Page 1

Filter maintenance 101 p. 44

Getting a grip with pneumatics p. 52

FPTC debuts in Cleveland November 18-20 p. 58

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October 2019

Advanced hydraulics powers forest-friendly machine PAGE 36

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FluidLines Mary C. Gannon • Editor

Are we 10 years away from driverless cities?

No Kinks No Hose Twisting

At the NFPA IEOC in August, I had the chance to hear John Ellis speak on Transportation 2.0. Ellis is a developer who has worked with some of the biggest names in tech and automotive — with names like Motorola, Ford, Apple CarPlay, Android Auto, SAE, Linux and Open Source just being a few he can credit to his resume. In his talk, he said that the sharing economy and the need to create more fuelefficient, environmentally responsible vehicles will soon transform us into a driverless society — that by 2030 we will have entered Transportation 2.0., with major cities being fully autonomous by 2040 with driverless electric vehicles. In these cities, Ellis proposed, human-driven cars will not exist nor would they be allowed on the road there. Ellis also said that one of the big drivers is, and should be, continuing research into this technology on trucking fleets. Here, he said, you’d see huge fleets of trucks — perhaps 30 or 60 in a group — automated for delivery across the country. There’s no doubt in my mind that this man knows the auto and tech industry. But when he says that we’re just a little over a decade away from almost driverless cities, it gives me pause. For one thing, there are too many questions related to how you’d convert the technology from traditional to driverless. If, as he said, a major metropolitan area is fully autonomous but the outlying suburbs and rural areas are not, how does one deal with those vehicles driven by a human and vice versa? Would there be technology to deactivate those traditional vehicles from entering the city? Or gates that lock them out? Auto manufacturers and innovators like Tesla are hard at work on the automotive technology but it doesn’t seem like anyone’s talking in-depth about the infrastructure. As for the fleet technology, that’s all well and good but there exist questions on whether autonomous and human-driven vehicles should be on the roadway together. Traditional drivers are often unpredictable and often to blame in collisions with autonomous vehicles. Perhaps we in the U.S. need to invest in high-speed rail for these fleets. To me, fleets of 30 or 60 trailers traveling at high-speed sound like a better fit for a high-speed rail system than for highway travel. Don’t get me wrong — I believe we will have an autonomous vehicle system in the near future but 10 years seems like a daunting task without the infrastructure. Fluid power companies will see great potential in the building of that infrastructure and the manufacture of those cars, however. So while it may not be 10 years out, it’s wise we start planning for this economy now and for how we can be the leaders in it.

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From the Field

The fascinating future of mobile hydraulics At this Spring’s Fluid Power Technology Conference in

Milwaukee, three panelists from major OEMs discussed the future of mobile hydraulics, and what changes designers can expect to see in the coming years. Sitting on the panel were Gary Dostal, Manager – Mechanical Engineering, Komatsu Mining Corp.; Greg Downs, Senior Principal Engineer, Zoomlion Heavy Industry NA Inc.; and Gary Kassen, Engineering Director for Hydraulics and Pneumatics, CNH Industrial. One of the issues that has come up with mobile hydraulics for decades is whether electric actuation technology is a threat sitting somewhere out on the horizon. But Downs said that there’s still a ton of hydraulics on these large off-highway machines, and engineers should instead focus on electrical integration with hydraulics, which is actually a good thing. “There’s a lot of electronic controls on these machines,” he said. “I’ve been pushing to use more of the electric joysticks so that we can program and eventually get to where we can automate certain functions — for example, have automatic brake control for our excavators. There are different ways of doing that. You can assist for the operator and even have automated preprogram functions — and that’s the kind of direction I want to go. Eventually, you’ll be able to take a 3D model of what you want your landscape to look like, your grade or ditch or whatever, and program that in. And the excavator would automatically dig that profile.” Kassen explained that he doesn’t see any nearterm threat from electrics. “It’s going to be very hard in the next 10 years to displace hydraulics completely,” he said. “I do think there’s opportunity for electrification and I think it adds value to the hydraulics. If you can decouple the hydraulics from the engine, there’s a big opportunity for efficiency improvement and electric motors can provide that decoupling. You can also distribute your hydraulics. So, you’re not using a single pump to run all your functions. You can have multiple functions, multiple pumps around those questions.” 4

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The IoT and mobile hydraulics According to Downs, a lot of diagnostics are moving to the cloud. He is seeing a lot of interest from rental fleets, where people want to know where their equipment is, and even be able to turn machines on remotely. “The biggest problem is, is keeping it secure so they can’t be hacked,” Downs said. “I can envision a machine center where they are not only working with single pieces of equipment, but equipment is working in concert with one another, maybe an excavator and a dozer are working together. We’re not quite there yet.” “I would say the big opportunity is improving reliability,” Kassen added. “The last thing our customers want is not to be able to get their work done. If we can, as an industry, tell them when their pump is going to fail or a hose is going to fail, that they can do preemptive maintenance so they’re not going to have downtime when they need the machine. I think that’s a big opportunity for our industry. Dostal agreed that reliability is a key gain to be had from the integration of the IoT and hydraulics. “The preemptive or predictive maintenance is pretty important. In the mining industry, especially when you’re working with some of the surface equipment, they try to schedule downtime,” he said.

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From the Field (continued from page 4)

Dostal said that if a mine wants to do repair on a shovel, for instance, it’s better to know when a component such as a pump needs attention, so as to maximize downtime of the machine. Too complicated to repair? There have been stories in the press lately about farmers complaining that machinery is getting so complicated that they’re unable to troubleshoot themselves in the field. With some OEMs, only authorized repair people are allowed to work on the machine, otherwise voiding the warranty. And it is sometimes half a day or more before a technician might make it out to the field — an eternity when a farmer is trying to harvest in between periods of bad weather. Downs noted that when he was growing up, he used to work on cars a lot. “We’d build an engine and we didn’t have to have a PhD to do it — but you can’t do that anymore. The reason is because they have cars that are more reliable and a better quality. You give up simplicity for the complexity, because they are better performing, more efficient,” he said. “Several years ago, I was talking to a farmer about his combine harvester,” Downs said. “He explained how he could work on it during his harvest, when the machines had a lot of belts and chains and mechanical drives. But I told him that he’d been asking for much higher productivity, more speed, bigger grain tanks, longer seasons. All of these things mean more efficiency. So, you give up some of that ease of maintenance for systems that are much more complex but also simplified in that your software diagnoses issues. In order to get the higher production, the higher efficiencies, that’s what you give up. The days of being a shadetree mechanic, going out and changing out things, is becoming less and less.” Kassen agreed that the machines are getting a lot more complicated, but he thinks that’s also an opportunity to use the intelligence on the vehicles to selfdiagnose what the problem is. “Instead of a see-a-leak or hear-a-noise problem, with electronics, you can’t see what the problem is. So, we have to have the intelligence built into the vehicle so they can self-diagnose what’s wrong. We can also get insights into what areas of reliability might be more important to focus on, such as contamination, control, leakage, or fatigue,” he said. Downs thinks predictability is the next big thing on the horizon. “We’re already fighting to achieve it,” he said. “About 80% of failures are caused by contamination, but there’s really no reason that should be a problem today, with the filtration systems that we have and the standards we have.” Downs said that with more and more sensors, he sees a day soon where so much data is gathered and analyzed that machines will get to the point where the software can start predicting failures — and even schedule planned maintenance using that data. FPW

PEOPLE, PASSION & SOLUTIONS

Paul J. Heney

VP, Editorial Director pheney@wtwhmedia.com

On Twitter @DW_Editor 6

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OCTOBER 2019 C ontents |

vol 6 no 6

|

fluidpowerworld.com

10

2019

F E AT U R E S MOBILE HYDRAULICS Advanced hydraulics powers forest-friendly machine Forwarder2020 project focuses on efficiency and stainability.

INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULICS

Filter maintenance 101 Setting planned and intelligent filter maintenance programs can reduce downtime, increase efficiency and usher your hydraulic systems into the IoT future.

PNEUMATICS

Getting a grip with pneumatics Grippers are a common and useful way for machines to handle product and other items, but they must be properly selected to match the payload.

SHOW PREVIEWS

The Fluid Power Technology Conference debuts in Cleveland The event exclusively dedicated to fluid power technology will be held at Cleveland State University’s Wolstein Center November 19 and 20, with a pre-conference day November 18.

36 44 52

D E PA R T M E N T S

02 FluidLines 04 From The Field 12 Korane’s Outlook

58

14 Association Watch 18 Design Notes 28 Fundamentals 30 Training 32 Safety 34 Energy Efficiency 62 Products 71 Component Focus 72 Ad Index

A Z B E E S A S B P E Aw a r d s o f E x c e l l e n c e

2019

ON THE COVER

Next-generation forestry machines aim to balance productivity and sustainability and embrace Industry 4.0 concepts.

8

| courtesy of Hohenloher SpezialMaschinenbau GmbH

FLUID POWER WORLD

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Editor Mary Gannon mgannon@wtwhmedia.com @dw_marygannon

Senior Digital Marketing Strategist Mike Ulanski mulanski@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_mike

Contributing Editor Ken Korane kkorane@wtwhmedia.com @fpw_kenkorane

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Associate Editor Mike Santora msantora@wtwhmedia.com @dw_mikesantora

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Contributing Editor Josh Cosford @FluidPowerTips Contributing Editor Carl Dyke @carlindustry CREATIVE SERVICES

www.MAINmfg.com/flg Phone: 800.521.7918 info@MAINmfg.com Grand Blanc, MI USA

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FLUID POWER WORLD does not pass judgment on subjects of controversy nor enter into dispute with or between any individuals or organizations. FLUID POWER WORLD is also an independent forum for the expression of opinions relevant to industry issues. Letters to the editor and by-lined articles express the views of the author and not necessarily of the publisher or the publication. Every effort is made to provide accurate information; however, publisher assumes no responsibility for accuracy of submitted advertising and editorial information. Non-commissioned articles and news releases cannot be acknowledged. Unsolicited materials cannot be returned nor will this organization assume responsibility for their care. FLUID POWER WORLD does not endorse any products, programs or services of advertisers or editorial contributors. Copyright© 2019 by WTWH Media, LLC. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, or by recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: Free and controlled circulation to qualified subscribers. Non-qualified persons may subscribe at the following rates: U.S. and possessions: 1 year: $125; 2 years: $200; 3 years: $275; Canadian and foreign, 1 year: $195; only US funds are accepted. Single copies $15 each. Subscriptions are prepaid, and check or money orders only. SUBSCRIBER SERVICES: To order a subscription please visit our web site at www.fluidpowerworld.com FLUID POWER WORLD (ISSN 2375-3641) is published seven times a year: in February, April, May, June, August, October, and December by WTWH Media, LLC; 1111 Superior Ave., Suite 2600, Cleveland, Ohio 44114. Periodicals postage paid at Cleveland, OH & additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Fluid Power World, 1111 Superior Ave., Suite 2600, Cleveland, OH 44114

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Ko ra n e ’s O u t L o o k Ken Korane • Contributing Editor

Thoughts on fluid power’s DNA Genetic testing has grown into a multi-billion dollar industry because it offers insight into your ancestry and, potentially, your future health. Likewise, it helps to understand fluid power’s DNA. In a recent keynote at the 16th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Peter Achten of INNAS offered a thought-provoking presentation, “Fluid power genes and memes.” Genes determine physical characteristics, he explained, whereas memes — often used by internet trolls, but also in marketing and journalism — are deep-rooted ideas that influence behavior. Both apply to fluid power. “The quintessence of hydraulics is the fluid,” said Achten. Fluid transmits and controls power, can store energy, transport heat and carry debris to a filter. It lets us make robust and flexible machines with unparalleled power, force and torque density. The characteristics of fluids also define the “genes” of hydraulic systems, he continued. We have to accept that fluids are compressible and have viscosity that can vary with temperature and pressure, and our components always exhibit some internal leakage. But what about assumptions that our systems have high power losses, are expensive and, finally, our industry is extremely conservative and lacks innovation? “These are all memes,” said Achten. Take efficiency. Pumps and motors often run at efficiencies below 70%. And losses in pumps and motors are peanuts compared to losses in valves, which simply control by means of energy dissipation. But that doesn’t mean inefficiency is inherent to hydraulic systems and there is nothing we can do about it. “There is no physical law, such as Carnot’s law for heat engines, that tells us that we have to accept high losses,” he said. There is no silver bullet, not just one single innovation which will suddenly make hydraulics systems efficient, he emphasized. We need a whole range of alternatives. Some promising developments include independent metering, digital-displacement pumps, and floating-cup pumps and motors that have negligible friction forces. 12

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And valve control needs to be replaced by distributed control systems, he said. One option is electric power distribution using electrohydraulic actuators, sometimes referred to as zonal hydraulics. Another is hydraulic power distribution via common pressure rail which, in part, relies on accumulators and hydraulic transformers. Both need further development to meet market demands for accuracy and high dynamic performance. But compared to conventional valve control, losses can be reduced by nearly 90%. Such systems can also enable modular designs, highervolume production and enormous cost-saving potential, to negate the meme of hydraulics being pricier than comparable powertransmission systems. But most important, said Achten, is the meme that change isn’t possible. “We have no choice, we need to design new hydraulic systems and components based on electric and hydraulic power distribution with a clear emphasis on reduced power losses, reduced costs and improved controllability. Our future lies in a dynamic, distributed control systems with more-efficient components and modules having their own individual force and position control.” This is where we should focus, he said, simply because industry demands it. “If we don’t innovate, then the market will find another way without us.” Hydraulic systems have specific characteristics that differentiate them from mechanical and electric systems. We have to accept these and use them to our benefit, he said. If we can achieve this renaissance of fluid power technology then hydraulics, currently a niche market, has an enormous growth potential. FPW

Learn more at www.fluidpowerworld.com/fluid-powergenes-and-memes

www.fluidpowerworldonline.com

10/15/19 11:31 AM


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ASSOCIATION WATCH

Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Meet a Fluid Power Scholarship winner — Rebekah Clark The NFPA Education and Technology Foundation

has awarded $2,000 scholarships to students pursuing fluid power technology fields of study. One of the winners is Rebekah Clark. She is attending Spokane Community College in Spokane, Washington and is enrolled in the Hydraulic and Pneumatic Automation Technology program. The NFPA asked Rebekah about winning the scholarship. What does winning a Fluid Power Scholarship mean to you? Being awarded this Fluid Power Scholarship was such a great honor! Besides the program I’m enrolled in, this scholarship has been my first interaction with the fluid power community. I’m excited to graduate and join an industry that gives back to the students entering the workforce. Why did you choose to learn about fluid power? I chose to learn about fluid power after touring the program. Throughout the tour and my first quarter in the program, I had an epiphany, realizing I’d found a career I could excel at and truly enjoy. Math is my favorite and strongest subject, and problem solving is always satisfying and rewarding, so having the opportunity to do those things for a living has me so eager to watch my future unfold. The prospect of choice in this field coupled with the opportunity for success has been the most enticing part of this program. What are your career aspirations? What type of fluid power job do you hope to get after you graduate? I envision myself working full-time in a career that is challenging yet enjoyable. I want to feel accomplished and proud of myself at the end of my work projects. I would love to work with an engineer and assist in designing hydraulic equipment.

Rebekah Clark, one of the winners of the NFPA Education and Technology Foundation scholarships. She is studying Hydraulic and Pneumatic Automation Technology at Spokane Community College.

The Foundation’s goal is to help individuals enrolled in high schools, technical colleges, and engineering schools pursue their interests in fluid power. For further information about the Fluid Power Scholarship program, contact Amy Zignego, Workforce Program Manager, at azignego@nfpa.com. FPW

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ASSOCIATION WATCH

IF YOU USE HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

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IFPE 2020 is set to provide exhibitors and attendees alike countless opportunities to learn about what’s new and what’s coming soon in fluid power technology. The floor plan is already filled to the brim with more than 400 industry-leading companies ready to showcase their latest and most efficient fluid power solutions, plus more companies are on the wait list hoping to pick up a spot at the show. Industrial hydraulic, mobile hydraulic, and pneumatic solutions will all be represented. There will also be more than 170 education sessions available at the show plus two innovative education tracks specific to fluid power: Hydraulics and Pneumatics at Work and The Business of Fluid Power. Whether coming to the show to staff one of the 400-plus booths or as a show attendee, early bird registration ends January 17, 2020. Visit IFPE.com to learn more and plan your time at the show.

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SECURE Metal-To-Metal SEALING

ASSOCIATION WATCH

NFPA Launches Power Partner program NFPA has launched its new Power Partner program, an annual recognition program designed to showcase a university that actively participates in all NFPA fluid power educational programs. With the help of NFPA members, resources for university faculty have been developed to support fluid power education growth at their institutions.

Expander Plugs • Flow Restrictors With over 5 billion parts installed and failure rates <1 PPM, SFC KOENIG is recognized as the leader in sealing and flow control. Our proven technology features a serrated expansion sleeve, safely sealing drilled holes with leak-proof reliability, and no need for threads or chemical compounds. Ideal for any application, including thin-wall and deep-hole geometries, our contaminant-free installation processes prevent damage and deformation in safety-critical systems. Customers rely on SFC KOENIG solutions for unmatched security, reliability and performance.

The major objective for this program is to increase the amount of fluid power being taught in university mechanical engineering degree programs and to enhance faculty to industry connections. The program will also help support, recognize and promote its educator partners to the NFPA membership. To be considered as a Power Partner, the university must: • • • • •

Participate in the Speaker’s Bureau program Participate in the Fluid Power Vehicle Challenge Have a Fluid Power Club Host a “Meet the Students” industry connection event Teach the nine core fluid power competencies

With this recognition, NFPA will: •

Promote the university’s fluid power programs and initiatives to all 330-plus NFPA members through the website and featured articles within the NFPA web community Help connect its members to the university’s “Meet the Students” event where students learn about careers in fluid power and meet face-to-face with industry executives and HR professionals Provide complimentary registrations for two university faculty members to attend both the NFPA Annual Meeting and the IEOC

All of these programs come with either financial, educational or staff support from NFPA. FPW

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Contact our engineering team to review your application and request samples.

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DESIGN NOTES

Ken Korane • Contributing Editor

The filters come in many versions to suit wide-ranging applications and can be retrofitted without the need to modify the hydraulic system.

Adsorber filters protect against harmful condensation Water in the oil is a serious issue for many hydraulic systems, because it can lead to increased wear and leakage. Adsorber filters which prevent moisture ingress via the tank breather system provide a remedy, according to engineers at HansaFlex, Bremen, Germany. Unfortunately, although these filters can prevent serious damage and high costs, few systems are equipped with them. Operators often mistakenly assume that they don’t need protection against condensation, explained company officials. The fact is, if there is too much water in hydraulic oil, the system is subjected to a number of negative factors: condensation in the oil tank leads to premature aging, for example through hydrolysis. In addition, water attacks metallic surfaces and releases particles 18

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that can damage hoses and other components. Seals can also swell or shrink on contact with water and, in turn, permit leaks. Shorter maintenance intervals, high repair requirements and longer downtimes are the result. Water can enter a hydraulic system in various ways. New oil, for example, may have a higher-than-recommended water content. Moisture can also enter the system through the rod seals of a cylinder. But what many people don’t realize is that the most common entry point

www.fluidpowerworld.com

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DESIGN NOTES

is ventilation. Air can hold a sizeable amount of water vapor and it is sucked directly into the tank via the ventilation filter or breather. When the air cools, the moisture it contains condenses on tank surfaces. And because the so-called “dew point temperature” at high humidity is close to the initial temperature, even a slight drop in temperature in the tank is sufficient for condensation to form on the walls and cover. Such temperature fluctuations are a daily occurrence in some systems. The dangerous result quickly becomes visible in the form of droplets and rust.

Adsorber filters are the answer

Adsorber filters can close the access point for moisture that enters the oil via the ventilation system. They are installed on a tank and replace the conventional ventilation filter. Air is drawn in through the cylindrical adsorber filter. Any moisture is absorbed by the silica gel drying agent and bound by its dry granulate. In addition, the integrated 3 µm filter element removes all harmful particles and is the last element before air flows into the tank. The resulting relative humidity is a mere 10%. This lowers the dew point temperature to such an extent that there is no condensation in the tank even with significant temperature fluctuations. The silica gel has another practical feature: when saturated, it changes color from orange to green — starting at the bottom of the adsorber filter. When the color changes from the top, moisture is absorbed from the inside of the tank and the unit achieves effective dehumidification. If the entire adsorber filter is green, it has reached its maximum capacity and must be replaced. A regular visual inspection of the filter is therefore sufficient to ensure that it functions correctly. Adsorber filters also have the advantage that they can be retrofitted without the need to modify the hydraulic system. The work merely requires dismantling the ventilation filter and installing the adsorber filter.

Recommended applications

Adsorber filters protect hydraulic systems from condensation damage, extend maintenance intervals and reduce the risk of unplanned downtime. However, not all systems require dehumidifiers. The environmental conditions are the deciding factor: the warmer the ambient air, the more water it can absorb and then release when it cools in the hydraulic system. Wherever things get hot — for example in tire and roll-material production facilities or foundries — the risk of water damage increases. The same applies to environments with high relative humidity such as lock drive mechanisms on canals, sewage treatment systems, hydraulic tanks on ships or hydraulic systems in hydroelectric power stations. This is because even small temperature fluctuations are sufficient to trigger condensation. Regardless of relative humidity and high ambient temperature, strong temperature fluctuations present the greatest potential for damage. If a system is regularly exposed

Adsorber filters from HANSA-FLEX keep water vapor out of hydraulic tanks. Silica gel absorbs moisture and the filter changes color to indicate it has reached maximum capacity.

to a temperature difference of 10° C (18° F) or more, condensation will inevitably occur in the hydraulic tank. Particular care must also be taken when using organic oils. These biodegradable fluids have a strong waterattracting (hygroscopic) effect and therefore absorb humidity from the air via their surface even without condensation. The use of an adsorber filter on hydraulic tanks with organic oil is therefore highly recommended. HANSA-FLEX offers adsorber filters to suit many different systems. These range from inexpensive disposable filters, to refillable adsorber filters with valves for long maintenance intervals, to special designs that meet ATEX 2014 specs or comply with other industry and government regulations. The optimal solution depends on many different factors. HANSAFLEX application engineers have, thus, developed a checklist for determining the correct adsorber filter. Numerous components are also available for mounting the filters, including flange adapters, wall brackets, adapters for the simultaneous operation of secondary filter systems and oil-droplet separators. FPW

HANSA-FLEX | hansaflexusa.com

www.fluidpowerworld.com  

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DESIGN NOTES

Edited by Mary C. Gannon • Editor

Pneumatic valve ensures noise-free, discreet breast pump design

The breast pump’s last significant redesign was in 1956, the year Elvis Presley released his first single. That changed in 2015 when, while on vacation, Samantha Rudolph read The New York Times blog article that asked, “Shouldn’t the breast pump be as elegant as an iPhone and as quiet as a Prius by now?” Although she and husband Jared Miller hadn’t yet started a family, she imagined the discomfort of being hooked up to a noisy and unwieldy machine. Miller recounted that she turned to him and said, “Women deserve so much better than this.” The couple worked nights and weekends to develop a new design. Rudolph, who was working as an executive consultant, read medical literature and interviewed moms to pinpoint what would make the pumping experience significantly better. She and Miller, an electrical and systems engineer, designed a prototype that eliminated the device’s hallmark bulky bottle attachments and loud noises so women could pump discreetly, quietly and comfortably. A key component that enabled the new product, called The Pump by Babyation, is a pair of valves that controls the vacuum 20

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Emerson ASCO series RB miniature valve, which the manufacturer customized for Babyation

function. Solenoid valves on older breast pumps are noisy; the couple realized that in order to fundamentally change the pumping experience they needed to find a silent valve.

Pumping new life into an old design

Sourcing a valve proved to be a challenge. For its initial trials, Missouri-based Babyation experimented with a wide variety of valves from several domestic and international sources. Some valves were too loud, others too expensive and some didn’t meet the need for a long life cycle. Then Miller reached out to Emerson’s ASCO medical team to solve the start-up’s dilemma.

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DESIGN NOTES

Powered by Emerson ASCO valves, The Pump by Babyation is quiet and discreet, allowing women to pump in places they might have avoided with traditional pump designs.

“We understood how important it was for Babyation to source a silent valve — without delaying its tight production timeline,” Emerson Business Development Manager David Wyandt said. The Emerson team recommended series RB miniature valves, which offer a compact, lightweight design suitable for portable medical devices. The series RB valves are typically used in applications like respiratory therapy instruments, patient monitoring equipment, compression therapy (DVT), and robotic pharmacy dispensing — just to name a few. Miller noted the series RB met the company’s specs for cycle life, a feature some competitors couldn’t match. It’s rated up to 10 million cycles, a lifespan that well exceeded The Pump’s needs. “We didn’t want a product that had a limited shelf life. We’re building a premium product. We didn’t want to worry about failures in the early stage, so we wanted something that was well oversized for the life cycle,” Miller said.

The valve’s small footprint also allowed Babyation to incorporate it without altering the device’s housing. The result was a consumer-friendly product weighing under 5 lb, about the size of a small purse. Despite its compact size, Emerson’s valve solution provides a high flow rate — up to 4 lpm — needed to pump efficiently. In addition, it consumes less than 1 W, preserving the product’s battery life. Emerson’s solution proved more costeffective than competitors’ valves as well, allowing the startup to develop a premium product designated as a Class II medical device while keeping costs in check.

Collaborating to build a product that delivers

Babyation’s aspiration to create a reimagined pumping experience also weighed heavily on discreetness. The startup approached Emerson about making the valve component quieter — a task that had to be done quickly to accommodate Babyation’s tight manufacturing schedule. www.fluidpowerworld.com  

DESIGN NOTES 10-19_FPW_V3.indd 21

The teams collaborated in what Miller described as a “joint engineering” project. They quickly modified the series RB valve so it operated much more quietly, creating an engineered solution that solved one of the biggest problems in conventional breast pump design. “Emerson has provided fast turnaround support every step of the way. They were always able to very quickly go to the lab, get those prototype parts built to allow us to iterate through our design and find the exact combination of specs,” Miller said. He noted that Emerson also worked with his team to optimize the valve’s placement, keeping noise levels as low as possible.

The results

“The team at Emerson was instrumental in bringing to bear their resources to look at the construction of the valve that met our flows best, including looking at how they might be able to make a quieter version that fit our specs,” Miller said. 10 • 2019

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DESIGN NOTES

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Production of The Pump will continue to scale up, with its official launch scheduled for the near future. Miller says Babyation will continue to partner with Emerson to tweak and optimize the valve for current and future versions of the product. Most importantly, the product has earned a seal of approval from Rudolph and Miller’s young son Odin, their company’s CBO—Chief Baby Officer. FPW

Emerson | emerson.com/en-us/automation/asco

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DESIGN NOTES

Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

New hydraulic power units help machine tool builder

Southern California Edison assessing the new GHP power unit.

When Advanced Structural Technology (AST) in Oxnard, Calif., approached MJC Engineering (MJC) to replace a spindle-drive on an existing machine, Carl Lorentzen, President of MJC, noticed another issue as well. The outdated hydraulic power unit (HPU) powering the machine — a 30-plus year old conventional 75-kW power pack — was greatly hindering performance as well. Lorentzen recommended a new technology using a variable speed drive equipped HPU by his recently established company, Green Hydraulic Power Inc. (GHP). AST is a manufacturer of forged and spin/flow formed products for the automotive, defense, aerospace and alternative energy markets utilizing high powered hydraulic machines. 24

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MJC is a custom machine tool builder in Huntington Beach, Calif., specializing in metal-spinning machines for such applications as sheet spinning, flow forming, wheel spinning, and rotary forging. The company’s machines are found worldwide, producing end products such as car wheels, aircraft engine housings, spacecraft fuel tanks, seamless gas cylinders and more. MJC machines typically use a large volume of hydraulic power in operation. MJC created a turnkey solution that includes system integration, engineering, software technology, and programming under the Green Hydraulic Power (GHP) label. The system incorporates a variable speed drive powering an internal-gear hydraulic pump. GHP claims up to 80% energy savings over conventional hydraulic systems, as well as noise reduction by 20

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DESIGN NOTES

dBA, less heat generation, lower cooling requirements, less oil volume, and a smaller footprint. AST expressed an interest in having a new system quoted. GHP proceeded with configuring a new power pack by downsizing the motor from 75 to 45 kW — pumps and motors in conventional hydraulic power units often are oversized to meet maximum duty-cycle demands. By contrast, a variable-frequency drive or servo drive can manage an electric motor’s operating torque and speed more efficiently. Instead of running continuously at full speed, the motor rotates only fast enough to meet system demand at any given time. AST accepted the proposal and GHP proceeded to build the new HPU. Soren Rasmussen of GHP had been working with Southern California Edison (SCE) to establish a Installing the new solution code for this technology — the AST unit was an GHP power pack. opportunity to have SCE compare conventional HPUs with VSD equipped HPUs. SCE installed equipment on the existing conventional HPU, leaving it on for two months to collect as much data as “When approached by GHP asking us to test a new type of HPU by possible, and to better understand the exact duty cycle of the material replacing one of our conventional power packs with a variable speed handling. As soon as SCE completed the energy audit on the existing drive equipped hydraulic power unit to lower energy use, we didn’t machine GHP initiated installation of the new HPU. think twice about it. The test yielded close to 80% energy savings and GHP had been given a three-day window for installation to ensure a much quieter work environment,” said Rob Melsness, President, minimal production downtime, but they were able to complete the AST. “The project resulted in Southern California Edison creating installation and implementation in one day, exceeding everyone’s a technology specific Solution Code to incentivize investing in VSD expectations, because they recognize that production downtime is a equipped GHP units. We are in the midst of replacing our second unit, big concern in manufacturing. and data logging two more HPUs to identify the potential incentives

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DESIGN NOTES

Program

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Dollars/kW

PR-20874

Drive controlled Variable speed Hydraulics power unit

$0.12

$150.00

from our local power utility company. We plan on acquiring GHPs for all future HPU replacements as incentive programs are made available by Southern California Edison.” After a successful installation, SCE was contacted to initiate the energy audit on the new HPU by GHP. Another two months of data collecting passed and the onsite energy audit was complete. Next, SCE compared all the before and after data making sure that each sequence of material handling was identically measured. The result surpassed expectations with energy savings of 78% — an actual summary

from SCE reveals savings far beyond what was expected. One significant factor in saving energy for this application is the peak penalty fee — by lowering the peak energy use, paired with a large energy use reduction, the monthly energy saving was $4,288.00 and the ROI for this unit was 11 months. The technology-specific solution code was established, hence incentivizing manufacturers to upgrade their existing conventional hydraulic power systems to variable speed drives equipped hydraulics, typically saving manufacturing process applications up to 80% in energy. This is an essential validation for GHP when a major power utility company provides their customers with incentives to invest in this technology. Noise reduction was also a significant selling point as well. “As with many of GHP’s previous installations, we get excited about the tremendous energy savings but feedback from most of our clients reflects upon the noise reduction when applying VSD technology,” said Rasmussen. The GHP line is available in two styles: one with a VFD asynchronous motor and  Designed for Hydraulic Hose Cut-Off internal gear pump, and the  Bevel Edge & Wavy Scallop other with a servo inverter,  M2 Steel for Longer Blade Life synchronous servo motor, and  Re-sharpenable internal gear pump. Currently, machines with  Satisfaction Guaranteed this green hydraulic unit are in operation at such industry Hyde Industrial Blade Solutions giants as Meritor, SpaceX, Solutions You Can Count On! TM Worthington, and multiple plants of GKN Aerospace. All Phone: 800-872-4933 have been in use for more

than two years without performance issues. With the widely varying duty cycles involved, Lorentzen concluded, “We can say with high certainty our customers are experiencing up to 80% energy savings, plus the quieter operation and reduced carbon footprint as additional positives. I’m certainly glad I read what others were doing with servo-pump technology, as it’s made a big impact on our company.” FPW

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CUTTING EDGE find your local authorized distributor call 800.231.7116 or email hydraulics@texcelrubber.com Texcel Rubber 4-19_FPW.indd 27

10/15/19 11:27 AM


FUNDAMENTALS

Ken Korane â&#x20AC;˘ Contributing Editor

One pump, multiple flows

A

A flow divider is a hydraulic device that, as the name implies, proportionally separates flow into two or more parts. This lets a single pump simultaneously power more than one circuit. Two types of proportional flow dividers are the spool version; and the gear or rotary design. Spool dividers split the input flow proportionally into two output flows. Common output ratios are 50/50, 60/40 and 66.6/33.3, but any ratio is theoretically possible. The major components in a spool divider are a housing with an inlet port and two outlet ports; and an internal moveable spool. The spool features cross-drilled holes through the mid-point section, bisected by a center flow passage that runs the length of the spool. The spool is free to move back and forth in the housing. Flow from the inlet enters through the passage in the center of the spool, divides and travels to each end of the spool. Flow exits both ends, through narrow gaps between the spool OD and housing, and out the ports. If pressure on one side increases, the spool reacts to the pressure differential and shifts toward the other port. One outlet opens slightly more than the other but flow to both remains constant. Thus, both output flows are pressure compensated, and the flow division remains constant despite varying loads and pressures in the circuits. If input flow varies, the output flows will vary proportionally. And if one side is blocked, the other side will be blocked as well. The gear-type divider can separate flow into two or more paths. A gear divider consists of a housing, two or more internal sections of mating gears, and barriers that separate the sections from one another. A common shaft connects the gear sections. Flow enters one end of the housing and routes through a channel to each of the gear sections. Fluid forces act on the gear teeth, causing them to rotate in opposite directions. Fluid between the gear teeth and housing is carried around to the opposite side of the gear section. As the teeth mesh, fluid is pushed out of each outlet port. Because all the gear sections are connected, all the gears rotate at the same speed. The positive displacements of the gear sections produce a constant division of the flow. Inlet flow is divided

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proportionally between each section. Even if pressures in the output circuits vary, the output flows are proportional to the input. Should the input flow vary, output flows will likewise vary proportionally. And if one output is blocked, the others are also blocked. A relief valve prevents pressure intensification. Gear-type dividers can also be used to combine return flow in circuits. Most spool dividers are not designed to permit reverse flow. Rotary-gear dividers have a low pressure drop across the section and many offer efficiencies approaching 98%. Spool type dividers tend to require a sizeable pressure drop just to operate. That will generate heat, and engineers need to consider the inherent inefficiency when sizing them for an application. Gear-type flow dividers are also more tolerant of contamination. Spool-type dividers, on the other hand, have little internal leakage and can be highly accurate, although they tend to cost more than comparable rotary-gear dividers. Many fluid-power component manufacturers make flow dividers for different flows, pressures, and with different accuracy levels and tolerance limits to suit many applications. Two common

www.fluidpowerworld.com

10/16/19 10:41 AM


applications for flow dividers are multicylinder and multiple hydraulic motor circuits. For cylinder applications, given the divider’s accuracy limits, inherent design characteristics could cause the path with the highest load pressure to receive a higher percentage of the flow. If a rigid mechanism ties the cylinders together, the lead cylinder can pull the lagging cylinder and cause cavitation. Synchronization at the end of the cylinder stroke is a must, or engineers must compensate for any accuracy error that is expected with each stroke. In applications where the mechanisms between the two cylinders are too rigid, operating inaccuracy will cause the eventual lock-up of the system, with potential damage to the mechanical structure. Hydraulic-motor drive systems will be affected in much the same manner. Rigid

frames or mechanisms tying the motors together, such as vehicle wheels or conveyor sprockets, could potentially contribute to cavitation, lock-up, and pressure intensification. Variations in speed and/or possible lock-up can also be caused by differences in motor displacement, motor leakage, differences in wheel diameter, plus variations in the coefficient of friction between the wheels. When using flow dividers, engineers should be aware of several application considerations. Like other hydraulic components, problems like entrapped air or excessive contamination can hurt performance. And operating at flows below the recommended limits can affect accuracy. In all versions there is no dividing or combining when flows are below the minimum rated input flow. For example,

if flow in a spool divider starts at zero, the housing will essentially act as a tee until the unit reaches its minimum flow rating. Likewise, inaccuracies are cumulative. Even if two or more devices in series individually operate within stated accuracy limits, the stack-up of acceptable errors may hurt overall system performance. FPW

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TRAINING

Paul J. Heney • VP, Editorial Director

Catching up with LunchBox Sessions LunchBox Sessions, the Canadian-based online hydraulics training platform, continues to grow, now with 13,000 current users across 97 countries. I recently caught up with Carl Dyke, the longtime FPW contributor, whose company, CD Industrial Group, created the dynamic sessions. Dyke said that LunchBox Sessions is now being used on a regular basis in more than a dozen technical colleges in the United States, as well as in several colleges in Australia. Additionally, several original equipment manufacturers have chosen in the past year to use the training as their base platform for customer support, learning curriculum. “Within a private space in LunchBox Sessions, we build in the OEM’s customer resources with live schematics. We also put in other tools and resources that allow the OEM to support their own internal technician group — and their client technician group, as well,” said Dyke. “So, the service is definitely branching out.” There are currently three main topics areas: hydraulics, electrical, and overall machinery — where aspects of a specific piece of equipment, such as a loader or a crane are highlighted. Each session encapsulates a chunk of learning on one particular sub-topic and contains about two hours of content. In total, Dyke estimated that there are probably 80 hours’ worth of content each in hydraulics and electrical, and another 20-30 hours in the machinery-specific areas. The newer content on LunchBox Sessions includes a lot of interesting items, including cartridge valves, slip-in logic valves, servo and proportional valves, and electrohydraulics. And on the electrical side, they’ve recently added content on CAN Bus, a popular networking technology for electrical controls, especially used in mobile equipment. Before the end of this year, LunchBox Sessions plans to release some exciting content on the hydraulic side of wind turbines. There’s also been a lot of demand for content relating to aerial work platforms, so that is coming, too — starting with the hydraulic and electrical sides of scissor lifts.

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Dyke said that many new sessions are created based on customer demand, what the users email to ask for after completing several sessions. “The other way our new content gets developed is through the instructor-led side of our business,” Dyke said. “Sometimes, we’re brought into an industry to work consistently, time and time again on the same type of machinery. At that point, we’ve been developing the industry- or machinery-specific content to bring to the classroom. We’re always bringing a full classroom set of laptops with us everywhere we go. And simulations are a well-known side of our training, so we’re always building up that content. After a while, we have enough there to put it out for general public use on LunchBox Sessions.” FPW

LunchBox Sessions | lunchboxsessions.com

www.fluidpowerworld.com

10/16/19 10:38 AM


Quality – The standard of something as measured against other things of similar kind, the degree of excellence of something. At Fabco, our machine centers makes Quality parts for pneumatic cylinders. Every item Fabco manufactures reflects the highest standards of quality. Working in unison, our team takes every measure necessary to assure our parts adhere to these standards. Only after they have passed our critical quality checks at every step of their production will they be deemed ready for our customers. If quality and reliably high performance in your pneumatic automation applications matter to you as much as they do to us, then Fabco’s pneumatic cylinders are your only choice. Technical support Ph: (352) 373-3578 Fx: (352) 375-8024 service@fabco-air.com Fabco-Air, Inc. 3716 N.E. 49th Avenue Gainesville, FL 32609-1699 www.fabco-air.com

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SAFETY

Josh Cosford • Contributing Editor

How do you safely precharge an accumulator? When high-pressure hydraulics fail, the result is often a whimper as a seal blows out and pressure decays to useless levels. The harm to the surrounding environment and spectators is often little or none, which is why high-pressure hydraulic systems are so popular. However, when high-pressure pneumatic systems fail, you don’t want to be on the same city block, let alone next to the machine. A hydro-pneumatic accumulator charged to 3,000 psi is essentially a tube of nitrogen stuffed with over 200 times the volume of air compared to its surrounding atmosphere. That 3,000 psi wants badly to become 14.7 psi again, and when given the opportunity, will disperse its energy as rapidly as possible to equalize. Accumulator safety is a lesson just as important as fluid injection or loading holding concepts. Any opportunity to handle an accumulator is an opportunity to tip, drop or break one as well, and more often than not, the handling occurs during the precharge operation. Accumulators are pressure vessels, and as such need to be respected for their potential to return to atmospheric pressure. It goes without saying only approved gases, such as nitrogen, should be used for the charging of accumulators. Your cutting torch’s

oxygen tank, thankfully, won’t even connect to the plumbing of your charge kit. Nitrogen cylinders are to be stored upright and chained or strapped to a cart or wall, which reduces the chance of accidental tipping. When not in use, nitrogen tanks are best left with their valves closed, fittings disconnected, and the protective cap secured. Leaving the charge hose attached to the tank is an invitation for wasted gas, especially if the valve isn’t completely tight, so remember to tighten the valve after removing the hose. The habit of replacing the protective cap between uses is an opportunity to check the valve is once again tight. Before installing the charge kit, set the protective cap aside safely to ensure it doesn’t fall or get damaged, preventing later installation back onto the tank. It’s important to install the charge kit’s nitrogen fitting into the tank port before loosening the tank valve. Once the fitting is tightened with a wrench, take the opportunity to double-check all other hose connections, fittings and valves on the charge assembly. Most have bleed valves that must be tight before charging as well. The final connection will be the gas chock to the accumulator valve, which itself should be tight but not overly so. Once all lines and fittings are secure, open the gas chock valve if so equipped. Should precharge still exist in the accumulator, the pressure reading will display on the charge head’s gauge. You may now open the nitrogen valve slowly, and as long as tank pressure is higher than accumulator pressure, precharge will rise. When designated pressure is reached, close the nitrogen and gas chock valves. Note that gauge pressure often reads higher while the nitrogen tank valve is open. To confirm precharge accuracy, re-open the gas chock valve to display precharge pressure, which may be lower than initially observed. Follow the previous procedure to fill the accumulator slightly higher to account for hysteresis, and be aware that just measuring precharge pressure in small accumulators will lower the precharge pressure. Once precharge is set and confirmed, double-check all valves are closed, and then remove the accumulator from the charge hose. You may now remove the charging hose from the tank and confirm once again the valve is shut before replacing the protective cap. FPW

Accumulator charge kit

| courtesy of Freudenberg Sealing Technologies

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Ron Marshall • Contributing Editor

This data logging is missing data, making the conclusions it yields inaccurate.

Why checking your data is so critical A compressed air expert was asked to help with some calculations of a base case for a potential project. The compressor supplier provided a free compressed air assessment where the inlet flow of the compressor was logged with an anemometer, rather than measuring the output of the compressor discharge. The data showed fairly low flow and inefficient compressor operation. The two-week period that was captured was projected out to a full year, so an annual consumption could be estimated. The local power utility was ready to offer a significant financial incentive on the basis of this flow data — but on close inspection, the expert found there were some troubling errors in the way the assessment was done. A close inspection of the data showed that the flow meter was not working correctly; there were at least 10 gaps in the data where the compressor was obviously putting out some compressed air, yet the data showed zero! This was not obvious when looking at the data in a spreadsheet. The missing data 34

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caused the average flow to show as fairly low, setting up the potential for the power utility to pay out too much incentive — and for the customer to not get the energy savings expected. There was also trouble with the sampling period. If one looks at a calendar for 2019, they would find that the period measured spanned the Easter holiday break, including at least two plant production outages where the compressor was turned off completely. The power and flow profile captured during this period were not normal, and therefore cannot be used to accurately predict annual compressed air costs for a baseline. This shows that you (or your service provider) should be careful in selecting the method of flow measurement and the sampling period. Measuring inlet air on a compressor is full of potential pitfalls. It is best to use an inline flow meter. What’s more, never try to data log to produce a baseline when there are holidays in the sample period. Make sure the data is carefully inspected to detect errors before putting yourself out on a limb. The best case is to both measure flow with an accurate flow meter and calculate flow from compressor amps as a backup check, to ensure the flow meter reading is accurate. FPW

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M O B I LE

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ADVANCED HYDRAULICS

POWERS

FOREST-FRIENDLY

MACHINE

Forwarder2020 project focuses on efficiency and sustainability. Ken Korane • Contributing Editor

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Forests are essential. They’re a major source of building materials and biomass for renewable energy, supply the air we breathe, prevent soil erosion and protect watersheds, promote biodiversity and offer countless recreational opportunities. And they play a critical role in CO2 capture and climate-change mitigation.

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| Image courtesy Hohenloher Spezial-M

aschinenbau GmbH

For all these reasons, there is a growing realization that forest managers must balance the commercial need to produce more wood with society’s demands for greater protection of the environment. That is the impetus behind the Forwarder2020 project. The €3 million undertaking, funded in large part by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, began in late 2016 and ends this month.

Fourteen European industry and university partners, coordinated by Hohenloher Spezial-Maschinenbau GmbH (HSM), based in Neu-Kupfer, Germany, developed five innovative technology modules and tested two prototype forwarders that aim to improve the sustainability of wood production and promote “smart” logging through better management of forestry operations.

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A machine developed in the Forwarder2020 project features a hybrid hydraulic crane system designed to recover and reuse energy via an accumulator and hydraulic transformers. | Image courtesy P. Dietsch, Bern University of Applied Sciences

Project goals

Forwarders are articulated vehicles that carry felled timbers from the woods to a roadside landing for subsequent loading onto log trucks. They typically operate in tandem with a harvester. The machines are built to operate on uneven ground, severe slopes, wetlands and in tight quarters with narrow tree spacing. “Forwarders are of particular interest because these forestry machines have large wheel loads that could damage unpaved forest roads, and they often must travel sizeable distances between loading in the woods and unloading at the road side,” said Felix zu Hohenlohe, Forwarder2020 project director and CEO at HSM. “Reducing fuel consumption and lowering the impact of a machine on the soil are of prime importance not only for the sustainability of logging, but also on the economic potential of forestry companies,” said zu Hohenlohe. Thus, the Forwarder2020 project set the following objectives: • • • • • • 38

Reduce ground pressure under the wheels to avoid deep ruts and soil compression and minimize damage to forest soils. Improve fuel economy to decrease emissions and limit work interruptions for refueling. Offer higher travel speeds while improving driver comfort, health and safety. Improve timber harvesting on wetlands. Increase transparency and documentation of timber production through better tracking and analysis of forwarding operations. Decrease wood-extraction costs.

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The five technology modules — a hybrid hydraulic system, hydrostaticmechanical transmission, hydropneumatic suspension, triple-bogie axle and advanced control system — addressed these requirements. They were integrated into prototypes using an HSM 208 F as the base platform and were tested in forests in Germany, Scotland, Lithuania and Romania. Specific goals were to reduce fuel consumption by 30% and lessen impact on the soil (rut depth and dynamic wheel load) by 30%, said zu Hohenlohe. Indirectly, it could lead to sites that require fewer and less-intrusive forest roads. Additional benefits include more-precise control when driving on rough terrain with less operator fatigue, and more precise planning and documentation of forwarder activities. Altogether, the innovations should reduce costs, occupational injuries and the environmental impact on harvesting operations. Finally, consortium members expect to market a unique and modular system of competitive high-end solutions which will let customers pick-and-choose how to tailor equipment to suit application demands. Hybrid hydraulic system

One key feature of the Forwarder2020 prototype is a hybrid hydraulic crane system. It is designed to recover and reuse potential energy, reduce fuel consumption versus conventional load-sensing systems, permit faster handling, and lower engine speed and emissions. That’s significant because a forwarder spends 80 to 85% of total operating time loading and unloading logs, according to Prof. Marcus Geimer and researcher Chris Geiger of the Karlsruhe

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M O B I L E

Institute of Technology (KIT), a partner in the Forwarder2020 consortium. Thus, the vehicle is driving only 15 to 20% of the time. On conventional forest-harvesting cranes when the boom lowers, hydraulic flow meters through valves to decelerate the load, which generates heat and wastes energy. There are no forwarders currently on the market with built-in energy recovery systems, said the KIT officials, but there are significant opportunities where potential energy can be reused. The KIT team designed a novel hydraulic system for energy recuperation and regeneration in the Forwarder2020 crane. A Palfinger Epsilon S11F crane, consisting of a pillar, main arm (inner boom) and articulating arm (outer boom), as well as related cylinders and grapple, was used on the prototype — although the hydraulic control system is suitable for similar cranes from other suppliers. The crane includes two hydraulic circuits that govern movement of the main and articulating arms. The main-arm circuit also includes an accumulator. With suitable controls, energy released when the arm lowers

is stored temporarily and subsequently reused for lifting. That reduces demand from the main pump and conserves energy. Each circuit also includes a hydraulic transformer, consisting of two fixeddisplacement hydraulic motors whose shaft ends are mechanically connected via a coupling. Bosch Rexroth supplied the transformers and provided engineering support. The transformers are important because there are frequent situations where the main arm and articulating arm act simultaneously, offering the potential to transfer energy between the two and make the motion significantly more efficient, said the KIT researchers. The hydraulic transformers convert usable power by adjusting the pressure difference and volume flow for the different cylinders. For example, consider motion when the grapple extends horizontally: the inner boom lowers while the outer boom lifts at the same time. In this case, oil flows from the inner-boom cylinder to the hydraulic transformer which actuates one

Monitoring system:

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motor and sends flow toward the outerboom cylinder. Simultaneously, power from one side of the transformer transfers via the mechanical connection to the other side. The second hydraulic motor/pump supplies additional flow to the outer boom cylinder to supplement pump flow, but at a significantly lower oil pressure. This results in energy regeneration, as the main pump has to do less work, said the researchers. All in all, up to 30% energy savings in crane movement are targeted, said the KIT officials. Applications that demand frequent movements, such as in narrow thinning, will show the greatest improvement. This makes selective harvesting more competitive than clear-cutting and supports sustainable wood production from forests that can also be used for recreation. Energy savings make the process more economical and environmentally friendly. Hydrostatic-mechanical transmission

Another significant component of Forwarder2020 is a hydrostatic mechanical transmission, which can reduce fuel

Five technology modules improve machine efficiency, lower environmental impact, and reduce the cost of timber harvesting.

• Process data like machine conditions, position and static and dynamic loads • Provide accurate and straight forward information on work area • Follow up on the environmental impact

Hybrid hydraulic system:

• Double recuperation of potential energy • Reduce fuel consumption during loading and unloading by 30% • Reduce engine speed and noise emission • Speed crane movements

Hydrostatic mechanical transmission: • • • • •

Reduce fuel consumption by 30% Enable longer hauling distances Reduce engine speed and noise emission Reduce need for refueling Reduce the need for new forest roads

Hydropneumatic suspension: • • • • • • •

Enable long hauling distances Reduce the need for new forest roads Increase off-road driving speed Reduce dynamic wheel load by 25% Reduce dynamic load on the structure Reduce ruts Improves ergonomics and operator comfort

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Bogie axle with three driven wheels:

• Double the surface under the bogie tracks • More productive and environmentally friendly timber harvesting on wetlands • Reduce rut depths by 50% • Increase payload on wetlands

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The prototype vehicle was built from a modified HSM 208 F. The overall goal was to cut fuel consumption by 30% and reduce wheel loads, ruts and soil compression. | Image courtesy Hohenloher Spezial-Maschinenbau GmbH

consumption by as much as 30% over traditional designs. The R2 Hydromechanical Variable Transmission (HVT) is made by Dana Rexroth Transmission Systems (DRTS), based in Arco, Italy, a joint venture of Dana Corp. and Bosch Rexroth AG. A hydrostatic-mechanical power-split transmission reportedly combines the best properties of a mechanical transmission with those of a hydrostatic travel drive, and is technologically advanced in that it provides an infinitely variable, or stepless, speed output. The HTV R2 transmission has a power rating of 130 to 200 kW (174 to 268 hp), and an enhanced version supports engine ratings to 235 kW.

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The advantage is that this transmission does not have a conventional torque converter, but instead uses a hydrostatic transmission. By coupling the hydrostatic control unit and the mechanical transmission, the DRTS unit achieves an average transmission efficiency of over 85% in all drive ranges â&#x20AC;&#x201D; far higher than the industry norm. The unit reduces fuel consumption by decreasing engine speeds throughout the duty cycle and also at idle, when speeds can drop to as low as 600 rpm. The wide conversion range of the transmission and synchronous switching allow for decoupling of engine speed from travel speed. Depending on driving resistance and

power demands, manufacturers can optimize the diesel engine and transmission to the best operating point. This improves efficiency and reduces noise emissions. Additional savings are possible through engine downsizing without compromising performance. The R2 also improves acceleration while maintaining tractive effort across the entire speed range. At low travel speeds, drivers can easily control and position the vehicle with high accuracy. The purely hydrostatic first driving range offers practically wear-free, continuous and dynamic reversing without the need to shift gears. Hydrostatic braking reduces maintenance costs.

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M O B I L E

The strategy is to implement Industry 4.0 concepts in forestry and harness the opportunities of the fourth industrial revolution.

At higher travel speeds in the second and third driving range, the vehicle relies on high efficiency hydrostatic-mechanical power split technology. Shifting between driving ranges is carried out without interrupting tractive force because the transmission’s multi-disk clutches shift synchronously. DRTS also developed the software and control strategy for the Forwarder2020 transmission. The R2 has shown proven performance in agricultural tractors. But the setup of the transmission controller and vehicle controller in forestry operations are quite different due to the need to drive fast and safely downhill with a load. In addition to lower fuel consumption, the module economically enables longer hauling distances and reduces the number of forest roads needed. This supports more-sustainable wood production. Lighter footprint

Redesigned axles and suspension systems play an important role in lessening the environmental footprint of the forwarders. A new hydro-pneumatic suspension lowers the dynamic wheel loads by 25%, which means less rutting. And it permits driving off-road at higher speeds while reducing loads and vibrations on the structure, which improves ergonomics and

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operator comfort. That’s important because stricter limits for maximum exposure to vibration are expected in Europe and elsewhere. HYDAC Systems developed and manufactured the special hydro-pneumatic suspension system. As the consortium leader in suspension’s design, HYDAC defined the hydraulic components like dampening and levelcontrol manifolds as well as accumulators, and handled simulation and testing. HSM developed a rear triple-bogie axle to avoid extreme ruts while extracting timber, particularly from wetlands. With three drive wheels, each side can be completely independent of the other. It doubles the surface under the bogie tracks and reduces ground pressure by approximately 50%. This is an innovation for the forwarder market, according to HSM. It enables costeffective, productive and environmentally friendly timber harvesting on wetlands, where standard forwarders can bog down, be unproductive, and create extremely deep ruts. The new axle and suspension enable lighter chassis structural components at the same payload and driving speed, to either decrease dynamic wheel loads further or increase payload and thus reduce the number of passages. The forwarder design also permits a normal tandem axle. Smart harvesting

The final and essential technology module of Forwarder2020 encompasses the hardware and software necessary to collect data during work processes and turn it into actionable information. Building blocks include sensors, HMI and a web platform to help users analyze machine data. A monitoring system will track a number of parameters, including machine conditions, speed and location, static and dynamic loads, and even information on ground conditions.

Forwarder2020 researchers say the innovative design should reduce logging costs, lessen operator fatigue and lower the environmental impact on harvesting operations. | Image courtesy Hohenloher Spezial-Maschinenbau GmbH

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Articulated forwarders carry felled timbers from the woods to a roadside landing for subsequent loading onto log trucks. They are built to operate on uneven ground and severe slopes. | Image courtesy Hohenloher Spezial-Maschinenbau GmbH

The ability to precisely monitor, control, record and document vehicle movements and loads carried during the forwarding process could ultimately lead to better decision making in forest operational planning and more-efficient and higher-quality harvest operations. Drivers get easy-to-understand information such as warnings of soft areas to avoid. Machine owners gain details that show output and efficiency of the machine under different working conditions to help increase productivity, reduce operating costs and schedule maintenance.

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Operations managers will be able to send instructions to the forwarder and document the location, quantity and weight of the wood harvested. Forest owners can access GPS data and monitor processes in real time. Even conservation organizations might be able to monitor harvesting to ensure that the environmental impact is as low as possible. “The strategy is to implement Industry 4.0 concepts in forestry,” explained Prof. Martin Ziesak of the Bern University of Applied Sciences (BFH), a Forwarder2020 consortium member. “Our ambition is to advance the forestry and wood industries and harness the opportunities of the fourth industrial revolution in terms of harvesting output per hour, but also the ability to better monitor and actively control the new forwarder to increase the cost efficiency. A lower environmental impact and the possibility to work on less-stable soils will expand the application possibilities as well as the general acceptance for forwarders,” he said. “And the concept of the ‘smart’ forwarder offers two other advantages. It will enable smooth integration into the logistics chain, so the entire harvesting process becomes more transparent. And the new forwarder could develop into a crafty actor that ‘knows’ what to do and can itself make decisions ‘on-the-fly’ as needed. “In the near future automation will make it much easier for operators to work with forest machines. This will probably happen much quicker than we might think,” said Ziesak. For example, booms are tending to get longer, which makes it more difficult to properly position the harvester head. Automation will enable quicker and more precise movements, improving productivity, while softer motions put less stress on the boom and chassis frame. This trend to make machines easier to operate should also help attract qualified operators to the industry, he said. “Full automation is already thinkable, but I do not yet see it just around the corner,” Ziesak continued. He next imagines smart master-slave systems, where the master (for example, the harvester) still has a human operator while the slave (the forwarder) works more or less automatically, but still has a loose supervision by the operator. Such preprototype configurations are already in the works, he said. FPW

J.W. Winco, Inc. Phone 800-877-8351 Email sales@jwwinco.com www.jwwinco.com

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Filter maintenance

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Setting planned and intelligent filter maintenance programs can reduce downtime, increase efficiency and usher your hydraulic systems into the IoT future. Josh Cosford • Contributing Editor Plant maintenance practices vary by industry, by economic conditions, by process and by employees. Some plants may have strict preventive maintenance programs, following a rigid schedule of maintenance tasks to lower the possibility of machine failure. On the other hand, the maintenance of machinery may be spontaneous, occurring only after a breakdown or perhaps during an unrelated shutdown. Hydraulic filtration equipment has its own set of maintenance requirements. However, these requirements are sometimes neglected just as with other machinery. This article covers these unique requirements and what an ideal maintenance program should look like. I’m not going to cover reactive maintenance, which occurs only after a breakdown, and even then, the effort only fixes the symptoms rather than investigating the cause. If your hydraulic machine only receives attention during a failure, then shame on you. The headaches related to reactive maintenance are self induced, and if you can’t afford the time and money resources to care for machinery, you may need to consider employment in the service industry.

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| shutterstock.com

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Pall’s Crixus Fluid Monitoring Platform, launched in 2017, is a fluid monitoring platform that meets the growing need for lubrication and hydraulic fluid cleanliness in industrial manufacturing equipment and filter performance.

Setting planned and intelligent filter maintenance programs can reduce downtime, increase efficiency and usher your hydraulic systems into the IoT future.

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Preventive maintenance, on some level, should represent the minimum effort applied to caring for your machinery. You need to head failures off at the pass, as it were, by creating conditions ideal for hydraulic filter, and therefore, component longevity, maximizing production time while reducing replacement costs for expensive pumps, valves and actuators. There are different levels of preventive maintenance, which may be partially defined by the type or scope of the machinery you own. Start with healthy fluid I’ve always said that a healthy machine requires healthy hydraulic fluid. Hydraulic fluid, whether it be traditional mineral based, synthetic or even a glycol, is essentially the life blood of the machine. It needs to remain clean, cool and dry, which is your primary goal in your preventive maintenance program, whether you approach it as such or not. When specifically talking about a fluid cleanliness program, just as much thought and effort should be placed here as with bearings, cooling systems or lubrication systems. Clean hydraulic fluid requires the strategic and thoughtful removal of particle contamination. With expensive, high-precision hydraulics, the days of finding an inexpensive spin-on filter element in the return line are simply not enough. The return line, or tank line, is simply not ideal, first of all. Secondly, the use of a spin-on filter element suggests you

could be doing better in filter quality as well, since the effectiveness of filtration media varies vastly. Besides, there are conditions such as with closed-center hydraulics that a machine can be running with very little return line flow, making this location ineffective. Although you should absolutely have a return line filter to trap particles generated in or by the machine — which will collect them before contaminating the reservoir and subsequently distributed to the circuit again — you should add at least two other filters in strategic locations to bring your maintenance to the next level. And regardless of whether your machine came equipped with these filter locations, the good news is they can be added to nearly any machines after. A pressure filter added after the pump will prevent any particles from being distributed to the rest of the system, and this is especially important should a catastrophic pump failure occur. A pump failure could occur because of a manufacturing failure at no fault of your own, and a pressure filter will trap the subsequent release of damaging particles before they arrive at downstream valves, cylinders or motors. A pressure filter should be of high quality, low micron filter media

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Dedicated off-line filter panels, like Hy-Pro Filtrationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s FPL panel, enhance fluid cleanliness and ensures long life of off-line filters in existing hydraulic systems.

and sized appropriately to reduce backpressure, which is inefficient and creates waste heat. Return and pressure filters excel at trapping particles generated or ingested rapidly, and preventing subsequent infection. But these two should not be your primary method of conditioning the fluid, because they are installed into and exposed to the functioning system. The chance of flow or pressure spikes means they must be sized appropriately to prevent excessive pressure drop, and their efficiency ratings will be reflected as such. For example, a 10 micron filter in the tank line with a moderate Beta Ratio is ideal. Fine filtration, unfortunately, has the consequence of higher backpressure, since the filter media has tinier pores through which fluid can pass, and the effect is exacerbated as the filter becomes clogged. Adding an offline filter of extremely low micron rating and very high Beta Ratio is the best method of overall oil cleanliness. Because the offline filter operates in a separate kidney loop, it is unexposed to the flow and pressure effects of the rest of the machine, simply running continuously to remove particles from the oil. These filters should be as low micron as possible, with the highest efficiency and dirt holding capacity. If you spend your budget on only one form of efficient filtration, it is here. The other locations can be left with lower efficiency elements, which are often less expensive. Plan filter change-out intelligently Now having all the critical filter locations covered, you must now go about planning the filter element replacement. All highquality filter assemblies are installed with bypass check valves to skirt flow around the element to prevent excessive backpressure as they become clogged. If the filters are not changed prior to bypassing, fluid passes through unfiltered, defeating their intended purpose. Changing filter elements in conjunction with moon cycles is nonsense, either costing you too much or missing out on periods of unplanned particle ingestion. 48

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gauges or pop-up indicators, which signal when a filter is approaching two-thirds of their bypass pressure by reason of the volume of trapped particles. However, these

gauges or indicators must be monitored and tracked at least weekly by the maintenance team, as no benefit exists when observing a filter already bypassing. Stepping up your game involves using the electrical monitoring of filter differential pressure. Rather than observing and tracking what could be many dozens of pressure gauges or indicators, adding a pressure switch to the indicator port allows you to feed that signal to your PLC, throwing out a warning code should the filter be approaching bypass. This method warns you the first moment the filter approached bypass, providing enough time to plan your swap of that filter element during scheduled machine downtime. Going even further into the realm of predictive maintenance, installing analog transducers and recording pressure differential trends takes fluid conditioning to the highest level. Because pressure differential can change based on factors such as temperature, humidity and machine duty cycle, even a go, no-go indicator such as a switch can provide a false sense of urgency, as the switch will open when oil heats up and becomes more dry. A transducer logging trends allows you to filter out false starts and see how filter performance changes over time, regardless of machine or ambient conditions. Smart machine monitoring can not only plot filter performance, but also compare performance to other trended data, providing insights into conditions suitable for extended filter performance. Using temperature, pressure, vibration and other sensors in a hydraulic system allows plotting of data to make decisions based on advanced analytics. You may discover interesting trends, such as a filter element that builds backpressure less slowly as it becomes clogged 50

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Compact duplex filter housing with one-handed operation and maintenance indicator. Filtration Group Corp., Industrial Technologies Div.

compared its initial trapping of particles, allowing extended element replacement intervals. Adding IoT concepts into the mix shoots your practices into the realm of predictive maintenance. Imagine knowing that when your oil’s water saturation level reaches 400 ppm, your filter service life drops by 50% compared to when the water saturation is at 200 ppm. Using data and analytics can provide you with these advanced data, and with appropriate ERP software, orders can be placed automatically to filter vendors when the trend of higher humidity continues, since the machine has learned the particular effects of water on filter life. It’s obvious that no maintenance practice related to hydraulic filtration is an absolute travesty, and one would expect that you reap what you sow when it comes to machine failures and downtime. However, in today’s age of information, data, just-in-time and flexible manufacturing, the financial and labor resources are just not available to be wasted. Filtration maintenance is not a one-size fits all concept. Filters should not only be changed only when needed, they should only be ordered from the supplier when needed, and

these orders should occur either automatically or with one click on your smartphone. Luckily, all the major players in the fluid power game are working on Industry 4.0 technologies to bring fluid conditioning into the data age. Maintenance with augmented reality, for example, can already provide teams with live views of filter life and fluid condition. Daily machine inspections can now take minutes, and doesn’t even require the technician to step on the plant floor. Unlike some other technologies, predictive filter maintenance can be added to any machine, so consider if these concepts will work for your plant. FPW

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect with thousands of engineering design professionals online.

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P N E U M A T I C S

Getting a grip

with pneumatics Grippers are a common and useful way for machines to handle product and other items, but they must be properly selected to match the payload.

Pat Phillips â&#x20AC;˘ PE, Product Manager for AutomationDirect, Fluid Power and Mechanical Product Div. Prior to the industrial revolution, grippers used in manufacturing were human hands and simple implements. Automation advances and better safety practices improved upon this situation, but required a method to grip and manipulate products, components and tooling. Many of these operations are referred to as pick-and-place systems, and all need a reliable way for the equipment to move a payload. Therefore, a typical element of many modern material or parts handling equipment are the gripping components. Motion control machinery requires grippers matched to the payload so they can accurately establish a firm and controlled hold without causing damage. The grip must be maintained throughout any motions, and then released to place the payload cleanly. The first big choice when assessing grippers is deciding among electric, hydraulic and pneumatic technologies. Some applications, especially those for handling fragile product, require extremely fine control and force feedback, making electric a good fit. Other heavy-lifting applications may require the extremely high force available using hydraulics.

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However, for many common applications handling relatively robust products, pneumatic gripper technologies are far simpler and more economical. This article focuses on the selection process for pneumatic grippers, although many of the concepts apply to any form of gripper. Pneumatic benefits

Pneumatic systems in general, and pneumatic grippers specifically, offer many benefits compared to electrical or hydraulic actuation. When pneumatic options are a good fit, they usually represent the lowest

initial cost for materials and installation labor, along with low operating costs and ease of maintenance. Pneumatics are fairly compact and offer a high force density, which is the force they can exert in relation to their size. Compressed air is a relatively safe energy source compared to electricity and works well in wet or corrosive areas. Ongoing costs of generating compressed air and the resulting noise in operation are usually cited as pneumatic downsides, but both issues can be addressed through careful design and compressed air is widely used in many types of facilities.

  

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Figure 1. Pneumatic grippers are usually the end effector and must be coordinated with the motion systems on which they are mounted. | courtesy of

AutomationDirect

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Figure 2. Available in many dimensional sizes, this family of AutomationDirect Nitra angular grippers are optimized for handling flat or sheet objects. | courtesy of AutomationDirect

Once the choice of going pneumatic is settled, the design process moves into selecting the proper type of gripper action. Gripper types

A gripper is sometimes called a clamp or may more generally be termed as the end effector of a motion system. There are two basic gripper types, angular and parallel, based on the geometry and the way the jaws work. Certainly, there are many other variations and specialty styles of grippers, but these two are the most common. Gripping can be accomplished upon closing on the outside of a payload, or upon opening on the inside of a payload.

Grippers are a common and useful way for machines to handle product and other items, but they must be properly selected to match the payload. For pneumatic grippers, there is generally a small linear pneumatic cylinder within the body of the gripper. This cylinder is arranged with a mechanism to translate the linear cylinder action into either a pinching angular action or a sliding linear action. The pneumatics may be singleacting, using air to operate the gripper one direction and a spring to close it the other, or they may be double-acting, where air pressure is required to both open and close the gripper.

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Angular grippers are more economical than parallel because they have a simpler pivot-based mechanism (Figure 2). However, it is evident that they are best suited for gripping flatter objects and may not grip well on parts with curved or parallel sides. Parallel grippers are a better choice for relatively larger payloads, especially those with parallel sides available (Figure 3). They are slightly more expensive and complicated than angular grippers due to the mechanism needed to translate the cylinder linear motion so that the two fingers slide directly to and from each other. Solving the grip motion is just part of the physical solution, since the actual way the gripper contacts the product must also be considered. Making contact

Both angular and parallel grippers end up moving appendages called fingers, which in turn contact the payload. Many configurations are available for starting and ending grip angle, gripper stroke travel, motion repeatability and finger sizes. Users may simply take advantage of the plain fingers of a gripper to hold the payload, or they may make their own finger attachments out of materials more compatible with the parts being handled. Customized fingers can be curved or shaped to encompass or more positively hold a payload. The material choice of the payload side of a gripper finger can optimize grip friction using resiliency and may prevent the gripper from marring the part.

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P N E U M A T I C S

Making the right choices for grip stroke, finger shaping and finger materials will also help the assembly to accept dimensional variations in payloads, misalignments as the gripper is operated or slight differences in gripper motion repeatability. Some of these considerations are also related to the larger mechanism transporting the gripper. Another specification concerns the air pressure to be used to achieve a desired gripping force. Users must calculate or determine through testing what a sufficient but not excessive gripping force is. The desired operating pressure in conjunction with the gripper cylinder size will result in a certain gripping force, so all three of these values — air pressure, cylinder size and gripping force — must be considered in conjunction and coordinated.

| courtesy of AutomationDirect

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Feedback options

For some applications, it may be satisfactory to simply command the gripper and configure the controls to assume it has moved. However, in most cases best practice is to positively sense the gripper’s open or closed position for more positive operation, and to generate an alarm if the gripper fails to move to the commanded position. Integrating grippers into a system Because position feedback is such a Grippers are usually the end effector of a common requirement, many pneumatic much larger equipment motion system, grippers are designed with magnetic such as an XYZ pick-and-place system or pistons within the cylinder and slots even a fully articulated robot arm (Figure on the side to accept standard position 1). This means there is a substantial amount switches. Magnetic pistons serve as a target of integration and coordination of a gripper detectible by position switches. Users can required with the upstream electric or adjust the switches to indicate any position pneumatic actuators, stepper or servo of the gripper based on the piston position, motors, drives, other motion controllers and so the desired gripper position can be even programmable logic controllers (PLCs). matched to indicate if the gripper is open, Grippers may be a relatively inexpensive closed or properly holding a part. part of such a system, but if they can’t It may also be prudent to monitor perform their required function then pneumatic pressure, which can be nothing gets done. Some typical control accomplished in one of two ways. The elements necessary to command pneumatic simplest way is to use a pressure switch, grippers in this type of a system are: usually installed on the air supply line • Solenoids so the PLC can operate the but possibly installed after the gripper compressed air to open/close the solenoid, to ensure that a sufficient gripper operating pressure threshold has been met • Fittings, tubing and hose to route or exceeded. For many applications, this is compressed air to the gripper in a good enough to verify the operation. flexible manner For more critical or delicate gripper • Exhaust mufflers to silence the vented operations where precise supply pressure side of a gripper cylinder is crucial to ensure the exact desired • Flow restrictors to slow down the action gripper force, users may install a pressure of a gripper and prevent hammering transmitter so the PLC controls can verify correct pressure and alarm otherwise. The Another mechanical consideration pressure would usually be manually set regards the cycle rate, which is how many using an upstream pressure regulator, and times per minute the gripper is rated to the controls would therefore monitor to

Figure 3. Parallel grippers, such as this AutomationDirect Nitra version, come in many size configurations and offer good holding power for flat-sided payloads.

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operate. Most grippers actuate quite quickly, but the manufacturer typically publishes the allowable upper limit for how often they can be cycled. Users must evaluate the application to ensure the cycle rate is adequate. With the pneumatic side sorted out, attention turns to the electrical and control side of the operation.

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ensure the pressure hasn’t deviated from the desired value. Getting a grip

Grippers are a fundamental element for many types of equipment automation, and they are literally the final interface where the equipment meets the product. Pneumatic grippers are a good choice technically and economically for many automated equipment applications, with the two main gripper types being angular and parallel. Designers must work through physical force and dimension requirements to select the right gripper. Some suppliers provide online selection guides to assist users in choosing the right gripper for an application. These guides can direct users in

considering options such as the gripper action, size and limit switches to closely integrate the gripper with the automation and the rest of the equipment. Since pneumatic grippers are a popular technology, suppliers can also be a good support resource to help designers choose the best option for their application from the many available configurations. FPW

AutomationDirect | automationdirect.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect with thousands of engineering design professionals online.

The Mobile Hydraulic Experts. Kraft Fluid Systems is the leading distributor and systems integrator of hydraulic equipment and electric drive technology for mobile off-highway applications. With more than 45 years of experience, Kraft is the preferred distributor when seeking hydraulic components, power transmission equipment and electronic controls for mobile OEM integrated solutions.

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FLUID SYSTEMS


C O N F E R E N C E

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Adobe Stock

The Fluid Power Technology Conference debuts in Cleveland The Fluid Power Technology Conference (FPTC) will debut in Cleveland on November 19 and 20, with a pre-conference workshop and NFPA Regional Meeting scheduled for Monday, November 18. The event — which brings together design engineers and maintenance personnel with fluid power manufacturers and industry experts — will be held at Cleveland State University’s Wolstein Center, in its Conference Pavilion (East and West Wing). “We’re excited to bring the FPTC to our hometown of Cleveland, which has always been a hub for manufacturers and users of fluid power technologies,” said Michael Ference, Publisher. “Cleveland is home to some of the biggest and most well-known names in the industry, and with its strong manufacturing base, these technologies are used heavily throughout Cleveland and all of Ohio.” FPTC Cleveland will provide in-depth discussions on the future of fluid power technologies — with three IoT-focused sessions, several talks on electrification and hydraulics, troubleshooting and more. The event also features intimate networking opportunities, with manufacturers being available at their booths as well as additional chances to chat in more informal settings including two evening networking opportunities offsite and in the exhibit hall. 58

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The event exclusively dedicated to fluid power technology will be held at Cleveland State University’s Wolstein Center November 19 and 20, with a pre-conference day November 18.

Monday, November 18 Kicking off the three-days of education will be the NFPA Regional Meeting, from 8 to 10 a.m. November 18. The meeting will feature a presentation by Bogdan Kozul, assistant professor of practice in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Cleveland State (CSU), who will give an overview of the fluid power-related programs at CSU, the home of the 2019 Fluid Power Vehicle Challenge winners. Attendees may also have an opportunity to see the winning vehicle in action. Following the meeting, a workshop will be presented by MSOE’s Tom Wanke. His introductory “Fluid Power Basics Workshop” will cover the benefits and challenges of using fluid power systems for power transmission and motion control. Physical laws that govern how and why fluid power systems function will be discussed. Individual components that comprise a fluid power system, including design and operational performance characteristics, will be covered. ISO symbology used for representing individual components will be covered. The workshop will conclude with a brief overview of circuit architectures. Wanke is the Director of the Milwaukee School of Engineering’s Fluid Power Industrial Consortium and Industry Relations.

Tuesday, November 19 Both days begin with breakfast and networking on the exhibit floor, followed by plenary sessions for all. The event kicks off at 9 a.m. with a panel discussion, Your IIoT Roadmap: How Industry 4.0 will Shape the Future of Fluid Power. Experts from some of the industry’s foremost IIoT development www.fluidpowerworld.com

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companies will discuss the concepts, methods and technologies being used to implement IIoT in fluid power. They will highlight who should be involved in implementing these technologies, what technologies should be considered and where in your machines and systems they should first be considered. In addition, the panelists will discuss how using IIoT technologies to monitor and collect data will help users increase machine uptime, reduce maintenance time and costs, increase utilization and more. They will discuss how even older factories can bring their existing equipment into the IIoT age through the use of digitally enabled technologies. Panelists include: Jeremy Drury, VP, IoT Diagnostics; Adam Livesay, Co-Founder and CRO, Elevāt.IoT; Tony Oran, VP Sales and Marketing, Festo Didactic Inc.; and Rodney Rusk, I4.0 Business Leader, Bosch Rexroth Corp. In addition, a post-lunch plenary session will be presented by Miles Budimir, senior editor of Design World and adjunct philosophy professor at Cleveland State University, with his talk,“Do the Right Thing: Four Key Ethical Principles for Engineering Professionalism.” In light of the many engineering disasters that have taken place over the last decade (the BP Gulf of Mexico oil spill, the Volkswagen emissions scandal, the Boeing 737 MAX case), the engineering profession has ramped up efforts to encourage and promote ethical practice. In other words, how to ensure that design engineers “do the right thing.” This session will present a brief overview of the history of engineering ethics and will present four key ethical principles that can help guide engineers in making sound, moral choices in engineering practice. The final plenary session Tuesday will be another panel discussion, “The Future of Mobile Hydraulics.” What’s new in the field of mobile hydraulics today, and how will it change in the coming decade? The discussion will include how the hydraulics versus electrics debate has been playing out the last few years, what’s on the horizon for mobile hydraulics technology, what OEMs want to see from hydraulic component manufacturers in the next couple of years, and how the IoT will change this technology. The panel will have speakers from top mobile equipment manufacturers and component specialists, including: Liebherr Machines Bulle SA, Danfoss Power Solutions, Hydrotech, and CD Industrial Group Breakouts Tuesday will include: • The Importance of Contamination Control in Hydraulic Systems by Tom Wanke, MSOE • 100R2 Is Not a Star Wars Droid. Find Out What It and the Other SAE J517 Standards Mean, by Josh Cosford, FPW • The Three Biggest Mistakes in Hydraulic System Maintenance, by Carl Dyke, CD Industrial Group • Load Sense Hydraulic Functions in 3D, by Carl Dyke • The Missing Link Between Lubrication and Vibration Analysis, by Jeremy Drury and Will Tuduroff, IoT Diagnostics • Streamlining Daily Operations for Industrial Distributors Using TrulinX, by Bill Horrigan, Tribute • Analyzing Seal Component Interactions to Maximize Performance and Reliability, by Tim Girardi, System Seals

Wednesday, November 20 Once again, Wednesday will begin with networking and breakfast on the exhibit floor, followed by an exciting opening keynote at 9 a.m. from Joe Kovach, President of KoMotion Technologies Ltd. In “Tackling hydraulic challenges with technology” Kovach will focus on the key reasons why hydraulics will be around for a long time as well as five of the challenges currently facing hydraulics (leaks, noise, efficiency, control, and weight). To address these challenges numerous technologies have been recently developed with additional breakthroughs on the horizon. Clearly, the movement toward electrification has resolved some of these issues — including the use of ePumps, EHA (electro hydrostatic actuators), hybridized and integrated systems. Also, innovations in fluid connectors and hydraulic fluid technology play a key role. Beyond this, developments in pump technology, simulation, and power transmission systems have improved overall efficiency while reducing noise. Lastly, the use of advanced materials and additive manufacturing technologies help address weight/size issues while opening new market opportunities for hydraulics. Breakouts on Wednesday include: • Electrohydraulics Troubleshooting for Motion and Force Control, by Carl Dyke • The Future of Mobile Hydraulics, by Charles Schreiner, Hydrotech • Hydraulic System Schematic Reading Skills with Live Schematics, by Carl Dyke • Next Generation Electrohydraulic Technology, by Mike Terzo, Terzo Power Systems Wednesday will conclude with a tour of the Parker Hannifin Motion Control Laboratory for Fluid Power Systems at the Washkiewicz College of Engineering at CSU.

www.fluidpowerworld.com  

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Bill Ragan / Shutterstock.com

Special thanks to all exhibitors and sponsors, including: DMIC Elevāt.IoT HBC-Radiomatic Hydrapulse Inc. Hydrotech IC-Fluid Power IoT Diagnostics Kraft Fluid Systems

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PRODUCT WORLD

Ultrasonic level sensor

Compact line of pneumatic pinch valves

Anfield Sensors anfieldsensors.com This economical ultrasonic level sensor can be used as a simple multipoint level switch or for continuous feedback through a 4–20 mA loop. Its compact size and robust design is made for industrial or mobile equipment. It features a 5 to 78 in. (13 to 200 cm) sensing range and four digital outputs and one analog (4–20 mA) output. The robust design comes from its cast aluminum body with IP65 rating, no moving parts and all-metal enclosure. Features include a 1-in. NPT process connection and digital display with push buttons for setup. It offers advanced USB programming. Additionally, the design compensates for fluid sloshing and provides accurate level measurement of up to 0.5% of full sensing range. The sensor provides non-contact measurement and can be programmed easily with free downloadable software.

Bimba bimba.com Bimba has launched the BPVA, an affordable, compact, pneumatic pinch valve. The BPVA expands the pinch valve portfolio with a more cost-effective solution for industrial and medical applications. As with its other pinch valves, the BPVA is designed as an alternative to traditional wetted valves by opening and closing flexible tubing to control the flow of media; it never makes contact with the valve. The BPVA: • requires less maintenance and reduces the risk of contamination, • offers a life expectancy of 3 million cycles, • features a compact design that enables operations in confined spaces, and • is available at a cost-effective price point With a completely stainless-steel, corrosion-resistant option, the BPVA is suitable for wash down and sanitary environments. Additional options such as mounting brackets, various seal materials, and magnetic position sensing accommodate a broad range of applications.

Hydraulic plugs Polymer Molding Inc. polymermolding.com Polymer Molding’s new hydraulic plugs provide a positive seal for SAE straight thread O-ring ports and MIL-MS-33649 bosses. The FFP series threaded plugs are knurled to protect against contaminants and for easy assembly and removal on fluid power components. An integrated O-ring type bead seals in the bevel of the port to prevent contaminants and oil leakage. The FFP series plugs are molded in high-density polypropylene. The standard color is red.

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For further information about products on these pages visit the Fluid Power World website @ www.fluidpowerworld.com

Subfreezing dryer Ingersoll Rand ingersollrand.com

TOUGH SWIVELS FOR HARD-WORKING MACHINES

Ingersoll Rand has introduced its new dryer technology, the Subfreezing Dryer. The Subfreezing Dryer is the first dryer that provides a -4° F pressure dew point at 70% lower energy costs and 40% smaller footprint than that of traditional desiccant dryers. It is compatible with oil-flooded rotary compressors, oil-free rotary compressors, centrifugal compressors, and reciprocating compressors. The new Subfreezing Dryer achieves air quality previously only attainable with costlier drum or desiccant dryer technology. This new technology provides users with high quality, -4° F dew point air, from a high-performance regenerative refrigerant dryer in an efficient and economical package. It supplies a constant ISO Class 3 -4° F pressure dew point air, regardless of changes in demand or ambient temperatures. This allows users to meet the compressed air needs of their operation.

Used by many of the largest OEMs worldwide Precisely made in Canada with premium US steel

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Wind Energy Support GAT ROTARY JOINT & SERVO/PROPORTIONAL VALVE REMANUFACTURING

Process • THE UNIT IS FULLY DISASSEMBLED AND INSPECTED • UNIT IS “DYE” CHECKED FOR HIDDEN DAMAGE • SEAL RINGS ON SHAFT ARE INSPECTED FOR GROOVES

CAUSED BY THE SHAFT SEALS. IF THERE ARE GROOVES OR PITTING WE MAKE NEW SEAL RINGS

SHAFT IS MEASURED FOR ROUNDNESS AND WEAR SPOTS ON THE 4 “PLATED/COATED AREAS”.

THE SLEEVES ARE “BORE GAGED” TO CHECK FOR ROUNDNESS OR WEAR SPOTS. THE FIT BETWEEN THE SHAFT “OD” AND THE SLEEVE “ID” IS CRITICAL. IF THE SLEEVES ARE BAD WE MAKE NEW ONES.

ALL BEARINGS AND SEALS ARE REPLACED WITH NEW VITON COMPOUND

ALL UNITS ARE TESTED AT 2000 PSI FOR LEAKAGE BETWEEN PORTS

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For further information about products on these pages visit the Fluid Power World website @ www.fluidpowerworld.com

Coalescing filter/regulator series ControlAir controlair.com The new Type FA10 coalescing filter and the Type FA12 filter regulator/coalescing filter combo are specifically designed to remove liquid aerosols and sub-micron particles from compressed air. The Type FA12 filter regulator with coalescing filter combines the coalescing filter with a high-performance filter regulator in one convenient piggy-back assembly. The Type FA10 coalescing filter provides superior filtration down to 0.3 or 0.01 micron. It is offered with 1⁄8, ¼, or ½-in. NPT porting. Maximum operating pressure is up to 150 psig (10 bar) and proof pressure of 200 psig (15 bar). Temperature limits are 23° to 140° F (–5° to 60° C). Flow capacities range up to 39 scfm (1,100 lpm). Drain capacities range up to 1.89 oz (56 cm3) and can be mounted in-line or with bracket.

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The Type FA12 filter regulator/coalescing filter combo comes in one convenient compact package. The filter regulator provides accurate pressure regulation and filtration to 5 microns, while the coalescing filter provides further filtration down to 0.3 or 0.01 micron. The Type FA12 offers 1⁄8 or ¼-in. NPT porting. Operating pressure range is 7-140 psig (0.5-10 bar). Supply pressure is up to 150 psig (10.5 bar). Temperature limits are 23° to 140° F (–5° to 60° C). Flow capacities range up to 46 scfm (1,300 lpm). Drain capacities range up to 1.28 oz (38 cm3). The unit can be mounted in-line or with a bracket.

10/11/19 3:54 PM


PRODUCT WORLD

7-gallon version of TNK series Schroeder schroederindustries.com The TNK7 is a complete hydraulic reservoir solution specially designed for compact and agile hydraulic (mobile) applications. It is an integrated and certified clean solution for fluid storage, monitoring, and conditioning in smaller-scale mobile hydraulic systems. Whether the application itself is compact in scale with strict weight requirements or is a part of a larger system with stringent clearance allowance, the TNK7 finds itself right at home. The TNK7 combines customized engineering solutions with scalable usability of catalog items. Users can take advantage of a reservoir with fully equipped components without having to pay extra for tooling, subassembly, and cleaning processes.

SS316L Digital Pressure Switch for General Fluids.

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Round-body, nonrepairable actuators IMI Precision Engineering imi-precision.com The introduction of the Roundline Plus Expanded Range adds seven new cylinder types to the existing actuator line-up. Three-position (3R) cylinders provide three positive stroke positions with a single cylinder. Non-rotating (NR) double-acting and reverse acting cylinders have a unique square piston rod with rounded corners, suitable for applications where the load connected to the rod requires consistent orientation. All stainless steel non-repairable (SR) cylinders are suitable for food processing/packaging, medical, chemical, or marine environments where washdown solutions and other corrosives are present. Tough duty (ZR) cylinders have a larger diameter two-piece piston rod, elastomer bumpers, and Buna N U-cup seals for reliable operation in higher duty applications. Rod lock (LR) cylinders are typically clamped units that hold the piston rod in position when air pressure is not present, preventing drift at machine shutdown. Roundline hydraulic cylinders (HR) deliver up to 500 psi hydraulic pressure and slow, smooth movement. Finally, hole punch (HPR) single-acting cylinders have a removable cutter at the end of the rod with razorsharp cutting teeth designed to punch holes in thin plastic film. 66

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INTERNATIONAL FLUID POWER EXPO MARCH 10-14, 2020 LAS VEGAS, NV, USA

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PRODUCT WORLD

Mobile crimping machine Manuli Hydraulics manuli-hydraulics.com Designed specifically for mobile maintenance vans and onsite repairs, the MRV 137 EVO R is a compact, ergonomically designed, crimping machine with an adjustable head for maximum ease of use. The rotating crimping head can be positioned vertically, horizontally, or any position in between through its design and tool-free locking mechanism. Suitable for 4 wire-spiral hoses up to 1Âź-in., the MRV 137 EVO R is a versatile addition to any low to medium volume mobile repair and maintenance operation. The MRV 137 EVO R can be supplied with an optional ergonomic quick-change gun for die installation and removal and can also be fitted with an optional die storage panel making it even more efficient to use.

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Closed-circuit variable displacement pump Parker Hannifin parker.com

The PC3 variable displacement axial piston pump is designed for medium duty applications. It comes in ten standard displacement options: 7, 11, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 52 cc and in three different frame sizes. Displacement sizes 7 to 20 are rated at 210 bar and 3,600 rpm while sizes 25 to 52 are rated at 300 bar and 3,400 rpm during continuous operation. The PC3 comes with a variety of built-in features to increase system efficiency and streamline performance. These features include a hot oil shuttle valve, hydraulic pressure overrides, cross port reliefs, and bypass valve which reduce the need for third-party components and help protect your pump. When combined with the various modular and inter-changeable controls (manual servo, hydraulic proportional, electric proportional, direct swashplate) the PC3 will efficiently deliver the exact power you need when operating your application.

Vacuum gripper Piab piab.com The Kenos KCS gripper enables a collaborative robot (cobot) that can handle just about anything, anywhere, at any time. This versatility makes it a suitable "co-working" tool, especially for small businesses, where flexibility is essential. Originally developed together with a leading cobot manufacturer as a tailor-made automation tool for one application, the resulting vacuum gripper cobot proved so successful that it is now being offered more widely. Combining proprietary air-driven COAX technology for highly efficient vacuum ejection with an easily replaceable technical foam that molds itself around any surface or shape, the Kenos KCS gripper can be used to grip, lift, and handle any object. Standard interface (ISO) adapters enable the whole unit to be attached to any cobot type on the market and, with a body made in a lightweight 3D printed material, it can be easily moved to perform different jobs in different parts of a production site, warehouse, or other setting.

High-temperature hydraulic hoses Kuriyama of America Inc. kuriyama.com Temp Tech high-temperature hydraulic hoses by Alfagomma withstand long exposure to nearly every type of hydraulic fluid, lubricating oil or fuel commonly used in industry today, including fire-resistant hydraulic fluids. Available in single wire braid versions 1SN/R1AT and 100R5, and double wire braid 2SN/R2AT, Temp Tech hoses will operate in applications with continuous high temperatures of +300°F. They are also designed for use where greatly extended service life under “normal” conditions is desired.

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By: Josh Cosford • Contributing Editor

COMPONENT FOCUS

How do water hydraulics work?

M

Most of you are familiar with the use of oil as the fluid medium for hydraulic systems, which is inherently excellent at its job. It lubricates well, provides good heat capacity and is stable over various pressure and temperature ranges. As good as oil is, it’s not the only power transmission liquid in use today.

As counterintuitive as it may seem, water can make a great hydraulic fluid, in spite of your association between water and corrosion of the mostly metal components used in hydraulics. True water hydraulic systems use only filtered water as its medium, so the construction materials used must resist corrosion, making expensive stainless steel the material of choice. Pumping systems differ from oil hydraulics because of the lack of lubricity. Rather than swashplate pistons designs or cam ring based vane pumps, most water hydraulic machines use a reciprocating piston pump. The triplex pump, for example, uses three reciprocating pistons with a separate crankcase and cylinder head. The crankcase is filled with oil to lubricate its crankshaft, bearings and connecting rods. However, the head contains no oil at all. The head of a reciprocating pump has inlet and outlet check valves, which are contamination resistant poppet valves requiring no lubrication. As one of the pump’s pistons draw back, the inlet valve opens and water is drawn in. As the piston extends, the suction valve closes while the outlet valve opens and the pump provides pressure. Control of water hydraulics requires stainless steel pressure and directional valves as well. Most effective are poppet valves, which

are contamination resistant and require no lubrication. Soft or hard sealing technology is employed; soft being something like polyurethane and hard being metal-to-metal. Soft seals will provide efficient operation even in the presence of contamination, while a hard poppet and seat will last longer but is more prone to contamination-related wear and leakage. Water hydraulics has its upsides and downsides. The benefits are the free and bountiful fluid; available anywhere so long as it’s wellfiltered before use — reverse osmosis would pay benefit as well. The major advantage is its environmental friendliness. A leaking cylinder would be a pain but would contaminate its surroundings no more than an overflowing gutter. Topping up the tank after a leak could be done with a garden hose, in a pinch. Finally, it goes without saying water is extremely flame resistant, so any application in extreme heat or exposed flame would not turn dangerous with a leak. Of course, there are downsides to water hydraulics. Water is much more prone to cavitation than is oil, so care must be taken in system design and component layout. The cavitation may occur in valves and actuators, not just pumps, Also, stainless steel is exponentially more expensive than carbon steel, so all metal components are cost-prohibitive for average applications. FPW

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Fluid Power World 4. Issue Frequency

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12,467

11,313

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e.

12,606

Total Distribution (Sum 15cPrint and e) b. Total Requested andofPaid Copies (15c) + Requested/Paid Electronic copies (16a)

0

0

11,313

11,357

674

636

0

0

0

0

217

169

891

805

12,204

12,162

402

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92.7%

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93.4%

Total Requested Copy distribution (15f) + Requested/Paid Electronic copies (16a) g. c. Copies not Distributed (See Instructions to Publishers #4, (page #3)) I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false or misleading information on this form d. or Percent who omits material information requested on the form may be subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil Paid and/ororRequested Circulation (Sum of & 15f and g) copies (16b divided By 16c x 100) h. Total sanctions (including civil penalties). (Both print electronic

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Ad Index_FPW_10-19_Vs1_Statement of Ownership.indd 72

Kurt Hydraulics.............................. 9 Main Manufacturing................... 10 MP Filtri USA Inc......................... 13 Muncie Power Products.............. 11 NOSHOK Inc................................ 51 O+P SrL.......................................... 6 Polyconn...................................... 47 Rota Engineering Ltd................... 50 Ryco............................................. 68 Servo Kinetics.............................. 64 Seven Ocean Hydraulics.............. 40 SFC Koenig................................... 16 SIKO Products.............................. 25 Spartan Scientific........................ 48 Stauff Corporation........................ 5 Super Swivels................................ 2 Taimi Hydraulics.......................... 63 Texcel Rubber.............................. 27 Tompkins Industries, Inc...... IFC, 10 Valvole America ......................... 60 Veljan Hydrair.............................. 17  Zero-Max, Inc................................ 3

0

0

11,313

AAH Fluid Power......................... 49 Adaptall....................................... 65 Adsens Technology..................... 66 ALA Industries............................. 70 Ametek STC................................. 29 AutomationDirect..............1, Insert Brennan Industries...................... 61 Clippard....................................... BC DMIC.......................................... IBC Doering Co.................................. 35 Fabco-Air, Inc............................... 31 Flow Ezy Filters............................ 15 FluiDyne Fluid Power.................. 33 GRH Power.................................. 55 HAWE Hydraulik.......................... 43 HYDAC Technology Corporation... 23 Hyde Tools Inc............................. 26 Hydraulex Global........................... 7 IFPE 2020.................................... 67 J.W. Winco, Inc............................ 42 Kawasaki Precision Machinery.... 22 Kraft Fluid Systems...................... 57

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Co-Founder, Managing Partner Scott McCafferty 310.279.3844 smccafferty@wtwhmedia.com @SMMcCafferty

EVP Marshall Matheson 805.895.3609 mmatheson@wtwhmedia.com @mmatheson

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