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www.designworldonline.com May 2017

INSIDE: LINEAR CONTROL: Equivalent dynamic load and L10 life ratings for linear-motion setups PAGE 56

MOTION CONTROL: Designing with pneumatic clutches and brakes PAGE 64

ELECTRONICS LEDs light up industrial enclosures PAGE 86

Medical software

development— where safety meets security 76

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I n s i g ht s Plan for vanishing jobs now Disappearing jobs isn’t a new thing. With the passage of time, jobs that were once steady, dependable employment can simply vanish, from phone operators to meter readers to ditch diggers. Society as a whole benefits from new advances in technology—but the people who held these positions are often left behind. We’ve seen this happen in manufacturing over the past few decades as automation, robotics and even efficiency practices made many blue collar jobs die out. Politically charged arguments rage over whether the Democrats or Republicans are to blame, but the reality of globalization and progress would have doomed these jobs eventually, no matter who was in charge. Similarly, the maritime industry has seen a job drain in many sectors, thanks to the improvements from containerization. Thousands of warehouse workers and deck hands were no longer needed at ports across the country (and the world), not to mention the reduction in jobs from tugboat captain to longshoremen as the ships themselves grew larger in scale but fewer in number. Ahh, efficiency. I worry that our leaders are not focused on the next big wave of job losses that’s coming in the near future. And it’s right in front of us on a nearly daily basis: driverless vehicles. The media loves to focus on the technology of driverless cars, but as gee-whiz as it is, and as much as it will save lives and increase efficiency, it will also eliminate jobs. Think of the massive amount of people who’ve found part- or full-time work as Uber drivers. What about occupations as varied as city bus drivers, long haul truckers, or ambulance drivers? What about the number of vehicles made? Will that decrease, further reducing employment in automotive applications? I’ve read estimates that as many as 3 million jobs will be eliminated as a result of driverless technology in the coming decades. The time to worry about that (and how we train workers for other positions) isn’t when a magic billboard somewhere hits the number 3,000,000 and a nearby politician stands up and starts shouting. We need action—and a real plan now.  Manufacturing executives whom I speak with are constantly talking about a skills gap in our country. They tell me that there aren’t enough qualified people to operate their machine tools or repair their welding robots. They wonder where they’re going to find the help to allow them to keep expanding their operations.  Maybe it’s time to put together a cohesive plan to train those in driving-related careers as our manufacturing experts of tomorrow. I’m not interested in stopping technology’s march, but we’d be fools not to plan for its side effects. I don’t think that politicians can help us here—but who’s going to stand up and take this on? Individual communities? Manufacturers themselves? Industry trade groups? We’re waiting, and time is ticking … DW

Pa ul J. He n ey - Edi tor i al D i re ctor phe ney@wtwhme di a.com

On Twitter @ DW—Editor

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Te s c h l e r o n To p i c

The frustrations of dealing with those convinced by false facts and fake news The March for Science recently wrapped up in more than 600 cities worldwide. Estimates are that marchers numbering in the hundreds of thousands took to the streets partly because of “an alarming trend toward discrediting scientific consensus and restricting scientific discovery.” The more prosaic expression of this sentiment is that more and more people seem to label certitudes that are inconvenient to their beliefs as either false facts or fake news.

No question it can be exasperating

to deal with someone who is immune to indisputable evidence. Our urge may be to grab such individuals by the lapels and shake them, though we know this sort of persuasion isn’t likely to work. But neither, unfortunately, is a science march. So we might wonder where to turn for advice on how to deal with people who won’t change their mind in the face of overwhelming evidence.

A good place to start might be with Michael Shermer, publisher of Skeptic magazine and a Presidential Fellow at Chapman University. Shermer has experience dealing with purveyors of false facts that stretches back to before the subject was trendy. He says he’s long been hounded by 9/11 truthers who expect him to be a skeptic of the official explanation for 9/11. He says he has also had run-ins with Holocaust deniers after he penned an article on the subject for Skeptic and subsequently expanded it into a book. Both truthers and deniers employ a tactic that Shermer dubs “anomalies as proof:” They seize on what seem to be small inconsistencies in the narrative of events, then claim that these small irregularities add up to a hoax. The 9/11 truthers, for example, often argue that fires in the Twin Towers caused by burning jet fuel from the crashed planes could not have caused the buildings’ collapse. The reason is because jet fuel burns at 1,500°F while steel melts at about 2,800°. Conspiracy theorists insist some other incendiary substance must have been present to implode the Towers. Of course, this difference in temperatures isn’t really an anomaly. The problem with this argument is that steel loses half its strength at 650°F and can lose as much as

90% of its strength at 1,800°F. Thus the heat from burning fuel would have been high enough to cause structural failure. But don’t try telling that to a 9/11 truther. Shermer says it is often a waste of time to point out that science has a good explanation for these so-called anomalies. In many cases, the proponents of these cockamamie theories hold deep-set worldviews that are threatened by contrary evidence, making scientific facts an enemy to be slayed. If bringing up corrective facts only leads to more heated arguments, you might wonder if there is any hope for dealing with the false-facts crowd. Shermer has some suggestions for what to do when you find yourself in one of these no-win situations. Among them: Keep emotions out of the exchange -- always a good idea when dealing with extremists. Also, discuss, rather than attack, and listen carefully. Finally, and perhaps the hardest action to master in potentially charged exchanges: Show respect. We suspect Shermer’s advice would probably go a lot farther toward calming a crowd that “discredits scientific consensus” than a march of defiant scientists. DW

Le la n d Te sc h le r - Exec u t i ve Edi to r ltesc h ler@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—LeeTeschler

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Te c h n o lo gy Fo r wa rd

Caterpillar Inc.’s plans for additive manufacturing At the recent AMUG 2017 Conference, Stacey DelVecchio, Additive Manufacturing Product Manager at Caterpillar Inc., gave a presentation on why and how Caterpillar uses 3D printing/additive manufacturing. The company known for big earth moving equipment has a thriving additive manufacturing facility.

Caterpiller management has encouraged the use of additive technologies to better meet tight emissions regulations and to evolve to stay in business. In 1991, the company’s additive team bought a stereolithography machine, which the engineers used extensively. By 2009, the team purchased its first desktop printer. Both management and the engineering team view additive as a way to move to the next level of innovation. For Caterpillar, this is the age where “iron flexes its intelligence.” One of the programs Caterpillar has in place brings engineers who know additive to those engineers who know specific systems and components and lets them talk together. Another program involves a design competition, which encourages the engineers to explore how additive can help them. Additive has already contributed to a number of design successes. A fuel swirler is produced through metal printing. Due to its complex design, it was right for 3D printing. The 3D printed version combines several parts into one. A grommet is built using Carbon’s M1 printer. The elastomeric materials have the right properties that hold up to in this lowvolume aftermarket application. Another example was a ball check valve. This valve was a Caterpiller design competition winner where multiple pieces were combined into one, eliminating a leak path. Plus, the design was easier to fix in the field.

Another example showed an earthmover engine housing made from sand on one of the company’s 3D printers. DelVecchio advised that if you set up an additive service for engineers’ prototypes, don’t suggest that printing is free. Begin by charging a fee just for the material. As acceptance grows, than you can alter the fees until you reach a point where your internal customers are paying a fully burdened cost, including depreciation of the equipment. The Additive Manufacturing Factory at Caterpiller is a tool for the engineers. They learn about additive, how to handle low volume and how to handle Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Presently, the factory is used to build parts, prototypes, and assembly tools. Caterpillar plans on being a direct supplier to its dealers, especially with service tools. It also has plans to become an external supplier to others. The company is looking into a hub and spoke approach where additive will be the hub. DelVecchio noted that additive manufacturing definitely will be used to replace other methods of part production. DW

Le sli e La n gn a u - M a n ag i n g Edi to r lla n g n a u @wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—3Dprinting 8

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D e v i ce Ta l ks

Three enduring lessons from 6 years of CEO interviews at DeviceTalks

This one is for the caffeine-addled world changers out there, who consume leadership memes on Linkedin for breakfast, searching for inspiration with the same passion as a big-foot truther. For the past six years, I’ve been interviewing the most successful men and women in the medical device industry at DeviceTalks, a conference I founded in 2011. (It continues as three annual events in Boston, Minnesota and Orange County, Calif. DeviceTalks Minnesota is June 26-27 in St. Paul.) Over those years, which I’ve come to think of as my own personal MBA (with an open bar), I’m often asked if there’s a common thread that connects the CEOs of giant companies like Allergan, Medtronic, Boston Scientific. The easy answer is that, of course, there’s a common thread among these leaders, and I’m not talking about B ri a n Joh n son - Pu bli s h er bj o h n so n @wtwh m edi a .co m

www.designworldonline.com  

Device Talks Column 5-17 Vs3.LL.indd 11

Harvard Business School, or the fact that they’re usually male. I’m speaking of something more tangible that you can hang your hat on. With that in mind, I submit the following three lessons, straight from the horse’s mouth, which I think link very successful business leaders. 1 Hating to lose. “Most people don’t realize I’m very competitive…I can’t stand to lose” — John Brown, Former CEO Stryker Corp. For a man who took a company from $17 million in annual sales to $4.5 billion over a 32 -year tenure in the corner office of Kalamazoo-Mich.-based Stryker Corp., John Brown is a remarkably humble billionaire. However, don’t let the quiet exterior fool you, he’s a cold blooded competitor, who hates to lose.

May 2017

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D e v i ce Ta l ks “Hating to lose” rather than “loving to win” is a great predictor for success in business, according to Benson Smith, the former CEO of Teleflex and a DeviceTalks alumni. Smith-an accomplished author, whose 2003 book “Discover your sales Strength,” was published by the Gallup Organization--told me that he looks for this particular personality trait in all of his sales leaders, because, as he put it, “if (people who hate to lose) are in a close contest they’re going to pour on extra gas to get the job done.” 2 Finding a way around obstacles. “I’ve always told people thoughout my career that, when the door is closed, you’ve got to find a window and you never give up.” — Bill Hawkins, Former CEO, Medtronic Bill Hawkins, who spoke at DeviceTalks in 2015, taught me this lesson when he was describing his bid to attend the Darden School of Business at the University of Virginia, despite being rejected for admission. “I said, ‘I’m not going to let that go,’ so I called the admissions director and I said to him ‘I think you’ve made a mistake and I got the wrong letter and I’d like to come down and tell you why you made a mistake.’” You can probably guess how the rest of the story plays out but it’s another of the enduring lessons of leadership that so many leaders I’ve spoken to share. When each of them encounters a wall in their way of a goal, they don’t just continue to ram their head against it, they find a way around, or they build a ladder and climb over it. 3 Taking culture seriously. “I spend most of my time focused on the culture” — Michael Mahoney, CEO, Boston Scientific. Mike Mahoney has executed one of the most successful turnarounds in recent history, righting the ship at Boston Scientific over the past six years, dragging the company from sagging sales and foundering stock

prices to one of the best performing medtech companies over that period. When we met at DeviceTalks in 2015, he told me that he didn’t turn around the company simply by cutting costs and issuing edicts, but by building people up and making them believe in themselves again. “We did some structural things, we enabled the organization to move a little bit faster by expanding the number of reports and the speed of the company. We did a lot of simple things on just reinvigorating what it means to work here,” he said. I guess taking culture seriously isn’t some sort of revelation but, honestly, having the empathy and patience to implement a winning culture is the most difficult thing for a leader to implement, especially when there’s so much pressure on producing results. So, what does that really mean? It means that you, as a leader have the confidence to empower people to make their own decisions. This was a point that John Brown made to me as well. “Early on, I was insistent on making all of the decisions on everything, and then it struck me about three or four years down the road that I was the obstacle,” he said. So, there you have it: three pretty simple lessons from three pretty complex and successful leaders. I can’t promise you they’ll make you as successful as they are but, at the least, they may make you a better person to be around. As for DeviceTalks, we’re beginning our sixth year of shows across the U.S. on June 26th-27th in Minneapolis, Minn. the heart of the medtech industry. This year, we’ve added an engineering track to go along with our incredible leadership program, so I hope you’ll check it out and join us. Take a look at our site www.devicetalks.com for more information. DW

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» Gree n E n g i n e e ri n g

Automakers pursuing more

green vehicles At last month’s New York International Auto Show, Honda revealed its Clarity Plug-in Hybrid and Clarity Electric sedans with its Clarity Fuel Cell, which launched in December. The company says it will target U.S. sales of 75,000 vehicles in the first four model years. This will contribute to an anticipated five-fold increase in Honda’s U.S. sales of electrified vehicles over the next four years. The company has previously announced a target that two-thirds of its global auto sales will come from electrified vehicles by 2030. Honda says that Clarity is the first ever vehicle series offering customers an expanded array of electrified vehicle choices with fuel cell, battery electric and plug-in hybrid powertrains. The 2017 Honda Clarity Electric is powered by a 161-hp (120 kW) electric motor producing 221 lb.-ft. of torque and drawing power from a 25.5-kWh battery pack. The vehicle can by fully charged in just over three hours at 240 V, and 14

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Green Engineering_5-17_Vs2.indd 14

May 2017

n Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director

when using DC fast charging with the SAE Combined Charging System, can achieve an 80% charge in 30 minutes. The model is anticipated to have an anticipated EPA fuel economy rating of 120/102/111 MPGe (miles per gallon of gasoline-equivalent, city/highway/combined). The 2018 Honda Clarity Plug-in Hybrid, launching later this year, is anticipated to earn an all-electric driving range rating of 42 miles, the longest of any midsize plug-in hybrid. For longer trips, it can use its hyperefficient 1.5-L Atkinson cycle 4-cylinder engine to generate electricity and, under certain conditions, to act as a direct power source, resulting in an anticipated overall driving range rating in excess of 330 miles. The vehicle’s electromotive power comes from a 181-hp electric motor, producing 232 lb.-ft. of torque and drawing power from both the gasoline engine and

a 17-kWh battery pack with a recharge time of 2.5 hours at 240 V. The Clarity Plug-in Hybrid is anticipated to earn an EPA fuel economy rating of 105 MPGe combined. At the same show, luxury automaker Genesis unveiled its progressive GV80 Concept SUV. The new fuel cell concept SUV is the brand’s first interpretation of a versatile luxury SUV. The GV80 Concept uses the latest plug-in hydrogen fuel cell electric technology to combine ecoperformance and capability. Genesis said it will continue to study the benefits of similar alternative propulsion systems and eco-friendly technologies for future product applications. DW

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

www.designworldonline.com

5/4/17 9:32 AM


MPD m e m o ry p r o t e c t i o n d e v i c e s

WITHSTANDING THE SANDS OF TIME b

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| Courtesy of Henkel

Co ntent s |

May 2017 • vol 12 no 5

|

designworldonline.com

F E AT U R E S

56

64 76

LINEAR MOTION Equivalent dynamic load and L10 life ratings for linear-motion setups Medical devices used for diagnosing and treating cancer are taking advantage of advances in measurement and motion control.

MOTION CONTROL

86

ELECTRONICS

92

INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET

Designing with pneumatic clutches and brakes Here are answers to the most frequently asked questions about designing with pneumatic clutches and brakes.

104

MEDICAL Medical software development— where safety meets security The medical industry is seeing increased scrutiny for both safety and security in devices. Cyber security is becoming a must-have feature. Fortunately, there is significant overlap between the practices for safety and security, and it is vital to understand both the similarities and differences between the two principles.

LEDs light up industrial enclosures LEDs have become bright enough, rugged enough, and inexpensive enough to handle illumination chores inside industrial control cabinets.

The equipment keeping the IoT connected We break down the stats for some of the need-to-know industrial ethernet products of the year.

111-128 A supplement of Design World • May 2017

FASTENING & JOINING

Additive versus

subtractive?

Why not both?

124

Encapsulants and sealants protect fragile electronic components As PCBs proliferate, it is important to keep these delicate devices protected from environmental damage. Here’s a look at some products on the market designed to do just that.

112 Additive pushes further into manufacturing

118 3D printed conformal cooling channels control injection molding temperatures

COVER_MPF 5-17_Vs2_final.indd 111

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130-143

Sensor www.sensortips.com

ON THE COVER

A Supplement to Design World - May 2017

Ultrasonic

Photo: istockphoto

additive manufacturing gets sensors in the right place

Sensor Tip cover 5-17_Vs1.indd 131

ON THE COVER As device software becomes more vital and complex, medical device manufacturers are seeing increased scrutiny over the safety and security of these devices. | Courtesy of Mentor Graphics

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May 2017

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Contents MAY 2017_second page_Vs2.indd 18

DESIGN WORLD

May 2017

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Follow the whole team on twitter @DesignWorld EDITORIAL

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Design for Industry | c o n v e y i n g

ARB technology makes it easy to work with conveyor systems that have multiple requirements. This drawing illustrates packages being sorted on the ARB S7000 belt.

Reinventing the way packages move One of the latest advances in automated conveyance involves reinventing the way packages move from point A to point B. The Intralox patented Activated Roller Belt (ARB) equipment brings the benefits of modular plastic belting to conveyance applications to enable greater flexibility, higher throughputs, reduced footprint, and simpler control. To maintain control and increase the flexibility of the ARB equipment, Intralox uses multiple STM/SWM integrated stepper motor packages (motor, drive, and control in one package), designed and manufactured by Applied Motion Products. Major advantages and features are gained from having a single package solution. For example, the stall detection and stall prevention features of the STM/SWM package allows the ARB to operate each stepper motor in a similar way to operating a servo motor—eliminating the

concern over stepper motor “slip.” Further, the Q-Programming feature of the STM/SWM allows the user to create custom operations. This allowed Intralox to develop a “variable following” technique that provided efficient, flexible positioning, plus allowed them to easily modify the motor operation as required. The configurable operational modes of the STM/ SWM integrated stepper motor further supported the Intralox designers’ need to match the proper operational mode to the requirements of each specific product type or application. The most common ARB electro-mechanical assembly consists of a “rack and pinion” type design. The Applied Motion STM/SWM motor is coupled to the “rack” component directly, or indirectly, with a ballscrew. Motor rotation causes the “racks” to operate the “pinions,” which in turn cause the actuated rollers embedded in the ARB belt to spin as required. This causes the product being conveyed by the ARB belt to move in a “vectored” direction at preprogrammed velocities. Depending

STM/SWM integrated stepper motor packages from Applied Motion Products have been designed for user flexibility.

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Design for Industry | c o n v e y i n g

on customer requirements, varying combinations of mechanical transmission and motor control methods can range from a simple pneumatic point-to-point emulation to a high-precision networked variable position solution. Most of the ARB technologies use an operating range of -30.0 to +30.0 degrees (ARB module rotation), where 1 mm of rack movement equates to 5.79 degrees of ARB module rotation. So, when using a 10 mm lead ballscrew, motors can be programmed for a full-span movement of 1.2 revolutions (12 mm of ballscrew movement). This 12 mm of movement yields 69.48 degrees of total rack movement (12 x 5.79 = 69.48). Additionally, 9.48 degrees of “extra range” is used for backlash compensation and electronic zero calibration. Commanded positioning units are 0-12000, which produces a positioning precision of roughly 0.005 mm per positioning unit (0.033 rotational degrees). If the motors are operated at a velocity of 16 rps, with an accel/decel of 600 rev/sec2 it will yield a fullrange movement (-30 to +30) in about 100 msecs, and a half-range movement (30 degrees) in about 64 msec.

Depending on the configuration, torque values can easily be calculated. For example, an SWM24X-3 (at 48 Vdc) will produce about 200 oz-in. (at 16 rps). When using a 10 mm lead ballscrew, it will produce a maximum of about 200 lb-ft of thrust. Getting to the proper combination of speed/torque/gearing continues to be an iterative process. The EtherNet/IP feature of the STM/SWM package implements a 4 msec RPI (update) to networked motors, which allows the ARB equipment to perform at high speeds with precision. An analog signal provided to each ARB actuator typically comes from a central PLC for an update cycle of 2 msec. However, analog signals are prone to electrical noise and because of the unique design of the conveyor mechanisms, the slightest analog signal drift can cause errors in how packages are handled on the conveyor. The challenge of a new and improved conveyor system was to develop a motor and actuator

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1 O

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assembly that could position as rapidly as the analog control system (or nearly as rapidly) while eliminating the deadband issue and therefore increasing overall system accuracy. Intralox determined that while the analog system could update target position every 2 msec, this was faster than necessary for the majority of applications and that updating target position every 4 msec would be sufficient. Each actuator moves only a short distance, but through an innovative mechanical design, the short-stroke actuator can be used with a variety of conveyor widths from as little as 1 ft and all the way up to 8 ft across. Further compounding the situation is that the motors are located throughout the length of a conveyor section—sections up to 200 feet long can have as many as 100 motors on it—so the analog signal wires from the central PLC to each of the motors can be long. These cables provide substantial surface area to pick up ambient electrical noise, which in turn makes the drift problem worse. To overcome this situation with an analog control scheme, Intralox implemented a deadband algorithm into the step motor controller so that when commanded to be at rest the actuator is not dithering, causing the actuator mechanism to be out of position. Additionally, the deadband must be fairly large so that even in the noisiest electro-mechanical environments, the position control of the motors and actuators will be stable. Using the EtherNet/IP feature of the Applied Motion Products integrated motors, Intralox replaced the noisy analog signal with a digital value, thus eliminating all of the analog noise issues. The end result was a conveyor system capable of handling packages in a wide variety of configurations. ARB technology is consistently designed into applications where the handling of packages need to be aligned, turned, merged, sorted, singulated, and more, for industries such as food processing, meat, poultry and seafood processing, beverage handling, can manufacturing, baking, case and box handling, and other types of packaging. DW Intralox LLC | Intralox.com

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www.eagletube.com 22

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Design for Industry | s a f e t y

Safety system prevents unauthorized access IS

lift operation by untrained or unauthorized personnel. A basic key switch or a more feature rich 10-key pushbutton digital keypad can be added to a mechanical or hydraulically operated Vertical Reciprocating Conveyor (VRC). Two keys are provided with the basic LiftLok keyed system while authorized lift operators can enter a unique 4-digit user/passcode, or swipe preprogrammed proximity credentials tag (key fob) on the LiftLok digital keypad to enable lift operation. To simplify VRC installation with the feature-rich LiftLok keypad system, two administrative level programming codes are included for use by the installer. Once installed, authorized lift operators can be

assigned a secure 4-digit user passcode to activate the call/send control station and operate the lift. Although access to the lift is typically assigned to only a few authorized personnel, up to 500 user passcodes can be programmed into the LiftLok keypad system. This ensures maximum user flexibility and long service life, since old user passcodes can be retired/deactivated and new codes assigned as responsibilities or personnel change. DW

O

1

ISO 13485

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The LiftLok VRC safety system prevents

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Design for Industry | s e m i c o n d u c t o r

Compact eddy current sensor fits semicondutor clean room needs Manufacturing and design industries require increasing precision of measurement, and selecting the right non-contact proximity measuring system can be essential to a successful project that stays on time and on budget. Selection of the right technology for a non-contact proximity measuring system will come down to environment and performance requirements. The primary three technologies used are capacitance displacement, laser displacement, and eddy current sensors. Here we focus on eddy current sensors. Eddy current sensors are well suited for all environments from inside internal combustion engines to semiconductor clean rooms. These sensors have advantages in higher-temperature environments, as eddy currents can withstand high ambient temperatures. The KD-2446 non-contact high-precision measuring system, for example, uses eddy currents, operating on the principle of impedance variation caused by eddy currents induced in a conductive target by a sensor coil. This technology is capable of sub-micro inch resolution. The KD-2446 may be used in a variety of applications using target materials such as ferrous steel, stainless steel or aluminum. Applications include displacement, vibration, sorting and event capture. In addition to its measuring capabilities (with resolution to 12 micro in.), the eddy current sensor offers opto-isolated switched output for process control, suitable for interfacing to PLC inputs, counters, timers or alarm circuits. Beyond its simple construction, integrated features and low pricepoint, other key elements of the KD-2446 include: variable voltage input (12 to 24 Vdc), temperature tolerance (up to 400°F), high speed (10KHz analog output, 3.3KHz switched output), low switching hysteresis (< 1% on ferrous targets), and RoHS compliant. If static resolution to 12 micro in. is acceptable, the KD-2446 may be a viable alternative to a more complex system. An “off the shelf” option like the KD-2446 can also be helpful in getting a measurement process started, for example when a concept needs proving quickly and with reasonable accuracy. DW Kaman Precision Products | kamansensors.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

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Design for Industry | p a c k a g i n g

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Super-flat actuators feature IP65 protection and 480V, which makes the FHA actuator well suited for machine tool, packaging, and wash-down applications. The FHA-C-H series actuators come in four sizes. FHA-C-H rotary servo actuators use Harmonic Drive precision gears combined with a performance matched brushless servo motor. Encoder options include EnDat and HIPERFACE. The FHA series is designed to operate with a wide range of third-party servo drives including Bosch, Mitsubishi, Siemens, and Kollmorgen. The FHA has a low-profile form factor and features a hollowoutput shaft. This hollow shaft may be used to pass cables, tubing or lasers through the axis of rotation. Gear Ratios of 50:1, 100:1, and 160:1 are available in each of the four sizes, offering the designer a wide selection of speed and torque specifications. These actuators maintain zero backlash for the life of the gear. DW

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» D e s i g n N o te s

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

1

se of

’s after u

w HEC he knobs. T ges sho a im e s retention e u The rq to hich s high

2

versu tion w deforma standard r e p g with ta s e show rly matin g e a p ro im p t rs m fi e lder fro ond imag a toolho . The sec le prevents d in sign p s ’s nobs’ de machine tention k re the CNC e u rq to PP’s high reflects JM

High torque retention knobs fix toolholder deformation The easiest way to achieve the highest level of per-

formance from CNC mills and tooling is to eliminate toolholder expansion. Toolholder expansion occurs when a standard retention knob is installed into a toolholder. Pressure exerted by thread engagement, coupled with the elastic properties of the steel used to manufacture the toolholders, creates a bulge at the small end of the holder. Once expansion occurs, the holder will not pull all the way into the spindle, and the toolholder can’t make contact with upwards of 70% of the spindle surface. Because this bulge stops the toolholder from making full contact with the taper of the spindle, a wide range of CNC milling issues surface: vibration and chatter, poor tolerances, non-repeatability and others. Hansen Engineering Company selected JM Performance Products’ High Torque knobs to overcome these issues. HEC engineering personnel initially met with JMPP’s technical team at a WESTEC show in Los Angeles, where they were given a

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Design Notes 5-17_Vs5.LL.indd 28

May 2017

demonstration on the benefits of how the High-Torque retention knobs would work with their 50 taper V-flange toolholders. The HighTorque retention knob design features a knob that is longer and reaches deeper into the holder’s threaded bore. As a result, all thread engagement occurs in a region of the toolholder where there is a thicker cross-section of material to resist deformation. HEC initially bought 25 High Torque knobs and properly installed them, following calculated torque specs and using a retention knob socket and torque wrench. Immediately, they noticed a 5% spindle load decrease using a 3.0-in. hi-feed insert mill running titanium. HEC also installed them on an aluminum forging job they were running

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» De sign Note s

retention knob

design

rque s The high-to er and reache ob that is long

s has a kn aded bore. A e holder’s thre th to in er in ep de ent occurs read engagem a result, all th there is a holder where ol to e th of a region erial to resist section of mat thicker crossdeformation.

that had consistently produced chatter problems. Among the tools tested for this job were a 1-1/4 in. diameter knuckle rougher and 2.0-in. diameter finisher. Key design elements include:

cut to start and finish 180° from each other. The High Torque knobs will work in existing toolholders. DW JM Performance Products | jmperformanceproducts.com

Longer than traditional retention knobs, with a precision pilot to increase rigidity, a relief below the flange forces threads into a deeper cross section of the toolholder. The knobs are hard turned to ensure precision fit and are balanced by design with threads www.designworldonline.com  

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» D e s i g n N o te s

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Laser scanning microscope helps EPRI predict metal Whether it’s flipping on a light switch failure

Palo Alto-base d Electric Power Researc h Institute improves throug hput and accuracy of met allurgical studies using 3D Laser Scanning Confoc al Microscopy from Keyence.

or opening the refrigerator door, the residents of industrialized nations have come to expect low-cost, clean, and reliable electric power. Delivery of that power is often easier said than done, though. The world’s electrical grid is fueled by a diverse array of technologies, including nuclear power, natural gas and coal-fired plants, hydroelectric dams, wind farms, geothermal sources, and even the solar cells on residential rooftops.

Connecting these disparate sources of electricity is a monumental task, never mind the need to closely manage their output and keep all of us safe while doing so. Yet that’s exactly the mandate of Dr. John Shingledecker and his peers at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), a non-profit company that serves the public by performing re-

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search and development related to all aspects of electricity. It represents approximately 90% of the electricity generated in the United States as well as 30 countries internationally. No matter how it’s generated, electrical power sources require metal and machinery

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5/2/17 1:41 PM


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» D e s i g n N o te s Quantifiable di

to operate. One apparent exception to this is solar power, but even here, material research plays a key role in improving output from photovoltaic cells. Power generation is grueling work. Metals become fatigued over time by extreme pressures and temperatures, with high stakes in the event of a failure. Shingledecker and EPRI work hard to manage and help prevent that fatigue. The organization’s material laboratory studies new kinds of metallic alloys and other materials for use in future power applications. Legacy systems are monitored as well—samples of metal tubing from utility boilers, for example, or the coatings of valve stems used in steam turbines, are collected and analyzed. The primary tools used for such work have traditionally been optical microscopy,

fferences in hi gh temperature w ear behavior of potential high-t emperature wearresistant co atings/claddings for valves after high-temperatu re laboratory wea r testing.

scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact profilometers. Yet despite their long track record, these instruments are often less than ideal. Contact measuring techniques present the possibility of surface damage, particularly with soft metals or where scaling and oxidation exists, a common occurrence in steam-based power generation. Further, details smaller than a stylus tip are impossible to measure. Optical microscopes are generally limited to around 0.2 µm feature

size and roughly 1500X magnification, and suffer lighting constraints. This is why SEM is often the tool of choice when very high magnification is needed, but this requires lengthy artifact preparation, is limited in the amount of three-dimensional (depth) information offered, and does not easily generate large area images. To identify the root causes of material failures, or predict those failures years in the future, a better tool was needed. Shingledecker and his team of materials

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Design Notes 5-17_Vs5.LL.indd 32

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engineers surveyed a range of equipment and vendors in the area of microscopy and metrology. After reviewing the available options, they selected a Keyence VK-X160K 3D Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope. The VK-X microscope sports a 408 nm wavelength semiconductor laser, motorized stage with 100 mm (3.93 in.) X-Y travels, and optics capable of 28,800X magnification.

There’s no need to prepare specimens before measurement, nor is a vacuum chamber required as with SEM—just set the sample on the stage and start measuring. Z-axis display resolution as high as 0.5 nm is possible, and 130 nm in the X and Y axes. Images are displayed via a high-resolution CCD camera, displaying subtle differences in surface relief and stunning large area metallurgical maps.

High resolution 3D color height m ap used

to characterize a hightemperature er osion test coupon.

Some examples of this include 3D analysis of hard-facing alloys used for erosion resistance in high-temperature valves. Laser microscopy of samples exposed to erosion tests in the laboratory and evaluated with the VK-X clearly showed surface perturbations that were indistinguishable using traditional 2D methods, resulting in reliable—and quantifiable—measurement of material erosion rates. The VK-X offered similar results during analyses of the 30 μm thick, nanostructured TiSiCN coating EPRI and a collaborating utility were evaluating in-service on a valve stems, clearly displaying the amount and depth of material loss during service. EPRI found that images can be collected “in air” [SEM requires vacuum to operate] and there is no need for conductive surfaces as with SEM [which is challenged by coated or oxidized surfaces]. The end result? Technicians can take more samples, more quickly, making overall throughput of the lab that much greater. DW Keyence | keyence.com/epri

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Design Notes 5-17_Vs5.LL.indd 33

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» D e s i g n N o te s

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Hotset Americ a Corporation

currently builds control ca binets for inject ion molding presse s, and other elec tr icallypowered machi nery, as well as tu rn key solutions relate d to thermal pr ocessing.

Simplifying design for control cabinets in injection molding machines When Hotset America Corporation, a subsidiary of Hotset GmbH, was tasked with building control cabinets for a global leader of injection molding machines, the company chose to standardize on the Siemens line of power distribution and motion control products, including drives, breakers, power supplies and other control hardware for its cabinet builds. They have since built between 500 and 600 control cabinets for customers, with practically no issues. The company currently builds control cabinets for injection molding presses, and other electrically-powered machinery, as well as turnkey solutions related to thermal processing. Hotset works with OEMs selling customized designs in control cabinets, alongside their full line of thermal products. The hotset mantra reads “Controlled Energy Flow” and the company subscribes to a build-where-used philosophy, making their Georgia location far more than a distribution outlet. “We have over 50 employees here in Swainsboro, having grown from 14, just a few years ago. The hotset team comprises design and mechanical engineers, thermal specialists, quality personnel and a crew of installation technicians I’d put up against anyone in the industry,” said hotset President David Cieslica. He further notes all the control cabinets are fully run-tested and consistently shipped on time to the hotset OEM customers, a critical factor in today’s just-in-time business environment. Over many decades, the corporate brand hotset has primarily stood for hot runner technology, and for the production of industrial heating elements – predominantly for plastics processing. However, for a long time now, this image has ceased to correspond with reality. Over the past years, 34

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5/2/17 1:42 PM


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3D-PRINTED PROTOTYPES NOW AVAILABLE hotset has not only expanded geographically, but has also developed beyond the boundaries of plastics technology. The new hotset brand is key to ongoing success. “We take the brand concept very seriously. We strive to be a true value-adding supplier to our customers and we see the same attitude from Siemens, as they are constantly offering us suggestions on more efficient implementation of their products into our cabinet designs,” says Cieslica. In this context, he further cites the advantage of collaborative engineering with the company’s controls supplier. Cieslica notes, “While we use almost entirely standard products, implementing them into our CAD formats, we often require assistance in the configuration of the controls inside the cabinet, given our frequent customer challenges for more compact cabinet footprints and machine integration specifics.” As he further notes about the relationship between hotset and Siemens, “We’ve entered into a very long-term contract with one customer, so we knew we needed a reliable supplier who could support us growing our cabinet manufacturing business in America,” he said. He also mentioned another OEM who currently has a contract with hotset for 105 control cabinets. “Siemens has been here to help us in many ways and we appreciate their commitment to our business.” DW Siemens | siemens.com May 2017

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DESIGN WORLD

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Equal to the Toughest Tasks The Position Sensor with Patented Pressure Equalization

Novotechnik’s new LWX Series of heavy-duty sealed position transducers is engineered for extreme operating environments where high temperatures, vibration, high-pressure equipment wash downs, grease, and other contaminants are present. The patented pressure equalization technology prevents buildup or the “pump effect” that can degrade operation in repetitive mechanical, vehicle, automation and robotic applications.

Key specs include: • Stroke lengths from 75 to 750mm • Sealed to IP-67

• Linearity 0.05% • Resolution better than 0.01mm • All metal corrosion resistant housing

For complete LWX information, visit www.novotechnik.com/lwx Novotechnik U.S., Inc. 155 Northboro Road • Southborough, MA 01772 Tel: 508-485-2244 Fax: 508-485-2430

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» D e s i g n N o te s

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

PCBs and PLCs help sharpen slicing machine’s performance Oliver Packaging & Equipment Company’s Varislicer 2005 bread slicing machine had been in the

company’s product line since about 1990. Relying upon a proprietary printed circuit board (PCB) for control and a scrolling 2x20 character display for user communication, the product, although a common seller in some markets, had some limitations, according to Oliver project engineer Vance Matz.

For example, limited display space and output capability, stores would often resort to paper signs to explain how to use the machines. And, although the machine could theoretically provide on-screen troubleshooting information to repair technicians, clarity issues often lead technicians to opt for diagnostic testing when performing maintenance. As a result, when in 2015, Oliver’s PCB supplier discontinued the model of board they were using, the company used the situation to rethink the design of the Varislicer 2005. “We realized that this would be a good application for a

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programmable logic controller – it could offer our customers so much more functionality,” said Matz. Oliver had previously designed equipment using Mitsubishi Electric parts in both their bakery division as well as their sister meal packaging division. Familiar with Mitsubishi Electric equipment, they soon specified a Mitsubishi Electric HMI and a PLC in the newly redesigned Varislicer 2005.

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CPR – any resolution from 1 to 65,536 Waveform – choose from 32 options Output type – 6 different outputs The Model 58TP offers: • Thru or hollow bore options • Standard and metric bore sizes up to 5/8” and 16 mm • Variety of mounting options and connector types • Operating temp of -40º to 100º C Call EPC today to learn how the Model 58TP can be your encoder solution.

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S m T T h R E a d E d S Ta N d O f f S

• Designed for Surface Mount use on PC Boards • Minimize PCB damage • Reduced scrap/handling • Faster board assembly • Manufactured with tin plate • Available in 2-56, 4-40 and 6-32 threads • Lengths from 1/16” up to 3/8” • Ideal for automated installations • Supplied on tape and reel with Kapton tape for easy pick up • Compatible with all reflow operations and vacuum and mechanical pick-&-place assembly systems

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» D e s i g n N o tes

The Mitsubishi Electric PLC and HMI offered flexibility. With a big, easy-to-read screen and large, pressable buttons, machine operation is now almost self-explanatory, even for first time self-serve customers or new bakery employees. Even so, step-by-step instructions can be placed right on the computer screen – a notable improvement from the image quality of the scrolling dotted messages of the previous model. Further, technicians are now getting detailed troubleshooting information right on-screen. “Technicians used to have to do all those time consuming tests to get to the heart of any problem. Now the PLC gives them detailed indicators regarding the status of the sensors, the position of the knife arm, the door and more,” he explained. “They can get in and out of there faster – and that’s good for the retailer, and good for us.” DW

HMI on the ctric PLC and le E i h is b su h an easy-toThe Mit flexibility wit es id ov pr 5 0 operation Varislicer 20 ttons. Machine bu e rg la d time read screen an , even for first -explanatory lf se t os m al is now ployees. new bakery em or s er om st self-serve cu

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Rotating Union Expertise for the Most Complex Applications From DEUBLIN, the world leader in rotating union solutions. DEUBLIN offers both stock items, or unions engineered to your unique requirements. And you can count on the cost savings generated by precision engineering, and the highest quality components.

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»»

» CA E S o lut i o n s

The latest Apps for Onshape

The Onshape App Store makes finding new engineering apps – such as CAM, simulation, rendering, manufacturing and data management –easy. Many development partners offer Integrated Cloud Apps, which work directly within Onshape Documents. Here are some of the more recent additions: Intact solutions • Intact is an automated simulation service on the cloud that does not require installation, preprocessing, meshing, or expertise in analysis. Simply import models from Onshape and analyze them directly. Simple simulation scenarios indicate where stresses are concentrated in a design. The advanced scenario tool digs deep into exactly where failure is likely.

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Highlights include: • Straightforward workflow. No preprocessing or meshing required. It operates directly on Onshape models. • It supports assemblies. • No installation. All computation happens on Intact servers. OnCreate3D is a full-cloud CAM app. It works in three steps. First, import a STL/IGES/STEP file to create a Mill3D project. Second, create 3D toolpath operations. Third, download a NC File. If you import a DXF file and create a Mill2D project, you can

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5/2/17 2:02 PM


We’re more than Valves... image06.png

create 2D toolpath operations. You can also generate a basic G-Code file or customize POST parameters to output to a specific controller. As an Integrated Cloud App in the Onshape App Store, you can subscribe and start creating NC Files for components within a few minutes. Add the OnCreate3D application, authenticate it and seamlessly transfer components to OnCreate3D projects. Onshape users don’t need to sign up with OnCreate3D. The types of toolpaths a user can create include Contour, Pocket, Parallel, Radial, and more. Swift Calcs is an engineering calculation platform built to be an intuitive and timeefficient alternative to paper, spreadsheets, and other computation packages. Users can use Swift Calcs worksheets to drive Onshape variables and dimensions directly from design calculations, and access design calculations from within Onshape files.

• Advanced Math Engine – Swift Calcs relies on a proven, open-source mathematics engine to power calculations, offering solutions for symbolic calculus, numerical methods, and more. • Engineering Reference Library – The library includes engineering equations, formula, and reference data to speed along an analysis.

We’re Solutions

Swift Calcs offers Public, Business and Professional plans in the Onshape App Store.

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Swift Calcs lets users take advantage of: • Human Readable Mathematics – Math and equations as you learned them, textbook-style. No computer code, no LaTeX, no markup, no special syntax, only maximum productivity. • Full Unit Support – From Amperes to Zettameters, Swift Calcs seamlessly handles, converts, and simplifies units from every discipline of engineering, eliminating conversion errors and enforcing unit consistency.

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» CA E S o lut i o n s

image07.png

Simscape Multibody by MathWorks lets you integrate Onshape CAD assemblies with electrical, hydraulic, control, and other systems, and simulate entire systems within the Simulink environment. Using Model-Based Design, you can refine requirements, detect integration issues, and automatically generate production code for embedded systems. With Simscape Multibody you can: • Perform kinematic and dynamic analysis • Determine actuator requirements • Test actuator designs involving electrical, hydraulic, and other systems • Develop control algorithms

The ESPRIT Onshape Connect Add-in gives users immediate access to their Onshape account and documents directly inside ESPRIT. Within the Onshape Add-in users have access to Personal Documents as well as the Public Documents. Some features of the

MathWorks connects Onshape CAD assembly to capabilities in computer vision, signal processing, real-time testing and other disciplines for systems engineering. ESPRIT 2016 is a machine tool solution with innovative cutting strategies, increased simulation speed, enhanced CAD recognition features and Wire-EDM and 5-axis features. 42

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Onshape Add-in include: • Search bar to filter specific part types such as impellers and gears • Sort by Document Name, Modified By Date, and Modified By (left click the desired column to sort) impellers and gears • Infinite Scroll to easily display more available Onshape Documents

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»»

» CA E Solution s

• View the Elements contained in each document. • Select the preferred workspace for each document from the Workspace drop-down before Import if you are utilizing the Workspace feature within Onshape. STL Workbench is a full-cloud 3D application to process complex meshes. The latest release includes: • A new view cube to navigate the model by selecting a face, side and corner of the cube to orient the model respectively. • A Dynamic Sectioning feature to help users dynamically place and preview a part with respect to an entered distance value. • An error feedback mechanism to help users know the reasons for certain geometric-related errors, which helps them make corrections. • Some additional design changes to improve the performance and stability of the application. • Improved FPS, which makes it easy to load and visualize large and heavy models. x3D Print is a user-friendly application to directly 3D print an Onshape model and get an instant free quote. The x3D Print app offers highquality 3D printing services. This app will instantly display a printing price, and users can still modify criteria such as scale, colors, effects, and so on. The x3D production lab is equipped with several high-speed 3D printing and finishing systems and it can produce medium and large series, any size parts, and ships worldwide. DW

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

Âť CA E Solu t i o n s

Monitor equipment without leaving the office COMBIVIS Connect software, version 8.0 is remote access software for PLCs and HMIs. Using the software to connect to a remote or distributed installation enables the customer to monitor equipment and perform updates without having to leave the office. Security is a core feature of the software. COMBIVIS Connect has successfully passed the security audit in accordance with the standards set by ProtectEM. Key components, such as Connect Access Servers, Control Center, Runtime and the C6 VPN Router, were individually tested and analyzed as part of the security audit. Each element has been certified in accordance with the IEC 62443-3 standard.

In addition to the security certification, the following new features are now available: â&#x20AC;˘ Strong Password Requirements (IEC 62443-3): The domain administrator can enable strong password requirements. All passwords are required to meet complexity standards defined by IEC62443-3. â&#x20AC;˘ Update functionality of device runtimes: Auto-update of runtime software to remote devices. â&#x20AC;˘ Static IP VPN pool: LAN devices reachable by VPN can be defined by a range of IP addresses. â&#x20AC;˘ Multiple monitors: Simultaneous display of multiple screens with Combivis

Connect Remote Desktop for C6 devices supporting multiple monitors. â&#x20AC;˘ Full-screen support: Full screen mode for viewing the remote desktop. â&#x20AC;˘ Export connection log: Runtime logs of remote C6 devices consisting of all activities executed during the remote connections session can be exported to CSV. DW KEB America | Kebamerica.com

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»»

» CA E Solu t i o n s

Simulate bulk material in a design In the design of heavy equipment, ‘EDEM for’ products can make bulk material simulation accessible to engineers using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Multi-body Dynamics (MBD) software. The products integrate with leading CAE software tools from ANSYS, MSC Software and Siemens and do not require DEM expertise to use. ‘EDEM for’ will provide design engineers with an easy to use, bulk material simulation system that links with their MBD and FEA software, extending the capability of the host software and providing engineers with insights into how materials interact with their equipment. Through ‘EDEM for’, design engineers working in the construction, off-highway, mining and heavy industry sectors will no longer have to rely on hand calculations and assumptions to predict the effect of materials on their equipment. ‘EDEM for’ provides a unique library of thousands of material models, representing a range of real materials such as rocks, soils and ores. The database delivers accurate and realistic information on the forces and material loads acting on equipment. All the analysis is then carried out by the host software. DW EDEM | edemsimulation.com/discover-edem-for-cae

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Your Custom Gearbox Solutions are CGI Standard Products.

Advanced Products for Robotics and Automation CGI Motion standard products are designed with customization in mind. We understand most off-the-shelf products or a complete in-house design may not fit your application, so our standard products are designed for functional flexibility. Our team of experts will work with you on selecting the optimal base product and craft a unique solution to help differentiate your product or application. So when you think customization, think standard CGI gearbox assemblies. Connect with us today to explore what CGI Motion can do for you.

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I nter net of Things

......................................... ............................... ....................... .................. ............. .......... ....... ..... ... Unmanaged Ethernet switch offers . twelve Gigabit Ethernet ports Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) technology has become popular and there are many devices that are PoE ready, such as, PoE cameras, VoIP phones, wireless radios, and access controllers. These technologies have been widely adopted in industrial markets that include automation manufacturing, security surveillance, power/utility, water wastewater treatment plants, oil/gas/mining, and transportation industries. The LNP-1604G-SFP series works well with harsh or outdoor environments that require rugged Power Source Equipment (PSE) networking equipment with high density Ethernet port connectivity, wide bandwidth, long distance data transmission, and reliability. LNP-1604G-SFP is an industrial Gigabit PoE+ unmanaged Ethernet switch series that offers twelve full Gigabit Ethernet ports with a PSE maximum of 30 W per port and four SFP gigabit fiber slots for long distance connectivity. This product series has an IP30 rated metal casing design that has DIN-Rail or wall mounting support. The device provides a dual redundant power input range of 48 to 55 Vdc with an overload current and reverse polarity prevention, as well as high EFT, surge (2,000 Vdc), and ESD (6,000 Vdc) protection. Additionally, there is a built-in relay warning function to alert maintainers when power failures occur. Each unit is built to withstand industrial networking hazards like shock, drop, vibration, electromagnetic interference (EMI) and temperature extremes. Wide operating temperature version options include a standard (-10 ~ 70°C) model or an extended (-40 ~ 75°C) model. The units conform to the following dimensions of 59 mm (W) x 99 mm (D) x 142 mm (H) and a unit weight of 2.2 pounds. DW Antaira Technologies | antaira.com

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..................................... ........................... ................... .............. ......... Managed industrial Ethernet switches ...... ... .

Line of Stride Managed Industrial Ethernet Switches offers more connectivity choices for Ethernet applications. Stride managed switches allow networks to be configured/managed to assure the highest performance and security levels. Stride SE2 series switches provide Modbus TCP and EtherNet/IP management capability. The Stride Web-based configuration tool is for monitoring, setup (quick setup, network and redundancy settings) and advanced operations. SE2 series managed Ethernet switches include 8-port (2 versions with fiber optic ports) and 16-port fast Ethernet switches, and an 18-port Gigabit switch. The 8-port switch and 18-port Gigabit switch models have SFP fiber optic port options. These optional SFP transceivers add fiber connectivity at fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet speed. Stride managed Ethernet switches provide reliable network connections in harsh industrial environments. With metal housings, these switches withstand extreme conditions including drastic temperature changes, electrical interference, and corrosion. DW

AutomationDirect | automationdirect.com/managed-switches

4000V Isolated Gate Driver Module

IXIDM1403: 30A and IXIDM1401: 10A AC, DC motor drives, inverters, converters, medical, UPS, traction and SMPS

Key Features:

Optimized for:

• Dual Channel Driver for Half-Bridge Switching Modules • Blocking voltages up to 4000 V • +15 V/-5 V Isolated Gate Driver Output Voltage to Drive IGBTs with up to 10 A/30A Pulse Current • 3 V TTL Logic Level Microcontroller Interface • Single 15 V Power Supply Operations • Operating Ambient Temperature: -40oC∼+105oC • Footprint: 50 mm x 50 mm • UVLO, OVLO, OC, Temperature, short-circuit (SC), Active clamping protections (check datasheet for details)

Phase-leg IGBT Modules: • up to 600A/600V • up to 600A/1200V • up to 450A/1700V ORDERING INFORMATION IXIDM__ DESIGNATORS

      

DESCRIPTION Module Configuration Isolation Voltage Gate Current Positive Gate Voltage Negative Gate Voltage Negative Gate Voltage Package Information

SYMBOL 1 40 1, 3 15 05 15

DESCRIPTION Two Isolated Gate Drivers 4.0 kV 10 A, 30A 15 V -5 V -15 V O – Open Frame, M - Molded

PART NUMBERS AND ORDERING OPTIONS: IXIDM1401_1505_O - two isolated gate drivers with 10 A gate current , 15 V positive and -5 V negative gate voltage, open frame version. IXIDM1401_1505_M - two isolated gate drivers with 10 A gate current , 15 V positive and -5 V negative gate voltage, molded version. IXIDM1403_1515_O - two isolated gate drivers with 30 A gate current , 15 V positive and -15 V negative gate voltage, open frame version. IXIDM1403_1505_M - two isolated gate drivers with 30 A gate current , 15 V positive and -15 V negative gate voltage, molded version.

EUROPE IXYS GmbH marcom@ixys.de +49 (0) 6206-503-249

USA IXYS Power sales@ixys.com +1 408-457-9042

ASIA IXYS Taiwan/IXYS Korea sales@ixys.com.tw sales@ixyskorea.com

www.ixys.com

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a c i r ........ ............................... e m A n . i ............ 4 e 3 d 9 ........................ a 1 m e c ................... n Y i s R .............. E ........... V ........ ...... .... .. I nte r net o f T hings

Adapter connects the IIoT to MTConnect Mitsubishi Electric Automation, Inc. introduces an MTConnect adapter to facilitate shop floor monitoring. MTConnect is an open standard that allows the sharing of a common language between machines and other electrical equipment from various manufacturers. Compliant with version 1.31 of the MTConnect standard, the adapter captures the NC data from machines on the shop floor in real time and formats it into the MTConnect standard. Using one common communication tool for all equipment eliminates the need for specialized, proprietary software from multiple equipment vendors. The MTConnect adapter combined with a third-party client software interface gives executive management, plant managers and shop floor personnel a complete overview of shop floor activity. Armed with that data, shop floor personnel can quickly detect problems or inefficiencies in their production line and take action to remedy the situation. DW

ENGINEERED SOLDER MATERIALS

Gold-Tin Solder • High-temperature • Strong • Reliable • Die-attach • Semiconductor-grade • Custom packaging

Mitsubishi Electric Automation, Inc. us.mitsubishielectric.com/fa/en

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Contact our engineers today: askus@indium.com Learn more: www.indium.com/america

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©2017 Indium Corporation

May 2017

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I nter net of Things

..................................... ........................... ................... .............. ......... ...... Safety controllers can operate ... . on Profinet Safety controllers SC26-2 and XS26-2 can operate on Profinet protocol. The SC26-2 is an easy-to-use and configurable safety controller that monitors multiple safety and non-safety input devices, for safe stop and start functions for machines with hazardous motion. The XS26-2 is a scalable version of the SC26-2 and supports up to eight expansion I/O modules. The addition of the Profinet industrial protocol to these safety controllers enables communication channels to any connected devices that use the Profinet standard, including devices from other manufacturers. This functionality matches the capabilities available for EtherNet/IP, Modbus/TCP or PCCC. These models can be configured with up to 256 virtual status outputs, which can be used to send non-safety status signals to programmable logic controllers (PLCs), indicator lights, and similar devices. They also support virtual non-safety inputs, including manual reset, On/ Off commands, mute enable, and cancel Off-delay. Additional features include delay function blocks, which allow a user-configurable ON or OFF delay, and track function block status output, which indicates the state of a particular function block.

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These additions complement an already impressive set of pre-engineered and pretested function blocks to further simplify configuration, streamline operation, and improve function. The SC26-2 safety controller and base controller models of the XS26-2 expandable safety controller have 26 input terminals, four terminals for two redundant safety PNP outputs, a USB connection for loading configurations, and an optional on-board display. To meet requirements of diverse applications, the XS26-2 platform offers six I/O expansion module models with a variety of safety inputs, solid-state safety outputs and safety relay outputs.

For efficient terminal use, the XS26-2 base controller and expansion modules allow a portion of the safety inputs to be configured as outputs. DW Banner Engineering | BannerEngineering.com

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I nter net o f Things

Quickly and easily add Ethernet to a product POWERLINK is a real-time industrial Ethernet protocol that’s been added to the RapID Platform Network Interface. The complete, pre-tested, pre-certified solution enables system designers to add Industrial Ethernet to an existing product or to a new product fast and at low cost. With the RapID Platform Network Interface, system designers have the flexibility to embed the RapID Platform into their field device application as a module or completely embed the module’s components into the field device’s circuit card. The RapID Platform POWERLINK Network Interface operates as a Controlled Node (CN) and contains the POWERLINK object dictionary with the object ranges for both standard device profiles and custom manufacturer configurations. The Network Interface makes use of these features to support the standard devices such as I/O modules, encoders, motor drives, or a custom device. In this way, the Network Interface is easily customized to represent all of the data an application produces or consumes via POWERLINK. In addition, all of the parameters defined in the POWERLINK object dictionary are available for access via SDO communications in the Asynchronous Phase of POWERLINK. The Network Interface also provides an embedded webserver so users can view network parameters and I/O data via customizable webserver content using the provision for communicating IP frames, also in the Asynchronous Phase of POWERLINK. DW Analog Devices | Analog.com

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.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... ........ ...... .... .. More connectivity for Ethernet I nter net of Things

Line of Stride Managed Industrial Ethernet Switches offers more connectivity choices for Ethernet applications. Stride managed switches allow networks to be configured/managed to assure the highest performance and security levels. New Stride SE2 series switches provide Modbus TCP and EtherNet/IP management capability. The Stride Web-based configuration tool is used for monitoring, setup (quick setup, network and redundancy settings) and advanced operations. SE2 series managed Ethernet switches include 8-port (2 versions with fiber optic ports) and 16-port fast Ethernet switches, and an 18-port Gigabit switch. The 8-port switch and 18-port Gigabit switch models have SFP fiber optic port options. These

optional SFP transceivers add fiber connectivity at fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet speed. Stride managed Ethernet switches provide reliable network connections in harsh industrial environments. With metal housings, these Stride switches are specifically built to withstand extreme conditions including drastic temperature changes, electrical interference, and corrosion. DW AutomationDirect | Automationdirect.com

DieQua offers more gearboxes Are You Selecting The Right Technology?

For Power Transmission

Whether your application is for precise motion control or for general power transmission, there are several gear technologies that can do the job. But which one does it best? Only DieQua offers the widest range of gearmotors, speed reducers and servo gearheads along with the experience and expertise to help you select the optimal solution to satisfy your needs.

Worm Reducers

Helical Gearmotors

Spiral Bevel Gearboxes

For Motion Control

If you are using gearboxes, you should be talking to DieQua!

Planetary Gearheads

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5/2/17 2:57 PM


Internet of Thi ng s

N EWS: Create diverse IoT/cloud solutions Advantech WISE-PaaS Marketplace Cooperates with ARM, Microsoft, Intel Security, and Acronis to Enable IoT Edge Intelligence Advantech is collaborating with ARM, Microsoft, Intel Security, and Acronis on a new sharing platform – WISE-PaaS. It creates a business model that enables customers to create diverse IoT software/ cloud solutions easily and quickly within a collaborative software ecosystem. Advantech further announced its new-generation Intel-based IoT platform Edge Intelligence Server (EIS), with integrated hardware and WISE-PaaS software to enable IoT connectivity, data manageability, and analytics in the edge. Customers can choose from a variety of software solutions, purchase a standard suite for creating unique solutions, or combine standard and purpose-built packages to enable IoT edge intelligence and customize an IoT solution according to specific requirements and usage conditions. Advantech will continue to collaborate with worldwide partners and focus on the development of WISE-PaaS Marketplace and Edge Intelligence Server (EIS) to expand its platform-sharing values. The collaboration will accelerate deployment of the IoT and help to stimulate device-to-cloud IoT solutions. DW Advantech wise-paas.advantech.com/marketplace

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Pneumatic & Electric Actuators High-Precision Compact Designs Unique Medical Solutions FDA-Approved Materials Fast Delivery

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Internet of Things 5-17_Vs5.LL.indd 55

non-invasive surgical devices orthopedic implants

In the medical industry, the ability to produce product faster with less down time is critical. PHD actuators offer the quality your manufacturing demands with rugged design, high precision, approved materials and fast delivery.

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Equivalent load

and L10 life ratings for linear-motion setups

IKO International C-Lube Linear Way ML miniature linear bearings are for single-row track rail use. ML standard models are 1 to 25 mm wide, and wide-track MLF rail versions are up to 42 mm. The ML linear bearings carry high loads. For example, the MLF42 has a dynamic load rating more than 9,000 N and a moment load rating over 320 N¡m (MLFG42) in the roll axis.

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L i n e a r

M o t i o n

Ideally all linear bearings would be selected after testing under actual load conditions ... but this is almost never practical. Fortunately, statistical life calculations from ISO 14728-1 (and based on ratings of dynamic load capacity) accurately predict linear-bearing service life.

One step

in selecting a recirculating linear bearing (profiled rail or round shaft type) is to calculate bearing life. Bearing life for recirculating linear bearings — L10 life — is one way of specifying travel that a bearing can make before reaching fatigue life (after which raceway or rolling-element flaking begins to show). The term L10 refers to the distance at which 90% of seemingly identical bearings (run under identical conditions) can travel before fatigue occurs. In short, L10 life gives a 90% reliability that the bearing will deliver the specified travel. Calculation of L10 life for recirculating bearings with balls as the load-carrying elements is:

=

( ) × 10 3

5

For recirculating bearings with rollers as load-carrying elements:

=

10 3

( ) × 10

5

Where L = bearing life (m) C = bearing dynamic load capacity (N) F = applied dynamic load (N)

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maxon control electronics for strong DC brushed and brushless motors.

maxon motor control

Power under control.

When good control properties and fast startups are needed, maxon motorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s servo controllers are the ideal choice. The 4-Q PWM servo controllers have fast digital current and speed controllers with a large range. They offer highly efficient control of permanent magnet-activated DC motors.

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maxon precision motors 101 Waldron Road, Fall River, MA 02720, USA Phone 508-677-0520 info@maxonmotorusa.com, www.maxonmotorusa.com

5/3/17 11:15 AM 04.08.2016 13:40:12


L i n e a r

M o t i o n

Shown here is a Steinmeyer ballscrew nut cutaway. One new ground-screw line features dynamic load capacities to 1,400 kN and can be specified up to 100% of dynamic load capacity. The ballscrews are suitable for integration into actuators with myriad diameter, leads, and nut configurations.

These bearing-life equations are relatively straightforward, but there are some caveats. Note that dynamic load capacity C of a recirculating linear bearing is determined by the manufacturer in accordance with ISO 14728-1. The ISO standard defines dynamic load capacity as the load (constant in magnitude and direction) at which the linear bearing (ball or roller) can provide 100 km of travel before fatiguing. However, some manufacturers base linear recirculating bearings’ dynamic load capacity on a travel of 50 km. The ISO standard acknowledges this difference and provides a dynamic load rating conversion factor for comparing bearings rated for 50 km with bearings rated for 100 km of travel. Here, either multiply the dynamic load capacity of the 100-km bearing by 1.26 or divide the dynamic load capacity of the 50km bearing by 1.26. Another caveat is that the ISO standard specifies that bearing life applies to linearmotion rolling bearings with modern and common materials and manufacturing quality and under conventional operating conditions. Many real-world applications operate under high temperatures, shock loads, and other conditions not in the bearing life equation that nonetheless shorten bearing life. So some manufacturers

adjust for these conditions with fudge factors that derate dynamic load capacity to better predict bearing life. For example, if a bearing operates under heavy impacts or vibrations, the applied load is multiplied by a factor between 2.0 and 3.0. Depending on the manufacturer and bearing type, correction factors sometimes account for the effects of shock loads and vibrations, mounting setups with multiple linear bearings, shaft hardness below HRC58, extreme heat, and short strokes. Note that standard L10 life is based on a reliability of 90% but it’s possible to specify bearing life for higher reliability. Here the bearing-life equation is multiplied by a factor corresponding to target reliability … so the factor for bearing life with 95% reliability (L5) is 0.62, for example. Then the linear-bearinglife equation becomes:

5 = 0.62

( ) ×10 3

5

However, there is another caveat: Load on a linear bearing often changes over the machine life and even over single move cycles. Here, we accurately estimate bearing life under changing load conditions with the mean equivalent dynamic load Fm.

  

Linear Motion 5-17_Vs5.LE.LL.indd 59

Mean equivalent dynamic load in linear-motion setups Consider how most linear-motion applications see variable conditions across axis strokes. That means guides and ballscrews in these installations rarely carry the same load over whole move cycles. Consider a pick-andplace application: Here, load is higher in one direction (during pick and carry) than after object placement and axis-return strokes. In fact, it’s common for loads on axes to change multiple times or even constantly during a cycle. Consider dispensing: Here, stroke can start with any value from a range of loads depending on how much dispensing material (such as glue, for example) the axis is currently carrying. As material is applied, load on the linear bearing decreases. Then when the dispenser is replenished with material, load returns to its maximum. As mentioned, bearing life depends on the carried load. So how does one account for the effect of inconsistent load? One way to calculate bearing life with changing loads is to use the mean equivalent dynamic load on the system. Recall that a linear axis’ static load capacity is that which it can hold safely in place. Dynamic load capacity is that which the linear axis can move. The equation for mean equivalent dynamic load looks intimidating, but it’s relatively simple. It essentially accounts for each discreet loading phase and the percentage of total travel for which the linear system carries each load during the move cycle. For linear ball bearings: =

3

1

(| 1 |3

May 2017

1

+ | 2 |3

2

+ ⋯ + | |3

DESIGN WORLD

)  

59

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L i n e a r

M o t i o n

For linear roller bearings: =

10 3

1

10

(| 1 | 3

1

10

+ | 2| 3

2

10

+⋯+| |3

Where Fm = mean equivalent dynamic load F1 … Fn = load during each phase L = total travel over the move cycle L1 … Ln = distance traveled during each phase

This BSHP ball-runner block from Rexroth has a special run-in zone and more load-bearing balls in the load zone that other designs. Interchangeable into existing profiled-rail applications, the block also has dynamic load capacities 26% higher than previous designs — with static load capacities to 50% higher. Higher dynamic values make for service life that’s to 200% longer.

Linear Motion 5-17_Vs5.LE.LL.indd 61

)

Note that every discreet load is multiplied by the distance traveled while that load is applied — and the whole equation is divided by total travel. This expression converts travel during each discreet phase to a percentage of total travel. For example, if an application has three different loads and travel with F1 is 100 mm, then travel with F2 is 300 mm and travel with F3 is 100 mm. So F1 is carried for 20% of the travel, F2 is carried for 60% of the travel, and F3 is carried for 20% of the travel.

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L i n e a r

Because these equations calculate mean dynamic load (which is used for determining bearing life) other static forces such as pressing or holding are excluded. Ballscrew assemblies have mean equivalent dynamic loads that depend on time rather than distance ... and accounting for varying speeds as well as forces. We multiply each force by the rotational speed and time spent at that speed — then divide by the sum of the various speeds multiplied by their duration. That yields an average time each load is applied versus total ballscrewassembly cycle time: =

3

(| 1 |3

+ | 2 |3 1 1+ 2

1 1

)

+ ⋯ + | |3 2 + ⋯+ 2 2

Where n1 ... nn = rotational speed during each phase t1 ... tn = time spent at each rotational speed Note that in each mean equivalent dynamic load equation, the absolute values of the loads |F| are used. Even if load moves in a reversal, it still adds to total load carried by the linear axis. Reconsider our dispensing application in which force changes constantly and not just with discreet phases. Here, it’s acceptable to make an approximation of average load during each phase. A more conservative approach is to use maximum load during each phase, though this may cause significant oversizing of the linear bearing. Tip: Identify the best approximation for a given application by accounting for load magnitude and other safety factors. If using average load during each phase gives a bearing life that is borderline acceptable, recalculate life using the maximum load during each phase. This will give the design some safety margin for unexpected loads or conditions. DW

Linear Motion 5-17_Vs5.LE.LL.indd 63

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

Here are answers to the

Designing

most frequently asked questions about designing with pneumatic clutches and brakes.

with pneumatic clutches and brakes Edd Brooks • Nexen Group

A

lot of heavy-duty industrial equipment uses pneumaticactuated clutches and brakes. One of the main reasons is that pneumatic clutches can transmit higher torque levels than comparable electrical or mechanical devices. The other, of course, is the ready availability of compressed air in many factories and manufacturing facilities.

Using pneumatic clutches and brakes doesn’t have to be a mystery,

if you know the basics of how these devices work. So here are answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about designing systems with pneumatic clutches and brakes. How should the air supply be configured for pneumatic clutches and brakes? Most pneumatic clutch and brake manufacturers recommend the use of filtered, lubricated air with all products. Operating an air-engaged or disengaged product without lubrication increases seal wear. O-ring seals are lubricated prior to product assembly, so it’s possible to operate some products with non-lubricated air, provided the air is clean and dry. The use of non-lubricated air is a matter of customer choice and may be influenced by the machine environment and the products being produced on those machines.

ENGAGED

ENGAGED

In this illustration of a pneumatic single disc clutch, the single plate friction clutch is in the engaged position and all orange ENGAGED colored parts are rotating in this mode. The air chamber is held stationary by the air supply line. Below, the single interface tooth clutch is in the disengaged position, and all orange colored parts are rotating. The uncolored parts are stationary.

DISENGAGED

DISENGAGED DISENGAGED

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Air preparation is critical when operating with non-lubricated air. Filter the air supply to five microns or better and maintain a dew point of 40˚ F or lower. Select a control valve that operates without lubrication. Product testing in a laboratory and/or the actual application is the only real proof that the unit will work without lubricated air. Rapid cycle rates, high temperatures and air pressures above 100 psi adversely affect O-ring wear life. The application conditions determine O-ring replacement or a relubrication schedule. If possible, use an airline lubricator to extend the life of the O-ring seals. Locate the lubricator above and within 10 ft of the unit and use low-viscosity oil such as SAE-10. Lubricator drip rate settings are explained in the product instruction manual. In some lowcycle rate applications, it’s possible to add a drop of oil to the air inlet port periodically. Synthetic lubricants are not recommended. Manufacturers recommend mounting clutch and brake units with the air inlet orientated in the six o’clock position whenever possible to aid in purging of excess moisture that may be trapped in the air chamber. The maximum air pressure recommended for some products is 80 psi to achieve maximum bearing, friction facing and O-ring seal life. The O-ring seals will hold higher pressures. However, higher

Quick exhaust valves vacate air from the air chamber rapidly for fast clutch and brake response times.

4-way double solenoid spool valves provide quick clutch-brake response times. They direct air to separate air chambers when the solenoid is energized.

  

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

Oxygen versus nitrogen comparison Nitrogen

Compressed air

Dry and clean

Oily and wet

Remains stable at any temperature

Highly reactive element at high temperatures/ pressures

Eliminates condensation which prevents rim rust Creates moisture in the rim leading to rim rust Slows migration to only 2 psi loss over 6 months

Fast migration, 2 psi is lost each month

*Nitrogen is a natural inert gas that makes up 78% of the air we breathe and is not harmful to the environment.

Air compressor and control valve selection

1 Determine the clutch and/or brake air chamber volume. Then determine the clutch or brake cycle rate.

2 Calculate total air consumption (volume x cycle rate). Then convert cubic inches per minute to cubic feet per minute. 3 Calculate the valve flow capacity Cv needed for the application.

4 Finally, select a compressor that exceeds the free air delivery in cubic feet per minute (CFM). The following table shows the required flow rates for the control valve and the compressed air flow rates CFM by air-chamber volume ranges for 80 psi and a 400-msec response time. Air chamber volume range, cu-in.

Min. valve flow, Cv

Free air delivery, CFM

0.05 -1.0

0.01

0.56

1.05- 2.0

0.02

1.12

2.05 -3.0

0.04

1.68

3.05- 5.0

0.06

2.80

5.05 -10.0

0.12

5.60

10.05-12.0â&#x20AC;¨

0.15

7.0

12.05-25.0

0.30

14.0

25.05-35.0

0.42

20.0

35.05-55.0

0.66

31.0

55.05-65.0

0.76

36.0

CFM = V x (6.44) where V = air chamber volume in cubic inches 28.8 x (t) x CFM = free air delivery; t = piston stroke time in msec 6.44 = Compression ratio = psig +14.7 / 14.7 psi

Air-control-valve selection examples

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May 2017

Air-chamber volume, cu-in.

Flow, Cv

Maximum pressure, psi

Voltage selections

0.05 to 5.0

0.06

150

12, 24, 120, 240

5.05- 65.0

1.40

150

12, 24, 120, 240

Multiple units

0.17 1.50

120 120

24, 120, 240 24, 110, 220

www.designworldonline.com

5/2/17 3:31 PM


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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

pressures increase the thrust load on the bearings which lowers the bearing life exponentially. What type of air controls are used to operate pneumatic clutches and brakes? Air-actuated products use a small amount of compressed air to engage or disengage. Products having air chamber volumes from 1 to 10 cubic in. do not need a control valve larger than a Cv (flow capacity) of 1.0.

Calculate flow capacity Cv • Air consumption in cubic inches per minute = Air-chamber volume x cycle rate • Convert to cubic feet per minute = Cubic inches per minute / 1728 • Free air consumed in CFM = Cubic feet per minute x 6.44 • Multiply CFM by pressure factor to convert to Cv Air pressure

40 psi

50 psi

60 psi

70 psi

80 psi

90 psi

100 psi

Pressure factor 0.0370 0.0312 0.0270 0.0238 0.0212 0.0192 0.0177

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3-way valves operate a single clutch, brake or torque limiter and are offered normally open or normally enclosed. Normally open 3-way valves direct air to a unit when the coil is de-energized. Energizing the coil blocks the flow of air. Normally closed 3-way valves direct air to a unit when the coil is energized and blocks the flow of air in the de-energized position. 4-way spool valves are used to operate clutch-brake combinations, two separate clutches or two separate brakes. 4-way controls are two position valves with single or double solenoid actuators. Single solenoid controls are spring returned to normal position. Double solenoid controls shift the spool to direct the air supply to a clutch or brake by energizing the appropriate solenoid. Double solenoid valves are used for quick clutch-brake response times. A 4-way spool valve directs a common air supply to the clutch or brake to provide the same outlet pressure to each cylinder.

www.designworldonline.com

5/2/17 3:31 PM


M o t i o n

“Most pneumatic clutch and brake manufacturers recommend the use of filtered, lubricated air with all products. Operating an air-engaged or disengaged product without lubrication increases seal wear.” 5-way spool valves direct two separate air pressures to separate cylinders when different operating pressures are needed. Quick exhaust valves greatly enhance clutch-brake performance. With quick exhaust valves installed, the air chamber pressure exhausts right at the air inlet instead of traveling back through the control valve. Use Quick Exhaust valves whenever long airlines are used to decrease response times. Exhaust mufflers silence noisy air systems and are installed on the quick exhaust and 3, 4 and 5-way valves. Both fixed and adjustable flow-control valves are available to slow the air-flow rate in one direction and allow free flow in the other direction. Fixed-flow controls on spring-engaged brakes slow the disengagement airflow to the brake preventing excess loading on the internal components. The air free flows in the exhaust mode allowing the brake to engage quickly. Adjustable flow control valves are used to slow the flow in air-engaged clutches or brakes when soft starts or stops are required.

Motion Control (Nexen) 5-17_Vs4.indd 69

DESIGN WORLD

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How is air consumption determined? The factors involved in estimating the amount of free air consumed, sizing the control valve and air compressor are the maximum clutch or brake air chamber volume, cycle rate, and air pressure. The clutch or brake torque doesn’t depend on airflow but relies on air pressure, meaning air supply line diameters can be as small as practical.

May 2017

C o n t r o l

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

NEW Instant Online Configurator.

Now you can configure Fabco-Air products anywhere. On the shop floor. At the airport. At a remote job site. And you can do it with almost any device. Even your smart phone! The Fabco-Air configurator is the most comprehensive, user-friendly, and dynamic program in the industry. It generates everything you need from one location.

This 3-way single solenoid poppet valve directs air to one chamber when the solenoid is energized.

For example: The amount of free air consumed with a 10-in. 3-air chamber cycling at 10 cycles per minute is estimated as follows:

• Consumption per minute = 10 x 10 = 100 cubic in. per minute • Convert cubic inches to cubic feet: 100/1728 = 0.06 cubic ft/min • Volume of free air consumed per cycle = Compression Factor x air consumption per minute • Compression Factor for 80 psi = 6.44 x .06 = .38 SCFM (standard cubic ft/min) Clutch and brake components are designed with great care to avoid air leaks and don’t consume air if they don’t cycle. With every cycle a certain volume of compressed air is consumed, equal to the volume of the air chamber and the air supply line length between the control valve and the unit. What is the maximum temperature limit for pneumatic clutches and brakes? The case temperature of clutches, brakes and torque limiters, measured on the air chamber, is limited to 180° F (82° C). www.designworldonline.com

Motion Control (Nexen) 5-17_Vs4.indd 71

Temperatures above 180° F indicate that the thermal capacity of the unit has been exceeded. Hot-to-the-touch is usually on 140 to 150° F (60 to 66° C)

A few clicks instantly give you: • Product Part Numbers • List Prices • Lead Times • CAD Files • Seal Part No's & Prices • Repair Kit Part No's & Prices • Mounting Hardware • Accessories & Attachments • Switches/Sensors

Thermal capacities are limited to the maximum allowable temperatures of the O-ring seals, friction material, and the bearing lubricant. The thermal capacities are determined by operating a unit at maximum speed and torque levels in controlled circumstances in a test laboratory. The temperature limits of the components used in Air Champ products is as follows:

Additionally, the program includes an unprecedented DECONSTRUCTION feature. Simply input a valid Fabco-Air part number to display all relevant information. DECONSTRUCTION can also be used to re-configure a basic part number for different mounting, stroke, added options, etc.

• Friction Material 400° F (200° C) • O-ring Seals – Buna N material 250° F (121° C) • Viton material 400° F (200° C) • Bearing lubricant – Chevron SRI 347° F (175° C) What is the minimum temperature limit of pneumatic clutches and brakes? In areas where freezing temperatures are encountered, a lower-pressure dew point may be required. In general, the dew point should be specified 20° F lower than the lowest ambient temperature to May 2017

DESIGN WORLD

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www.FABCO-AIR.com 71

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Tompkins 5-17.indd 72

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

Check this out!

An adjustable flow control valve slows air flow in one direction and free flows air in the other direction for reduced start and stop times.

avoid potential condensation and freezing. To specify a winter dew point when only summer temperatures are encountered can result in over-sizing the equipment and increased initial and operating costs. A system designed to dry air for cold weather conditions will greatly increase operating costs if used year round. For plant air and instrument air, primary considerations in specifying a dryer are condensation and freezing. In a system where a lot of internal pipe corrosion could occur, high humidity in the air stream should be avoided. Note: Desiccant air dryers will protect

against air supply line freeze in outdoor lines in the most severe conditions. Low temperature limits of clutch and brake components:

• Bearing grease: •29° F • Bearing seals: must be specified for •25° F • Air chamber seals (BUNA-N): •30° F • Seal and spline lubrication: both lubricants have a low temperature limit of •40° F What is the maximum speed of pneumatic clutches and brakes? Maximum speeds are determined from the bearing manufacturer’s speed limits and the safe operating speed of the spinning part’s material.

www.designworldonline.com

Motion Control (Nexen) 5-17_Vs4.indd 73

Clutch and brake parts are typically constructed of steel, Class 40 iron and ductile iron. Each type of material has a safe operating speed, expressed as peripheral velocity (rim speed) limits and is based on the tensile strength of the material. What are some lubrication-related considerations, and what lubrication is needed for pneumatic clutches and brakes? • Air-supply line lubricator: SAE 10 weight oil • Replacement O-rings: Portable tool grease or O-ring lubricant. • Bearings: Most bearings in clutches and brakes are lubricated and sealed for life.

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How is pneumatic brake noise avoided? Brake squeal is caused by resonance in the mechanical components of the brake. Elements that increase the noise are high friction coefficients and high hardness of the friction material, low frequency disc vibrations, the absence of dampening in the brake structure, and low speed. The use of cast-iron discs, the cushioning of air in the piston/air chamber, and the rubber material of the O-ring seals help to reduce noise. Friction materials are made from organic resins filled with fibers and elements that increase or decrease the coefficient of friction. If the brake is used at high temperatures but low contact pressures May 2017

DESIGN WORLD

Operation to 3,000 PSI Bores: 1-1/2" to 24" Strokes to 10 feet All NFPA Mounting Styles Oversized Piston Rods Proximity Switches and more

Tel (352) 373-3578 • Fax (352) 375-8024 www.fabco-air.com E-Mail service@fabco-air.com 73

5/2/17 3:34 PM


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M o t i o n

“The torque requirement for a clutch or brake is effected by the speed of the clutch or brake within a powertrain. Generally, the faster the shaft, the lower the torque requirement becomes.” there isn’t enough wear to regenerate the contact surface and glazing may occur. The glazed friction material has a much higher tendency to produce brake squeal. The best remedy is to replace the friction material with a material with a lower coefficient of friction. This requires a higher contact pressure for maintaining the same torque. What is needed to repair a clutch or brake? Instruction manuals are included with each product and contain the procedure for disassembly, repair and reassembly. Items needed to repair a clutch or brake are: Tools — including a screwdriver, retaining-

ring pliers, a small bench press, and assorted wrenches Anaerobic locking compounds — including

C o n t r o l

more drop-in interchanges

allow these displacements. The friction in the bearings supporting the piston also creates a certain drag. To avoid breaking of the air supply line use steel-reinforced hoses supplied with the clutch or a forkshaped anti-rotation device around the air connector. This device should stop the piston from turning but should not impede the axial movement of the piston. How does speed reduction in my drive train affect my clutch/brake needs? The torque requirement for a clutch or brake is effected by the speed of the clutch or brake within a powertrain. Generally, the faster the shaft, the lower the torque requirement becomes. Mechanical speed reduction has a direct multiplying effect on the torque. Are there alternatives to compressed air for actuating pneumatic clutches and brakes? Nitrogen is a good alternative to compressed air to actuate pneumatic clutches and brakes. Some applications may not have access to compressed air or the application is in a remote area. DW

Nexen Group | nexengroup.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

Loctite 242 thread locking compound, Loctite 680 for bearing mounting and safety solvent to clean the surfaces prior to Loctite application

from the air cylinder source

Lubricants such as anti-seize spline lubricant and portable tool grease for O-ring seals

FABCO-AIR

How is a pneumatic clutch air chamber kept from rotating? On most clutches the air chamber moves axially when the clutch engages. Make sure the piping used is flexible enough to www.designworldonline.com

Motion Control (Nexen) 5-17_Vs4.indd 75

NOW Get

Phone (352) 373-3578 • Fax (352) 375-8024

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5/2/17 3:34 PM


Medical software

development — where safety meets security Andrew Caples

| background image istockphoto.com

Senior Product Manager • Embedded Systems Division (ESD) • Mentor Graphics

76

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May 2017

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5/2/17 3:53 PM


A At

M

e

d

i

c

a

l

a time when device software is becoming more

vital and complex, medical device manufacturers see increasing scrutiny over the safety and security of these devices. Safety standards such as IEC 62304 provide regulatory guidance that is followed by both device manufactures and COTS software suppliers.

The medical industry is seeing increased scrutiny for both

safety and security in devices. Cyber security is becoming a must-have feature. Fortunately, there is

However, safety standards have little to tell us about security. Cyber security is now an important consideration that must be met by device manufacturers. Regulatory agencies are demanding device manufacturers secure and protect medical systems and patients from cyber attacks. And even though regulatory guidance is available, the recommendations do not specify the process or implementation required to improve security. Fortunately, there is significant overlap between the development practices for both safety and security. Standards for safety From a software perspective, safety is based on defining and adhering to rigid processes through the complete development life cycle. Many

significant overlap between the practices for safety and security, and it is vital to understand both the similarities and differences between the two principles.

|

courtesy of Mentor Graphics

â&#x20AC;&#x192;â&#x20AC;&#x192;

Medical 5-17_Vs5.LL.indd 77

May 2017

DESIGN WORLD

â&#x20AC;&#x192;

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5/4/17 10:01 AM


M e d ic a l

Figure 1: A Fault Tree Analysis can help guide developers.

industries have such well-defined safety standards, for example, DO-178C for airborne systems. Although each standard differs in particulars, each shares a common thread in defining a similar safety development lifecycle, which serves as a framework to meet regulatory approval. The standards provide guidance for safety development that defines both the concept and the scope for each development phase. However, the standards do not define specifically

how development will be done or which documents are required. By leaving this to the individual manufacturer, the standard allows the development of a tailored process that helps developers work as efficiently as possible while still mandating that complete information is available at the end. As an example, for medical devices adhering to IEC 62304, the Software Life Cycle Plan (SLCP) is a plan for the development, test, and support of the

safety software. Because of the scope of the SLCP, it can be a standalone plan that covers all development phases. Or, it can be supported with detailed plans for each phase for which the aggregation of all the plans meets the requirements for the standard. Thus, the SLCP can be supported by the Software Development Plan (SDP), Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP), Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP), Software Verification Plan (SVP), and other plans. Hazard and risk management However, safety is not necessarily a byproduct of good planning and sound development; it also involves proactively managing hazards and the associated risk. A model is required to assess hazards to introduce mitigation solutions. Therefore, a model for a Safety Development Process should include the following: Hazard Analysis => Risk Assessment => Damage Assessment => Device Classification => Risk Mitigation

Figure 2: Hazard as a function of the probability and severity. The Hazard Matrix is representative of the challenges associated with determining areas of acceptability. 78

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Various tools and standards can guide developers for each phase. For example, a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for hazard analysis (Figure 1). The FTA analytical approach helps identify each hazard and trace its lineage to the root cause. The process for FTA is to define each hazard and list the preceding events that can lead to the identified outcome.

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Figure 3: Differences between safety and security. By capturing each event in a systematic manner, a fault tree can be built for each hazardous event in a hierarchal manner starting from the root cause. A process for medical risk management is well defined in ISO 14971. Risk management is required to determine the level of risk considered acceptable. Plus, it aids the understanding of how well risk mitigation techniques work.

Risk is the combination of the probability of an occurrence of harm and severity of that harm while hazard is the potential cause of the harm. Risk = Function [Probability (harm), Severity]

One way to think of this is that a hazard can be detected before it causes harm; however, detecting harm means a hazard has already

occurred. Risk analysis is the systematic use of available information to identify hazards, the severity of harm, and estimate the associated risk. The goal is to manage or mitigate risk to reduce risk to tolerable levels since total risk elimination is not achievable. To reduce risk, protective measures can be taken that span the spectrum from documenting potential hazards, to software redesigns or adding warning lights.

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Me di cal

There is no predetermined level of risk that is acceptable, and there is no equation or regulatory guidance for acceptable risk. This decision is somewhat subjective, but must take into consideration the potential hazard and harm that can result. Once the hazard and risk analysis are completed (Figure 2), the device can be classified based on the severity of the potential harm using industry specific methodology. For medical devices, the IEC 62304 standard provides the following Software Safety Classifications:

• Class A: No injury or damage to health is possible • Class B: Non-serious injury is possible • Class C: Death or serious injury is possible It is good practice to start out classifying devices at a Class Level C as the default assumption until a hazard and risk analysis proves the device to be of a lower risk. Developing the software With the hazard and risk assessments completed and the device classified, a plan for software development is required. The Software Life Cycle Plan (SLCP) as defined in IEC 62304 is a plan for the development, test, and support of the safety software. The hazard and risk analysis will become composite artifacts along with other requirement documents that will be used to define the function and design of the software. The comprehensive scope of the plan can serve as a framework for use in other areas such as the development of security software. Similar to the development of safety software, security requires proactive management (Figure 3). However, instead of managing for hazards, security is about managing vulnerabilities and their associated risk. There are general guidelines and industry specific standards for cyber security that are starting to become more commonplace such as FIPS140, NIST 800-53, and IEC 62443 to name a few. Also, consider the FDA non-binding guidance on securing medical devices throughout the product life cycle. Manufacturers are encouraged to boost cyber security measures by adding functions to monitor and detect vulnerabilities as well as update devices with software patches. Even though there are many security standards, there are common themes among them that include

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Me di cal

Figure 4: HAZOP analysis example.

“A process for medical risk management is well defined in ISO 14971. Risk management is required to determine the level of risk considered

Figure 5: Determining risk.

acceptable. Plus, it aids the understanding of how well risk mitigation techniques work.”

identity management, authentication/ authorization, detection, protection, secure communication, and mitigation. All of which can be boiled down to two security aspects: 1) how the device should protect itself, and 2) and how the device should be developed. Developers have access to an array of hardware security features embedded in modern system-on-chip (SoC) architectures for device protection. Features such as high-assurance boot,

root of trust, cryptography acceleration engines, secure key storage, and trusted execution environments can be leveraged to meet security requirements. Software protocols can encrypt to protect data at rest or in transit. And there are technical control standards for identification and authentication such as X.509 certificates and passwords. The specific security functions to build into the device will be defined by the results of a vulnerability and risk assessment. As with safety, security requires a plan to manage the risk. However, for security, the goal is to manage the risk associated with each vulnerability, which requires a detailed assessment. The vulnerability assessment

The objective of vulnerability assessment is to identify potential security concerns within the system. This calls for a www.designworldonline.com  

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comprehensive investigation of security threats and vulnerabilities. Tools such as the hazard and operability (HAZOP) analysis can be used to conduct vulnerability analysis (Figure 4). HAZOP uses guidewords for specific situations that are parsed into a list of intentions and deviations. The deviations are analyzed, and if significant, have a mitigation plan to reduce the risk. The following guidewords for vulnerability analysis are provided as an example: a) Probe – access a target to learn characteristics; b) Flood – access target incessantly to overload system; c) Spoof – masquerade by assuming the identity of a different entity; and d) read – obtain the data in device storage, etc. As further example, the guidewords are then parsed into a list to highlight the potential impact. Upon completion of the vulnerability analysis, a risk assessment is required for each vulnerability. There are varying May 2017

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M e d ic a l

Figure 6: Safety vs. Security Development Process. methodologies for determining risk including formulas; however, most agree, risk determination is a function of the threat, vulnerability, and severity. Risk = Function [Threat, Vulnerability, Severity] The goal is to understand the risk to determine if it is acceptable. The ability to determine risk is not always as straight forward as using a simple formula. As an example, for a vulnerability with a risk occurrence of 1%, should you factor in the impact of a determined hacker focusing on that single vulnerability 100% of their time? When determining risk, if the assessment shows that the risk is not acceptable, then risk mitigation is required and a new vulnerability analysis should be completed (Figure 5). The vulnerabilities should be classified using industry specific methodology. Many security engineers use High, Medium, and Low for vulnerability classification. Once the vulnerability and risk assessments are completed, then the requirements to mitigate the vulnerabilities can be defined. As with safety, the development of a medical device requires a plan to realize the software for the device and to validate that the vulnerability requirements were fulfilled. The defined processes must include a plan to service the device post production to address vulnerability issues as they are found (Figure 6). With the increased scrutiny from regulatory authorities, cyber security is becoming an important consideration that must be met by device manufacturers. Fortunately, there is significant overlap between the development practices for safety and security, and it is vital to understand both the similarities and differences between the two principles. Doing so will make you, and your company better prepared to handle today’s safety and security needs, as well as what may come along tomorrow. DW Mentor Graphics | mentor.com

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LEDs

light up industrial enclosures Slavco Anastasov • Rittal Corp.

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Electronics

LEDs have become bright enough, rugged enough, and inexpensive enough to handle illumination chores inside industrial control cabinets.

For many years, fluorescent technology was the only option for the internal lighting of industrial enclosures. Fluorescent light sources have many positives and are relatively inexpensive. But they have their share of negatives. Fluorescent lighting was developed nearly 100 years ago, and improvements in the technology have been slow. These low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamps haven’t changed much over time. Early lights required a warm-up period before they reached their full lighting output. At the end-of-life, fluorescent bulbs have a reputation for flickering or developing pink or black spots at the end of the tube as they lose mercury. The tubes are fragile, and the mercury inside the bulbs requires special handling in disposal.   Today, LED (light emitting diode) lighting is the standard for industrial enclosures. The advantages are compelling enough to foster the adoption of LED lighting worldwide.    The function of lighting is, of course, to provide sufficient illumination for tasks at hand. Light brightness is measured in lumens, which is a rating of the amount of light emitted, as opposed to wattage, which defines the amount of energy used while emitting the light. LED lights are so energy-efficient that we can no longer rely upon wattage levels to indicate a light’s brightness. LED lights produce same brightness as incandescent or fluorescent sources using much less energy. 

  

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LED luminaires (opposite) can mount horizontally or vertically depending on the cabinet configuration. Visible in this view is the power connection entering the luminaire at right. Power can be daisy chained to multiple fixtures if necessary. On the far-left side of the luminaire is the connection point available for another daisy chained luminaire.

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E lect ro ni cs

A motion sensor (left) eliminates the need to switch cabinet lights on for maintenance. Power cords on light luminaires can swivel (right) to accommodate different orientations in cabinets.

“LED lights come in a variety of color temperatures. Color temperature is expressed in kelvins, using the symbol K, a unit of measure for absolute temperature.” Illumination levels available from industrial enclosure lighting ranges from 400 to 1,200 lumens. The higher the lumens, the more brightness throughout an enclosure. The cover enclosing the cabinet light can also help disperse the light rays. Light covers can range in style from simple clear plastic to Fresnel covers that employ a prism effect to spread the light over a larger task surface.  LED lights come in a variety of color temperatures. Color temperature is expressed in kelvins, using the symbol K, a unit of measure for absolute temperature. 88

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Color temperatures over 5000 K are called cool colors (bluish white), while lower color temperatures (2700–3000 K) are called warm colors (yellowish white through red). The term warm in this context refers to the radiated heat flux of traditional incandescent lighting rather than to how hot the bulb gets. For industrial applications, the color temperature can help differentiate among objects in an enclosure. If a space includes a variety of colored objects, a natural white bulb (4000-4500 K) gives maximum

differentiation. If the space includes more greens and blues, a cooler light color spectrum of day white to cool white (6000-7000 K) may offer a visual advantage. Within an enclosure, the ability to direct light toward a task improves maintenance efficiency. Adjustable light distribution focuses illumination as in, for example, rotating a Fresnel cover to bring up a different lighting pattern. Most manufacturers have adopted this feature in LED lighting to beam light on objects of interest.  Just as room lights in commercial buildings increasingly work from motion sensors, a motion sensor in an enclosure is a worthwhile convenience for maintenance tasks. This hands-free option eliminates the need to reach into the enclosure to activate a switch, an additional safety factor. Workers can immediately tackle the task at hand without needing a free hand to fumble for the light.  An integrated electrical outlet in the LED lighting fixture provides a convenient power source for maintenance. This option simplifies and speeds maintenance with an at-hand

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E lect ro ni cs

Fresnel lens light covers (top and bottom right) can concentrate LED light on pertinent areas of the cabinet for better illumination than is available from conventional lighting. The Fresnel covers can also be rotated to better illuminate specific parts of the cabinet if need be.

Comparing LED and fluorescent illumination Lifespan

Initial Cost

LED LED lights can last up to 50,000 hours  LED lights can cost more or come at about the same cost as fluorescents in some cases. 

Fluorescent Maximum lifespan is usually between 5,000 and 15,000 hours  Fluorescent lights are relatively inexpensive but must be replaced more often  Fluorescent lights may increase enclosure temperature up to 2°F 

Heat Output

LEDs generate little heat

Efficiency

More energy is required to produce lumens LED lights use energy more comparable to LEDs. Fluorescents also require a efficiently than fluorescent lights ballast for power. Fluorescent lights lose efficiency in and can be used in a wide range cooler and warmer applications, reaching maximum of temperatures. performance at 68°F 

Green

End-of-life disposal does not require special handling

Due to the mercury and phosphor in fluorescent lights, disposal requires special recycling procedures

Directional

LED light is focused in a 110° pattern, directing light to task

Light disperses 360°, with reflectors to capture lost light

End-of-Life

LED is considered end-of-life when it still is emitting 70% of full capacity

Fluorescent lights often fail ergonomically (flickering, ballast noise) as they age

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outlet for equipment. The internal outlet also eliminates the need to string power extension cords across the factory floor, presenting a tripping hazard for workers. Outlets combine convenience and safety for more efficiency. It is important to mount the light in such a way that gives maximum visibility. The ability to mount the light fixture horizontally or vertically assures the right illumination. A tool-less clip mounting option provides a  fast and easy way of mounting the lights at the correct position for any application. Screw fastening or options using a magnet are also commonly used.   The interior of enclosures can be quite crowded with limited space available. Flexible cable connections permit the LED light to sit precisely where space allows. A 90° rotating connection can let the fixture fit into position without any need to twist cables or bend wires to accommodate the LED light housing.   Whether re-positioning existing fixtures or installing fixtures into a new enclosure, the amount of time needed to assemble and install the equipment factors into the overall maintenance cost. Studies have shown that

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E le ctron i cs

fixtures which can be installed in two minutes represent an 80% savings in maintenance time over more complicated assemblies. This seemingly small savings multiplies over the number of enclosures to be serviced. LED lighting systems often employ a daisy chain scheme where one light fixture plugs into another on the route to the source of power. This sort of through-wiring minimizes the amount of wire devoted to lighting the cabinet. Different manufacturers recommend a maximum number of links for daisy chains ranging from 8 to 16 lights. With regard to powering lights, all makers of LED lights provide the option of an ac or dc power system. Voltage specifications vary from 20 to 24 V for dc systems, 100 to 240 V for ac.  All lighting systems are designed to fit in standard industrial enclosures ranging in length from 10 to 17 in. And UL certification on LED lights is important. The enclosure LED lights can be UL listed under a UL IFAM category code for LED surface-mounted luminaires, or classified as Recognized components under category code NITW2.  Here NITW is the UL product category for industrial control panels. The suffix “2” on the category code NITW indicates a recognized part. A review of LED lighting systems shows their benefits for enclosure lighting. Manufacturers continue to focus on improving lighting efficiency, energy efficiency and lighting system performance. Long-term, LEDs can save over 30% in energy costs and reduce maintenance man hours in installation, repair and replacement compared to fluorescent equivalents. And as recycling restrictions become more stringent, it will become more expensive to dispose of fluorescent lights because of the small amount of mercury each contains.  LED lighting will emerge as the industry standard for lighting industrial enclosures worldwide. With rising concerns about energy efficiency and recycling restrictions, LED lighting will become the long-term, economical choice. DW References Rittal Corp. | www.rittal.com

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I n d u s t r i a l

E t h e r n e t

The equipment keeping the IoT connected Not long ago, the big question with IoT was, “what’s the real world value”? A VP of marketing would tell you the revolution is here… and a plant manager would tell you we’re all just spinning the wheels of data acquisition. For better or worse, the dust has

Mike Santora • Associate Editor

started to settle. Now, even the most resolute IoT detractors have to admit that big data and connectivity are not going anywhere. Smart companies know its good business to make the products that make their customer’s products work more efficiently. In this roundup, we break down the stats for some of the need-to-know industrial ethernet products of the year.

1

ELM series EtherCAT measurement technology modules The ELM series from Beckhoff has new metal housings that improve shielding and cooling in measurement technology applications. At the same time, the housings have enhanced flexibility at the interface level, such as for LEMO or BNC plug connectors. Measurement accuracy of 100 ppm at 23°C, precise sub-1 μs synchronization, 24 bit resolution and a high sampling rate of up to 50,000 samples per second guarantee high-quality data acquisition. EtherCAT-enabled high-precision measurement technology can lower the use of raw materials and energy in machines and plants, while forming the basis for advanced condition monitoring and predictive maintenance. With the ELM series measurement technology modules, measuring devices and comprehensive automation technology can be combined into one universal system. The metal enclosures of the new ELM measurement modules have a flexible connector front-end for all standard measurement technology interfaces, and permit straightforward integration into all typical measurement technology environments. The ELM series includes 11 modules with different interfaces and input circuitry. These can cover, for example, voltage measurement of 20 mV…30 V, current measurement of ±20 mA, IEPE, thermocouples, RTD (PT100/1000), or strain gauge/load cells with full, half or quarter bridge with internal extension or potentiometer. The measuring ranges of the input channels can be flexibly parameterized, both electrically and on the software side. Additional properties include integrated distributed clocks, as well as the “ExtendedRange” feature which provides users the full technical measuring range – up to 107% of the specified nominal measuring range can be achieved, depending on the range in question. The EtherCAT measurement technology modules are optionally available with a factory calibration certificate.

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EKI-5500/5600 PN/PNMA and EI series of industrial switches Having switches which can communicate directly across a diverse range of machine automation devices is essential. These new Advantech industrial managed switches have been designed to communicate through PROFINET or Ethernet/ IP. They meet the PROFIENT RT (Real-Time) standard and support media redundancy protocol as well as ODVA certified to meet the requirements of Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) for added reassurance. The EKI-5500/5600 series are a new generation of industrial protocol managed switch products. The metal housing is IP30 rated to protect against dust. Their power input (8.4 to 52.8 Vdc) is dedicated to operating in areas of unstable power and rugged environments. These 8 ~ 16 port entry-level managed switches include functions for seamlessly communicating directly with SIEMENS by the use of GSDML files and Rockwell PLCs through the integration of Faceplate, a front-end configuration that can communicate directly with Rockwell FactoryTalk View SE and ME versions. Electric datasheets (EDS files) help to integrate with the Rockwell PLCs as well.

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The cBox Amazon Web Services IoT gateway for smart building control The cBox or “CloudBox” from Magnum Energy Solutions is a gateway that lets self-powered, wireless devices communicate with Amazon Web Services (AWS) IoT. The cBox enables smart building control and the remote monitoring of devices, including Magnum’s OPUS lighting nodes, to connect, authenticate and exchange data with AWS IoT using the M2M IoT protocol MQTT. If data visualization and remote control support are needed, the cBox provides a cost effective alternative. For OEM customers, the cBox also offers the ability to tailor software solutions specific to their customers or their application engagements. AWS IoT makes it possible to build applications that gather, process, analyze and act on the data generated by Magnum’s connected devices at a global scale without having to manage a traditional infrastructure. The real-time Rules Engine in the cBox transforms messages based on expressions that the user defines and routes to AWS endpoints. For example, routine readings from a temperature sensor can be tracked in a table and an abnormal reading that exceeds a value stored in the device shadow can trigger a function. The device shadows make it easier to build applications that interact with Magnum’s embedded, data collecting hardware. The device shadows deliver the last reported state and desired future state of the device even when the device is offline.

Nippon Pulse Your Partner in Motion Control nipponpulse.com | info@nipponpulse.com | 540-633-1677

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Compact Industrial Unmanaged 5-Port Switch Antaira Technologies’ LNX-C500 series is an IP-30 rated compact 5-port industrial unmanaged Ethernet switch embedded with five Fast Ethernet RJ45 ports. The form factor of this metal casing switch is 30% smaller. It’s designed to fulfill industrial applications that have small space requirements such as factory automation, ITS, security, ITS transportation, power/utility, and water wastewater treatment plants. The LNX-C500 is equipped with 5*10/100 RJ45 Ethernet ports with a backplane speed of 1Gbps. It supports a 12~48VDC redundant power input with reverse polarity and overload current protection. This product series can be either DIN-rail or wall mounted and the parts are included. The LNX-C500 series provides wide operating temperature range models for either a STD: -10 to 70°C or an EOT: -40 to 75°C. These units also have high EFT, surge (2,000 VDC), and ESD (6,000VDC) protection to prevent against any unregulated voltage. The compact size and light weight design has dimensions of 26mm (W) x 75mm (D) x 95mm (H) and a unit weight of only 1 pound. Lastly, it is backed by a five year warranty from Antaira Technologies.

Motor Feedback Systems for linear and rotative drives

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Compact Industrial Unmanaged 5-Port Switch Antaira Technologies’ LNX-C500 series is an IP-30 rated compact 5-port industrial unmanaged Ethernet switch embedded with five Fast Ethernet RJ45 ports. The form factor of this metal casing switch is 30% smaller. It’s designed to fulfill industrial applications that have small space requirements such as factory automation, ITS, security, ITS transportation, power/ utility, and water wastewater treatment plants. The LNX-C500 is equipped with 5*10/100 RJ45 Ethernet ports with a backplane speed of 1Gbps. It supports a 12~48VDC redundant power input with reverse polarity and overload current protection. This product series can be either DIN-rail or wall mounted and the parts are included. The LNX-C500 series provides wide operating temperature range models for either a STD: -10 to 70°C or an EOT: -40 to 75°C. These units also have high EFT, surge (2,000 VDC), and ESD (6,000VDC) protection to prevent against any unregulated voltage. The compact size and light weight design has dimensions of 26mm (W) x 75mm (D) x 95mm (H) and a unit weight of only 1 pound. Lastly, it is backed by a five year warranty from Antaira Technologies.

Planetary Gearheads Sesame servo gearheads offer all the typical planetary design solutions plus a whole lot more. With multiple designs in multiple quality and precision levels, we have the model that can meet your specific needs.

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I nd ustrial E t h e r n e t

Flexible 40 Gigabit Ethernet Switch Abaco Systems’ SWE540 6U OpenVPX 40 Gigabit Ethernet switch provides high speed Ethernet connectivity for Abaco’s latest generation of computing solutions such as the SBC627 single board computer and the recently-announced DSP282A digital signal processor. The SWE540 is the only 6U OpenVPX 40GigE switch currently available that supports full Layer 2/3 features including hardware Layer 3 forwarding at fabric speed rates. Layer 3 switching and routing is a critical requirement for advanced security and complex networks. It provides dynamic routing over standard routing protocols, enabling a flexible range of network/fabric configurations and applications. Cooling technology limits system thermal load while still enabling the SWE540 to run at peak performance. The SWE540 supports multiple OpenVPX profiles and uses switch silicon technology to support 40 Gigabit Ethernet performance across 20 ports, allowing configuration within demanding HPEC systems and a broad range of Abaco’s mission ready systems. The switch features Abaco’s latest OpenWare switch management software, allowing easy customization. OpenWare provides support for a wide range of network protocols and MIBs (management information bases) with extensive capabilities for multicast, Quality of Service, VLANs, and differentiated services. The OpenWare management interface may be accessed via serial console, SNMP, Telnet, SSH or web interface. The combination of the SWE540’s hardware and the OpenWare switch management software delivers comprehensive security capabilities. Designed for deployment in security-sensitive mission critical applications, SWE540 features include denial of service attack prevention, user password mechanisms with multiple levels of security and military level authorization schemes including 802.1X and sanitization to allow the overwrite of non-volatile storage if a system is compromised. Survivability is also enhanced by ECC protection on the management processor memory which offers higher reliability in harsh environments. The SWE540 is available in both air-cooled and conduction-cooled versions, and can optionally support four QSFP+ and two 1000BaseT ports on the front panel. Rear transition modules are available to enable access to 40 Gigabit and one Gigabit ports off the backplane.

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process data. Users receive an overview of IoT Gateway the collected data, and the Devices App Bosch Rexroth’s new IoT Gateway makes enables local monitoring of process data it easy to connect to the Internet of through a standard browser without special Things (IoT) without intervening in the software. automation logic. The precisely coordinated combination of control hardware and software for implementing IT applications Devices App – Flexible Peripheral 2.74 69.6 mm FLATS collects sensor and process data, transmits it Connections to MES, cloud applications or local machine The Devices App establishes connections state monitoring systems and enables with peripherals such as sensors, and signal ALL INFORMATION DISCLOSED BY THIS DOCUMENT IS process data analysis. The IoT Gateway’s CONSIDERED CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY BY ACE values areUSE,converted into process data CONTROLS, INC. & DESIGN, MANUFACTURE, REPRO& SALE RIGHTS ARE RESERVED BY ACE CONTROLS. modular software concept is based onDUCTION Linux, (known as endpoints). Connection options 00 O 3. Java apps and open interfaces. Configuration for this app are analog voltage and current 76.2 mm and handling is web-based, free from signals, digital voltage signals, OPC UA, programming and performed logically in Open Core Interface for Controls, Siemens three simple steps. S7, RFID and Bluetooth LE. No software is needed to set up the system; everything is configurable through Processing App – Fast Data Transfer web interfaces. Furthermore, users don’t The Processing App converts process have to learn a programming language to use data into information using logical and the system. And, scalable, embedded control mathematical operations. The app then hardware complements three system apps forwards that information to higherthat make data recording, processing and level systems such as the Bosch Software 00 forwarding easy. O 3. 76.Innovations 2 mm Production Performance Management platform, the Bosch Sensor Dashboard App – The Central Hub Cloud, the Bosch Energy Platform, Bosch The Dashboard App provides web-based Rexroth’s ODiN, as well as other MES interfaces for administration, configuration, systems and databases. DW parameterization and visualization of

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· CAD downloads 88 O 1.47. 9 mm 25AUG2016 ·25AUG2016 YouTube tutorials INSTALLATION 3441-42000 C 1 8.91 EXTENDED LENG RE 226. 2 mm · Free VibroChecker app REV PCO DESCRIP SALD1-1/8X2-P5.50 N/A for iOS 139.7 mm

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F a s t e n i n g

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J o i n i n g

Encapsulants and sealants

protect fragile electronic components Edited by Mary C. Gannon • Senior Editor

As PCBs proliferate, it is important to keep these delicate devices protected from environmental damage. Here’s a look at some products on the market designed to do just that.

Electronic circuit boards are used everywhere today—from

consumer products such as fitness trackers, cell phones and tablets to industrial applications in aerospace, industry, medical instrumentation, and more. Extreme temperature fluctuations, water and dirt ingress, shock and vibration, and more environmental impacts can easily destroy these delicate components. This is why silicone and specialty solder pastes are growing in use for potting, encapsulation, sealing and bonding, and vibration damping, particularly in printed circuit boards (PCBs). In a recent whitepaper “Silicones Meet the Needs of the Electronics Industry” Master Bond outlined a number of ways silicone is growing in popularity when it comes to potting, encapsulating, and sealing electronic components

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In addition to its temperature stable solder paste, Henkel offers its TECHNOMELT AS 8998 precise peelable mask for conformal coating processes for circuit boards. This masking technique is an alternative to manual taping and can be precisely applied, offering better control during thermal cure while releasing cleanly from various substrate surfaces.

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Fa ste n i ng & J o i ni ng such as circuit boards. For instance, Master Bond said, silicones are highly flexible and resist high temperatures and other extreme environmental exposure such as UV light, water, and other environmental damage, while also offering exceptional insulation.

“Electronic circuit boards are used everywhere today— from consumer products such as fitness trackers, cell phones and tablets to industrial applications in aerospace, industry, medical instrumentation, and more.”

PEM® ReelFast® SMT Fasteners Speed assembly, improve quality and reduce costs

• Designed to be mounted on printed circuit boards at the same time as other surface mount components • Reduces risk of damage to boards • Resists vibration • Reduces handling of loose parts • Speeds assembly by eliminating secondary operations

• Several types including panel fasteners, spacers, nuts and right angle fasteners are available to mount, space or attach components and boards • Threads as small as #0-80/M1 • RoHS Compliant

Free PEMSpec™ app now available

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101 ©2017

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Faste ni ng & Joining Adhesive manufacturers continue to improve their offerings. Here’s a look at some key silicone and solder pastes available on the market today.

Addition cured silicone from Master Bond is optically clear for low temperature serviceability For potting and encapsulation applications, MasterSil 157 is a two-component silicone system that features low viscosity and low exotherm. It has superior electrical insulation properties and can cure in sections beyond 1 in. thick. MasterSil 157 is serviceable over a –175° to 500°F (–115° to 260°C) temperature range. “This product was formulated for applications that require a silicone to operate under low temperatures,” said Venkat Nandivada, manager of technical support. “Typically, silicones are better suited to withstand high temperatures, so MasterSil 157 fills that need.” Similar to traditional silicones, MasterSil 157 is flexible with an elongation of 110-140%, to withstand rigorous thermal cycling and shock. Featuring a refractive index of 1.43, it has excellent optical clarity and can transmit light from 220-2,500 nanometers. “Its optical clarity makes it

| courtesy of Master Bond

May 2017

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Fa ste n i ng & J o i ni ng Dow Corning silicones protect sensitive microelectronic and macroelectronic components Used for sealing, bonding and encapsulating mechanical and electrical parts, Dow Corning silicones are ideal for sensitive electronic circuits. As technological advances increase processing power and miniaturization capabilities, increasingly compact electronic modules require significant thermal stability and moisture resistance. In addition, a variety of silicone-based materials, conformal coatings, encapsulants and gels enhance insulation and chemical resistance and provide consistent protection against moisture, humidity, vibration, over-heating, corrosion and radiation. Dow Corning brand silicone encapsulants are supplied as two-part liquid component kits. When liquid components are thoroughly mixed, the mixture cures to a flexible elastomer, which is well suited for the protection of electrical/electronic applications. Dow Corning silicone encapsulants cure without exotherm at a constant rate regardless

a good fit for many applications in the optical industry like optical fiber cladding and encapsulating LEDs,â&#x20AC;? said Nandivada. MasterSil 157 can also be used in the opto-electronic and specialty OEM industries. This addition cured system does not require exposure to air for complete cross-linking. It has a 10 to one mix ratio by weight and will not outgas while curing. It also offers a long pot life of 2-4 hours at room temperature for a 100 gram mass.

of sectional thickness or degree of confinement. These silicone encapsulants do not need a post cure and can be placed in service immediately following the completion of the cure schedule. Standard silicone encapsulants require a surface treatment with a primer in addition to good cleaning for adhesion while primerless silicone encapsulants require only good cleaning.

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| courtesy of Henkel

Faste ni ng & Joining

Temperature-stable solder paste for electronics assembly An innovative product from Henkel is its LOCTITE G10, a temperature stable solder paste that doesn’t require refrigeration. It is stable at 26.5°C for one year and at temperatures up to 40°C for one month. It has a longer life throughout the operations and logistics chain, because it requires less storage space and does not need to thaw without refrigeration. This paste is still highly printable and offers strong reflow performance. Offering high consistency, and paste-transfer efficiency, LOCTITE GC10 provides up to 24hour abandon times, up to 73-hour stencil life and more than 95% on-line paste utilization. Finally, the paste provides shiny, Pb-free solder joints with superior coalescence and wetting on long soak profiles, reducing solderrelated defects. The halogen-free, no-clean and low-voiding LOCTITE GC10 is suitable for use with industry standard SAC alloys. DW Dow Corning | dowcorning.com Henkel Adhesives North America na.henkel-adhesives.com Master Bond | Masterbond.com

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May 2017

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It’s not a web page, it’s an industry information site So much happens between issues of Design World that even another issue would not be enough to keep up. That’s why it makes sense to visit designworldonline.com and stay on Twitter, Google plus, Facebook and Linkedin. It’s updated regularly with relevant technical information and other significant news to the design engineering community.

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A supplement of Design World â&#x20AC;˘ May 2017

Additive versus

subtractive?

Why not both?

124

112 Additive pushes further into manufacturing

COVER_MPF 5-17_Vs2_final.indd 111

118 3D printed conformal cooling channels control injection molding temperatures

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A d d i t i v e

T e c h n o l o g y

Additive pushes further into manufacturing Leslie Langnau â&#x20AC;¢ Managing Editor

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Additive technology continues to improve in build speed, build size, and overall performance. More improvements are on

In his keynote presentation at the recent Additive Manufacturing Users Group Conference, Todd Grimm, (founder and president of T.A. Grimm & Associates) said we are entering a new phase of the Gartner Hype Cycle. Additive manufacturing is moving out of the Trough of Disillusionment and entering the Slope of Enlightenment. Next up is the Plateau of Productivity. This is the learning stage of additive, particularly in learning how to use this equipment for production. Grimm sees a lot of innovation on the horizon, new tools, new research, new technologies. Some of this innovation will address problems that were not solvable before. Much of it is still in various development stages, to be released over the next few months. What you can see now is the honing of existing equipment. For example, additive systems are building parts faster, increasing throughput, and delivering better control over the build process.

the way. A couple of trends to look for in the coming months: • Faster deposition of build material, and larger deposited amounts of build material. • Software that helps engineers design better and software that manages the build better.

» Carbon introduced its SpeedCell additive system for manufacturing at scale.

The system consists of 1 to 12 connected 3D printers, combined with 1 part washer. The system is compatible with robots for part handling. www.makepartsfast.com  

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Additive Technology

g

Âť Ingersoll Machine Tools Inc. and

Oak Ridge National Laboratory continue to push additive capabilities to extreme limits. The latest development is the Wide and High Additive Manufac- turing (WHAM) machine. It deposits up to 1000 pounds of material per hour. It can print items to a size of 23 by 10 by 46 ft.

Laying down more material Ingersoll Machine Tools Inc., in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a massive 3D printer. The resulting WHAM (Wide and High Additive Manufacturing) printer has a deposition rate of 1,000 pounds of material per hour, which means itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s moving at speeds of 548 or 646 ft per minute. Materials include a range of composite plastics. The standard work envelope is 23 feet wide, 10 feet high, and 46 feet long. Built on a platform of existing modular components, the machine size can be customized to various specifications. The WHAM system includes automatic exchange of the printing extruder with a high-speed 5-axis milling attachment for conventional subtractive finishing operations (an example of hybrid machining/additive equipment).

Moving onto the manufacturing floor Carbon, the Silicon Valley-based additive manufacturing company recently launched SpeedCell, a system of multiple securely 114

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connected printers and a part washer that will alter the way you produce products. SpeedCell offers end-to-end manufacturing through its hardware, software, materials, service and support that integrates product design and engineering. The first components of a SpeedCell include two new products for additive manufacturing at scale: The M2, an industrial-grade 3D printer built with manufacturers in mind; and the Smart Part Washer that enables optimal cleaning and easy finishing of parts. The new M2 printer, like the M1, has the same resolution and technology, but offers twice the build volume (W 190 x D 118 x H 326 mm; 7.48 by 4.65 by 12.8 in.). Print speed is about 100 to 200 mm/ hr, depending on the object, at ambient temperature. Developed for production applications, the M2 can handle more parts per print, or bigger parts than the

5/3/17 9:04 AM


» The Figure 4 system from

M1. It can be interfaced with robots for part handling. The materials used are those offered by Carbon. The Smart Part Washer automates repeatable part washing when it receives a build platform from the printer. Near Field Communication (NFC) tags ensure a digital thread is kept on all parts—a feature needed in many manufacturing applications. Robots can be used to automatically remove parts from the printer and deliver to the washer. Carbon will initially offer SpeedCell in the following configurations: • Design SpeedCell couples one M Series printer with a Smart Part Washer, allowing product designers and engineers to iterate on product concepts and produce real parts at any volume.

• Production SpeedCell, specifically designed for industrial manufacturing applications pairs multiple production floor compatible M2 printers with a Smart Part Washer. There is no limit to the number of M2s you can have in this configuration. One washer supports about a dozen washers. As with the M1, all of these systems are connected and performance data goes back to Carbon. This connectivity is used to deliver software upgrades and install features as needed. “Every motor, every switch is software addressable,” says Dr. Joe DeSimone, co-founder and CEO of Carbon. For customers, design files are separate and can be encrypted. Adds DeSimone, “For our customers, this launch means that their product development cycles no longer need www.makepartsfast.com  

Additive Technology_MPF_5-17_Vs4.indd 115

3D Systems is another example of an integrated additive system. One configuration combines 16 print engines into a cell, which can produce 1,000,000 parts over an approach using 225 stereolithography printers.

to include the antiquated traditional manufacturing process steps of designing, prototyping, tooling, and then production. Instead, products can be designed and engineered on a platform that is also the means of production, eliminating prototyping and tooling steps. This dis-intermediation is at the core of Carbon’s role in accelerating the much-anticipated digital revolution in manufacturing. Users can reduce time to market to two to three months by reducing prototyping.” The introduction of SpeedCell is in direct response to the needs of Carbon’s customers and strategic partners, including BMW Group and General Electric. Fast Radius, in partnership with UPS, is a new Carbon customer and one of Carbon’s SpeedCell launch partners. May 2017

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Additive Technology A key factor in moving additive equipment onto the manufacturing floor is answering manufacturing and production managersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; questions about additive technology. Questions such as how much floor space do I need to devote to this equipment? How many extra people are needed to operate it? Can we reproduce hundreds and thousands of the same part reliably? Until such questions are answered, manufacturing managers will be slow to implement them. 3D Systems hopes to help answer these questions with its Figure 4 system. Figure 4 uses a DPL additive process that builds parts fast, up to 14 times faster than stereolithography (SL). When comparing a typical SL system with Figure 4, 3D Systems says it would take 225 SL printers to produce one million parts versus one Figure

4 configured with 16 print engines. Traditional SL systems would need 26 times more plant floor space and 45 times more labor. The labor cost would also be 4 times more with traditional SL, and the initial investment would be 23 times more. And a key metric, the cost per part would be 71% lower with the Figure 4 in a 16 print engine arrangement.

3D Systems | 3Dsystems.com Carbon | Carbon3d.com Ingersoll Machine Tools Inc. ingersoll.com Oak Ridge National Laboratory ornl.gov/manufacturing

Service Expect additive technology to move into the Gartnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hype Cycle portion of the Plateau of Productivity fairly soon. The number of companies, like GE, Caterpillar, HP, CIMdata, Siemens and others, are moving in the direction of offering their additive expertise as a service to design engineers. As these users figure out how to increase additive productivity. n MPF

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Visit www.renishaw.com/solutioncenters Renishaw Inc West Dundee, IL

Additive Technology_MPF_5-17_Vs4.indd 116

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A d d i t i v e

M a n u f a c t u r i n g

3D printed conformal cooling channels control injection molding temperatures Additive manufacturing delivers an end-to-end process for conformal cooling in injection molding that cuts cycle times while maintaining constant temperatures.

Edited by: Leslie Langnau â&#x20AC;˘ Managing Editor

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Since the inception of industrial injection molding, keeping an even temperature on the surface of the mold has been a constant challenge. In the quest to maintain even temperatures, manufacturers have used baffles, bubblers and heat pipes; they’ve laminated blocks together and added complex drilling set ups to their molds. Over the last decade or so, the use of conformal cooling has been positioned as a solution for controlling injection-molding temperatures. Cooling channels are designed into the mold that naturally follow the production part’s contours. But conformal cooling adds new layers of design and production complexity to the mold-making process, placing it beyond the means of many shops. Bastech is an Ohio-based one-source solution provider for shop floor, additive manufacturing services and equipment sales. It’s engineering team has wrestled with temperature issues, but believe they have found a way to introduce a new level of simplicity, efficiency and economy to conformal cooling. The breakthrough, documented in two recent benchmark tests, is based on 3D Systems’ Cimatron mold-making software and ProX 200 direct metal printing (DMP) system. Simulations for the conformal cooling mold designs are done using Moldex3D software, a partner with 3D Systems, and the completed DMP molds are inspected using 3D Systems Geomagic Control software. The process represents an end-toend manufacturing approach with easy integration between the digital and physical worlds. “The combination of powerful software that leverages the full capabilities of 3D printing, with printers that deliver a fully dense metal part with smooth surfaces and limited post processing provides a rocksolid methodology for building custom cooling molds,” says Ben Staub, Bastech CEO.

» Automation within Cimatron software reduced design time from 30 hours to

7 for the conformal cooling mold. Total cost savings for the 3D printed mold was $2,505, a 16% savings.

www.makepartsfast.com  

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Additive Manufacturing

g

» Cimatron mold-making software includes cooling design and analysis capabilities that support both traditionally drilled cooling channels and conformal cooling channels for manufacturing using 3D printing technologies.

Automating design and analysis The engineering team’s first benchmark compared two parts that were similar in terms of volume, size, and design configuration. One was designed with a conformal core and then 3D printed; the other was designed with a standard spiral baffle configuration and manufactured by conventional means. The conformal cooling design was created with Cimatron CAD/CAM software that covers the entire moldmaking cycle—from quoting to design, applying engineering changes, NC and EDM programming. The latest version of Cimatron includes cooling design and analysis capabilities that support both traditionally drilled cooling channels and conformal cooling channels for manufacturing using 3D printing technologies. Through close integration with Moldex3D, injection mold designers working in that program can automate mold-filling analysis to optimize cooling channel layout. “The combination of Cimatron and Moldex delivers software that helps lessexperienced engineers create betterquality designs,” says Staub. “This is a major consideration as the demand for experienced tool-makers is larger than the dwindling supply.” “Designing for 3D printing requires an understanding of structural support 120

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design to meet design requirements as well as reducing material cost and build time,” adds Scott Young, Bastech’s Engineering Manager. “This type of expertise is built within the Cimatron software to allow our designers to think about design without having to worry about navigating through the CAD package to define complex internal channels.”

Time and cycle savings

» The tapered helix was positioned on

the inside of a spacing cone used for industrial assemblies. The conformal cooling channels were created by rotating a teardrop configuration so that one side was parallel to the outer surface of the core while maintaining a constant distance from it. By running the cross- section along a tapered helix, the team designed geometry that the ProX 200 could build in a single run.

The design from Bastech’s engineering team for the first benchmark was a tapered helix positioned on the inside of a spacing cone used for industrial assemblies. Conformal cooling channels were created by rotating a teardrop configuration so that one side was parallel to the outer surface of the core while maintaining a constant distance from it. By running the cross-section along a tapered helix, the team designed geometry that the ProX 200 could build in a single run. The design for the 3D printed mold took two days and was built on the ProX 200 in three days. To maximize productivity, the design team combined the 3D print run for the mold with parts required for other Bastech projects. “The ProX 200 is a tool that enhances our capabilities on the molding side,” says Staub. “It gives us higher turnaround tooling and solves bottleneck problems

5/3/17 8:52 AM


in the shop. We can save 30-40 hours per mold by eliminating EDM and drilling, and drastically reducing CNC and polishing work.” For the reverse-flow helix core, the design and analysis in Cimatron software, combined with 3D printing, saved more than 40 hours of programming and shop time. When all costs were taken into consideration, the 3D printed core yielded a net savings of $1,765 (18%) over conventional methods, according to Young. More importantly, the conformal cooling mold maintained a lower temperature throughout the run and reduced cycle time by 22%. “Cycle time is nearly everything in injection molding, with the ability to consistently control temperature a close second,” says Staub. “The more consistently we can hold temperature, the more consistently we can mold quality parts,” says Young. “Eliminating warping due to temperature variation and lowering cycle time represent huge performance gains.”

Benchmark 1: Baffled vs. Conformal Core Start Up

40 shots

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Baffle core

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100.7

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Conv. Cavity

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83.6

83.7

80.3

1.4

58

Start Up

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92.6

91.4

90.5

1.5

45

Conv. Cavity

83

86

85.4

85.4

1.5

45

Cooling channel surface area of baffled core = 24.2 in² Cooling channel surface area of conformal core = 52.2 in²

Benchmark 2: Conventional vs. Conformal

Conventional

Conformal

Design

30

7

$1,495.00

Programming

40

17

$1,495.00

Machining

74

56

$ 990.00

$350.00

$5,400.00

-$5,050.00

72

0

$3,960.00

Material/AM Build

Savings beyond the core

EDM

In the second benchmark, the engineering team went beyond the conformal core to design a complete core, cavity and slide-mold set for 3D printing. In this case, the goal was to maintain the same temperature (110F) between the conventional and conformal designs to see how it would affect cooling and cycle time results. Time savings were recorded for programming, machining and polishing, and EDM was eliminated in the conformal cooling design. Automation within Cimatron software reduced design time from 30 hours to seven for the conformal cooling mold. Total cost savings for the 3D printed mold was $2,505, a 16% savings. Cooling time was reduced from 10.5 seconds for the conventional mold to 7.5 seconds for the conformal mold, and the all-important cycle time was reduced by 14%.

Polishing total

38

45

Mold Temp Cooling Cycle Time

-$385.00 $2,505.00

Original tooling cost Cost Savings

Savings

Conventional

$16,500.00 $ 2,505.00

Conformal

Savings

110 F

110 F

10.5 sec.

7.5 sec.

35 sec.

30 sec.

www.makepartsfast.com  

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Mold Temp Mold Temp Mold Temp Mold Temp Flow GPM Cycle time

5 sec. / part

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“Even though the temperature remained the same for both the conventional and the conformal cooling designs, the conformal design forced more liquid through a greater surface area, making it more efficient in cooling the mold,” says Young.

The bottom-line “The desire for better cooling techniques has been hanging out there for a long time,” says Young. “We now have the software to help mold-makers make better decisions about how to set up their cavities, cores and inserts, then bring them into reality with direct metal 3D printing.” “With traditional cooling for injection molding there is no perfect situation,” says Staub. “You can only drill holes in certain places and you can’t curve holes around channels like you can with conformal cooling designed for 3D printing. Now we no longer have to accept compromises in conformal cooling designs.” Bastech purchased the ProX 200 DMP system through a grant from the state of Ohio and the University of Dayton’s Research Institute, so part of the company’s mission is to share results with the industrial community. Staub hopes that Bastech’s benchmark efforts will show shops of all sizes that there are solid, end-to-end solutions available to achieve conformal cooling. “A lot of toolmakers will need to adopt these 3D technologies to improve their shops,” he says. “We want to share our successes so other shops can see that not only can it be done, but it can be done in a way that has a major impact on your bottom line.” n MPF

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H y b r i d

A d d i t i v e

Additive versus

subtractive?

Why not both? The question of whether additive manufacturing will replace traditional subtractive manufacturing still comes up in conversation. Rather than answer yes or no, one trend is to include both processes into a manufacturing system. Leslie Langnau â&#x20AC;˘ Managing Editor

Additive vendors continue to explore ways to incorporate this technology into manufacturing operations. For this effort to succeed, additive vendors need to prove to manufacturing managers that additive can reproduce hundreds of thousands of the same part reliably. In addition, they need to answer manufacturing managers questions on space needs of the equipment, operator needs and training, and what post processing will be required. Finally, vendors need to prove that the materials for additive are suitable to the job. For many users, additive needs to offer better surface finishes, manage deformation from residual stress better, and for metal materials offer a better cost versus build time ratio. Many users with extensive experience in additive see this technology more as a complementary technology to traditional machining and injection molding. 124

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» The Stratasys Infinite-Build 3D Demonstrator combines additive and robotics for a production cell. While the additive machines builds large parts, the robot manages material supply.

www.makepartsfast.com  

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Hybrid Additive

» Excel Series Platform from 3D Platform combines additive, subtractive, and robotics

into a range of configurations. The robotics handle subtractive manufacturing or pick-and-place functions for a streamlined process.

Some vendors are taking an active approach to this idea by combining additive and subtractive or robotic processes together. Several vendors are moving in this direction. Here’s a look at recent hybrid systems. 3D Platform developed its Excel Series Platform. The Excel series includes a parallel gantry configuration that supports additive, subtractive, and robotics processes. The machine starts with a 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft (1.2 x 1.2 x 2.4 m) build area with an array of high-volume extruders that deliver a material throughput capacity from 2 kg/hr to as high as 55 kg/hr per gantry. This throughput is possible by leveraging multiprocessing, parallel gantries and a

» DMG MORI integrates additive manufacturing into a 5-axis milling machine in its Lasertec 65 3D system. The milling machine is from Deckel Maho arranged in a stable monoBLOCK-design to ensure milling quality. Int-News-LASERTEC- 65-AM-1

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Additive vendors continue to explore ways to incorporate this technology into manufacturing operations. For this effort to succeed, additive vendors need to prove to manufacturing managers that additive can reproduce hundreds of thousands of the same part reliably. combination of additive, subtractive, and robotic configurations. The build area can be extended with multiple gantries to almost any length needed (100 meters +) to print one large part or simultaneously create multiple parts. The hardware on the Excel line includes components from PBC Linear, Xtrution, THK, Yaskawa, and Shimpo. These components shape linear guides and multiple gantry systems, while powering motion control and industrial robotics technology. The SurePrint Servo, for example, is a closed-loop stepper motor that ensures print quality is consistent. The machine uses a high flow material extruder (HFE900 series), which has a 6-mm diameter for the above mentioned material throughput capacity.

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Hybrid Additive

The machine works with standard plastic pellets or filament. According to 3D Platform, the spool fed extruder is easier to manage than the pellet fed extruders, so the needs of the customer will determine which type of material to use for printing. The Excel design is parametric; it can stretch in any of the Cartesian directions. Thus, the machine can be customized. Users can also specify robotic equipment for assembly functions or post processing and finishing. The robotics can deliver subtractive manufacturing or pick-and-place functions, such as embedding various components into 3D printed parts (such as PEM nuts or threaded metal fasteners) in a streamlined process. The Excel is available with an enclosure to control the environmental variables over the entire part. The enclosure minimizes thermal shrink on certain areas of the part, allowing it to shrink as it is cooling in one unified motion. Stratasys found an intriguing way to use its Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) additive technology in a manufacturing capacity. Its Infinite-Build 3D Demonstrator lets users build 7 ft, 20 ft, and longer parts. This machine turns the Z axis on its side. Thus, the build plate is oriented as if it were a vertical wall, and the extrusion nozzle deposits material on that wall layer-by-layer. The part can “grow” out of the machine,

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Hybrid Additive coming at you on its side, to whatever length is needed, an almost infinite Z. While the machine’s build area can support parts up to 7 ft. Parts that are longer may need additional support. That support can be in the form of a table that the growing part will rest on as it grows, or it could be an overhead crane holding the part and moving with it as the part grows. Build speed is 10 times faster than current extrusion processes, claims Stratasys. Part of the build speed comes from the use of linear motors to move the FDM nozzle. Another part is the use of a screw-based extrusion deposition nozzle. It is literally a specially designed screw that takes the micro thermoplastic pellet feedstock, melting the pellets within until they melt together just before deposition. A robot in the cell helps handle material feed into the system. An in-situ process control system lets users see what is going on inside the build area. Methods Machine Tools Inc., offers an additive manufacturing cell designed to increase production in 3D manufacturing throughput. It combines additive manufact-uring with robotics and subtractive processes for fast, efficient finished 3D part production. The 20-foot Methods cell includes a 3D-printed product in-feeding station, which shuttles 3D parts on build plates into a FANUC C600 EDM machine that makes a cut between the parts and build plates. In the next station a FANUC robot snaps the plates from the printed parts and transfers the parts to a FANUC RoboDrill for a final machining operation. The cell integrates post-process machin-ing operations in an end-to-end solution. DMG MORI integrates additive manufacturing into a 5-axis milling machine in its Lasertec 65 3D system. This innovative hybrid-solution combines the flexibility of the laser metal deposition process with the precision of the cutting process.

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The process uses metal deposition through a powder nozzle, which speeds up a build by 10 times. This machine handles large workpieces with high stock removal volumes. The flexible change between laser and milling operation allows the direct milling machining of sections, which are not reachable anymore at the finished part. The machine includes a full 5-axis milling machine from Deckel Maho in a stable monoBLOCK-design, offering milling quality. The system has automated change-over between the milling and laser operations. Large working room for workpieces is up to ø 23.6 in., 15.7 in. height and max. 1,322.8 lb. It will handle wall thickness from 0.004 to 0.2 in. depend-ing on laser and nozzle geometry. n MPF

3D Platform | 3dplatform.com Stratasys | Stratasys.com Methods Machine Tools Inc. | Methodsmachine.com DMG MORI | us.dmgmori.com

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5/5/17 8:47 AM


Behind the Scenes. Ahead of the Curve. Inside the Corner Office.

INTRODUCING A NEW & IMPROVED DEVICETALKS IN 2017 For the past decade, we’ve been creating media and educational content that supports our industry. That means we create content that is relevant to how our readers effectively do their jobs and we deliver it on the platform they desire. This formula has worked seamlessly with our flagship publications like MassDevice, DesignWorld, and Medical Design and Outsourcing. Now we’re bringing this formula to our live industry events. For five years, we’ve been running successful programming for medtech executives throughout the country. In 2017, we will continue that legacy of bringing the best minds in the industry to our DeviceTalks events. However, many engineers and engineering managers in our community of more than 100,000 readers need relevant live content that helps them effectively do their jobs.

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That’s why this past summer and fall the DeviceTalks team went to work creating a new engineering focused staff development curriculum for engineers, developed with the assistance a core group of leading engineers. The DeviceTalks team has met with R&D teams from medtech companies to learn and understand the kind of panels and workshops engineers require. Our new Engineering Track is focused exclusively on how to help engineers do their jobs better. This includes Engineering Workshops, Panels, and Hot Technology sessions designed around the topics critical for today’s engineers and engineering managers. This is not another conference where you’ll hear a CEO talk about the need to move faster. This is about how to do your job better when everyone around you is telling you to move faster. We’re bringing together the best of the best in the industry, so I hope you’ll join us this year, whether it’s your first time, or joining us once again. We still have a limited number of sponsorships available for this year’s slate, so I invite to learn more by downloading a prospectus, or listening to our recent webinar. There’s much more to come, so keep tuned.

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Sensor www.sensortips.com

A Supplement to Design World - May 2017

Ultrasonic

additive manufacturing gets sensors in the right place

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S

e

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Ultrasonic

additive manufacturing gets sensors in the right place Embedding sensors and electronics into metals could mean limitless new applications Edited by Paul J. Heney Editorial Director

Embedding sensor exit strategy and example connectors: (a) USB connector embedding; (b) functional USB connector.

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Your Global Automation Partner

Sensors are widely used throughout industry to detect and respond to external stimuli. Unfortunately, conventional manufacturing processes often dictate that the sensors be placed far away from the stimuli. But new 3D printing processes can now allow sensors to be embedded anywhere in a metal structure. This offers several benefits:

Higher protection—A common problem with sensors operating in harsh environments is degradation from radiation exposure, corrosion, impact, wear, and so on. Ideally, it would be best to bury the sensors in a solid metal substrate for protection. However, this is often difficult using conventional manufacturing technologies, due to complications in sealing and elevated processing temperatures. Higher performance—Many sensors in use today are attached to the periphery of equipment, limiting signal strength and response times. Manufacturing processes for metal such as casting, cutting and welding are performed at high temperature and thus force sensors to be an add-on item to the final structure. Embedding sensors in metal allows the sensors to be placed at the most suitable location for measurement and control, leading to higher performing products.

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S e ns o r s Design freedom—Metal 3D printing is changing the design paradigm of products, from cell phones to jet engines. What’s more, low temperature metal 3D printing enables electronics and requisite wiring to be placed anywhere in a structure. As the part is grown in the printer, wiring can be placed through circuitous routes throughout the center of a large structure. This gives the designer the freedom to locate structure, sensors, and wiring at the optimal location for function— as opposed to the optimal location for construction. 3D printing metal through sound Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) is a 3D metal printing technology that allows an engineer to embed electronics and sensors into metal parts of any design. The process uses ultrasonic sound waves to merge layers of metal foil together in the solid state—

-3

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Time (s) Embedded fiber optic strain sensor performance. The embedded and exterior strain sensors compare well in time.

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there is no melting of the metals. The process produces true metallurgical bonds with full density and works with a variety of metals including: aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and titanium. Multiple metals are compatible with the process because high temperature chemistry is minimal and solidification is avoided. CNC machining is used interchangeably with foil layering to introduce internal features along the way and for part finishing. By combining a hybrid system, in which both additive and subtractive processes exist, UAM can build complex internal geometries that would be considered impossible to replicate with conventional subtractive manufacturing processes, for example, complex chemical reaction chambers with embedded controls. The combination of additive and subtractive stages in UAM allows components to be integrated into the part along the way—as with most 3D printing technologies. The difference with UAM, as compared to other 3D metal printing technologies, is its low processing temperature. This is important when it comes to embedding sensors and electronics as these materials are easily damaged with elevated temperatures. Consequently, UAM enables functional embedding of sensors, electrical circuits, smart materials, and other temperature sensitive components into fully dense metallic structures.

Integrating sensors and electronics into metals Thermocouples, pressure transducers, USB ports, plastic connectors, accelerometers, and strain sensors have been successfully integrated into metal components with UAM. Embedding these sensors into components not only provides protection, it also allows measurements, which are not possible from the outside of the part. The general strategy for embedding a sensor or electrical component begins by creating a pocket or crevice in the structure through the CNC stage of the UAM process. For smaller devices, this pocket may not be needed. Then, the device is placed into the pocket for encapsulation using the additive

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5/4/17 2:15 PM


Sensors welding stage. For some applications, epoxy or another dielectric material may be used to pot the device, so as to constrain, protect, provide structural support, and insulate it from the neighboring metal material. After consolidation is complete, the component is machined to final dimension and removed from the machine.

Applications Fiber optic Bragg grating (FBG) is a type of optical fiber that reflects certain wavelengths of light and transmits all others. By accurately measuring the refracted light, these flexible and versatile fibers can be used to measure both strain and temperature with extreme accuracy. FBG strain sensors can be built into aluminum parts for precise internal strain measurement. Internal embedding allows for measurement of critical strain and potential damage, which is impossible using an external strain sensor. The surrounding material also protects the fragile sensor by adding robustness. The small profile of the optical strain sensor also minimizes the invasiveness on the structure. In other words, the sensor does not create a disadvantage for part design life or performance. This embedded capability is useful for implanting structural health monitoring strategies in the aerospace industry. An embedded FBG strain sensor is shown in Figure 2 along with its strain profile. The internal FBG strain profile correlates well with the externally mounted foil gauge strain up to loads over half the yield strength of the metal. Similar applications have been achieved using thermocouples. Building thermocouples into the part permits measurement of temperatures that would be impossible to measure from the outside, but also allows this technology to be coupled with flow measurement monitoring of complex internal passages inside the part. This dual capability allows finer control and monitoring. For example, chemical reactors typically have numerous input channels and reaction flow paths that crisscross through a large metal block. By embedding sensors throughout the block, control feedback can www.designworldonline.com  

Sensors 5-17_Vs6.LL.indd 135

Your Global Automation Partner

be obtained at critical locations in the flow path, allowing for better product and higher throughput. If the application only requires embedding the cold junction, then the cold junction is simply laid in the right place and layers of metal are welded directly over the thermocouple. However, many customers want to bury the cold junction deep within a metal part. In this case, a small channel is milled to capture the insulated sheath. Again, the cold junction will be laid on flat material and then metal foils are welded over the entire part.

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S e ns o r s

40

Temperature (°C)

pocket, the CNC stage is used to strategically impart a relief notch for extraction ease. Figure 4(a) details a pocket and a relief notch for a USB connector. The relief notch also helps with connector placement. After consolidation is complete, the CNC stage is used to remove any remaining material to expose the connector. This material includes freshly welded metal or initial substrate. Wireless communication or antenna applications can also be done with UAM. In this case, an extraction technique is not required, yet the pocket has to be strategically designed so as not to attenuate or interfere with the communication signal. Embedded sensors benefit from the protection that the metal can provide from a physical environment. However, the 3D printed metal around the sensor can also protect the sensor from electromagnetic interference. For example, it has been found that tantalum can be used in aluminum parts to provide radiation protection. Because the UAM process can produce strong metal-to-metal bonds without forming intermetallic phases, a mix of metals can be printed to stop radiation and other electromagnetic fields. This shield or cladding protects embedded or packaged electronics and increases component life and can also improve electronics accuracy. DW

35

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0

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Embedded thermocouples and internal thermal response from a heat plate.

Fabrisonic LLC | fabrisonic.com

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sensor tips

4 ways

remote temperature monitoring and data logging ensure FSMA compliance

Edited by: Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director

The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) significantly impacted food manufacturers with new regulations meant to ensure a safe food chain. Many manufacturers have turned to smart sensors that feature remote temperature monitoring and data logging capabilities. This helps them identify food hazards quickly and avoid costly recalls—as well as meet documentation requirements in an efficient manner. www.designworldonline.com  

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sensor tips

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Since FSMA went into effect, companies are now required to engage in a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point to identify conditions that can impact food safety. A very common hazard is temperature change within a food plant or food storage facility, where even a small change in climate could allow pathogens to grow and contaminate the food. Alternately, if the temperature of a pasteurization process of eggs does not reach the proper levels of heat, pathogens such as salmonella may not be fully eradicated from the raw material. After identifying these hazards, it is then up to the manufacturer to define methodologies, establish a plan, and manage preventative controls to mitigate the risks. In addition to requiring a closer examination of food safety practices, FSMA also requires manufacturers to maintain documentation of monitoring data as evidence of having implemented effective hazard control. Traditionally, many food manufacturers have relied on intermittent condition monitoring; however, this method limits visibility into food safety hazards and makes it difficult to satisfy the FSMA’s new documentation requirements. Food plants need to continuously monitor conditions like temperature and access the historical logs to make data-driven food safety decisions over time. Manual documentation demands time and resources. Thus, food and beverage manufacturers require temperature sensing solutions that can not only accurately detect potentially dangerous temperature increases but also allow for realtime condition monitoring and long-term logging of process data. Another challenge is that many facilities and production lines installed before the FSMA was established have limited hardwired infrastructure for monitoring and data logging, making it difficult and costly to retrofit a hardwired solution. Due to these challenges, the demand for wireless temperature sensors has increased. 1 Wireless technology offers fast, cost-effective commissioning A hardwired temperature monitoring solution can be costly to retrofit onto existing equipment. If food manufacturers need to hardwire a solution, it could require them to run conduit over a food line, temporarily shutting down production. This can cost thousands of dollars per hour of lost production time. A hardwired solution might also require tearing up concrete to run conduit underfoot, another costly proposition. On the other hand, temperature sensors that connect via wireless radios offer a retrofit with fast commissioning to address hazards and comply with FSMA requirements more quickly and cost-effectively.

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sensor tips

2 Automated documentation saves costs of compliance Manual documentation of temperature monitoring can be cumbersome and is inevitably prone to human error. In addition, it can be costly as it requires significant time and resources to be effective and in compliance with the new regulations. Instead, a temperature monitoring solution with data logging capabilities can be an attractive alternative. Smart temperature sensors connected to a wireless controller can continuously monitor the climate of the room, and then transmit that data wire lessly for immediate viewing or future access. Not only does this make temperature data immediately available for quick corrective actions, but also makes data accessible long-term to satisfy reporting requirements without excessive demands on workers’ time.

4 Dynamic monitoring of faults enables process optimization The combination of real-time data and long-term historicaldata allows for continuous optimization of food-related processes, which can help plants keep food safe while still maintaining productivity. With a remote monitoring and data logging solution, much of the guesswork is removed, allowing for data-driven food safety decisions. For example, with wireless technology, faults can be monitored over time and evaluated in order to determine whether a change is necessary. The technology also allows food manufacturers to fine tune food safety thresholds and more precisely identify variables that contribute to hazardous temperature changes. DW

3 Real-time alerts ensure fast responses It is important to not only Banner Engineering document when temperatures bannerengineering.com reach unsafe levels, but also to be able to act quickly on that information. In addition to saving time and costs associated with documentation, temperature sensors with remote monitoring WHAT DO capabilities can also save YOU costs by allowing operators to THINK? immediately identify and remedy Connect and discuss this and potentially hazardous situations other engineering design issues with thousands of before they escalate. professionals online For example, if the temperature of a food storage area rises above a set threshold, instant alerts can be sent, warning a manager that temperature requires adjustment. These alerts can then be made viewable in the HMI, sent via text message, and/or set to initiate a warning signal on a tower light. The operator can then respond immediately. Quicker response times can in turn help reduce product waste and help avoid recalls by identifying potentially unsafe food before it ever leaves the plant. www.designworldonline.com  

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sensor tips

Digital signal processors such as digiVIT can be easily set up and reconfiguredâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and can be used with a wide range of sensors.

Self-configuring

digital signal conditioners adapt

to different measuring conditions Many industries and manufacturers require sensors for condition monitoring in their machines or processes. New digital signal conditioner technology is now available that simplifies the use of eddy current (inductive) displacement sensors for high precision/high reliability applications. The technology is a good option for monitoring movement, position, vibration, alignment, or deflectionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;especially where parts operate in high temperatures or within environmental contaminants. Unlike previous versions that required circuit modifications and manual calibration to match the required target, sensor, cable 140

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length, and range, the new digital signal conditioners configure themselves in a matter of minutes. In addition, the technology works with a wide variety of sensors. Many sensor options are available for machine condition monitoring, including inductive technology, linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs), laser triangulation, capacitive, and ultrasonic systems, as well air gauging, Hall effect, and optical systems. Each

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technology has distinct advantages and disadvantages, depending on the application. Eddy current sensors are generally more insensitive to environmental contaminants than other options. They operate on the principle of impedance variation caused by eddy currents induced in a conductive target by a sensor coil. The sensor coil is excited by a high frequency oscillator, which generates an electromagnetic field that couples with the target. Signal conditioning electronics sense impedance variation as the gap between sensor and target changes and translates it into a usable displacement signal. This technology provides extremely high (sub-micro inch) resolution. Eddy current sensors can “see through” non-conductive materials, making these sensors useful in such applications as paint, rubber, and paper thickness. They can also be a good option for operation over a wide variety of temperatures and environments, including dust, oil, gas, diesel fuel, liquid oxygen, and rocket fuel. Inductive technology is used for many higher performance sensor applications, especially those needing higher frequency responses in challenging environments and temperatures. They allow operators to monitor a machine and determine when it has to be taken offline for maintenance. Conversely, the sensor may indicate that the machine is running well, so maintenance is not yet required. High precision inductive sensors can also be used to monitor or control the quality of a process. The sensors provide a real time control signal to the machine or a display to the operators so they can adjust machine performance. Previous signal conditioner technology required hardware or software configuration to accommodate different sensors, target materials, cable lengths, and range. This was more costly and

time consuming to set up. New digital signal processors, including digiVIT, simplify the use of eddy current sensors for high performance applications. Calibration is performed by menu options and push buttons on the front panel, as opposed to adjustment of analog potentiometers. Reconfiguration, if required, can be performed in a few minutes. A highly linear output signal is achieved internally using digital linearization techniques. Temperature compensation of the output signal, desirable to minimize measurement temperature effects, is performed by the internal microprocessor and can be easily set up by the user, in many cases in-situ.

• Paper thickness measuring—This application combined the digiVIT with a laser. The customer performed a special calibration over a limited range to optimize resolution. Digital filtering and in-situ temperature compensation were enabled to further improve performance. DW

The digiVIT signal conditioner also includes user programmable functions, including: • Relay set points for indication of out of tolerance conditions or process control • Digital low pass filtering to improve resolution • Adjustable sensor sample rate • Quick 2-point adjustment instead of full calibration when replacing broken sensors The digiVIT is suitable for applications requiring precision and ease of use at a reasonable price. Some application examples include:

Kaman Precision Products | kamansensors.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

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• Metal stamping process—In this metal stamping process, the customer’s feed stock must be checked for straightness and flatness. The metal type was changed several times a day. Eddy current technology was ideal for the oily machine environment, but required recalibration to each different type of metal, which was too time-consuming. With the digiVIT, recalibration took a matter of minutes, making the measure- ment practical. www.designworldonline.com  

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• Many large assembly machines— For this customer, monthly sensor calibration was required for quality control purposes. The sensors were located far from the signal conditioner making calibration of analog sensors difficult and time consuming. Replacing the analog systems with a digiVIT signal conditioner required only a 2-point calibration adjustment, reducing calibration time significantly.

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SENSORS

Master Bond Inc. Optically Clear Epoxy Meets NASA Low Outgassing Specifications Featuring a wide range of desirable properties, EP30-2 is a room temperature curing epoxy that meets NASA low outgassing specifications. This two part system was approved for demanding bonding applications by the Laser Interferometer GravitationalWave Observatory (LIGO). This exceptionally versatile system can be used in a variety of applications in aerospace, electronic, optical and specialty OEM industries, especially when optical clarity, low outgassing and chemical resistance are important criteria. EP30-2 cures at room temperature or more rapidly at elevated temperatures. This epoxy flows smoothly and evenly after mixing, and is easily applied as an adhesive, coating or potting material.

Contact: Master Bond 154 Hobart Street Hackensack, NJ 07601 +1 201-343-8983 www.masterbond.com main@masterbond.com

SENSORS

Tadiran Batteries

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Lithium batteries that last up to 40 years Tadiran is the world’s leading manufacturer of bobbin-type lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) batteries that power industrial grade remote wireless devices. Tadiran LiSOCl2 batteries feature the highest energy density and the widest temperature range of all (-80° C to 125° C), making them ideal for long-term deployment in harsh environments. With an annual self-discharge rate of just 0.7% per year, Tadiran LiSOCl2 batteries deliver proven 40-year battery operating life, up to 4X longer than competing batteries with annual self-discharge rates of up to 3% per year. Tadiran PulsesPlus batteries support two-way wireless communications by combining a standard bobbin-type LiSOCl2 cell with a patented hybrid layer capacitor (HLC) that delivers high pulses. PulsesPlus batteries also feature a distinctive voltage curve that can be programmed to deliver low battery status alerts. All Tadiran bobbin-type LiSOCl2 batteries are UL-listed, with a failsafe design that withstands shock, vibration and punctures, nontoxic materials, and hermetically sealed to resist battery leakage.

Contact: www.tadiranbat.com Toll-free 800-537-1368 516-621-4980

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SENSORS

Turck, Inc. Uprox3 Factor 1 sensors with IO-Link expand intelligence of metal detection applications Metal detection is essential for many industrial environments. To simplify and enhance this fundamental function, Turck’s Uprox3 IO-Link sensors offer the longest sensing distances on the market for all metals, plus the intelligent data capabilities of IO-Link. Uprox3 sensors feature Factor 1 technology to detect all metals at the same distance, including aluminum, stainless steel, mild steel, copper, lead and brass. This unique capability improves efficiency in an operation by eliminating the need for manual sensor adjustments based on the metal present. The addition of IO-Link technology further improves flexibility because sensor outputs and sensing distances can be configured. This also streamlines inventory by allowing a single Uprox3 part number to replace multiple sensor variants across an operation. Intelligent data retention via IO-Link 1.1 allows for easy sensor exchanges without having to reset parameters. Advanced functions such as identification numbers and application-specific switch points create new opportunities for gathering data at the sensor level. Uprox3 IO-Link variants include an M12, M18, and M30 barrel style in a chrome brass housing, as well as PTFE-coated variants for welding applications, and a rectangular CK40 style. Contact: Turck, Inc. 3000 Campus Drive Plymouth, MN 55441 (800) 544-7769 www.turck.us

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Produ ct World Bearing pedestals as pillow block housing replacements Ballscrews & Rollerscrews

SKF/Cooper Roller Bearings CooperBearings.com The design of the SAFQ inch-series Cooper Quick-Change angled bearing pedestals has two split halves enabling easy assembly

Industrial Robots

around a fixed shaft. In addition, the pedestal’s angled bottomhalf slides under a shaft – even one with low clearance – without requiring a jack or hoist. Typical applications include fans and similar rotating machinery in the mining, marine, steel,

Linear Motors

power generation industries, and many others.

The pedestals accommodate shafts with diameters from 2-3/16 to 5-5/16-in. and join

the SNQ and SDQ metric series as alternatives to standard pillow-block housings (SAF500, SN500, and SD3100 series). All integrate standard Cooper 01, 01E, 02, or 02E split-tothe-shaft bearings and are interchangeable with other Cooper split roller bearing pedestals. Linear Actuators

Linear Guideways

Data transmission photoelectric sensor Leuze leuzeusa.com

Linear Encoders / Positioning Measurement Systems

With the DDLS 500 data transmission photoelectric sensor, all relevant data of the DDLS 500 can be called up using remote diagnostics. The data transmission photoelectric sensor links Ethernet networks using optical data transmission with a bandwidth of 100 Mbits/s making

AC Servo Motors

it part of the central network component. The devices transmit all common Ethernet protocols such as PROFINET, Ethernet IP, EtherCAT, Ethernet TCP/IP or Ethernet UDP in real time up to a distance of 200 m. For simple on-site diagnostics, the DDLS 500 has a status LED visible

Hiwin D1 and D2 Servo Drives

from afar for displaying warnings and errors.

For more information visit

www.hiwin.com

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For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @ www.designworldonline.com

Programmable logic controller AutomationDirect BRXPLC.com The BRX PLC platform added to the Do-more line of programmable logic controllers has built-in data logging, motion control, serial and Ethernet communication, an interchangeable (hot-swappable) communications ports and integrated high-speed I/O.

Support for EtherNet/IP, Modbus RTU and TCP, ASCII and custom

protocols is also included. Designed as stand-alone controllers with expansion capabilities, these micro PLC units are available in four distinct form factors: M series (no onboard I/O), 10-point series, 18-point series and 36-point series.

Modified angle encoder Heidenhain heidenhain.us The ECA 4000 angle ring encoder series has been updated and modified for use in safetyrelated applications. Used in machine tools where dangerous conditions exist, this new ECA 4410 encoder is useful in automation applications like robotic arms and others.

The ECA 4410 encoder has a new EnDat data interface as well as modifications made

to the mechanical connection that now includes fault exclusion. Here, the ECA 4410 drum has a centering collar on the inside diameter, to center it through a fit on the mating shaft. These scale drums also have additional back-off threads for dis-assembly.

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Produ ct World

WE Series Linear Guideway Wide Series Ball Type.

Redundant control system Mitsubishi Electric us.mitsubishielectric.com The iQ-R Series integrated control platform has been paired with a redundant function module to create a redundant process control system. The iQ-R Series Process CPU/Redundant System is designed specifically for industries such as oil and gas, wastewater and building automation with applications that require near 100% uptime to prevent harmful or costly disruptions. PG Series Linear Guideway Integrated Magnetic Encoder.

Key features of the iQ-R Series Redundant Control System include:

Redundancy across multiple levels, reducing single-point failures High availability at multiple levels for improved system reliability Extensive visualization and data acquisition with Mitsubishi Electric SCADA MC Works64 Easy configuration with GX Works3 integrated engineering software

CNC control platform for high speed routers MGN / MGW Series Linear Guideway Stainless Steel Miniature Linear Guideway Size 5 Now Available.

OSAI osaicnc.com Within the flexible element of the OPENcontrol family, the OSAI OPEN-Xli is the highest performing CNC of the the OPENControl Family. The OPEN-Xli CNC has up to 4 GB of ram memory, part program storage up to 128 GB Compact flash, four USB 3.0 ports, two USB 2.0 ports, touch screen, touch pad or track ball and Ethernet. The OPEN-Xli CNC can control up to

HG / EG / RG Series Linear Guideways Ball and Roller Type.

64 axes, 24 processes (12 interpolated per process). The OPEN-Xli CNC is a modular system with servo controlled axes and I/O modules distributed on a digital fieldbus. The axes can be controlled digitally with EtherCat, CanOpen, OS-wire and Mechatrolink 2 /3. The I/O can use the same bus as the axes or can be split between two buses (e.g. OSWire and EtherCAT).

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CO N G R AT U L AT I O N S F R O M

ustsubaki.com

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Produ ct World Linear actuator line with new options Thomson thomsonlinear.com LM Linear Actuator / SAR Linear motor driven high acceleration and accuracy, unlimited travel.

New additions to the WhisperTrak linear actuator line double force-handling capability from 2 kN to 4 kN; provide higher-speed operation at 2 kN; and offer new options for low-level switching, limit switching and position control at both 2 kN and 4 kN operation.

The 4 kN WhisperTrak offering is rated for 4 kN (900 lb) with load speed at 4 mm/sec

(0.16-in./sec). The 2kN version is rated for 2,000 kN (450 lb) with load speeds of up to 8 mm/s (0.31-in./sec). All models can be specified for 12- or 24-volt input with stroke lengths available KA Type Linear Actuator / SAR Ballscrew or belt driven, exible design.

between 100 and 500 mm (3.94 to 19.69-in.).

KK Type Linear Actuator / SAR Ballscrew driven, high accuracy and reliability.

Food-grade servo actuator KS Type Linear Actuator / SAR Ballscrew driven for clean room applications.

Tolomatic tolomatic.com The IMA electric linear actuator is available with a food-grade white epoxy coating and stainless

AC Servo Motors.

steel components for washdown applications in the food and beverage industry.

Available in four sizes, the IMA line of integrated servo motor rod actuators have stroke lengths

from three to 18-in. (76.2 to 457.2 mm) and peak thrusts from 200 to 6,875 pounds force (890 to 30,594 N) at speeds up to 24-in. per second (610 mm/sec). Hiwin D1 and D2 Servo Drives for Servo Motors, Torque Motors and Linear Stages.

With its integrated servomotor, the IMA actuator also is shorter for a given stroke length than

other types of electric rod actuators. The design allows for easy re-lubrication of the screw without disassembly, increasing service life compared to other rod actuators without this feature. The IMA integrates easily with the Rockwell Automation Kinetix platform with approved custom motor files (CMF/BLB) for the PLC and integrated motor actuator. 148

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For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @ www.designworldonline.com

Fully Integrated Display

Industrial PCs for simple applications Phoenix Contact phoenixcontact.com The VL2 1000 industrial PCs are equipped with Intel Atom Bay Trail processors for fast processing time in simple applications. These entry-level box and panel IPCs have an optional CAN interface, screen sizes from 7 to 21.5-in., and easy customization.

The VL2 1000 includes the VL2’s display in smaller sizes

(7-, 9-, and 12.1-in. screens), as well as the 15.6-, 18.5-, and

Data Image USA - www.dataimagelcd.com - 407.478.4064 heldred@dataimagelcd.com

21.5-in.-sized displays available in other VL2 models. All of the displays have a capacitive-touch interface, allowing swiping, pinching, and multiple touch points at one time.

Teflon coatings ™

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and other related applications. This compound bonds well to many substrates in electronics including silicon and other semiconductors, metals, ceramics and many plastics. Most importantly, Supreme 3HTND-2DM has enhanced dimensional stability and has a tensile strength of 6,000-7,500 psi at room temperature. It also maintains its Shore D hardness of 85 after withstanding 1,000 hours at 85°C/85% RH.

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Use of the Teflon™ mark requires a direct trademark license. Customers and distributors of Donwell can only resell LICENSEE’s product as licensed with the Teflon™ mark.

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Prod uc t World Control for single axis applications Yaskawa yaskawa.com The Sigma-7Siec unit combines a SERVOPACK servo amplifier with a one-axis motion controller in a single compact package. It was created for automation applications which require the control of only one servo motor, yet also call for exceptionally quick, precise and reliable servo system performance. Features:

• Open communication: EtherNet/IP and Modbus/TCP for connectivity to nearly every HMI

and PLC on the market.

• IEC 61131-3 programming, assuring that programs are developed and executed with

predictable behavior.

• Programmable outputs to reduce panel cost and space requirements when only a few

outputs are necessary.

• Remote I/O: many third-party remote I/O modules (including Phoenix, Wago, and Opto 22)

can be interfaced with the system via MECHATROLINK and Ethernet.

Four new signal conditioners Wago wago.us Four signal conditioners have been added to the JUMPFLEX 857 Series. Packed into a 6 mm housing, these new modules save space but don’t sacrifice on safety or power. Features:

• Configurable options including DIP-switch, App and software

• Ambient operating temperature range from −25°C to +70°C.

• Wide range of approvals: EN 61000-2, EN 61000-6-4, EN 61326-1, EN 61010-1, cULus 508, ATEX, IECEx, UL Class 1, Division 2

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Prod uc t World

G120C drives in smaller frame size AA (FSAA) Siemens usa.siemens.com The Sinamics G120C drive in AA size, which

“tiny drive” has fully compatible replacement

or integrator, but requires no re-engineering,

replaces the previous G120C frame size A in

for the equivalent power ratings on the

when migrating from the G120C FSA on

power ratings up to 2.2 kW (3 hp), including

previous version.

current jobs. Overall dimensions on the

communication variants for USS, PROFIBUS,

On new control cabinet designs, the

smaller unit, designed for use with PROFIBUS

PROFINET and EtherNet/IP. Offering high

G120C FSAA has significant size advantages,

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Prod uc t World Servo positioning rotary tables DESTACO destaco.com The GTB Series of servo positioning rotary tables features a roller-gear drive and is a lifetime-lubricated solution that has been designed to deliver high torque, with high speed and motion flexibility to meet the payload requirements of general industrial rotary table applications. Available in four models – GTB40, GTB63, GTB80 and GTB100 – the GTB units are 34% lower in height and 64% lower in weight while delivering 1.4 times the torque. The unit’s lifetime-lubrication design also eliminates the need for maintenance.

U-remote distributed I/O platform Weidmuller weidmuller.com The “u-remote” distributed I/O platform meets the requirements for use in the demanding maritime and offshore sectors. u-remote has received certification from several classification agencies including DNV GL (formerly Det Norske Veritas and Germanischer Lloyd), BV (Bureau Veritas), LR (Lloyds Register), and RINA (Registro

The OS758-LS handheld dual laser infrared instant troubleshooting. Measure temperatures up

u-remote I/O has an operating

to 1600°C (2912ºF) with adjustable emissivity for

temperature range of -20 to 60°C, and can withstand high

the most accurate results. The 60:1 D:S ratio allows

humidity (up to 100%), intense vibration (up to 4 g) and high-

precise measurements from a safe distance. OS758-

energy electromagnetic fields, without emitting high levels of

LS uses include HVAC system testing, equipment

radiation that could affect other devices.

Omega omega.com

thermometer offers non-contact measurement for

Italiano Navale).

Handheld dual laser infrared thermometer

u-remote is an advanced IP20 platform that’s built to ensure

faster installation and setup, and designed to improve automation

and electrical maintenance, automotive diagnostics, monitoring production lines, and more.

performance and productivity. At only 11.5 mm wide per I/O slice, its slim design with high-channel density makes it one of the most feature-rich distributed I/O platforms available. 154

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Prod uc t World Planar gantry line with larger workspace models Festo festo.us

faigle faigle.com In conveyor and sorting systems, support- and guiding rollers do

The EXCM line of planar gantries gain

most of the work. faigle uses

expanded workspaces and higher load capacities, but are still used for plug-andplay subassemblies in assembly and handling systems and medical laboratory devices. The EXCM-30 has a flexible and simple energy supply concept with a 3D chain and a universal flange adapter. The Y-stroke can be expanded to 16, 18, and 20-in. (410, 460, and 510 mm).

Rollers and components for intralogistics

The EXCM-40 is distinguished by an even

larger working area of up to 78-in. (2000 mm) in the X direction and 39-in. (1000 mm) in the Y direction. Thanks to the 48 V power supply, loads of up to 8.8 lb (4 kg) can be

PAS-PU A-H thermoplastic polyurethane for its rollers. This material is abrasion-resistant and has excellent damping characteristics. Noise and vibrations are reduced, the rollers run very smoothly.

To prevent hydrolysis, the decomposition

of the polymer materials by water molecules, a hydrolysis-resistant type of polyurethane has been developed. PAS-PU A-H has been the standard material for all rollers that the company makes for conveyor systems. Tests have shown that rollers made of PAS-PU A-H have superior moisture resistance compared to rollers made of cast polyurethane.

handled dynamically. A single adapter plate fits all EXCM pneumatic and electric front ends which gives the machine builder greater flexibility and a better fit for an entire range applications.

New rotary air bearing series PI pi-usa.us The A-62x PIglide series of rotary air bearing stages do not have rolling or sliding elements. They deliver frictionless, non-contact motion, resulting in negligible reversal error, better straightness, wobble, eccentricity and velocity stability.

The PIglide RM series of stages offer accuracy, precision, high stiffness, and ease

of use. They have low-cogging frameless slotless torque motors and optical encoders; these stages can be used in any orientation. Various options can be combined to create a solution ideal for point-to-point indexing or constant velocity scanning. The PIglide RM rotary positioners provide velocity to 2500 rpm and extreme precision with radial motion errors as low as Âą50 nm, axial runout as low as Âą50 nm, and tilt errors down to 0.3 arc-sec.

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Prod uc t World Open chassis microprocessor-based VFD American Control Electronics americancontrolelectronics.com The ACF Series, an open chassis microprocessor-based variable frequency drive has the simplicity of a dc drive. ACF700 drives setup easily without any programming. The drives are equipped with user-adjustable trim pots to set Max/Min Speeds, Slip Comp, Boost, Torque Limit, Accel and Decel/Injection Braking parameters. The 115V/230 V single phase input can provide single or three phase outputs of 115 V or 230 V making it suitable for sub-fractional HP motors and gear motors. An onboard microprocessor allows custom programming for a variety of OEM applications. Features include:

• HP: 1/60 to 1

• Adjustable base frequency

• Voltage (VAC): 115/230

• DC injection braking

• Maximum current (AAC): 4

• Protects against overheating as a result of frequent overload

• Carrier frequency: 1.6 or 16 kHz

PC and controller in one Trio triomotion.uk The PC-MCAT 64 is a “Motion + PC Solution.” A quad core Intel Atom processor is used for both the motion controller and a compact PC that can run user applications under Windows. The PC-MCAT software uses a real-time extension to allow both Windows and the motion controller to run directly on their own processor cores. Features: • Motion + PC Solution for automation machinery • Fanless compact PC with E3845 Quad Core Atom Processor at 1.91 Ghz • Up to 64 Axis EtherCAT Based Trio Motion Coordinator • RTX64 Real Time Extension to allow Motion + Windows running directly on their own processor cores • Plug and Play EtherCAT Configuration Expandable Support for Servo Drives, I/O and devices from over 100 manufacturers

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It’s not a web page, it’s an industry information site Stay current with the latest electronic tips, resources, and news, visit eeworldonline.com and stay on Twitter, Google plus, Facebook and Linkedin. It’s updated regularly with relevant technical information and other significant news to the electrical design engineering community.

eeworldonline.com

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Ad I n dex

SALES

IKO ........................................................................ 93 Imagineering ........................................................ 26 Indium Corporation ..............................................51 ITT Enidine .............................................................61 IXYS ....................................................................... 49 J.W. Winco, Inc. .................................................... 36 John Evans’ Sons, Inc. ........................................ 68 Keller America Inc ................................................81 Key Bellevilles Inc. ............................................ 108 Keystone Electronics Corp. .................................37 MW Industries ...................................................... 95 Magnet Applications ........................................... 69 maxon precision motors .................................... 58 Memory Protection Devices, Inc. ........................15 METCASE ...............................................................19 NB Corporation .................................................... 25 Nippon Pulse America Inc. .................................. 96 Novotechnik ......................................................... 35 NSK Americas ...................................................... 70 Opto 22 ................................................................ 50 PBC Linear .......................................................32,33 Penn Engineering .............................................. 106 PHD Inc. ................................................................ 55 Proto Labs ...............................................................9 Pyramid Inc. ......................................................... 85 R+W America ...................................................... 101 Rotor Clip ...............................................................91 Rutronik ................................................................ 53 SEW-EURODRIVE ...................................................BC SIKO Products ...................................................... 98 Smalley Steel Ring Company ..............................10 Solenoid Solutions, Inc. .......................................41 The Lee Company .............................................. 100 ThermOmegaTech, Inc. ........................................18 THK America, Inc. ................................................IFC Tolomatic, Inc. .......................................................21 Tompkins Industries ............................................72 TRIM-LOK, Inc. ...................................................... 38 UBM .......................................................151,153,155 US Tsubaki .......................................................... 147 Visumatics Industrial Products ......................... 44 Whittet-Higgins .....................................................27 Zero-Max ..................................................................2

Accumold ...............................................................79 ACE Controls Inc. ............................................... 103 Aerotech ............................................................... 60 AIGNEP USA .....................................................43,85 All Motion .................................................................4 Allied Electronics ..................................Cover,3,102 Anderson Metals ............................................... 109 ANSYS SpaceClaim .............................................. 45 Aurora Bearing Company ................................... 43 AutomationDirect ..................................... .13,Insert Baldor Electric .......................................................62 Beckhoff Automation .......................................... 97 Bishop-Wisecarver .............................................. 82 Bison Gear ............................................................IBC Bodine Electric Company ................................... 94 BOKER’s Inc. ......................................................... 35 Braxton Mfg ....................................................... 152 CC Link .................................................................. 84 C-Flex Bearing Company .................................. 108 Central Semiconductor Corp .............................. 89 CGI, Inc. ................................................................. 47 Cicoil ................................................................... 105 Custom Machine and Tool Co., Inc. .....................12 Da/Pro Rubber ..................................................... 80 Data Image Corporation .................................... 149 Del-tron Precision, Inc. ........................................63 Design-2-Part ......................................................157 Deublin ................................................................. 39 DeviceTalks ........................................................ 129 DieQua .............................................................54,99 Digi-Key Electronics .............................................17 Donwell Company ............................................. 149 Eagle Stainless Tube ......................................22,23 Eaton Hydraulics ..................................................31 Encoder Products Company .............................. 36 EXAIR Corporation ..................................................5 EZAutomation .........................................................1 Fabco-Air ..................................................... 71,73,75 Fotofab ................................................................ 107 Harmonic Drive .....................................................67 Helical Products Company ....................................7 HELUKABEL, USA ................................................. 29 HIWIN Corporation ................................144,146,148 igus Inc. .................................................................74

DSM Somos ................................122 CS Hyde Company .....................128 Proto Labs ..................................117

Additive versus

subtractive?

Why not both?

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Renishaw....................................116 solidThinking .............................127 Tormach ......................................123

118 3D printed conformal cooling channels control injection molding temperatures

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Sensor www.sensortips.com

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A supplement of Design World • May 2017

112 Additive pushes further into manufacturing

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A Supplement to Design World - May 2017

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Master Bond................................138 Tadiran Batteries .......................130 Tamura Corporation ...................138 Turck ....................................133,135

Ultrasonic

additive manufacturing gets sensors in the right place

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Transportation Medical Motion Control Industrial Machinery Food & Bev Energy Whether you need a standard pre-built gearmotor, or you’re looking for a customized option, Bison has your power transmission solution. Designing the right gearmotor that fits your specific need increases efficiency, extends operating life, and shortens your implementation process. Real power comes from superior engineering. It’s that

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Don’t get torqued off.

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machine shaft? Well, stop fretting about it. Man up and get TorqLOC® from SEW-EURODRIVE. With its stainless steel construction, keyless hollow shaft, and taper bushings, TorqLOC® disassembly is fast and easy. The same bolts used for assembly are used for disassembly.

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DESIGN WORLD MAY 2017  

Medical software development—where safety meets security. Linear Motion: Equivalent dynamic load and L10 life ratings for linear-motion setu...

DESIGN WORLD MAY 2017  

Medical software development—where safety meets security. Linear Motion: Equivalent dynamic load and L10 life ratings for linear-motion setu...