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SarI SEJOURS LOISIR SANTE

?Wllilj;ThJ 5, Rue du Capitaine FROSTON 97150 St-Martin F.W.I.

Cell: 27.34.33 Tel: (0590) 87.90.27 Fax: (0590) 87.96.37

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FUTURE FITNESS CENTER

Body BUilding· Shidokan

Gym Tonic • Step · Stretch

Boxe Thai · Danse •Acrobatie

Ouvert de 7h

Place de l'Eglise Marlgot 97150 ST-Martin FWI

a 21h30 Tel: (0590) 87 90 27 Tel/Fax: (0590) 87 96 37

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Mesdames. Messieurs,

Ladies and Gentlemen.

L'annee 1996 aura ele marquee par la reconstruction toute entiere de l'lle de Saint-Martin apres Ie passage de deux ouragans dont les noms nous resteront en memoire pendant encore tres longtemps. Apres une courte periode de choc et d'arret de nos activites, no us nous sommes retrousse les manches et des Ie mois de novembre 1995, la reouverture du MuseeSur la trace des Arawaks" a marque la reprise de nos actions en faveur du Patrimoine de Saint-Martin Malgre I'annulation de notre campagne de fouilles prevue entre janvier et mars, nous nous sommes consacres a la reconstruction des depots de fouille de I'Association et nous disposons maintenant d'un invenlaire pre<;is de tout Ie materiel archeologique issu des fouilles effectuees depuis 1992. Cette pause obligatoire no us a egalement perm is de consolider nos inlrastructures afin de poursuivre nos recherches sur des bases saines et la qualite du travail s'en trouvera amelioree L'edition du timbre de Saint-Martin, Ie 10 fevrier 1996. aura sans doute ete I'evenement qui aura marque celte annee et nous remercions la population toute entiere pour Ie soutien qu'elle nous a lemoigne a I'occasion de la sortie "premier jour" au Musee de Saint-Martin, Huit mil­ lions de petits chiens Arawaks sont devenus pendant plusieurs mois les ambassadeurs de notre ile dans Ie monde en tier. Nous avons bien entendu poursuivi nos actions en direc­ tion des scolaires a travers la publication d'un recueil d'archives historiques concernant les i1es de SaintMartin et Saint-Barthelemy el en organisant de nombreuses visites guidees au Musee el dans la sucrerie de Spring, Vous decouvrirez dans les articles suivants les mul­ tiples facetles de notre association et si vous etes inleresses pour participer financiere­ ment ou physique­ ment a nos actions, n'hesitez pas a nous contacler.

The year 1996 will have been marked by the whole and thorough reconstruction of the island of Saint-Martin after the passage of nvo hurricanes the name of which will still remain in our memories for a long time to come. After a short period of shock and interruption of our activities, we rolled up our sleeves and as soon as the month of novem­ ber 1995. the reopening of the Museum 'On the trail of the Arawaks" stood as the resumption of our actions in favour of the patrimony of Saint-Martin. fn spite of the cancellation of our excavations campaign initially planned to take place sometime benveell january and march we have devoted time to the reconstruction of the Association's excavation depository and we now pos­ sess a precise inventory of all the archaeological material found in the excavations carried ou! since 1992. This obli­ gatory pause also enabled us 10 consolidate our infrastructures in order to pursue our research based on sound and sofid foundations and the quality of our work will be improved due to this. The issue of the Saint-Martin stamp, february 10th. 1996 will no doubt have been the event outlining this year as a special one, and we thank the entire population of Saint­ Martin for the support it brought us on the occasion of its 'first day issue' at the Saint-ivfartin Museum. Over several months, 8 million small Arawak dogs became the ambas­ sadors of our island worldwide. We have. of course, continued our actions towards the school children through the publication of an anthology of historicaf archives concerning the islands of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthelemy, and by organizing many gUided visits to the Museum and to the old sugar factory located at Adorno en forme d'oiseau Spring. In the next few Hope Estate 450 Apres J-G. articles, you will disco­ Adorno in bird shape ver the multiple facets Hope Estate 450 AD of our association and. should you be interested in partici­ p,lting iinancially or phy:;icdlly in our actions. please do nol

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President: C. HENOCQ

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Vice-Pre!'iiident: F. PETIT Tr~orier~

J. CHOISY Tre-orier adjoint: rvl. DE BOUCAUD BOBERLE

TIfI@IJV® IE~liwli®

Association Archeologique A DELDEVERT

E NOGARET

GDELDEVERT

D PARISIS

F. ANAIS

E DUBOISMILLOT H PARISIS

LANAIS

J-P DUFAIT

o ASTRUC

C PECOT

§t>f rtiltaire

general: A.M HENOCQ

!iecretail'l!!i adjoinl!i:

CANAlS

K DELORME

Membn!!i d'honneur: J. GORDON Me GOVERN

F. RODRIGUEZ-LOU BET

J. HAVISER

EWING

M. RODRIGUEZ

M. GAMIETTE

E PELISSIER

D BONNISSENT

A GAVARRET

o PELISSIER

V BOULFROI

PJOLY

M. PETIT

SAINT MARTIN Cedex F.W.1.

B. BOYRARD

LJOY

P PlOCH

Tet. 0590.29.22.84

FX CHAUVIERES

1. JOY

V POPE

J CHOISY

G KOSSMANN

A RICHIER

P CHOISY

S KOSSMANN

C SOBAMEA

M. CHOISY

AD LANTERI

CSTOUVENOT

L CHOISY

A. LENOBLE

D. VILLEMEN

P MELLINAND

J DAVIS.

G MIRALLES

F. VIOTTY

E MOREUL

N. WEYDERT

K. DELORME

M. VILLEMEN

Dir. de publication: Frant;:ois Petit

Mal/uette: Gilles Caramante

Photogravure: Aghate

Impression: St.Barth. Offset

Commit'; de redaction: C. Stouuenot. C. Pecot

A, Richards. C. Henocq.

Couuerture:

Desslne et grave en taille-douce par.

Design and intaglio engravmg by.­ Pierre Forget

l' Association Archeologique Hope E.state remercie tous ceux qui ont contribue aux projets de 1996 La Direction Regionale des AHaires Culturelles Le Conseil General de Guadeloupe La Commune de Saini-Martin Mr. et Mme Gordon Mc Govern Le Cabinet de Geometres Experts Pivetta L'Arhawak Le Saint-Severin Air France La Poste Jardin Passion Fond'or Marina Photo Radio Saint-Martin Saini-Marlin's Week YOI mag. RCI 2 Le SMA de Gaudeloupe Espace & Communication Caribbean Herald Flash Medias G Kossmann A Bryan 0, Astruc S. et C Oberle M, Laurence J.Arias.

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Acti"ities 95-96

Circuit historique Historical tour

Resistivite Electric methods applied

to archaeology

A.A.H.E Route du Fort Saint-Louis

BP 507 Marigot 97056

N° ISSN: 1242-0263

GCOUGHLAN

Activites 95-96 4

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~ CARIBBEAN LIQUORS & TOBACCO N.V.

Exca"ation depository

~ PHILIPSBURG ST MAARTEN

Tel: 22140

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n spite of the bad weather at the end of 1995, our associa­ tion has continued its actions for Estate ont poursuivi leurs etudes the safeguard and highlighting of et interpretations, et une carte the Saint Martin patrimony de repartition du materiel 1996 will have constitued an inter­ archeologique dans Ie soL a ete ruption in the excavations realisee par Christian programmed on the site of Hope Stouvenot. Cette carte tres riche L'equipe d'archeologues en Estate and we have concentrated en renseignements, vous per­ congres a Basse-Terre, mettra a I'avenir, d'avoir une our efforts on cleaning up the exca­ The Hope Estate team in congress vated artifacts, We now possess a meilleure stategie d'implanta­ in Basse-Terre, detailed inventory of al/ the tion des secteurs fouilles et pose archaeological material discovered deja un certain nombre de quesin Saint Martin. tions, auxquelles il nous faudra After having consulted our advertisers, we still deci­ repondre, lors de nos prochaines campagnes de ded to publish the 4th bulletin 5000 copies of which fouille, were distributed, as of the month of November Sur un autre plan, nos actions se sont concen­ 1995 That same month after 60 days of cleaning trees cette annee, sur la mise en valeur du up works, the Museum 'On the trail of the Arawaks" patrimoine colonial de St Martin, a travers la opened again. with a splendid exhibition called gestion et I'embellissement du Fort de Marigot et "Mineral Treasures of Saint Martin ", brought about la publication au mois d'aouL d'un recueil by Mr Stephen Durif d'archives historiques, concernant les lies de St The Museum of Saint Martin and the association Martin et St Barthelemy, Du 9 au 15 septembre then created an unprecedented event, the first day dernier, I'organisation de la semaine de J:histoire et des journees du patrimoine, sur Ie theme du issue of Saint Martin stamp, "The Arawak Civilisation', February 10th 1996, more than "Sucre a St Martin", a permis de familiariser de

I

Tout au long de I'annee, les archeologues travaillant

Mrs Lucette Michaux Chevry visiting Hope Estate

Mme Lucette Michaux Chevry visitant Hope Estate

a Hope

nombreux scolaires a cette partie de I'histoire de

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plaires, des Ie mois de novembre

algre les inLemperies de la fin de I an nee

1995,

notre association a continue ses

meme mois, (a pres

1995

60 jours de travaux

Le

de remi­

actions de sauvegarde et de mise en valeur du

se en etat), Ie Musee

patrimoine St Martinois,

Arawaks', ouvrait de nouveau ses portes, avec

1996

une splendide exposition, realisee par

L'annee

aura marque une pose dans les

Sur la trace des

fouilles programmees sur Ie site de Hope Estate

M,Stephen Durif. intitulee : " Tresors mineralo­

et nous avons concentre nos efforts, sur la remi­

giques de St Martin"

se en etat des depots de fouille, Nous possedons

Le Musee de St Martin et I'Association, ont

aSt Martin

tous, pour les faire aboutir.

Jour de I'emission du leI' timbre de St Martin

000

Apres consultation de nos annonceurs, nous

'Civilisation des Arawaks" Plus de 2

avons decide de publier malgre tout. Ie bulletin

sonnes ont eu I'occasion de decouvrir Ie Musee

n04 qui a ete distribue

Les projets pour I'annee

a raison de 5 000 exem-

et les tresors qUil abrite, Ie

4

10 et 11

fevrier

per­

1996

1997,

ne manquent

pas et nous comptons sur I'appui de

ensuite cree un evenement sans precedent, Ie

main tenant un inventaire detaille de tout Ie mobilier archeologique decouvert

leur lie, trop longtemps ignoree,

The Fort powder magasin before restoration,

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Le groupe ANLARILA a Spring,

The drum players of ANLARILA at Spring,

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Rolles de I' habitation Spring.

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2000 persons were able to discover the Museum and the treasures it houses. All during the year. the archaeologists working at Hope Estate pursued their research and interpretations. and a distribution map of the archaeological material in the soil was made up by Christian Stouvenot fn the future. this map. very rich in information. will enable us to better select the sections to excavate, and it already gives matter for several que­ ries to which answers wi!l be needed during our forthcoming excavation campaigns. On another level. this year, our actions were concen­ trated on highlighting the colonial patrimony of Saint Martin. through the management and beautifying of the Fort of Marigot. and the edition, in the month of August, of a sefection of historical archives of Saint Martin and Saint Barthelemy From last September 9th to 15th the organisation of Histoty Week and of the Patrimony Days on the theme "Sugar in Saint Martin" enabled many schoolchildren to get to know this part of the history of their island. ignored for such a long time The projects for 1997 are not lacking and we count on everyones Chaudieres en fonte, sucrerie de Spring. Sugar boilers, Spring factory. support to achieve them

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Defined Sensibility

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F.W. Vlaun & SOIIN.V.

Longwall Road

Philipsburg • Sint Maarten • Phone: 22 3'8/23 06,

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CirClJit

istorique

S'il n'existe Jucun monument dedie JU r~----' pJsse colorml et J I'Histolre de SJint­ MJrtin dJns Ie bourg princlpJI de MJrJgot. riombre de vestiges ou de mJisons Jncienlles tellloignent de cette epoque Oll s'est Jlllorce Ie developpement econo­ Illique de I'ile RepondJnt J IJ denlJnde d'un public resident ou de pJssJge, nous vous proposons de sUlvre un cirCUI! des monuments historiques de MJrJgot.

vous souhaite la bienvenue.

VtLCJJ'

WtLhUM WILLKOMAJEN BJENVEN11JA [.,l:lY11tNU f f

. NOS BUREAUX SAINT·MARTIN : Port de Marigot 97 150 Saint-Martin Tel. -0590- 87 57 21/23 - Fax. -0590- 87 5643 PARIS: Howarth Axe Consultants - 12. rue de Madrid 75008 Paris, France Tel. 01 4387 11 40 - Fax. 01 4522 78 87 NEW-YORK: Marketing Challenges International Inc. 10 East 21 st Street, Suite 600 New York, NY 10010 U,SA

Tour Operators/Incentives: Tel • (212) 529 8484 - Fax. (212) 460 8287

Travel Agents. Tel. • (212) 315 0888

Public: Tel • (900) 990 0040 ($050 per minute)

VENEZUELA: Elialei CA - Av, Libertador, Torre Maracaibo,

Pisco 11 Oficina F, Caracas, Venezuela,

Tel , (582) 762 6977 /7620814 - Fax. (582) 761 5760

La rue de la Republique est bordee dune serie de maisons anciennes dont I'architecture tradi­ tionnelle avec balcons et gingerbreads attire immediatement Iattention, L'une d'entre elles. situee non loin du croisement avec la rue de Hollande, sur la droite en se dirigeant vers Ie Front de Mer. a abrite autrefois les services de la Mairie de Saint-Martin Achevee en 1845 par Madame Georgina Hodge, epouse Becker, elle fut leguee par son neveu Ferdinand Morales a sa fille Hortensia Morales­ Richardson en 1937, Cette maison habitee jusquen 1938 fut louee a la commune sous Ie mandat de Monsieur Louis Constant Flemming apres que I'ancienne mairie situee sur un terrain en face ait de detruite par un incendie, S'installant d'abord au rez­ de-chaussee. puis a I'etage. la mairie y demeurera jusqu'en 1947. date a laquelle Vere et Louis Richardson deciderent d'y implanter Ie Majestik bar. puis une boulangerie et une epicerie, Les activites commerciales ont pris fin en 1995 et un programme de restauration de cette maison et de quelques autres devrait voir Ie JOur dans les pro­ chaines annees, Ancienne Mairie, Old Town hall.

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If no mOllument exists, that IS dedl­ caced to the colonial past and History of Sam/-Martin, in tile fTlillll village of Ma ngot, nllm/HOliS remains ur old Ilouses bear IVltness of thiS era lillY/tell the econonllc development of thiS island began and. <1nslvering the demand of a publiC be It a resident aile or one passing tllrough tile Island we uffer to be your guides Oil il hlstof/cal 10llr of A1<1f1gol's monuments

The Rue de la Republique is lined with a series of old houses the traditional architecture of wich attracts attention. with its distinctive balconies and ginger­ breads, One of them, located near the intersection with the Rue de Hollande. on the right going down to the waterfront, housed the Town Hall services of Saint-Martin in the past, Completed in 1845 by Mrs Georgina Hodge. born Becker. it was handed down in heritage by her nephew, Ferdinand IVlorales to his daughter. Hortensia Morales-Richardson. in 1937. This house. inhabited until 1938, was leased to the municipality under the mandate of Mr LOUIS Constant Flemming after the old town hall, located on the piece of land opposite, had been destroyed by fire, setting itself up first inside the ground floor of the building, then on the first floor. the Town Hall remai­ ned there until 1947 date at witch Vere and Louis Richardson decided to set • up the Majestik bar there, ~ then a bakery and a gro­ cery, The business activities ended in 1995, A restoration program for this house and for others should take place in the upcoming years,

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Marigots Fort is the most visible and best highlighted monument of Saint-Martin. It was built by the village people in 1789 under the impetus of Jean-Sebastien De Durat. Governor of Saint-Martin and Saint­ Barthelemy. for His Majesty the King of France Originally built to defend the warehouses of the port of Marigot in wich were stocked the products harves­ ted by the plantations. such as coffee, salt. rhum or sugar cane, it very soon became ramshackle. and this military monument was subject to restorations and modifications in the 19th century. before being aban­ doned once again. It was the siege of battles between the French and the English who regularly came from Anguilla to raid the warehouses. Since 1993. restora­ tions and enhancement works are carried out by the Adapted Military Service of Guadeloupe and the Hope Estate Association. Bilingual explanatory boards allow an instructive visit of this site. which also offers a magnificent view of the town, Simpsonbay Lagoon and Marigot Bay

Le Fort de Marigot est Ie monument Ie plus visible et Ie mieux mis en valeur de Saint-Martin. II a ete construit par la population du bourg en 1789 sous I'impulsion de Jean-Sebastien Durat, gouverneur de Saint-Martin et Saint-Barthelemy pour Sa Majeste

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Ie Roi de France Construit I'origine pour defendre les entrepots du port de Marigot ou etaient stockes les produits recoltes par les habitations, comme Ie cafe. Ie sel, Je rhum et Ie sucre de canne. il fut tres vite delabre et ce monument militaire a fait I'objet de restaurations et de modifications au 1geme siecle. avant de tomber

a nouveau a I'abandon. II a ete Ie siege de batailles entre fran~ais et anglais, qui venaient regulierement dAnguilia pour piller les entrepots. Depuis 1993, des travaux de restauration et de mise en valeur sont effectues par Ie SMA de Guadeloupe et I'Association Hope Estate Des panneaux explicatlfs bilingues per­ mettent une visite instructive de ce site qui ofIre en outre une vue magnifique sur la ville. Ie lagon de Simpsonbay et la baie de Marigot

La prison de Marigot lut construite en 1789 so us les ordres du Chevalier Jean-Sebastien de Dural. en meme temps que Ie fort qui defend la baie Elle est situee entre la rue Fichot et la rue Perrinon, petite ruelle parallele a la rue de HoJiande Cette prison a ete utilisee jusqu' en 1968, date ~

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Marigot Prison was built in 1789 under the impulsion of Sir Jean-Sebastien de Durat. at the same time as the Fort which defens the bay. This prison was used until 1968. at which date it was transformed into a fire station for Saint­ Martin.

a ete

transformee en caserne des pompiers de Saint­ Martin

Prison de Marigot. Marigot Jail.

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Etudeet realisation pour tous travaux de Marbre et Granit Cuisine MIUE

Equipement salle de bain ROLEX

L'Esperance - Grand-Gase - 97150 St.Martin - Tel: - 0590 - 873249 - Fax: - 0590 - 873258

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Tombe de Perrinon, Perrinon Grave,

La tombe de

Le Ponl de Durat est contemporain du fort et de fa prison, (est un petit pont de pierre qui se trouve a la sortie de MarigoL en allant vers Grand-Case, pres du centre commercial d'Howeli Center. dont fa date de construction figure au centre du parapet: "1789', La population du bourg avait souhaite a repoque que Ie pont so it baptise Pont de Dural. en I'honneur de leur gouverneur qu'ils aimaient et respectaienL Une pierre de taille placee au centre du parapet por­ tait cette inscription, Mais un rapport date de 1833 relate que les revolutionnaires avaient enleve cette pierre, symbole du pouvoir des aristocrates, Ce pont permet encore aujourd'hui de franchir une petite ravine qui deverse les eaux de ruissellement des mornes environnants dans [etang de Gallows Bay

admireel and respected and a stone, cut and placed in the centre of the parapet. bore this inscription. But a report daleel 1833 tells of the revolutionaries having taken out this stone, symbol of the aristo­ crats power Today. this bridge still enables us to cross a small ravine which pours the rain waters from the surrounding hills into Gallows Bay pond

The Pont de Durat is contemporary of the Fort and the Prison. This small stone bridge is located at the exit of Marigot. going towards Grand Case, the elate of construction of which is to be found al the centre of the parapet :1789 At the time, the village people had wished the bridge to be baptiseelele Durat Bridge, in honour of their governor that they

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Auguste Perrinon, aboli­ tionniste contemporain de Vietor Schoelcher. se trouve au cimetiere de MarigoL Entrez dans Ie cime­ tiere qui se trouve a fa sortie du bourg vers les Terres-Basses par la porte situee face a la Marina Port La Royale et dirigez vous droit vers Ie front de mer ou vous verrez un ensemble de tombes c1atu­ rees par une grille en fer forge Comptez environ cinq tombes sur la droite et vous reconnaitrez la pierre tombate surmontee d'une croix blanche et portant les inscriptions "PERRINON, (FRANC01S­ AUGUSTE), Officier de la Legion d'honneur. Ne a St Pierre Martinique, Ie 28 aout 1812, Mort a St­ Martin Ie 2 janvier 1861. DE PROFUNDIS Auguste Perrinon, homme de couleur. a participe au courant d'idees abolitionnistes qui ont precede ['emancipation des esclaves des iles fran~aises des Antilles Actionnaire dans les societes exploitant les salines de Saint-Martin, notamment celie de Grand

-

Marigot.

Case, il tenta de prouver par une demonstration scientifique que les esclaves affranchis et remuneres en fonction de leur rendement fournissaient un tra­ vail de meilleure quafite que les esclaves maltraites, Auteur de "Resultat d'experiences sur Ie travail des esclaves" en 1847, il apporte la preuve de la nocivi­ te et de rinutilite des methodes coercitives propres a I'esclavage, et il en tire la conclusion que 'lEmancipation serait un immense bien pour les colonies et que les progres de ['industrie sont inhe­ rents aceux de la liberte, En 1848, il fait partie de la commission Schoelcher ou il defend la these d'une indemnite due aux esclaves introduits par la traite clandestine depuis 1818 Apres Ie coup d'etat du 2 decembre 1850 qui a pour consequence la dissolu­ tion de I'Assemblee Legislative, il decide de se retirer a Saint-Martin, pour y reprendre I'exploitation de ses salines et fera paraitre a la Haye, en Juin 1859, une brochure sur la fabrication du seL II meurt a Saint-Martin Ie 2 janvier 1861

Fran~ois


Tombe de Perrinon. Perrinon Grave.

In order to discover The tomb of Auguste Perrinon. an abolitionist contemporary of Victor Schoelcher. and buried at Marigot enter the cimetery. loca­ ted at the exit of the village towards the Lowlands. using the door located opposite Marina Port la Royale, and go straight toward the waterfront. where you will see a series of tombs enshrined by a wrought iron fence. Count about five tombs towards the right and you will recognize the tombstone. sur­ mounted by a while cross and bearing the inscription PERRINON (FRANCOIS-AUGUSTE). Officier of the Legion d·Honneur. born in Saint-Pierre Martinique. on August 28. 1812, deceased in Saint­ Martin on January 2. 1861, DE PROFUNDIS. Auguste Perrinon, a coloured man, tooh part in the abolitionist ideological movement which preceded the fleeing of the slaves of the French West Indies Shareholder in the companies exploiting the salt ponds of Saint-Martin. especially that of Grand-Case, he attempted to prove. by scientific demonstration. that the slaves freed and paid according to their pro­ ductivity, supplied a work of better quality than the ill-treated slaves Author of Result of experiments on the work of slaves in 1847 he brought proof of the danger and uselessness of coercitive methods proper to slavery. and consequently obtained the conclusion that "freedom would be an immense good for the colonies and that the progress of industry is inherent to that of freedom" In 1848, he participated in the Schoelcher commission. in which he defended the theory of compensation due to slaves introduced by illegal trade since 1818 After the coup detat of December.2 1850. which resulted in the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly, he decided to retire in Saint-Martin to return to the exploitation of the salt ponds and, in June 1859. at The Hague, he publi­ shed a brochure on salt production. He died in Sainr-Martin on January 2,1861. Fran~ois

14

LEglise Catholique de Marigot, situee sur la route montant au Fort Louis a lait i'objet de

restaurations depuis 1994, qui ont permis de la preserver en tres bon etat. Des manuscrits de la tin du 18eme siecle nous apprennent que'C'etaient Jacob et Benjamin Gumbs, etrangers, qui avaient bati I'eglise en raison dune concession que Mr Descoudrelles (N DLR alars gouverneur de St-Martin et St-Barthelemy) leur lit obtenir denviron 150 carres de terre dont ils avaient precedemment pris posses­ sion illegale·. En 1815. un rapport signe Saint Juery

a

decrit la situation des catholiques St-Martin .·Point deglise, ni de presbytere. Ue etant habitee par des anglais protestants, Ie nombre de catholiques se reduit quelques franyais. la plupart si malheureux qu'ils ne peuvent entretenir un cure ..... .En 1833, Mr

a

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D.C Van Romondt Jr ecrit . "Je Ie dis la grande honte des habitants de la colonie entiere, Ie mot irreli­ gion serait ici mieux place, car depuis environ vingt ans. aucun ministre daucun wlte n'a de appele ici quen passant" Entre 1836 et 1841. plusieurs cures ephemeres se succedent et c est partir de 1841 qu'un cure d'origine irlandaise. Wall, s'installe Saint-Martin et y lait construire I'eglise catholique de

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Eglise catholique de Marigot. Roman Catholic Church of Marigot. Marigot, consacree Ie 15 mai 1842. Les deux tran­ septs furent ajoutees en 1871 et 1872. On lui devrait aussi ta construction de I'eglise de Grand Case, benie

AUTOMOBILES

Ie 12juin 1847.

Neuf Ne Occasions Used c Carosserie BOI eparation Pieces SD'"

The Roman Catholic church of i\lIarigot. located on the road going up to Fort Louis. was subject to seve­ ral restorations since 1994. and these have allowed its preservation in good state. Hand-written documents of the end of the 18th century teach us that "It was Jacob and Benjamin Gumbs, foreigners. who had built the church due to a grant that Mr Descoudre/les (Readers note: then Governor of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthelemy) had obtained for them, of approxi­ mately 150 squares of land. of which they had previously taken illegal possession." In 1815. a report signed Saint-Juery describes the position of Roman Catholics in Saint-Martin ''No church, no presbytery. The island being inhabited by protestants English people. the number of catholics is reduced to a few French people. most of whom are so miserable that they are unable to remain a priest., .. In 1833. Mr DC Van Romondt Jr write: "I say it to the great shame of the inhabitants of the whole colony, the word irreligion would be better placed here, as for about twenty years now no singie minister of any cult whatsoever has been called here exeptthose passing throughtthe island. Beetwen 1836 and 1841. seve­ ral temporary priests followed other temporary priests and beginning in 1841. a priest of Irish origin, Wall, settled down in Saint-Martin and had the Roman catholic church of Marigot built, and blessed May 15, 1842 He is also supposed to be responsible for the building of the church of Grand-Case as wel/, church blessed June 12, 1847

FINANCEMENT

CREDIT FACILITIES

l~il~1nl~i~i'~~

III SUBARU

~ CITRO~N

15

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KIA MOTORS PEUGEOT

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Les methodes electriques

ELECTRIC METHODS

GRAND MAR' IER

appliquees al' archeologie APPLIED TO ARCHAEOLOGY

A'.

pres les premiers essais

encourageants de carto­ graphie de ta resistivite electrique du sol de Hope Estate, (voir bulletin 1995), nous avons decide d'etendre les mesures a I'ensemble du pla­ teau, afin d'obtenir une carte de localisation des differentes struc­ tures (alignements de roches,

zone depotoirs) et de reconsti­

tuer I'organisation du village, au

cours du temps Ces mesures

etectriques ont ete realisees par

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du sediment)Ces investigations nous ont permis de reperer 7 differentes lentitles de dechets caracterisees par des plages de forte resistivite, disposees en arc de cerde sur les bordures du pla­ teau, la ou Ie recouvrement superficiel est epais, superieur a 40 cm (1

a 7)

a

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etc (13 21) L'utilisation des mesures de resistivite du sol cou­

plee a des micro-carottages, sest averee riche en

renseignements, sur Ie site precolombien de Hope

Estate. II s'agit dune methode inedite sur les gise­

ments neolithiques des petites Antilles, dont

I'efficacite et Ie caractere non destructif. sont pro­

metteurs pour I'avenir de nos recherches.

avec les micros-carottages" (presence ou absence de

depotoir, texture et granulometrie du sol. epaisseur

16

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On peut donc

imaginer une structure circulaire

du village, autour d'une place

centrale, ou les habitants

"' vaquaient a leurs occupations C, Stouvenot effectuant les mesures, quotidiennes, II nous reste a C. Stouvenot measuring resistivity C Stouvenot. archeogeologue determiner par la fouille, si ces

et C Pecot. membre de I'assoaccumulations de dechets se

ciation, apres une phase de debroussaillage trouvent a proximite d'habitats et si Ie nombre de

effectuee avec Ie concours de I'entreprise 'Jardin huttes est en rapport avec Ie nombre de depotoirs,

Passion' et du SMA de Guadeloupe, O'autres structures decouvertes sur la carte de resis­

Parallelement, des micro-carottages effectues avec tivite sont enigmatiques et devront etre interpretees un tube en acier de 1 cm de diametre, ont permis au cours des prochaines fouilles: fosses (8), aligne­

d'extraire un echantillon du sol, to us les 10

ments de blocs de diorite(9 12), terrains argileux metres. Lors de la penetration dans les couches archeo]ogiques, nous avons pu recuetllir des frag­ ments de coquillage, de crabe, de ceramique ou de

charbon.

L'interpretation de la carte de resistivite electrique,

s'est faite en tenant compte des donnees obtenues

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PHILIPSBURG STMAARTEN N. A.

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Reservations/Telephone: (0590) 87 77 64/87 80 81

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2. Le site apres debroussaillage . The site after culling the grass. 3. Vue aerienne de Hope Estate. Aerial view of Hope Estate. 4. Mesures de courant sur Ie site. Measunng curent on site.

Hope Estate p -­ .. I Carte de resistivite

Terrains argileux

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Clay soils

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Resistivity map o 10 metres I~

Zone aforte resistivite Zone with high resistivity Blocs accumulation

pany and the Adapted Military Service of Guadeloupe.

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carried out their daily occupations. We now have to determine through excavations if these accumu­ lations of refuse are located near houses and if the number of huts is in correlation with the number of refuse dumps

At the same time. micro-core sampling carried out with a 1 cm diameter steel tube, enabled the extra­ ction of a sample of the soil every 10 meters. During the penetration in the archaeological strata. we were able to gather fragments of shells, crabs. ceramics or coal. The interpretation of the electric resistivity map was carried out, taking into account the data obtained by the micro-samples, presence or absence of refuse dump. texture and granulome­ try of the soil, thickness of the sediment stratum, These investigations enabled us to identify 7 diffe­ rent refuse deposits characterized by areas of strong resistivity laid out in the form of an arc on the edges of the plateau, where the superficial

700

Zone afaible resistivite Zone with low resistivitv

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fter the first encouraging tests on the electric resistiuity map­ ping of the Hope Estate SOil, ( see 1995 Bulletin ), we decided to extend the measurements to the whole of the plateau, 50 as to obtain a map locating the different structures ( alignment of rocks, refuse dumpareas ) and to reconstitute the organization of a village, during the course of time. These electric measurements were carried out by C. Stouvenot, archaeologist and C. Pecot, mem­ ber of the Association, after the land was cleared of undergrowth, this task carried out with the participation of "Jardin Passion' com­

I. Marc du S.MA d~broussaillant Ie site Marc from S.M.A culling the grass on the site.

Presence de blocs

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Other structures discovered on the resistivity map are enigmatic and will have to be interpreted during forthcoming excavations: trenches (8). diorite block alignments (9 to 12), clayey soi/s .. etc (/3 to 21) The use of the soil resistivity measurements coupled with micro-samplings revealed rich information on the precolumbian site of Hope Estate. This is a new method of investigating the neolithic sites of the Lesser Antilles. and their efficiency and non-destructive nature are pra­ mising for the future development of our research.

cover is thicker than 40 centimetres (/ to 7). One can thus imagine a village of circular structure. around a central piazza, in which the inhabitants

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Riche en artefacts Many artifacts

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Structures enigmatiques Enigmatic structures Alignements de blocs? Blocs alignments?

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Secteurs fouilles Excavated zones

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The Island of Samt Martm has an eventful and well dOCllmented cotonial history. On the other hand. the Samt Martm habits and customs are essentially passed down by oral means and the dOCllments relatmg the recent history of the early twenl1eth century are rather scarce On vaflous occasions. the Hope Estate Association has organ/sed. with the coopera­ tion of the MUlJlcipal LIbrary prOJections of photographs of the Saint Martin of the (Jast. together With the old people of the retirement home and the Liaison Club QUIte rapidly. com­ ments from one and the other made these olden days live again and we pass this illustrated his­ tory on to you hoping to gIVe great pleasure to those who knew this era. and to their children. to whom they can teach so mlJch

endant les fetes, ~ommele 14 juillet, toute - la population se reunJssalt. comme encore

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En rcvJllche.les Il.lblluues et Iradlllul1S SI r.1.lrtlll0Ises sonl essentlellemel1t tr,1I1SI11ISt?S r,lf VOle or Jlt' elles eCllts rel,)I,Hltl'hISlllll€ recenle dll debul <Ill XX l'l1lt' sieck'. 50111 .1SSl!l rilres. A dlVt'rses ;1CCJSIUIl5, 1',1550CI<l1l011 Hope Eslale ,I or~"llISl ell coll,1tJori1!lol1 ;lyeC i;l b,blloll1eque 11111111Clilale, dt's prolecllLJIlS de pholoyraphles du 51 r.1.lftll1 ,I'JI1I'1I1 ell com· 1).I()I1I1: des ,1nCIt:I1S Ut' 1.1 111,11S01l de relr,llte el du club Ll,llSOIl Tr~s VIlL' les rOl11l11elll.1lftS des 1I11S tH des ;JulIes lIllI flill p,1f f,lIre reVIVrt' ct' temps p;lSSt' elnous VOlJS Ilvrons ct"ll,,: !lIS' IOlrt! i1llJslrel' l'spL'r.1I11 !;me 1I11 qr<lncl pldisH.l lOllS cellx qui ol1l CUIlill1 cl.'t1e epoljlltJ 1'1,1 leurs l'nL1I1ts ,I qUI lis pelJvenl !.I111 ,1pprt ' I1<1I"

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Marigot market in 1900

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es gens de la campagne navaient pas besoin d'acheter leurs aliments au marche; Seuls les habitants du _ bourg de Marigot venaient s'approvisionner en sel ou en legumes, dans les epiceries ou sur Ie marche.

Boat races in Marigot Bay- 1930

ffn uring holidays. such as July 14th, all the popu­

a

.V lation would get together, as it still does today,

aUjourd'hui, pour suivre les courses de voiliers dans la baie de Marigot. Nous portions toujours nos plus beaux vetements en de pareilles occasions. Les voi­ liers tradition nels de St Martin et d'Anguilie

to follow the sailboat regattas in Marigot Bay

We would always wear our best clothes on such occasions The traditional sailboats of Saint Martin and of Anguilla look like the boats that were used as smacks for the large European tuna sailboats, which would loosen their nets in the West Indies,

ressemblent aux barques qui servaient d'annexes aux grands voiliers thonier europeens, qui venaient lacher leurs filets dans les eaux des Antilles, jusqu'au debut du siecle. Ces embarcations etaient utilisees par les pecheurs d'autrefois et les courses que nous organisons au cours de fetes_ nous font revivre les competitions que se Iivraient les diffe­

until the turn of the century. These boats were used by the fishermen in the past and the regattas we organize during holidays make us relive the compe­ titions in which the different crews would

rents equipages. pour arriver les premiers sur Ie marche et vendre tout leur poisson ..

participate, to arrive first on the market place and sell all their fish ..

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1

mais les agriculteurs echangeaient ou donnaient les produits de leurs recoltes leurs voisins Nous produi­ sions tant de legumes que nous allions parfois les troquer contre des poissons. avec les pecheurs de Marigot Nous plantions des pois, des racines et toutes sortes de vegetaux. Chaque famille elevait des animaux comme les poules. cochons, cabris. moutons et boeufs. La viande etait conservee dans Ie sel, car nous ne possedions pas de refrigerateurs. Je me souviens de nos courses en sortant de I·ecole. pour arriver les premiers au mar­ che de Marigot et vendre quelques legumes aux bourgeois ..

ff~ he people living in the country did'nt need to buy their food at the market: Only the people living in '( the village of Marigot came to buy salt or vegetables in the groceries or on the market, but the farmers exchanged or gave the products of their harvest to their neighbours. We would produce so many vegetables that we would sometimes go to exchange them for fish with the fishermen of Marigot. We would plant peas, roots and all sorts of plants. Each family would breed animals such as hens. pigs. goats. sheep and cattle. Meat was preserved in salt, as we didnt have refrigerators. I remember our errands coming out of school, to arrive first at the market of Marigot and sell a few vegetables to the people of the village...

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j jI · . n Saint Martin, many salt ponds were

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remember the older days, a time when Marigot still looked like a swamp. The streets were of hard-packed earth and we could find crabs in the sand, right in the middle of Republique Street. Simpson Bay Lagoon hadn 't yet been filled up and came into the villa­ ge, up to the level of Felix £boue Street All the shores of the large pond were bordered by a rich mangrove in which the wader birds would come to nest. The two suburbs of Saint James and Marigot were separated by the 'glove finger', and it wasn't rare to see the young people of the two areas, organizing naval battles on the Fisher­ mens smacks right in the middle of the border, A seaside road ran alongside the beach, on which some fishermen's smacks would be res­ ting in the sunlight The streets were deserted'

Marigot circa 1900 jj

7 ,

.

e me souviens du temps d antan ou Marigot ressemblail encore 11 un marecage, Les rues etaient en terre battue et on trouvait des crabes dans Ie sable, au beau milieu de la rue de la Republique. Le lagon de Simpson Bay n avait pas encore ete comble et penetrait dans Ie bourg, jusqu'au niveau de la rue Felix Eboue. Toutes les rives du grand etang etaient bordees par une riche mangrove ou venaient nicher les oiseaux echassiers, Les deux quartiers de Saint James et de Marigot etaient separes Pi'll Ie "doigt de gant, et il netait pas rare de voir les jeunes des deux quartier. organiser des batailles navales sur les barques en bois des pecheurs au beau milieu de la frontiere. Une route de front de mer longeait la pi age ou les barques de quelques pecheurs se repo­ saient au solei!, Les rues etaient desertes ", L

1\

Colombier, les agriculteurs plantaient des racines et fabriquaient la farine de "arrow-root", Apres les avoir pelees, les racines etaient broyees 11 I'aide d'un mortier et d'un pilon en bois. La bouillie obtenue etait filtree dans un chiffon au des­ sus d'une bassine. La farine debarrassee de son jUs etait mise 11 secher pendant deux ou trois jours, puis tamisee, Les particules les plus grosses etaient de nouveau broyees et I'on en faisait des cremes, des beignets et des "journey cakes'. Cetait un travail long et difficile, mais qui produisait beaucoup de nourriture " )j

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22

worked and that of Grand Case still ran in the early sixties, There was a whole system of canals to stop the fresh rainwater from run­ ning down into the salt ponds from surrounding hills, and the sea water which went into the pond through a pass. naturally evaporated with the sun 's rays. The salt cristal­ lized and lay at the bottom of the pond. In the end, there were only around twenty people from Anguilla and Grand Case working in the salt ponds, It was very hard work and the salt ate the flesh We would use a basket that we shook in the water, to obtain clean salt, The salt was carried on one's head, held by trays and emptied out into shallow boats, calledllats ". The salt produced was sold at the pond and exported towards Guadeloupe. America and Europe".

1\ saint Martin, de nombreuses salines ont ete J:1 exploitees et celie de Grand Case fonction­

jj

nait encore au debut des annees 60 II existait tout un systeme de canaux pour empe­ cher Ie ruissellement de I'eau de pluie, 11 partir des

Collecting salt in Grand-Case pond, 1960 mornes environnants et I'eau de mer qui rentrait dans I'etang par une passe s'evaporait naturelle­ ment sous I'action du soleil. Le sel cristallisait et se deposait au fond de I'etang A la fin. il n'y avait plus qu'une vingtaine de personnes originaires d'Anguilie et de Grand case qui Iravaillaienl dans les salines. Cetait un metier Ires dur et Ie sel rongeail les chairs On utilisait un panier qui etait secoue dans reau, afin d'obtenir un produit propre, Le sel etait porte sur la tete 11 I'aide de plateaux et deverse dans des barques plates, appelees "Hats". La production etait vendue sur place et exporlee vers la Guadeloupe.I'Amerique et I Europe ..

Arrow-root processing in Colombier

1\ t Colombier, the farmers f':J. plant roots and

jj

would make 'arrow-roor meal. After having been peeled the roots were crushed with the help of a mortar and a wooden pile. The meal obtained was Filtered through a cloth above a basin. The flour. rid of its juice, was put to dry for two or three days, then sifted The bigger particles were then crushed again and we would make cream, fritters and "journey cakes ". It was long and difficult work, but it made alot of food

23


_

Kodak

: . - f!!搂EXPRE55 OIfJl!.fT'Y fo.f().V/T{IRtM:SERII'Jl;,c

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[S][AJ~~

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La Chau55ure

Femme Homme

Rue du General De Gaulle-Marigot 97150 Saint-Martin - Tel (0590) 87.11.03

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Diapositives

Noir&Blanc

Photos identitees

.5T-Ifilih the. ttl

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Les Bougainvilliers-Marigot 97150 Saint-Martin Tel: (0590) 29.04.76

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dck!~ ocJpys

a."rltr-e . . fo Is .'

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PfJi,j",,,,

3

11)('

~ 1- Front street 2- Court house 3- Front street

Cartes de visites

Tete de lettres

Etiquettesadheswes Fairepart Tampons Grawre

TOUSCORPSD~SSURANCES

-- _.. . . _....-.....-..:O::====~ ... =-=~':.;=~~

GROUPAMA

ASSURANCES路 ANlllLES路GUYA!'i[

10/SAINT JEAN ~ BELLEVUE - 97150 SAINT MARTIN FWI TEL.: (0590) 87 7745/ 87 56 42 - FAX: (0590) 87 55 05

Marina Royale - Marigot (() 059087 88 18

i!5


uivez Ie guiae...

follow the guide Le Musee de St rv1Jrtin. "Sur IJ trJce des ArJwJks" en est deJJ J SJ deuxieme Jnnee d'existence et J Jccueilli plus de 10000 visiteurs.

N

on content de presenter une concentration

,

d'informations sur l'Histoire, I'Archeologie,

vous conseillons vivement, si vous souhaitez vous plonger dans Ie patrimoine et la culture 5t Martinoise, Celte excursion en bus est commentee par des guides, qui ont suivi une formation specifique, lis vous feront decouvrir les

3. "Cassave" acrylique sur bois, Penny Slinger. "Cassava" aerylic on wood, Penny Slinger. 4. "Hope Estate" aerylique sur bois,

Penny Slinger.

"Hope Estate" aerylic on wood,

Penny Slinger.

Nous vous souhaitons un agreable sejour et une bonne visite,

maison de la presse FOR ANY INFORMATION,

DO NOT HESITATE TO CONTACT

THE MUSEUM: 0590 -29 22 84

OR ARAWAK TRAIL TOUR: (59 9-5) 24078,

etangs de Great Bay et Grand Case, jadis exploites pour la collecte du sel. les ruines de la sucrerie de 5t jean Bellevue. I'architecture traditionnelle et les anciens villages Arawaks, Lors d'une halte la poterie traditionnelle "The polters", vous serez inities l'Art de la ceramique, tel qu'i! etait pratique

a

a

-.1 4

2. Vue interieure du musee, Inside view of the museum

vue vel'S Ie Lagon de 5impson Bay et la reserve marine de 5t Martin. et apprendrez I'Histoire de la formation des i1es volcaniques de la Caraibe Le tour de I'ile indus une visite du Musee OU vous pourrez admirer les vestiges archeologiques, decouverts depuis les 10 dernieres annees, agre­ mentes de panneaux didactiques en Franc;ais et en Anglais, resumant I'Histoire de 5t Martin

les milieux naturels et les Arts de 5t Martin. Ie Musee a mis en place, avec la collaboration d' un Tour Operator implante dans la plupart des iles de la cara'ibe, un tour Historique de I'ile, que nous

•.n.-.r:_ _

1. Visite de scolaires au musee, Children visiting the museum

Librairie - Papeterie - Cadeaux Presse nationale internationale Deux adresses pour vous servir

a

POUR TOUS RENSElGNEMENTS,

N'HESlTEZ PAS ACONTACTER

LE MUSEE', 0598 -29-22-84

OU ARAWAK TRAIL TOUR: (59 9-5) 24078

par les amerindiens, Vous pourrez aussi decouvrir de superbes paysages sur les points de •

i!6

'),1n

I

rue de la Liberte rue de Hollande Tel: 0590.87.53.23 Tel: 0590.87.53.23 Fax: 0590.87.97.65 Fax: 0590.87.97.65

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Grand Case, worked long ago, for salt gathering.

The Museum of Saint Martlf). "On the trail of the Arawaks". IS already into its second year of existence and has welcomed over ten thousand vIsitors

or the ruins of Ihe sugar mill of St Jean at Bellevue,

and the traditional architecture and ancient Arawak villages. During a pause at the traditional pottery The Potters'. you will be introduced to the Art of ceramics. such as it was practised by the Amerindians. You could also discover superb panoramas from the view points overlooking Simpson Bay and the marine reserve of Saint Martin, and learn' the History of the formation of the volcanic islands of the Caribbean. The island tour includes a visit of the Museum where you will be able to admire the archaeologi­ cal remains discovered within the past ten years, supported by information panels in French and in English summariZing the History of Saint Martin. We wish you an enjoyable stay and a pleasant visit.

P

resenting more than a concentrated sum of information on the History, Archaeology. natural environments and Arts of Saint Martin. the Museum has set up. with the cooperation of a Tour Operator established in most of the Caribbean islands, a Historical tour of the island that we warmly encourage you to experience should you wish to immerse yourself in the patri· mony and culture of Saint Martin. This excursion by bus is commented by guides who have been specifically trained for il. They will enable you to discover the ponds of Great Bay and

:a/ict/Za; ~cz \

For the latest Fashion in Clothing, Shoes, Sunglasses and Accessories. I'~,r-~-

Maleona's Too is situated across from the Guavaberry Company on Front Street

Maleona's other locations are on

Front Street n052, Rue de la liberte in Marigot and on George Hill in Anguilla.

i!8

Fort Louis in Marigot Amonument to visit Un monument it visiter

)Association Archeologique Hope Estate, loin de se contenter de developper la recherche archeologique a Saint Martin, s'est egalement fixe pOUl" objectif : la mise en valeur des ,monuments historiques qui temoignent d'un passe colonial mouvemente et demeurent des lieux extremement pedagogiqLje5, afin 1:l'enseigner aux jeunes leur Histoire. eest ainsi que des 1993, I'asso(:falion a entrepris Pinstallation de panneaux explicatifs au For!. tout en collaborant etroilement avec les unites du servi­ (:€ militaire ada pte (S,MA) de Guadeloupe, pendant les travaux de restauration commences la meme annee. A noti~e demande, Monsieur .Alain Gilbert. techni­ cien des Monuments Historiques a dessine les plansdu magasin a poudre, dans Ie but de proce­ der it Sa restauration. Gra~e it un financement de la DRAC. du Conseil General et de la Commune de Saint Martin, ces tra­ vaux ont ete realises au debut de I'ilnnee 1996 avec Ie concours d'une entreprise de formation, agrMe par l'architecte des Monuments Hisloriques [


I

ForI: Loui!i

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Les panneaux endommages par Ie passage de I"ouragan 'LUIS" ont pu etre repares et un contrat d entretien a ete signe, afin de debroussailler regu­ Iierement Ie monument. Pour finir, une cactusseraie a ete plantee Ie long des marches accedant au Fort, vous y decouvrirez

Objets decouverts par Ie S,MA pendant Ie debroussaillage,

ces plantes adaptees 11 des conditions daridite

Objects discovered by the S,M.A. during the cleaning of the fort,

extremes, dont certaines possedent des vertus cura­ tives,

Appele du S,MA restaurant Ie fort.

Apres la construction de biitiments de defense, if

teet of the Historical Monuments Institute, It was possible to repair the information boards dama­ ged Gil the passage of hurricane" Luis" and a maintenance contract was signed in order to regularly clear the area of the monument of undergro~vth Finally, a cadus selection was planted along the stair­ way going up to the Fort: You will discover these planls acJapwd to conditions of extreme aridity, and some of which possess medicinal vertues. After the construction of defense buildings, it was common to plant groves of racquet cactus or candle cactus around the fortress, to make the enemy:S assaults perilous, The Fort of Marigot is a monument to visit for resi­ dents and visitors alike: it offers a superb 360 degree view on Marigot, Simpson Bay Lagoon and Galisbay An orientation table should be set up there soon. A last minute hint' Go up to the Fort around 5:30 p.m. to admire the sunset on Bluff Point: if youre caught by nightfall. doni worry, the Fort is lit

he Hope Estate Archaeological Association', far from being satisfied with developing archaeological research on Saint Martin, has also set itself the goal of Highlighting the historical monuments which attest of a richly eventful colonial past and remain highly educa­ tional places, in order to teach the young their HistoJY Thus, as early as 1993, the association undertOOK the setting up of information boards at the Fort. whilst clo­ sely cooperating with the adapted military service (SMA) of Guadeloupe during the restoration worKs carried out that same year. At our request, Mr Alain Gilbert, specialist of the Institute of Historical Monuments of France, drew up the plans of the gun powder store, so as to enable us to proceed to its restoration. Thanks to funding by the DRAC ,by the General Council and by the Commune of Saint Martin. these worKs were carried out in the first part of 1996 with the assistance of a training firm approved by the archi­ .

SM.A. soldier restoring the fort.

etait courant de planter des bosquets de cactus raquettes ou de cactus cierges autour de I enceinte, afin de rendre les assauts ennemis perilleux, Le Fort de Marigot est un monument 11 visiter, que vous soyez residents ou de passage, il ofIre une superbe vue 11 360 degres sur fvlarigot. Ie lagon de Simpson Bayet la Baie de la Potence, Une table d'orientation devrait y etre installee pro­ chainement. Un conseil de derniere minute: montez au Fort vers 17H30, pour admirer Ie coucher de soleil sur la pointe du Bluff. si vous etes surpris par la nuit. pas d'inquietude, Ie Fort est eclaire

Les canons du Fort Louis, Fort Louis canons,

AModel of Sophistication

F.W. VI -

N.V.

Longwall Road

Philipsburg • Sint Maarten • Phone: 22 318/23 065 31


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ebruary 10th 1996 will always remain a day of great pride for all the members of the Hope Estate Association and for those who followed and supported their efforts for the highligh­ ting of the Saint Martin patrimony. What better reward could one hope for. to celebrate these seven first years passed in organizing the archaeological research and attracting the attention of the scientific world. at work in the Caribbean The first stamp issued by the French Post Omce. illustrating the island of Saint Martin. bore the emblem of a ceramic figurine discove­ red on the site of Hope Estate (0 detail) During the first day issue. 33 000 stamps were sold to thousands of stamp collectors or residents. lvho thus gave this event the dimension it deserved. Several months of work and patience Ivill have been needed to see this project deve­ loped. and it would certainly not have come to light without the contribution and tenacity of Denis Marchisella, postmaster of the Saint Martin Post Office and Christophe Henocq. curator of the Museum On the trail of the Arawaks In July 1994. [vIr Henocq received a tele­ phone call from Mrs Lajus. of the Marigot

e 10 Fevrier 1996 restera ajamais un jour de grande rierte. pour tous les membres de I'association Hope Estate et pour ceux qui onl suivi et soutenu leurs efforts. pour la mise en valeur du patrimoine SI Martinois. Quelle meilleure recompense. quelle meilleure reconnais­ sance pouvait-on esperer. pour consacrer ces sept premieres annees passees organiser la recherche archeo­ logique et attirer I'attention des milieux scientifiques, oeuvrant dans la Cara·ibe. Le premier timbre edite par la Poste Fran<;aise, mentionnant I'ile de Saint Martin. portait I'embleme d'une figurine en ceramique. decouverte sur Ie site de Hope Estate (voir encadrel Au COUiS de I edition 'premier jour, 33 000 timbres ont ete vendus a des milliers de philatelistes ou de residents. qui ont ainsi donne cet evenement, la dimension qu'il meritait. II aura fallu plusieurs rnois d'attente et de travail, pour voir aboutir ce projet qui n'aurait certainement pas vu Je jour. sans la tenacite et la contribution de Denis Marchisella. rece­ veur de la poste de Saint Martin et Christophe Henocq. conservateur du Musee "Sur la trace des Arawaks", eest en Juillet 1994. que M Henocq re<;oit un appel tele­ phonique de Mme Lajus, de la poste de Marigot. I'informant de la volonte de la Direction Nationale, de publie I' une serie de timbres. dans les differents Departemenls d'Outre Mer Les sujets a caractere culturel ou evenementiels etant privile­ gies. M Marchisella sollicite la contribution de M. Henocq. afin de rediger une proposition pour la direction de la Guadeloupe,

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Post Ofiice. informing him of the will of the National Head of the Post Of{jce to edit a series of stamps in the various French Overseas Territories. The subjects of cultural or factual interest being privileged. Mr Marchisella sollicited the assistance of Mr Henocq to set down a proposal for the Guadeloupe Post Of{jce. ~ The deadline for the file submissions being Mr. Henocq, directeur du Musee, Mr Pichon, sous-prefet set two days later. both gentlemen wrote a et Marchisella, receveur de La Poste.

proposal and agreed to highlight the work Mr. Henocq, Museum director, Mr Pichon, sous-prefet

accomplished by the Hope Estate associa­ and MarC/lise//a, Post office director.

tion. choosing the emblem of the Museum to represent Saint Martin. Eight projects originating from the different post o[{jces of Guadeloupe will remain in competition and that of Saint Martin was preselected during the month of August 1994 As of that moment. the process of the stamp's model was launched. in close cooperation with the national stamp collectors services, By chance. in Seprember 1995. it was learnt that the Departement of Guadeloupe would have its stamp printed before the other Overseas Domains, There would be 8 millions copies printed.

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32

E.B.C.T.

=0"~ T.JIO= ALUMINUIM

Tel: 0590.87.31.41 • Fax: 0590.87.33.43

_ _ _CUI de Sac • St Martin I 33


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These news came just at the right time, since, after the recent bad weather, our island was in great need of promotion and what better means of doing 50 than sending one's mail to the four corners of the world with a stamp illustrating Saint Martin J A small grain of sand nearly jammed the works and almost cancelled the issue of the stamp at the last minute: in January 1996, Mr Marchisella and Mr Henocq met in order to organise the promotion of the stamp edition intended for the month of February and, sur­ prise: the words written on the stamp, the eight millions copies being already printed, were: " Civilization of the Arawaks. Guadeloupe ", Nowhere was mention made of the island of Saint Martin Far from getting discouraged and considering that this was a mat­ ter of " error " due to an ignorance of the local geopolitics. Mr Marchisella and Mr Henocq wrote to the Minister of Transport. of the Post Office and Telecommunications, ensuring they had the support of all the local Governmental representatives and that of the State representatives, who also then addressed a letter to the Minister Mr Franck Viotty, Regional Councilors. Mr Fleming and Mr Weinum, General Councillor, Mr Albert Fleming. Mayor of Saint Martin, Mr Larifla, President of the General Council of Guadeloupe, Mr Romeo Fleming, President of the Tourism Office. Thanks to these interventions, the words "Island of Saint Martin" were added in superimposition, to the great joy of the whole population, proud of finally possessing'its stamp"

Yves Leblet (The potters) devant la reproduction geante du chien

Yves Leblet (The potters) in front of a giant reproduction of the dog.

La date limite de depot des dossiers etant fixee deux joUls plus tard, tous deux redi­ gent une proposition et tombent d'accord, pour mettre en valeur Ie travail accompli par I'association Hope Estate, en choisis­ sant I'embleme du Musee, pour representer Saint Martin, Huit projets issus des differentes postes de Guadeloupe, resteront en lice et cest celui de l'ile de Saint Martin qui sera preselec­ tionne, courant aout 1994. Des lors. va se declencher Ie processus de conception de la maquette du timbre, en collaboration etroite avec Ie service national de la phila­ telie. Par chance, en septembre 1995, on apprend que c'est Ie departement de la

Guadeloupe qui vena son timbre imprime avant les autres D.o.M. Le tirage sera de 8 millions cl'exemplaires, Cette nou­ velle tombe a point. puisquapres les recentes inlemperies, notre ile avail gri1l1dement b('soin de promotion et quel meilleur moyen que d'envoyer son courrier au quatre coins du monde. avec un timbre mentionnant Saini Martin I Un petit grain de sable a bien failli enrayer loute la mecanique Mr Fleming, Maire de 51. Martin recevant Ie timbre. M. Fleming St. Martin Mayor, recieving the stamp.

et [aire annuler la sortie a la derniere minute en Janvier 1996. M Marchisella et Iv! Henocq se rencontrent, afin dorganiser la promotion de I'edition du timbre prevue pour Ie mois de fevrier et, surprise: les mentions inscrites sur Ie timbre dont les 8 mil­ lions d'exemplaires sont deja imprimes. sont : "Civilisation des Arawaks. Guadeloupe" - Nulle part il n'est question de mention­ ner I'ile de Saint Martin Loin de se decourager et considerant qu'il s'agit la d'une 'bavu­ reo due une meconnaissance de la geopolitique locale. M

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Marchisella et M. Henocq ecrivent au Ministre des transports. de la poste et des telecommunications, en sassurant du soutien de differents elus de Saint Martin et des representants de I Etat qui adressent a leur tour. une lettre au Ministre :

Adorno en forme de chien. Hope Estate - 550 Avant J.e. Dog shaped adomo Hope Estate -550 B.G.

M. Viotty Franck, Conseiller Regional. M, Fleming & M. Weinum Conseillers Generaux. M. Fleming Albert, Maire de Saint Martin, M Larifla, President du Conseil General de Guadeloupe, M, Fleming Romeo, President de l'Office du Tourisme. Grace ces interventions. la mention ile de Saint Martin rut ajoutee en surimpression, a la grande joie de la population toute entiere, [iere de posseder enfinson timbre".

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Le sujet du timbre est une figurine en cera­ mique, decouverte par Jay Haviser, sur Ie site archeologique precolombien de Hope Estate. Ce gisement a fait I objet de recherches menees par l'Association Archeologique Hope Estate depuis 1993 et possede la particularite de renfermer les ceramiques les plus anciennes jamais mises au jour dans tout I'arc des Petites Antilles. Cette figurine de la periode "Huecolde" est un modelage en forme de chien qui est par ailleurs Ie logo du Musee "Sur la trace des Arawaks'·. Nous savons, d'apres les recherches enta­ mees sur Ie site, que Ie chien etait a I'epoque precolombienne, Ie plus grand mammifere terrestre, rencontre dans les Petites Antilles. II avait ete importe par les amerindiens, ancetres des Arawaks, qui avaient navigue it bord de pirogues, en remontant I'arc Antillais, a partir des cotes d'Amerique du Sud. C'etait un animal de compagnie qui avait droit a des egards particuliers. pUisque des sepultures de chiens ont ete decouvertes associees a une necropole humaine, sur Ie site de Hope Estate II faisait egalement par­ tie des symboles mythiques de ces populations qui Ie representaient sous forme de modelages sur ceramiques, ou de sculp­ tures sur bois, pierre ou coquillage. Une datation au carbone 14 effeetuee sur un charbon de bois trouve a proximite de la figurine decouverte a Hope Estate a donne un age de 550 ans avant Jesus Christ. II s'agit de la plus ancienne datation obtenue pour des ceramiques, dans tout I'arc Antillais, ce qui fait du gisement de Hope Estate, I'un des plus impoliants. pour I'etude des premiers villages d'agriculteurs poliers, installes dans les iles de la Caralbes.

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The object of the stamp is a ceramic figurine discovered, by Jay Haviser, on the precolum­ bian, archaeological site of Hope Estate. This site was the subject of research by the Hope Estate Archaeological Association since 1993 and has the distintive characteristic of contai­ ning the most ancient ceramic ware ever unearthed in aff the arc of the Lesser Antiffes. This figurine. of the "Huecoid" period. is a sculpture in the shape of a dog and it is also the logo of the Museum 'On the trail of the Arawaks'·. We know, from the research started on the site, that the dog was. in the precolumbian era, the largest terrestrial mammal to be met in the Lesser Antilles. It had been imported by the Amerindians, ancestors of the Arawaks.

36

E

who had navigated aboard caneES, going upwards along the Antiffean arc. from the coasts of South America The dog was a pet that had a right 10 special consideration, since dog 'graves were discovered. associated to a human gra­ veyard. on the Hope Estate site. The dog was also part of the mythical symbols of these popula­ tions. who represented it in the form of ceramic sculptures. or wood. stone or sheff sculptures. A Carbon 14 dating. carried out Oil a piece of wood coal found near the figurine discovered at Hope Estate. has set an age registered at approximately 550 years B.C. This is the most ancient age date recorded for ceramics in aff the Antiffean arc, which makes the Hope Estate site one of the most important ones for the study of the first viffages of pottery farmers settled in the Caribbean islands.

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Marigot, Saint Martin

97150 FW,I.

Lun. a Sam. 9h a 19h30

Mon. to Sat. 9AM to 7:30PM

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Marigot, Saint Martin

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Lun. aSam. 9h a 19h30

Mon. to Sat. 9AM to 7:30PM

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37


DES DEPOTS DE FOUILLE

REMISANEUF

EXCAVATION DEPOSITORY om me vous I'aurez constate, si vous suivez les travaux de I'association, cette annee aura marquee par une interruption de nos recherches archeologiques, puisque notre cam­ pagne de fouilles a dO etre annulee a la derniere minute, suite au passage des ouragans "LUIS" et "MARILYN'. Bien que les sites archeologiques n'aient pas trop soullert de I' erosion naturelle. nous avons eu a deplorer des degiHs importants. au niveau des depots de fouille de I'association. Ces depots situes pres de la carriere de Grand Case abritent des centaines de kilo de materiel issus des fouilles (poteries, outils en pierre, coquillages, ossements, ... etc.) conditionnes dans des sacs en plastique. eux-memes stockes dans des caisses en carton. Les toitures des deux depots s-etant envolees. nous avons decouvert au lendemain du cyclone. des car­ tons detrempes, un sol jonche de feuilles et de branches et avons dO, dans un premier temps. reconstruire charpenfes et toitures. Nous avons ensuite procede au nettoyage des depOts, en constatant qu'il n'y avait pas eu de perte de materiel archeologique. Apres deux mois de travaux, Corinne Pecot, membre active de I'association a procede au sechage, au recondition­ nement et a I'etiquetage du materiel inonde. Parallelement, I' association a achete 200 boites en plastique. pour rem placer celles en carton et s'assurer qu'a I'avenir. Ie materiel sera conserve dans un lieu etanche. Profitant de la remise en etat des depots de fouille. Corinne a realise un inventai­

C ete

s you will have gathered. if you follow the association's works. this year will have been marked by an interruption in our archaeologi­ cal research, since our excavation campaign had to be canceled at the last minute. due to the passage of ihe hurricanes "LUIS" andMARlU/N". Though the archaeological sile.~ (liLl not suffer too much from nalurel! ero­ sion, we had the regret of registering important damages to the associa­ tion's excavated artifacts These stores, located near the Grand Case quarry. shelter hundreds of kilos of material coming from the excavations (potteries. stone tools, shells, bones. ... etc.) packed in plas­ tic bags, themselves stocked in cardboard boxes.

A

Mobilier arcMologique apres lavage. Archaeological artifacts after cleaning.

Corinne Pecot devant Ie depot de fouilles. Corinne Pecot in front of the depository.

Destine a faire partager au lecteur notre culture,

Dedicated to shuring our culture with the reader, re detaille de tout Ie materiel archeologique. gere par I'association. Ce travail de patience s'est etale du mois d'octobre 95 au mois de juin 96. Au COUI'S de I'inventaire. un premier tri a ete efiec­ tue sur Ie mobilier archeologique. ce qui permettra un gain de temps considerable. pour les etudes futures.

38

DISCOVER

DISCOVER

ST. MARTfN • ST. MMRTEN offers an unexpectedly intimate view of our island, that charms as well as educates.

ST. MARTIN • ST. MMRTEN offre une vision intime et inattendue de notre lie, pour seduire autant que pour instruire.

39


Apres 6 mois, "inventaire du depot

de fouiDes de I' A.A.H.E. a livre

After the 6 months inventory, the AAH.E. excavation depositories showed

I 400 kg

­

Le materiel recondilionne en boites plastiques.

shells

coqllill~ges

1200 kg

stones

Des centaines de kilos de coquillages ont ete emballes.

570 kg

pottery

Hundreds kilos ofshells have been packed.

50 kg

coral

100 kg 20 kg

crab animal bones

14 kg

human bones

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The rooves of the two stores having been blown off

by the wind. we discovered after the hurricane that

the cardboard boxes were soaked and that the soil

was sterwn with leaves and branches. First of all, we

HOTEL rebuild the framework and roofing. i i We then proceeded to the cleaning of the stocks, noticing there had not been any loss of archaeologi­ cal material After two months of work, Corinne Pecot, an active member of the association. proceeded to the drying, packing a new and labelling of the flooded material At the same time, the association had bought 200 plastic boxes to replace those made of cardboard in order to ensure that, in the future, the material would be preserved in a waterproof place. Taking L'ESPLANADE advantage of the cleaning up of the excavation CARAIBE stocks, Corinne carried out a detailed inventory of all the archaeological material managed by the '////' ~/ h/);;;r' . );;Y///;/ association. During the inventory. a first classification of the II'/'/( .fl//ji//!., iV//v;; archaeological properly was carried out. constituting ./i/. "';7/. '/ /0.;/ ./'1/.' h//. '/:/:/ //' considerable progress made for future research

40

~

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EV

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B.P. 1144 MARIGOT

SAINT MARTIN 97150

TEL (0590) 87 13 60

FAX (0590) 87 13 59

TLX 919161


BULLETIN AAHE 1996