Design: Pollinator Habitat...............7 Future Phases........................................................8 Plant Palette..........................................................9


This section through That’s-a-Plenty Farm reveals the very flat nature of this site.

Project Goals

The Property

Biodiverse Landscape

The three-acre farm is located at 36 Honey Pot Road in Hadley, Massachusetts among hundreds of acres of agricultural land. The major constraint of the project site is its unusual dimensions. It 72 feet wide by more than 1700 feet long.

A 1.5 acre, dedicated habitat for invertebrate pollinators attracts a myriad of insects and birds.

Abundant Food Production

Fruit and nut trees and annual and perennial vegetables supply more than fifty percent of the food needs for the eight members of the Katz family.

The Clients

Michael and Cathy Katz purchased this threeacre floodplain property in May 2007, with the aim of creating a low carbon footprint, four-season farm that builds soil, restores habitat, and inspires healthy, local eating and environmentally responsible living. Due to house-building restrictions on the farm, Michael and Cathy live two miles away in Northampton.

Fertility Self-Reliance

Crops for composting supply ninety percent of the farm’s fertility needs on– site.

Siting of a Multifunctional Structure Processing, drying, and storage of farm products occurs in a convenient indoor space.

That’s-A-Plenty Farm is a beautiful, mega-diverse foraging habitat enjoyed by the Katz family, their friends, and a variety of plants and other animals. As a mosaic of garden beds, multifunctional hedgerows, forest gardens and herb mandalas, the farm landscape offers opportunities to connect with nature in an unstructured way– through observation, reflection and hands-on work activities. In an otherwise biologically impoverished landscape, That's-A-Plenty Farm provides habitat for a multitude of wildlife species (particularly birds and invertebrates), many of which provide pollination services to the surrounding agricultural farmland.

On-Farm Income

A modest cash flow of at least $6000 per year is derived from the farm.

Vision Statement

Phased Plan

The landscape design is implemented in phases, as time and money allow.

Guiding Principles • Multifunctionality

Each element in the design performs at least three functions

• Resilience

Adaptive to changes in land use, climate, and economic circumstances

• Regeneration

Builds soil, habitat and community

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

Project Overview

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ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341

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That’s-a-Plenty Farm

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ME ©2010 Google Earth

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The Connecticut River wends 410 miles through the New England landscape, from the US-Canada border to the Long Island Sound. Over the millennia, the Connecticut has deposited fertile silt-loam alluvium along its banks, creating a situation ideally suited to farming.

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That’s-a-Plenty Farm is located along one of the river’s major oxbows, in the agricultural floodplain known as the Honey Pot. Nestled within hundreds of acres of prime farmland, the three-acre property is bounded by the Connecticut River to the north, two conventional farms to the east and the west, and Honey Pot Road (50 feet from the Connecticut River) to the south. The Honey Pot area is classified as a “high-terrace floodplain forest“ ecological community. However, due to the effects of ecologically unsound farming practices over the past 450 years, virtually no intact examples of this ecological community remain within the surrounding area. In a biologically-impoverished farmscape, That’s-a-Plenty Farm could become an oasis of much-needed biodiversity.

©2010 Google Earth

Due to its proximity to the Connecticut River, large-scale flood events occur periodically in the Hadley area. During the floods of 1936 and 1938, the Connecticut breached its banks, inundating the Honeypot with more than five feet of water. Though certain portions of Hadley are protected from flooding by dikes, the project site remains exposed to future flood events. An ecologically minded design will consider how periodic flooding can enhance, rather than diminish, the agricultural landscape that is the Honey Pot.

Hadley Flood of 1936 ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

Context

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©2010 wgby.org

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A

solar array

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greenhouse

Honey Pot Road

greenhouse

winter farm

pollinator habitat (planned)

Summer farm area, looking north toward the Connecticut River

The two greenhouses near Honey Pot Road, looking north

Planned pollinator habitat area, looking south toward Honey Pot Road

A  1 low water mark

high water mark

pollinator habitat (planned)

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orchard

summer farm

greenhouse

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riparian forest storage

mobile home

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ash-sumac woodland

A The winter farm of the Katzes is centered around two unheated greenhouses near Honey Pot Road. A 1.8KW grid-tied solar array heats seed-starting cloches within the greenhouses. During the nonwinter months, annual flower beds and crops for compost surround these greenhouses.

B

The orchard contains a dozen cherry, plum and apple varieties. Many of these trees are planted too closely to one another. The Katzes no longer know the varieties of eight of the twelve fruit trees. These trees may need to be transplanted and respaced to ensure long-term health.

ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

D 4000 square feet of raised beds in the summer farm grow annual and perennial vegetables for the Katz family from March through September. A willow room shades family and visitors during the hot summer months. A 15’ x 40’ greenhouse grows seedlings for outplanting into the garden.

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

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E A mid-succession ash-staghorn sumac woodland overlaps the eastern neighbor’s property. A mobile home trailer is located next to a small storage greenhouse along the riparian forest’s edge.

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm Existing

The riparian forest lies within a Priority Habitat for Rare Species, and is subject to the Massachusetts Endangered Species Act Regulations (321 CMR 10.00). The rest of the property south of the Riverfront Area is an Estimated Habitat for Rare Wildlife, as per the Massachusetts Wetlands Protection Act Regulations (310 CMR 10.00). An ecologically minded design will seek to preserve, and perhaps enhance, these habitats.

Conditions

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035 36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

A 20-foot, three-tiered drop from the high water to the low water level is the only substantial change in elevation on the property. The rest of the farm has less than a one-foot elevation change over 1600 feet. Erosion will continue to be greatest along the riverside descent unless the soil is stabilized.

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The Katzes received a federally funded grant to install and maintain a 1.5-acre pollinator habitat for invertebrate pollinators on the farm, beginning in fall of 2011. The area is planted in a green manure crop of rye to improve the soil organic matter. 125 arborvitae trees, recently planted along the western property line, will, at maturity, help protect the pollinator habitat from pesticides applied to the western neighbor’s fields.

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Connec ti cut Riv er

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s wi nd m m er

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5’ road setback

greenhouse

15’ side setbacks

greenhouse

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Honey Pot Road

FLOODPLAIN

Hadley silt loam soil

50’ front setback

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200’ Riverfront Area

high water mark

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Hadley silt loam soil

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The town of Hadley stipulates building setbacks for this Agricultural-Residential zone as 50 feet from public rights-of-way, and 15 feet from any other shared property boundary. These setbacks reduce the portion of the property eligible for construction to a mere 40 feet from east to west. The building footprints of all three greenhouses, as well as the storage shed, overlap these setbacks. If in the future Michael and Cathy wish to convert these provisional greenhouses to more permanent structures, a zoning variance through the town may be required to keep them in their present locations.

Limerick soil

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The entire property is located within FEMA Zone A12 Floodplain (Community Panel # 250163-00018), an area with a one percent annual chance of flooding. The construction of permanent house structures in this area of the floodplain is prohibited by the town of Hadley. All other building activities must provide “compensatory storage” to mitigate any loss of flood capacity.

Winds arrive from the west and northwest during the winter

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

The Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act (1996) establishes a 200-foot Riverfront Area from the mean annual high water mark of the Connecticut River. All proposed development in this area requires approval from the Hadley Conservation Commission, unless an agricultural exemption is obtained. The Hadley silt loam soils are ideally suited to farming. The Limerick soils, characteristic of riparian woodlands, are only suitable for growing plant species adapted to seasonal water inundation.

Access & Circulation

Zone 1: Visited 1-5x/week Zone 2: Visited 2-4x/month Zone 3: Rarely/if ever visited Daily vehicle circulation

The northern and southern areas of the property are the main hubs of human activity. The center 2 acres remain under-utilized.

Analyses Summary

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Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

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months. Winds from the south and southwest prevail in summer. Pesticides from the conventional farm to the west will continue to blow onto That’s-A-Plenty Farm unless the wind is blocked or redirected along the northwest property line.

ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341

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greenhouse

low water mark

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FLOODPLAIN

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C

A

POLLINATOR HABITAT

greenhouse

Honey Pot Road

greenhouse

ARBORVITAE WINDBREAK

D MULTIFUNCTIONAL HEDGEROW

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CROPS FOR COMPOST

MULTIFUNCTIONAL HEDGEROW

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ARBORVITAE WINDBREAK E

F EDIBLE FOREST GARDEN

POLLINATOR HABITAT

FERTILITY WOODLAND D

A B C D

greenhouse

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SUMMER PRODUCTION AREA GATHERING AREA

J RESTORED RIPARIAN FOREST

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WINTER/SUMMER PRODUCTION ZONE is

enhanced by additional planting beds, water earthworks and multifunctional plants.

CROPS FOR COMPOST grow conveniently

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EDIBLE FOREST GARDEN yields fruit, nuts, medicinals, and crops for compost.

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FERTILITY WOODLAND furnishes fuelwood and crops for compost.

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SUMMER PRODUCTION AREA thrives from compost crops grown throughout the farm.

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GATHERING AREA comfortably accommodates a maximum of twenty people.

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RESTORED RIPARIAN FOREST creates habitat and forage for humans and other life forms.

along the driveway, easily harvested by passersby.

ARBORVITAE WINDBREAK affords bird habitat and

blocks wind and pesticides from the conventional farm to the west.

MULTIFUNCTIONAL HEDGEROW attracts humans, birds, and insect pollinators, screens the Katzes’ property from the eastern neighbors, and yields abundant coppice material.

POLLINATOR HABITAT harbors a multitude of pollinating

insects which benefit the surrounding agricultural landscape.

ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

Recommended Design

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Connec ti cut Riv er

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North Farm Area

South Farm Area I

Honey Pot Rd

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A 5-foot-high thornless raspberry hedge filters dust from Honey Pot Road and sparks the interest of passersby.

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Dutch white clover covers the paths through the planting area, offers nectar to pollinators, and fixes nitrogen for the benefit of the surrounding plants.

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A bioswale rain garden, 5 feet wide by 170 feet long, captures water running off the eastern neighbor’s frozen ground during winter. This water feeds hydrophylic plants growing in and around the bioswale, which filter some airborne pesticides from the neighboring farm and coppice readily. Graded slightly north, the swale redirects excess water into the southern edge of the pollinator habitat.

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greenhouse

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D greenhouse

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greenhouse W

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The 15-foot-high arborvitae windbreak protects the farm from snow and pesticide drift, increasing moisture retention within the soil. It also offers habitat for tree-nesting birds. The pollinator habitat’s northern edge interfaces positively with the beehive and forest garden, supplies nectar for pollinators and links the riparian forest with the rest of the property. A 5-foot-wide by 40-foot-long bed grows crops for composting that also produce nectar for native pollinators. Twenty-two other beds of a similar layout form the eastern edge of the pollinator habitat.

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A materials depot stores valuable farm resources, such as mulch, gravel and medium-size farm equipment, near their intended areas of use.

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The beehive yields honey and beeswax for the Katzes to sell, barter or give away, and pollination services for the surrounding landscape.

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Blackberry and raspberry bushes delineate the edges of the beekeeping area, the forest garden, and the driveway, and produce nectar for insects and delicious fruit for humans.

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A 10-foot-wide by 30-foot-long drive accesses the beehive and materials depot. The drive, covered with Dutch white clover, is resilient to vehicular traffic occurring twice per week.

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Trellises support beautiful vining edible plants. Beneath the trellis are dedicated beds of desirable herbs.

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An aesthetically pleasing herb mandala efficiently utilizes growing space for more than 20 varieties of herbs.

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A farm stand, 10 feet wide by 15 feet long by 8 feet tall, greets visitors to the farm, displays produce being sold to visitors, and and supports the generation of on-farm income.

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Six fruit trees, initially planted in 2007 too close to one another, thrive after being re-spaced to mature optimally. These fruit trees form the canopy layer of the orchard-turned-forest garden.

A 10-foot-wide, 1200-foot-long multifunctional hedgerow delineates the property boundary between the Katzes and their easterly neighbor. The hedgerow’s berries and blossoms attract kids of all ages, and a wide array of birds and insects. Herbaceous dynamic accumulator plants, planted at the base of each shrub, retrieve nutrients from deep within the soil, yielding ever-greater fertility self-reliance on-site.

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Multifunctional shrubs increase vertical edge within the orchard-turned-forest garden, attract beneficial insects and produce an abundance of fruit and nuts for the Katzes to enjoy. Ground covers, tubers and vines grown next to these shrubs enhance the diversity and resilience of the forest garden.

U

A seasonal chicken tractor (also known as a mobile chicken hutch) utilizes the free services of chickens to fertilize and weed the forest garden and vegetable beds.

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The 340-foot-long clumping bamboo windbreak captures pesticides blown from the eastern neighbor’s conventional field, and delights the ears as wind rustles through its leaves.

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A storage and processing shed, 15 feet wide by 25 feet long by 10 feet high, stores on-farm produce for future processing. A living roof cools the structure, grows rare native forbs and captures the interest of visitors about a technology appropriate to rooftops. Two arbors, constructed of locally-sourced black locust wood and located to the east and west of the shed, support edible fruiting vines, and shade people during the hot summer months. The vining plants yield nectar for visiting insects.

J

The existing 1.8KW photovoltaic array supplies renewable energy to both greenhouses, and charges an electric ATV used on the farm that largely replaces the need for a truck on-site.

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Keyhole garden beds efficiently utilize space and sunlight adjacent to the second greenhouse from the road.

W The original garden bed layout remains unchanged, and benefits from additional plant-based fertilizers grown on the farm. X

A thorny blackberry hedge protects passersby from unintended encounters with the stinging nettle patch, while attracting pollinators and berry pickers.

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The 200-square-foot dedicated stinging nettle patch thrives in its sunny location, yielding nutritious perennial vegetables year after year.

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The gathering area continues to comfortably accommodate a maximum of twenty people for tours and parties.

aa

Shade-loving multifunctional plants, including native and rare species, thrive along the stream embankment, replacing opportunistic Oriental bittersweet, and poison ivy.

bb Protein-rich edible and medicinal mushroom logs fruit in the shade of the mid-succession riparian forest. cc The trailer continues to serve as a rustic riverside dwelling for the Katzes during the summer months.

ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

The existing ash-sumac woodland is transformed into a fertility woodland; interplanted with crops for compost, the green ash trees mature into fuelwood.

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

Recommended Design: South & North Areas

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A Pollinator’s Haven Close to 90 percent of the world’s plants require pollination by animals such as insects. Currently, many invertebrate pollinators such as bees, flies, wasps, butterflies and moths are in decline, due to habitat loss and the effects of pesticides. In an effort to conserve, and perhaps even reverse, this loss, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), a division of the US Department of Agriculture, is promoting the creation of dedicated habitat for insect pollinators on private farmland. In Hadley’s Honey Pot, Michael and Cathy have received a grant through the NRCS to install a 1.5-acre pollinator habitat on their 3-acre farm. The goal of this pollinator project is to provide pollination services to the surrounding agricultural land for a minimum of three years. The NRCS stipulates that the pollinator habitat contain at least 9 blooming plant species, which, as a whole, provide nectar throughout the growing season.

17 Excellent Pollinator Plants

xerces.org

xerces.org

Example of a pollinator habitat area

Pollinator Habitat Design

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The Three Basic Needs of Pollinators

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xerces.org

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A twig bundle, composed of 15 to 20 stems of elderberry or bamboo tied together with string, affords ideal nesting habitat for certain bees. Some ground nesting bees, such as solitary bees, inhabit open, undisturbed soil and piles of rocks within the pollinator habitat.

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Bloom Time

anise hissop

mid summer thru early autumn

Antennaria spp.

pussythrues

late spring thru mid summer

Aquilegia canadensis

columbine

mid spring thru early summer

Arabis alpina

alpine rockcress

early thru mid spring

Asclepias spp.

milkweed

late summer

Aster novae-angliae

New England aster

early summer thru mid summer

Baptisia tinctoria

wild blue indigo

mid thru late summer

Borago officinalis

borage

late spring thru early fall

Ceanothus americana

New Jersey tea

early thru mid summer

Pycnanthemum spp.

mountain mint

early thru mid summer

Lespedeza spp.

bush clovers

early thru late autumn

Lupinus perennis

wild lupine

early spring thru early summer

Medicago sativa

alfalfa

mid summer thru early autumn

Monarda spp.

beebalm

mid spring thru mid summer

Oenothera biennis

evening primrose

mid spring thru early summer

Rudbeckia hirta

black-eyed Susan

mid summer thru early autumn

Zizia aptera

heart-leaved Alexanders

late spring thru mid summer

The above table lists more than a dozen plants worthy of inclusion in a pollinator habitat in the Honey Pot. Due to the likely changes in land use of this 1.5-acre area over time, these 25 candidate plants are all soft-stemmed, and thus easily removed or relocated.

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Arborvitae windbreak

Protects the pollinator habitat from pesticide drift from the western neighbor’s property.

Pollinator Habitat

Supports a diversity of pollinator insects and other beneficial animals. Yields crops for compost after the pollinator habitat’s lifespan has ended.

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Crops for Compost

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Multifunctional Hedgerow

2400 square feet of 5’ x 40’ and 10’ x 40’ planting beds along the western side of the driveway are dedicated to the growing of perennial pollinator-friendly crops. After the 3-year lifespan of the pollinator habitat has elapsed, these fertility-rich crops can be harvested for composting, or left standing to continue to serve a pollinator function. Based on John Jeavons’ GrowBiointensive method of devoting 60 percent of the cultivated area to growing compost crops, these nutrient-rich plants could supply more than 90 percent of the fertility needs of the 4000 square foot summer farm. Supports other pollinator species reliant on woody perennial plants for their survival. Also serves as a wildlife corridor between the northern and southern banks of the Connecticut.

ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

General Planting and Maintenance Guidelines CLUSTER plants of the same species to attract more pollinators than isolated plants. MANAGE a small percentage (30%) of the pollinator habitat each year on a 3- to 5-year rotation, using hand tools.

For further information about pollinator habitats, visit: www.xerces.org

Recommended Design: Pollinator Habitat

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Other bees reside in holes bored into wood.

Still other bee species find sanctuary in the different types of trees and shrubs surrounding the pollinator habitat.

Common Name

Agastache foeniculum

A'

A

Nesting Environments

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SECTION A-A'

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Access to a wide range of flowering plants from which to obtain nectar, • A reliable source of water, and • Sites suitable to laying eggs, nesting and overwintering. Providing such sites is as important as providing adequate sources of nectar. •

Scientific Name

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THE NRCS has allotted a minimum three-year lifespan to the pollinator habitat. After that time, the Katzes may opt for other land uses within this 1.5-acre portion of the property. The following sketches, in plan view, present three planting possibilities for U-pick orchards that may, in time, yield on-farm income for the Katzes.

This orchard is planted with improved varieties of hazelbert (Corylus spp.), a multi-stemmed nut-bearing shrub. A spacing of 20 feet between each hazelbert ensures adequate sunlight, airflow, and easy access to each plant by U-pick clients. At ten years of age, hybrid hazels will produce up to 3000 pounds of nuts on a per acre basis. The clients are advised to purchase hazelbert varieties resistant to eastern filbert blight.

U-Pick Hazelbert Orchard advantages • • •

Site’s sandy loam soil ideally suited to growing hazels Hazelberts are a recognizable agricultural crop Hazelberts produce well; at maturity, yield can be between 20 and 25 pounds of nuts per plant, and up to 3000 pounds per acre. Hazels are easy to grow, propagate and maintain Orchard also yields non-food by-products, such as coppice material and nectar for pollinators Can be interplanted with pollinator-friendly companion plants

• • •

disadvantages • • •

The juneberry (Amalanchier spp.), also known as serviceberry, is a tasty early-summer berry endemic to North America. It is a virtually unrecognized commercial crop in the northeast. This planting arrangement is geared toward a U-pick business operation. A spacing of 12 feet between each row and 3 feet between each plant within the row ensures adequate sunlight, airflow and easy access to each plant by U-pick customers.

Orchard will not begin bearing nuts for half a decade after planting Squirrels will compete with humans for nuts Lack of on-farm infrastructure for processing nuts

U-Pick Juneberry Orchard advantages • • • • •

A novel, early-season crop Prolific producer; some varieties yield 7 tons of berries per acre Very nutritious: high in antioxidants and other vitamins Historic, culturally-important food source to the eastern US Can be interplanted with mutually beneficial companion plants

disadvantages • • •

This U-pick orchard layout is a mix of three productive crop species: hazelberts, juneberries and nanking cherries (Prunus tomentosa). A spacing of 15-20 feet between plants ensures adequate sunlight, airflow and easy access to each plant by U-pick customers.

U-pick Polyculture Orchard

Competition for berries by birds will likely require infrastructure such as nets to protect the crop This miniature monoculture may increase the likelihood of insect blight and other types of crop failures Its stone fruit and stem may render it unpalatable to some consumers

advantages • • • • •

Different species of plants make the orchard as a whole more resilient to pests and diseases and to climate fluctuations than the other two orchard alternatives Higher overall productivity of the orchard system Attracts a multitude of beneficial insects Plants can be installed all at once, or in phases, as money and time permit A beautiful, intriguing planting system for visitors to enjoy

disadvantages • • •

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

Future Phases

h

ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341

Complex planting scheme may be confusing for U-pick customers familiar with a more linear planting layout May be more difficult to manage than a traditional orchard Individual crop productivity is not nearly as high as the dedicated juneberry and hazelbert orchard option

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The planting palette offers a variety of multifunctional species well-suited to the sandy loam, 6.0 pH soil of That’s-a-Plenty Farm. Brambles z 1 v z 1 v z 1 v

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[ thornless blackberry (Rubus spp.) [ thorned blackberry (Rubus spp. ‘Snyder’)S [ thornless raspberry (Rubus spp. ‘Golden Queen’)S

Bioswale Rain Garden

z 1 v = - - [ h bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) z 1 v = - - [ American cranberry bush (Viburnum trilobum) 1 v = - - [ winterberry holly (Ilex verticillata) z 1 v - - [ American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) 1 v - [ Joe-pye weed (Eutrochium purpureum) v silver sedge (Carex morrowii) z 1 cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea) 1 crested iris (Iris cristata) 1 - [ q yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

Herb Mandala q

z z z z z 1 1 1 z 1 1

red clover (Trifolium pratense) 1 q lemonbalm (Melissa officinalis) 1 q Russian comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum) 1 spearmint (Mentha spicata) 1 q peppermint (Mentha piperita) 1 chocolate mint Mentha piperita cv.) catnip (Nepeta cataria) beebalm (Monarda spp.) q German chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) 1 v q fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) lemon verbena (Aylosia citrodora) - [ q yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

h

Trellis Plants z z z z

1 1 1 1

v v v v

hardy kiwi (Actinidia arguta)* grape (Vitis spp.) jinenjo yam (Dioscorea japonica) maypop (Passiflora incarnata)

Multifunctional Hedgerow z z z z z z z

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

v = [ h buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) v = [ chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) v = [ chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) v = - [ elderberry (Sambucus canadensis ‘Nova’ & ‘York’)S v = [ a hazelbert (Corylus sp.) v = [ juneberry (Amalanchier alnifolia) v [ red currant (Ribes rubrum)

z z 1 z z z 1

v 1 1 1

v

(See sheet 7)

z z 1 z z z z 1 z z z 1 1 z z z z z z z

Egyptian walking onion (Allium cepa proliferum) perennial multiplier onion (Allium cepa aggregatum) v - [ q Russian comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum) 1 v barren strawberry (Waldsteinia fragaroides) 1 - h goundnut (Apios americana) 1 - h Price’s groundnut (Apios priceana) 1 v - h hog peanut (Amphicarpaea bracteata) [ q yarrow (Achillea millefolium) 1 v gooseberry (Ribes spp. ‘Houghton’)S 1 v currant (Ribes spp.) 1 v [ fig (Ficus carica ‘Long Island’)S - q h Dutch white clover (Trifolium repens) q German chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) 1 v - [ h Siberian pea shrub (Caragana arborescens) 1 [ q French sorrel (Rumex acetosa) 1 [ q chicory (Cichorium intybus) 1 - skirret (Sium sisarum) 1 = [ q a apple (Malus domestica ‘Belle de Boskoop)’*** 1 = [ q a apple (Malus domestica ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’)*** 1 v = [ multigrafted cherry (Prunus spp.) *** 1 1

Forest Fertility Patch q

z 1 z z z 1

a green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)*** q chives (Allium schoenoprasum) v - [ q Russian comfrey (Symphytum uplandicum) 1 [ q French sorrel (Rumex acetosa) 1 [ q buckler-leaved sorrel (Rumex scutatus) 1 - [ q chicory (Cichorium intybus) q bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinium) 1

Bamboo Windbreak

q temperate clumping bamboo (Fargesia nitida ‘Robusta’)

Landscape Plan

That’s-a-Plenty Farm

36 Honey Pot Road, Hadley, MA 01035

stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

Riparian Forest

Pollinator Habitat Edible Forest Garden

1 [q

z z z z z 1 z 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 = a pawpaw (Asimina triloba ‘Zimmerman’) **S 1 = a pagoda dogwood (Cornus alternifolia) 1 v = [ red-berried elderberry (Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens) 1 [ ramps (Allium tricoccum) 1 ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) v = arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum) 1 v = nannyberry (Viburnum lentago) white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) bellwort (Uvularia sessilifolia) honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis) floodplain avens (Geum laciniatum) jumpseed (Tovara virginiana) Wiegand wild rye (Elymus wiegandii) trillium (Trillium sp.) trout-lily (Erythronium americanum) [ a sandbar willow (Salix exigua) enchanter’s nightshade (Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis) narrow-leaved spring beauty (Claytonia virginica) sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis) Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense) lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina)

LEGEND

z edible 1 medicinal v wildlife food (nuts, seeds or fruit) = bird shelter - invertebrate shelter - nectar source for insects [ crops for composting q dynamic accumulator: plants that mine nutrients from the soil through their roots h nitrogen fixer a coppicing: plants capable of resprouting from the stump or from roots when cut *may be aggressive and is currently under study **plant at least two for pollination ***existing plant on property Srare horticultural variety of New England (per the book, “Renewing America’s Food Traditions”)

Plant Palette

h

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

z

- [ Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani) - [ q alfalfa (Medicago sativa) [ q h wild lupine (Lupinus perennis) v [ q buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) v - [ sunchoke (Helianthus tuberosus ‘Clearwater’)S v amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) [ h wild blue indigo (Baptisia australis)

1 v 1 v

= [

ZACH MERMEL Fall 2010 Conway School of Landscape Design 332 South Deerfield Road, Conway, MA 01341

Nettle Patch

Crops for Compost

9

9

That's-A-Plenty Farm  

A whole systems, permaculture-inspired design for a 4-acre farm and pollinator habitat on the Connecticut River in Western Massachusetts.

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