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From World Development Indicators

The Little Data Book on

Private Sector Development

Economic and social context Investment climate Private sector investment Finance and banking Infrastructure


2010

THE LITTLE DATA BOOK ON PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT


Copyright ©2010 by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433 U.S.A. All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing May 2010 ISBN: 978-0-8213-8247-9 eISBN: 978-0-8213-8448-0 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8247-9 SKU: 18247 The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development 2010 is a product of the Development Data Group of the Development Economics Vice Presidency and the Investment Climate Department of the Financial and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency of the World Bank Group. Editing, design, and layout by Communications Development Incorporated, Washington, D.C. Cover design by Peter Grundy Art & Design, London, U.K.


Contents Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Data notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

Regional tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 East Asia and Pacific. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Europe and Central Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Latin America and the Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Middle East and North Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 South Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sub-Saharan Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Income group tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Low income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Middle income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Lower middle income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Upper middle income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Low and middle income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Euro area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 High income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Country tables (in alphabetical order) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

iii


Acknowledgments The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development 2010 is based on World Development Indicators 2010 and its accompanying CD-ROM, with a focus on the private sector in development. The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development 2010 is the result of close collaboration between the staff of the World Bank’s Development Data Group of the Development Economics Vice Presidency and the Investment Climate Department of the Financial and Private Sector Development Vice Presidency. The Development Data Group team included David Cieslikowski, Richard Fix, Buyant Erdene Khaltarkhuu, Alison Kwong, Raymond Muhula, and William Prince. The Investment Climate Department’s project coordinator was Shokraneh Minovi. The work was carried out under the management of Shaida Badiee, director of the Development Data Group, and Pierre Guislain, director of the Investment Climate Department. Meta de Coquereaumont, Christopher Trott, and Elaine Wilson of Communications Development Incorporated provided design, editing, and layout. Staff from External Affairs oversaw publication and dissemination of the book.

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Preface The global financial crisis has led to rising interest in private sector development and economic growth. There is strong evidence that crises can stimulate investment climate reform. A better investment climate makes economic adjustment easier and helps attract capital to create jobs and provide basic services. Well functioning finance markets and a robust private sector are critical in increasing productivity and growth and spreading equality of opportunity. The availability of cross-country data on the business environment has rapidly expanded in recent years, including data from the World Bank’s Doing Business project and Enterprise Surveys. These data sources report on the scope and types of regulations that enhance—and constrain—business activity and provide information on business owners’ assessments of the business environment. The data have led to new research, enabled benchmarking, and informed the reform process in many developing countries. Included in this guide are indicators on the economic and social context, the investment climate, private sector investment, finance and banking, and infrastructure. Though a pocket guide cannot include all relevant variables, the indicators that are included provide users with a general understanding of the private sector in each country. Indicators displayed in the tables are defined in the Glossary, which also lists data sources. We welcome your suggestions for how to improve future editions and make them more useful.

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Data notes The data in this book are for 2000 and 2008 or the most recent year unless otherwise noted in the table or the Glossary. •

Growth rates are proportional changes from the previous year unless otherwise noted.

•

Regional aggregates include data for low- and middle-income economies only.

•

Figures in italics indicate data for years or periods other than those specified.

Symbols used: ..

indicates that data are not available or that aggregates cannot be calculated because of missing data.

0 or 0.0

indicates zero or small enough that the number would round to zero at the displayed number of decimal places.

$

indicates current U.S. dollars.

Data are shown for economies with populations greater than 30,000 or for smaller economies if they are members of the World Bank. The term country (used interchangeably with economy) does not imply political independence or official recognition by the World Bank but refers to any economy for which the authorities report separate social or economic statistics.

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Regional tables The country composition of regions is based on the World Bank’s analytical regions and may differ from common geographic usage. East Asia and Pacific American Samoa, Cambodia, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Kiribati, Democratic Republic of Korea, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam Europe and Central Asia Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Latin America and the Caribbean Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Uruguay, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela Middle East and North Africa Algeria, Djibouti, Arab Republic of Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, West Bank and Gaza, Republic of Yemen South Asia Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka Sub-Saharan Africa Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

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World 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

6,084.9 6,697.3 2,755.9 3,102.8 5.5 6.4 5,264 8,654 3.2 3.1 3.6 3.0 29.1 27.7 19.3 17.7 67.3 69.3

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

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24.5 24.6

28.9 28.9

.. .. .. .. ..

36 8 51.2 3.0 48.3

8.6 1.8

11.0 4.1

.. 4.8 21.6 ..

.. 3.0 21.7 ..

–0.1 .. 98.8 92.5 8.7 9.5 130.5

–0.9 .. 92.2 80.6 9.0 3.2 129.7

7.0

6.0

43.2 2,389

.. 2,846

12.3 6.8

60.8 23.9


East Asia & Pacific 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

1,807.1 1,929.6 985.3 1,079.8 3.6 4.7 904 2,644 6.0 9.1 14.6 12.2 44.3 47.0 30.7 32.8 41.0 40.9

35.5 31.3

40.4 34.5

.. .. .. .. ..

42 8 56.7 3.1 38.0

8.2 1.1

8.5 1.2

17,993 2.6 30.5 8.9

10,579 3.3 37.8 18.3

–2.6 .. 104.6 45.8 .. .. 101.1

–1.1 .. 105.8 47.7 .. .. 99.8

6.9

5.1

34.3 879

.. 1,883

5.8 1.9

52.9 19.4

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

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Europe & Central Asia 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

440.5 195.0 10.5 2,011 2.7 9.5 34.0 19.5 56.5

443.3 200.0 6.9 7,350 6.2 6.7 32.4 17.9 60.8

35.1 31.8

34.3 34.9

.. .. .. .. ..

19 7 25.0 3.0 44.5

8.6 1.3

11.5 2.9

15,425 2.2 19.9 17.0

45,191 4.4 22.8 18.7

1.6 .. 25.9 24.9 12.8 10.4 17.4

0.3 .. .. .. 12.2 4.4 43.0

13.6

6.2

66.5 3,302

.. 3,958

7.5 2.5

109.9 28.6

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

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Latin America & Caribbean 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

512.4 221.0 9.0 3,802 3.0 5.6 29.7 18.3 64.7

566.1 264.5 7.3 6,768 3.9 6.6 32.7 17.6 60.6

20.1 21.2

24.0 24.1

.. .. .. .. ..

67 10 55.6 3.2 48.5

7.2 1.3

6.6 2.1

37,252 3.9 18.7 ..

40,851 3.0 21.1 16.2

.. .. 42.7 31.0 9.6 7.5 27.7

.. .. 54.9 40.1 9.7 2.5 38.8

8.5

7.9

24.3 1,582

.. 1,866

12.1 3.8

80.3 28.9

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

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Middle East & North Africa 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

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280.5 89.1 14.1 1,618 4.5 12.5 43.3 12.5 44.2

325.2 111.1 10.6 3,237 4.8 10.6 43.0 11.7 46.4

26.8 25.6

38.2 33.3

.. .. .. .. ..

23 9 54.8 3.5 41.6

12.9 0.4

10.1 0.5

1,310 1.2 22.0 14.0

3,942 4.6 24.8 15.0

.. .. 46.9 44.7 .. .. 38.4

1.7 .. 47.0 53.2 .. .. 35.8

4.9

4.3

68.4 1,043

75.6 1,435

2.2 0.9

58.0 18.9


South Asia 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

1,362.4 1,545.1 515.4 618.6 4.5 5.3 442 963 5.4 7.3 23.9 18.0 25.8 28.5 15.4 16.4 50.3 53.5

14.2 15.9

21.4 28.2

.. .. .. .. ..

28 7 75.8 4.5 40.0

3.7 0.1

2.7 0.2

3,027 0.7 22.2 15.8

33,367 3.3 32.0 23.8

–4.0 64.6 38.6 39.0 4.9 19.5 27.7

–2.2 61.3 65.0 61.4 6.4 9.1 49.5

6.9

6.6

30.4 359

56.9 482

0.3 0.5

32.6 4.7

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

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Sub-Saharan Africa 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

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671.8 263.1 .. 486 3.2 16.5 29.3 14.8 54.2

819.3 327.2 .. 1,077 5.2 12.3 33.0 14.8 54.7

32.4 30.7

36.2 38.8

.. .. .. .. ..

44 9 66.2 3.4 67.6

6.6 0.1

6.6 0.5

2,787 2.0 16.2 11.7

11,759 3.5 22.4 14.9

.. .. 40.0 31.2 .. .. 61.4

.. .. 42.8 34.0 .. .. 58.5

12.6

10.0

12.1 490

.. 550

1.8 0.5

33.3 6.5


Income group tables For operational and analytical purposes the World Bank’s main criterion for classifying economies is gross national income (GNI) per capita. Every economy in The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development is classified as low income, middle income, or high income. Low- and middle-income economies are sometimes referred to as developing economies. The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status. Low-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $975 or less in 2008. Middle-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of more than $975 but less than $11,906. Lower-middle-income and upper-middle-income economies are separated at a GNI per capita of $3,855. High-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $11,906 or more. Euro area includes the member states of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union that have adopted the euro as their currency: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and Spain.

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Low income 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

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824.7 357.9 .. 290 4.5 32.0 24.2 12.1 43.8

976.2 441.4 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

25.4 31.9

33.9 47.1

.. .. .. .. ..

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4

7.0 0.1

18.2 0.5

886 1.9 20.4 12.6

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

.. .. 25.1 20.3 .. .. 20.5

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

12.5

10.8

12.1 255

.. 324

0.4 0.2

28.5 4.6


Middle income 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

4,249.9 4,652.3 1,911.0 2,159.8 5.5 6.4 1,321 3,251 4.1 6.4 10.9 9.5 35.5 37.1 21.5 21.6 53.6 53.5

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

27.2 25.6

31.3 30.2

.. .. .. .. ..

40 8 49.1 3.1 42.0

8.4 1.2

10.0 2.3

88,129 146,632 2.7 3.5 22.8 27.7 13.6 17.8

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

2008

.. .. 60.8 37.3 9.5 11.2 50.9

–0.6 .. 69.1 43.9 9.7 3.9 62.6

8.3

6.4

37.6 1,109

.. 1,666

5.2 1.8

56.8 17.3

2010

11


Lower middle income 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

3,361.5 3,703.0 1,527.1 1,727.9 4.3 5.5 771 2,073 5.5 8.3 16.8 13.4 39.5 41.1 24.4 26.6 43.7 45.5

27.2 25.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. ..

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1

8.6 0.5

8.8 1.0

21,192 2.1 27.2 11.4

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

–3.0 .. 78.2 40.8 8.8 16.8 71.1

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

8.6

6.6

37.6 720

.. 1,310

3.4 1.2

47.0 13.9

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

12

2010

2008

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development


Upper middle income 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

888.4 383.9 11.5 3,399 2.9 6.0 32.0 18.7 62.0

949.3 432.0 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.2 25.7

27.8 27.2

.. .. .. .. ..

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3

8.4 1.9

10.8 3.5

59,807 3.3 19.0 13.5

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

.. .. 44.5 34.0 9.5 8.1 33.8

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

7.8

6.2

41.8 2,581

.. 3,052

11.8 4.2

95.3 30.6

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2008

2010

13


Low and middle income 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

5,074.6 5,628.5 2,268.9 2,601.3 5.4 6.4 1,153 2,780 4.1 6.4 11.8 10.0 35.0 36.8 21.1 21.3 53.2 53.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

2010

27.1 25.8

31.4 30.7

.. .. .. .. ..

41 9 55.1 3.3 51.5

8.1 0.9

10.4 2.0

47,450 153,045 2.7 3.6 22.7 27.6 13.6 17.8

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

14

2008

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

.. .. 59.7 36.8 .. 11.6 49.9

–0.6 .. 68.7 43.6 .. 4.1 61.9

8.6

6.5

24.3 995

.. 1,478

4.4 1.6

52.2 15.3


Euro area 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

311.6 143.3 9.3 21,943 2.8 2.5 27.8 19.9 69.7

326.1 147.6 7.5 38,839 1.8 1.7 26.5 18.2 71.8

36.8 36.2

41.1 39.9

.. .. .. .. ..

15 6 36.5 1.6 45.9

8.6 2.5

8.9 3.8

.. 10.2 21.4 ..

.. 3.1 21.4 ..

0.0 60.5 .. .. 6.3 2.8 97.9

–0.7 51.7 .. .. 6.1 2.6 126.4

4.4

3.3

95.4 6,371

100.0 6,963

60.4 22.8

121.9 62.6

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2008

2010

15


High income 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

1,010.3 1,068.7 487.0 501.5 6.1 5.9 25,918 39,688 3.1 2.3 1.8 1.5 27.9 25.7 18.9 16.8 70.3 72.8

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms) Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP) Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points) Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

16

2010

2008

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

23.9 24.3

28.1 28.5

.. .. .. .. ..

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2

9.2 3.6

11.5 7.5

.. 5.3 21.4 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

0.1 55.1 110.3 91.7 6.9 3.8 149.1

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

4.2

3.9

90.0 9,169

87.0 9,753

51.1 31.5

106.1 69.1


Country tables China Data for China do not include data for Hong Kong SAR, China; Macao SAR, China; or Taiwan, China.

Cyprus GNI and GDP data and data calculated using GNI and GDP refer to the area controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. For more information, see World Development Indicators 2010 or data.worldbank.org.

Kosovo, Montenegro, and Serbia Montenegro declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on June 3, 2006. Where available, data for each country are shown separately. However, some indicators for Serbia prior to 2006 include data for Montenegro. Moreover, data for most indicators for Serbia from 1999 onward exclude data for Kosovo, which in 1999 became a territory under international administration pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999). Kosovo became a member of the World Bank on June 29, 2009, and its data are shown where available.

Moldova GNI and GDP data and data calculated using GNI and GDP exclude Transnistria. For more information, see World Development Indicators 2010 or data.worldbank.org.

Morocco GNI and GDP data and data calculated using GNI and GDP include Former Spanish Sahara. For more information, see World Development Indicators 2010 or data.worldbank.org.

Tanzania GNI and GDP data and data calculated using GNI and GDP refer to mainland Tanzania only. For more information, see World Development Indicators 2010 or data.worldbank.org.

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

17


Afghanistan South Asia

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

23.6 7.4 .. .. .. 45.2 19.7 15.0 35.1 .. 47.4 30.6 61.6

29.0 9.3 8.5 370 11.8 31.6 26.3 16.2 42.1 22.7 50.3 17.2 52.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 20 .. ..

160 7 4 30.0 .. 36.4 20 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

6.8 28.8 1.4 45.8 8.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

70 .. 11.6 1.1

185 2.8 27.6 8.7

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–2.2 9.6 .. .. .. .. 8.9 9.6 ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

13.3 .. .. 0.0 0.0

29.3 .. 20.3 27.2 1.7

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

18

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Albania Europe & Central Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

3.1 1.3 22.7 1,170 5.2 29.1 19.0 11.4 51.9 0.1 143.7 19.1 37.5

3.1 1.4 .. 3,840 5.4 20.8 19.6 19.6 59.6 3.4 83.9 31.2 59.4

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9.1 0.5

82 5 5 56.0 .. 44.9 10 13.5 0.9

11.4 83.8 10.4 27.4 14.0

18.7 22.4 12.4 41.7 24.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

102 3.9 24.7 18.1

64 7.6 32.4 23.9

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–6.7 51.9 32.4 40.9 .. .. 4.7 17.0 13.8

–3.0 .. 43.4 51.6 6.7 6.6 36.0 10.3 6.2

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

39.0 1,218 .. 1.0 0.1

.. 1,186 37.8 99.9 23.9

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

19


Algeria Middle East & North Africa

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

30.5 11.1 29.8 1,610 3.2 8.9 58.6 7.5 32.5 0.3 75.3 41.2 21.4

34.4 14.5 13.8 4,190 4.3 6.9 62.1 4.6 31.0 4.4 64.6 47.5 23.5

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

136 24 14 17.0 2.5 72.0 .. 10.1 0.5

.. .. 27.6 124.9 ..

25.1 15.0 8.9 49.1 5.0

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

472 0.8 20.7 12.9

1,138 1.6 27.0 10.5

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. 62.1 33.1 24.0 .. .. 6.0 –11.7 2.5

9.5 .. 32.7 41.1 .. .. 13.5 –2.5 6.3

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

68.9 695 .. 0.3 0.5

70.2 902 4.8 92.7 11.9

41.8 3,052

20

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


American Samoa East Asia & Pacific

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.06 .. 5.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.07 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

.. .. .. 3.5 ..

.. .. .. 3.6 ..

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

21


Andorra High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

.. .. .. .. 4.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.08 .. .. 36,970 6.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. 76.6 70.5

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

22

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Angola Sub-Saharan Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

14.3 6.2 .. 410 6.3 5.7 72.1 2.9 22.2 325.0 10.0 89.6 62.8

18.0 8.0 .. 3,340 13.5 6.6 67.8 4.8 25.7 12.5 75.0 75.6 50.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

169 68 8 58.0 6.2 53.2 35 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

7.1 14.8 2.1 60.2 5.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

68 9.6 15.1 8.9

327 2.0 12.4 1.8

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 1.3 8.3 10.6 10.4 2.0 –60.8 63.6

.. .. 7.7 10.5 .. .. 12.5 –9.2 6.3

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

10.4 86 .. 0.2 0.1

.. 185 7.6 37.6 3.1

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

23


Antigua and Barbuda High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.08 .. 8.4 7,960 4.4 3.9 19.8 2.3 76.3 .. 2.7 70.3 75.1

0.09 .. .. 13,200 6.4 3.0 27.8 1.9 69.2 .. 2.7 51.1 75.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

50 21 8 52.0 3.0 41.5 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 6.5 48.1 24.9

.. 20.8 73.7 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 72.9 11.7 7.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. 75.1 7.4 6.9

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

33.0 .. .. 28.5 6.5

.. .. .. 157.7 75.0

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

24

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Argentina Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

36.9 16.3 15.0 7,460 2.7 5.0 27.6 17.5 67.4 –0.9 1.0 10.9 11.5

39.9 19.1 7.3 7,190 5.3 9.8 32.3 21.2 57.9 8.6 3.1 24.5 20.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 7.2 0.6

118 27 15 95.0 2.8 108.1 35 7.5 0.6

.. .. .. .. ..

13.8 4.3 6.9 45.9 26.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

4,863 3.7 16.2 15.2

2,620 3.0 23.3 20.4

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–5.7 .. 33.7 27.2 .. 16.0 23.9 9.9 2.7

–0.5 .. 20.3 18.5 12.9 2.7 13.7 0.3 8.4

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

29.4 2,085 .. 17.6 7.0

30.0 2,659 1.0 116.6 28.1

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

25


Armenia Europe & Central Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

3.1 1.5 11.7 660 5.1 25.5 35.4 24.1 39.0 –0.8 539.5 23.4 50.5

3.1 1.6 9.6 3,350 12.4 17.8 45.0 14.7 37.2 8.9 306.0 14.7 39.8

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4.9 1.2

43 15 6 13.0 1.9 36.2 20 6.8 1.9

1.9 33.7 5.3 2.3 12.6

10.3 13.3 31.9 16.3 26.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

33 5.5 18.4 15.9

686 7.8 40.0 35.2

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 10.5 7.6 14.3 17.5 9.9 33.4 13.5

–0.5 .. 11.9 10.0 23.0 4.4 17.4 8.0 10.4

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

96.8 1,295 .. 0.6 1.3

89.8 1,692 2.2 100.0 6.2

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

26

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Aruba High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.09 .. 7.5 .. 4.4 .. .. .. .. 4.0 1.8 69.9 91.2

0.11 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9.0 1.8 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 28 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. –6.5 .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 44.5 47.3 .. .. 45.2 7.7 5.9

.. .. 57.3 53.5 .. .. 57.0 9.8 7.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

.. .. .. 16.5 15.4

.. .. .. 114.6 22.8

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

27


Australia High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

19.2 9.6 6.3 20,710 4.1 3.5 26.9 13.2 69.6 4.5 1.7 19.9 21.9

21.4 11.3 4.2 40,240 3.3 2.5 29.1 10.5 68.4 4.4 1.2 20.7 22.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 36 .. ..

9 2 2 4.0 1.0 48.0 30 14.0 6.5

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 3.4 24.8 ..

.. 4.7 28.3 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

1.9 28.4 .. .. 6.9 0.5 84.2 7.1 5.1

1.5 19.4 .. .. 4.2 0.5 121.5 4.3 3.7

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

38.7 10,055 .. 44.7 46.8

.. 11,249 .. 103.2 70.8

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

28

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Austria High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

8.0 3.9 4.7 25,830 3.0 2.0 30.8 20.6 67.2 2.4 1.1 46.4 44.7

8.3 4.3 3.8 45,900 2.2 1.9 30.9 20.1 67.2 3.2 0.7 58.8 53.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 34 5.2 0.6

28 28 8 2.0 1.1 55.5 25 4.6 0.6

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 4.5 24.0 ..

.. 3.5 22.4 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.0 65.9 .. .. 5.2 2.4 103.1 5.2 3.4

–0.7 64.5 .. .. 6.3 2.0 119.1 .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

100.0 7,109 .. 76.4 33.7

100.0 8,033 .. 129.7 71.2

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

29


Azerbaijan Europe & Central Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

8.0 3.5 16.3 610 7.3 17.1 45.3 5.6 37.5 1.9 0.9 39.0 38.4

8.7 4.1 6.5 3,830 18.1 6.3 69.9 4.5 23.8 53.4 0.8 69.5 24.8

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6.8 0.7

38 10 6 22.0 2.7 40.9 .. 7.1 0.9

3.0 61.1 4.6 6.0 12.1

3.0 43.2 19.0 9.7 18.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

61 2.5 23.1 20.1

474 0.0 20.1 5.2

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–4.7 .. 10.3 7.5 .. 28.0 5.9 6.4 6.8

0.4 .. 14.3 10.2 .. .. 16.5 –1.0 7.5

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

92.3 2,040 .. 5.2 0.1

49.4 2,394 2.9 75.4 28.2

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

30

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Bahamas, The High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.30 0.16 6.9 17,040 5.5 2.0 19.3 5.4 78.7 1.6 1.0 43.3 51.9

0.34 0.18 7.9 21,390 1.3 1.6 19.7 4.5 78.7 4.5 1.0 45.3 68.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. ..

68 31 7 26.0 5.0 47.0 0 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 4.5 33.8 ..

.. 9.9 37.8 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

0.4 27.4 68.2 58.5 .. .. 65.5 3.0 1.9

–1.7 36.4 90.2 71.2 .. .. 86.0 3.1 1.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

57.4 .. .. 10.3 4.3

.. .. .. 106.0 31.5

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

31


Bahrain High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.65 0.30 5.5 10,740 4.3 .. .. .. .. –0.7 0.4 89.4 64.4

0.78 0.36 .. 25,420 6.6 .. .. .. .. 3.5 0.4 96.8 74.3

.. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. ..

20 9 7 4.0 2.5 15.0 0 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 4.6 13.5 ..

.. 8.2 31.9 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

8.5 29.3 55.6 63.6 .. .. 54.8 –2.3 5.9

6.4 14.7 .. .. .. .. 119.2 0.8 3.9

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

77.6 8,831 .. 31.6 6.2

79.1 14,153 .. 185.8 51.9

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

32

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Bangladesh South Asia

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

140.8 62.8 3.3 350 5.2 25.5 25.3 15.2 49.2 2.2 52.1 14.0 19.2

160.0 76.8 4.3 520 5.8 19.0 28.5 17.8 52.5 8.9 68.6 20.3 28.8

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 5.7 0.0

119 44 7 104.0 4.0 35.0 30 7.9 0.1

3.7 85.8 56.5 79.6 ..

3.2 54.4 24.7 50.3 7.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

93 0.6 23.0 15.6

927 1.2 24.2 19.3

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–0.7 36.2 30.0 27.2 3.5 34.9 24.7 13.4 6.9

–1.0 36.2 51.8 49.6 6.5 11.2 39.2 7.0 6.7

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

9.5 95 .. 0.2 0.1

9.5 144 101.6 27.9 0.3

12.1 324

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

33


Barbados High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.25 0.14 9.3 9,110 3.7 4.3 16.3 6.4 79.4 2.4 2.0 50.5 57.0

0.26 0.15 9.8 .. .. 3.8 18.4 7.3 77.9 8.1 2.0 60.0 64.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. 40 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.8 18.4 16.2

.. 6.8 22.5 24.0

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 74.3 67.6 .. .. 65.5 9.4 5.2

–9.3 91.6 86.1 88.8 .. .. 94.6 .. 5.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

98.6 .. .. 11.3 4.0

100.0 .. .. 159.1 73.7

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

34

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Belarus Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

10.0 9.7 4.8 4.9 .. .. 1,380 5,360 6.7 8.6 14.2 9.8 39.2 44.4 31.6 32.9 46.7 45.8 168.6 14.8 876.8 2,136.4 69.2 61.8 72.4 69.2

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

58 6 5 22.0 5.8 99.7 24 .. ..

6.2 34.5 11.4 14.7 10.6

13.6 6.4 35.8 15.2 13.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

39 0.9 25.2 22.7

1,134 3.6 32.7 24.8

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

0.1 15.0 11.3 9.3 15.1 10.8 8.9 –41.2 30.1

2.4 10.7 29.5 17.7 17.4 0.6 28.8 –9.9 0.0

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

95.6 2,989 .. 0.5 1.9

88.6 3,345 1.4 84.0 32.1

41.8 3,052

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

35


Belgium High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

10.3 4.4 6.6 25,360 2.7 1.4 27.0 19.3 71.6 2.5 1.1 84.6 81.7

10.7 4.8 7.0 44,570 2.0 0.8 23.2 16.4 76.1 4.5 0.7 92.1 92.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 40 7.6 3.3

22 4 3 16.0 0.9 57.3 34 7.9 4.1

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 92.7 20.8 ..

.. 19.8 22.7 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

0.0 107.0 .. .. 2.8 2.8 78.1 6.0 4.4

–1.1 88.0 .. .. 3.3 1.7 94.5 6.0 5.2

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

78.2 8,247 .. 54.9 29.3

78.2 8,614 .. 110.4 68.1

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

36

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Belize Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.25 0.09 9.1 3,110 5.8 16.7 21.2 10.9 62.1 0.6 2.0 53.0 73.7

0.32 0.13 8.2 3,740 4.7 12.2 22.8 14.3 65.1 6.4 2.0 62.1 70.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

80 44 9 24.0 1.0 28.9 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

18 2.8 28.7 ..

75 14.0 25.5 ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.9 .. .. .. .. .. 52.8 15.5 8.3

.. .. .. .. .. .. 63.2 11.3 5.7

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

17.0 .. .. 6.7 6.0

.. .. .. 49.7 10.6

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

37


Benin Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

6.7 2.7 0.7 360 5.3 36.5 13.9 8.8 49.6 4.2 712.0 15.2 28.1

8.7 3.6 .. 700 3.9 32.2 13.4 7.5 54.4 7.9 447.8 15.2 28.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

172 31 7 36.0 4.0 73.3 38 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

20.7 26.8 4.2 86.8 7.3

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

90 2.6 18.9 11.3

51 1.8 20.7 14.9

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

0.7 .. 12.2 14.2 .. .. 12.1 .. ..

–0.3 .. 17.7 19.0 .. .. 20.9 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

20.0 60 .. 0.8 0.2

9.5 72 13.9 39.7 1.8

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

38

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Bermuda High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.06 .. 2.7 32,760 3.6 .. .. .. .. .. 1.0 .. ..

0.06 .. .. .. 4.2 .. .. .. .. .. 1.0 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. 20.9 43.5

.. .. .. 123.1 79.4

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

39


Bhutan South Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

0.56 0.18 .. 730 6.2 28.4 35.3 8.5 36.3 4.0 44.9 30.5 51.3

0.69 0.29 3.2 1,900 8.6 18.7 46.1 6.5 35.2 8.4 43.5 55.9 51.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

126 46 8 10.0 .. 40.6 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

16.0 2.5 64.2 14.8 5.4

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.0 50.6 38.6

18 2.3 46.4 35.3

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.5 40.2 11.1 44.2 .. .. 9.1 10.8 7.8

2.1 77.7 15.7 39.7 .. .. 25.6 9.0 9.5

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

60.7 .. .. 0.0 0.4

62.0 .. 3.1 36.5 6.6

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

40

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Bolivia Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

2008

8.3 3.6 4.8 1,000 3.5 15.0 29.8 15.3 55.2 4.6 6.2 18.3 27.3

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 9.1 0.4

9.7 4.4 .. 1,460 4.1 13.5 38.4 14.4 48.2 14.0 7.2 44.9 38.0

161 50 15 ..a 1.8 80.0 25 6.6 0.3

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

.. .. .. .. ..

13.5 19.6 22.2 15.2 13.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

323 8.8 17.9 12.8

86 3.1 17.2 7.5

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–8.7 .. 61.8 45.9 9.8 10.3 58.7 27.9 23.6

1.2 .. 35.1 34.9 9.3 4.3 34.7 3.2 9.2

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

6.6 421 .. 7.0 1.4

7.0 515 0.8 49.8 10.8

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

6.6

47.0 13.9

a. Laws ban dismissing workers on economic grounds. The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

41


Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

3.7 1.8 .. 1,500 25.2 11.0 23.9 10.5 65.1 .. 2.1 29.6 77.9

3.8 1.9 29.0 4,520 5.4 9.1 28.5 14.1 62.4 .. 1.3 36.8 69.5

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7.5 0.9

116 60 12 31.0 3.3 27.1 10 1.3 0.1

7.8 65.2 25.8 4.3 13.9

11.2 1.5 59.7 50.2 30.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 2.7 21.2 10.0

12 5.7 24.4 18.7

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. 20.1 9.9 38.5 4.5 15.8

–1.5 .. .. .. 13.1 3.1 57.8 –0.7 3.5

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

52.3 2,062 .. 2.5 1.1

52.3 2,381 3.2 84.3 34.7

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

42

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Botswana Sub-Saharan Africa

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

1.7 0.80 15.8 3,330 8.6 2.4 58.9 4.4 38.6 8.6 5.1 52.6 33.7

1.9 0.97 17.6 6,640 4.5 1.9 52.9 3.5 45.2 12.7 6.8 46.2 38.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. 0.0

45 61 10 90.0 1.7 17.1 25 .. 0.0

.. .. .. .. ..

5.0 4.5 11.3 25.5 12.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

17 0.9 21.7 11.6

52 0.8 23.4 16.2

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 15.8 23.9 10.3 1.7 13.8 3.1 6.1

.. .. 23.6 43.9 .. .. 21.1 –0.4 7.9

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

35.3 924 .. 12.9 2.9

32.6 1,435 1.7 77.3 6.2

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

43


Brazil Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

174.2 83.4 9.3 3,870 1.7 5.6 27.7 17.2 66.7 7.0 1.8 10.0 11.7

192.0 99.9 7.9 7,300 3.6 6.7 28.0 16.0 65.3 5.7 1.8 14.3 14.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. 37 11.2 4.0

129 120 16 46.0 4.0 69.2 34 8.7 4.1

.. .. .. .. ..

18.7 16.4 48.4 36.8 25.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

21,327 5.1 16.8 ..

23,422 2.9 19.0 15.2

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 62.9 40.5 12.1 8.3 33.0 47.7 39.6

–1.3 60.9 81.5 58.4 9.1 3.1 55.7 39.1 35.6

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

5.5 1,894 .. 13.3 2.9

.. 2,171 2.7 78.5 37.5

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

44

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Brunei Darussalam High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.33 0.15 .. 14,670 1.0 1.0 63.7 15.4 35.3 1.6 1.7 67.4 35.8

0.39 0.19 .. 27,050 2.1 0.7 71.0 10.4 28.3 0.1 1.4 67.7 27.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

96 116 18 4.0 2.5 30.3 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 1.3 13.0 ..

.. 0.8 13.0 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 73.4 105.4 .. .. 50.3 –18.2 ..

.. .. 60.2 82.5 .. .. 37.2 4.5 4.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

34.7 7,539 .. 28.5 9.0

77.2 8,393 .. 95.8 55.3

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

45


Bulgaria Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

8.1 3.6 17.1 1,600 –0.4 14.2 30.7 18.1 55.1 10.3 2.1 55.7 61.1

7.6 3.7 5.7 5,490 5.8 7.3 30.5 15.1 62.2 12.3 1.3 60.5 83.3

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 15.4 4.7

44 18 4 9.0 3.3 31.4 10 15.7 9.8

2.6 53.4 19.2 5.0 14.7

10.6 6.6 34.7 44.8 19.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

157 7.9 15.7 11.6

1,017 18.4 33.4 26.6

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–0.4 .. 16.0 21.5 15.3 17.3 12.6 4.4 8.2

3.2 .. 58.4 53.6 8.5 2.4 74.5 –0.5 6.4

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

92.1 3,724 .. 9.2 5.3

98.4 4,456 3.7 137.7 34.7

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

46

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Burkina Faso Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

11.7 5.2 2.4 250 6.8 29.0 24.4 16.2 46.6 –0.3 712.0 9.1 25.2

15.2 6.9 .. 480 5.6 33.3 22.4 13.6 44.4 10.7 447.8 11.5 26.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.0

147 14 4 34.0 4.0 44.9 .. .. 0.1

.. .. .. .. ..

22.2 6.7 25.6 23.1 14.4

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

27 0.9 18.7 11.0

109 1.7 20.8 11.1

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 12.1 12.3 .. .. 11.7 .. ..

–4.2 .. 16.9 15.0 .. .. 18.6 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

16.0 .. .. 0.2 0.1

4.2 .. 10.8 16.8 0.9

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

47


Burundi Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

2008

6.5 8.1 3.1 4.4 .. .. 120 140 –0.7 2.9 40.4 34.8 18.8 20.0 8.7 8.8 40.8 45.1 24.3 24.1 720.7 1,185.7 7.8 10.7 19.9 47.0

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

176 32 11 26.0 .. 278.6 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

5.7 22.6 12.3 24.1 7.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

36 1.6 6.1 0.8

6 0.3 16.4 1.7

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.4 162.6 19.2 13.3 .. .. 25.0 2.3 ..

.. .. 23.6 26.9 .. .. 21.5 –6.4 ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

7.1 .. .. 0.3 0.1

10.4 .. 12.0 6.0 0.8

12.1 324

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

48

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Cambodia East Asia & Pacific

Low income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 12.8 14.6 Population (millions) 5.9 7.5 Labor force (millions) 2.5 7.1 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 280 640 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 7.3 9.8 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 37.8 34.6 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 23.0 23.9 Industry value added (% of GDP) 16.9 16.4 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 39.1 41.5 Services value added (% of GDP) –0.8 25.0 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 3,840.8 4,054.2 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 49.8 65.3 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 61.8 72.9 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

145 85 9 39.0 .. 22.7 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

5.6 60.3 11.3 15.5 2.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

2 4.1 18.3 11.9

84 7.9 19.4 14.1

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.4 .. 5.9 8.1 .. .. 6.4 21.2 10.5

–1.7 .. 14.0 20.6 .. .. 23.5 11.2 14.6

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

7.5 29 .. 1.0 0.0

6.3 94 27.0 29.1 0.5

12.1 324

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

49


Cameroon Sub-Saharan Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

15.9 6.0 7.5 620 4.8 22.1 36.0 20.8 41.8 1.2 712.0 23.3 19.7

19.1 7.5 .. 1,150 3.5 19.5 30.6 16.5 49.9 5.3 447.8 29.6 29.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. 39 .. ..

171 34 12 33.0 3.2 50.5 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

7.0 30.8 31.4 17.6 20.4

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

95 1.6 16.0 13.9

211 0.2 17.1 14.7

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

0.1 91.7 11.4 10.1 .. .. 8.2 18.6 17.0

.. .. 11.5 14.0 .. .. 10.4 12.7 10.8

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

8.1 171 .. 0.7 0.3

8.4 265 10.5 32.3 3.8

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

50

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Canada High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

30.8 16.3 6.8 22,130 4.3 2.3 33.2 19.2 64.5 2.7 1.5 45.6 39.8

33.3 18.7 6.1 43,640 2.5 2.2 31.7 16.2 66.1 2.4 1.1 34.7 32.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 45 6.9 4.6

8 5 1 28.0 0.8 43.6 34 8.3 9.1

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 9.1 19.2 ..

.. 3.0 22.6 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

1.4 59.9 83.6 67.8 4.7 1.3 95.7 3.0 3.8

1.6 45.2 140.7 116.3 5.1 1.1 128.4 0.8 3.2

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. 16,991 .. 28.4 42.2

39.9 16,995 .. 66.3 75.3

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

51


Cape Verde Sub-Saharan Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

0.44 0.16 .. 1,310 6.6 12.0 17.9 9.3 70.2 –2.5 119.7 27.5 61.4

0.50 0.21 .. 2,800 5.3 8.8 18.1 6.9 73.1 6.8 75.3 21.7 59.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

146 24 9 93.0 .. 49.7 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

4.3 1.1 35.3 30.5 15.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 6.3 19.7 7.2

5 13.3 46.6 36.6

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 46.9 50.5 .. .. 40.7 13.3 7.6

2.4 .. 57.1 65.0 .. .. 58.8 3.3 6.2

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

69.0 .. .. 4.5 1.8

.. .. 4.9 55.7 20.6

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

52

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Cayman Islands High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.04 .. 7.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.8 .. ..

0.05 .. 3.8 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.8 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 0 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. 26.6 ..

.. .. .. 84.0 42.4

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

53


Central African Republic Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income Lowincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

3.7 1.7 .. 270 3.0 53.1 15.8 7.0 31.0 3.2 712.0 19.8 24.1

4.3 2.0 .. 410 0.5 52.9 14.2 7.6 32.9 9.3 447.8 10.8 23.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

183 22 8 22.0 4.8 203.8 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.1 9.5 4.8

3 6.1 11.6 7.1

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 7.6 3.9 .. .. 4.5 18.3 17.0

–0.5 .. 8.8 4.7 .. .. 7.0 12.2 10.8

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

2.7 .. .. 0.1 0.1

.. .. .. 3.5 0.4

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

54

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Chad Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

8.4 3.3 .. 180 3.1 42.3 11.3 8.9 46.3 3.8 712.0 16.9 34.7

10.9 4.2 .. 540 11.9 13.6 48.8 6.6 37.5 10.3 447.8 54.1 49.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

178 75 19 36.0 .. 60.9 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

20.8 21.2 4.2 10.6 43.3

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

5 8.3 20.9 10.5

99 9.9 14.1 6.2

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 5.3 3.6 .. .. 3.5 15.9 17.0

.. .. 4.8 3.9 .. .. 3.7 9.4 10.8

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

0.8 .. .. 0.1 0.0

.. .. 22.6 16.6 1.2

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

55


Channel Islands High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.15 .. .. 43,010 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.15 .. .. 68,610 0.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

56

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Chile Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

15.4 6.1 8.3 4,840 3.8 6.1 38.4 19.5 55.5 3.8 539.6 31.6 29.7

16.8 7.7 7.8 9,370 4.4 3.9 43.8 13.5 52.3 8.7 522.5 45.1 41.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. 15 12.3 2.3

49 27 9 52.0 4.5 25.3 17 11.2 2.3

.. .. .. .. ..

9.0 7.6 29.1 22.9 22.0

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

2,051 6.5 20.7 ..

1,695 9.9 24.0 18.2

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–0.7 .. 60.5 48.7 7.5 1.7 73.6 9.8 5.6

4.8 .. 67.0 48.9 6.9 1.0 97.7 13.0 5.8

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

18.4 2,487 .. 22.1 16.6

.. 3,318 1.7 88.1 32.5

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

57


China East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 1,262.6 1,324.7 Population (millions) 726.0 776.9 Labor force (millions) 3.1 4.2 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 930 2,940 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 8.5 10.4 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 15.1 11.3 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 45.9 48.6 Industry value added (% of GDP) 32.1 34.4 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 39.0 40.1 Services value added (% of GDP) 0.3 5.9 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 8.3 6.9 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 23.3 36.6 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 20.9 28.5 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 33 .. ..

89 37 14 91.0 1.7 78.5 25 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

18.3 38.7 28.8 27.8 35.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

8,131 3.2 34.1 7.5

1,864 3.4 42.0 19.2

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.6 11.6 114.2 36.0 4.1 22.4 112.3 3.7 3.6

–1.4 .. 114.8 43.5 6.1 2.4 108.3 –1.8 3.1

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

.. 993 .. 6.8 1.8

49.6 2,332 .. 48.4 22.5

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

58

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Colombia Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context Population (millions) 39.8 45.0 Labor force (millions) 15.1 18.6 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 20.5 11.7 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 2,280 4,620 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 0.6 4.9 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 10.4 8.6 Industry value added (% of GDP) 29.8 36.5 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 15.4 16.0 Services value added (% of GDP) 59.9 54.9 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 9.2 7.0 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 2,087.9 1,967.7 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 17.4 18.2 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) 18.9 21.7 Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 5.4 0.9

37 20 9 59.0 3.0 78.7 33 5.8 1.0

.. .. .. .. ..

14.3 1.1 30.6 26.4 5.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

1,032 2.5 13.2 9.8

2,718 4.3 .. 19.7

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–6.2 .. 33.3 27.1 11.2 11.0 23.8 –5.6 6.6

–2.1 54.3 43.9 20.1 12.2 4.0 34.2 8.2 7.4

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

14.4 844 .. 5.7 2.2

.. 977 1.0 91.9 38.5

41.8 3,052

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

59


Comoros Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income Lowincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.54 0.25 .. 400 1.7 48.6 11.5 4.5 39.9 .. 534.0 16.7 32.5

0.64 0.32 .. 750 2.0 45.8 12.0 4.2 42.2 .. 335.9 12.8 36.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

162 24 11 100.0 .. 41.1 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.0 10.1 6.2

0.5 1.5 16.1 8.1

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 11.9 7.9 9.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. 11.5 1.4 4.5

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

76.5 .. .. 0.0 0.3

.. .. .. 15.3 3.6

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

60

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Congo, Dem. Rep. Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

50.8 18.6 .. 80 –3.8 50.0 20.3 4.8 29.7 513.9 21.8 22.4 21.4

64.3 24.0 .. 150 5.2 40.2 28.0 5.5 31.8 17.3 559.3 23.3 38.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 40 .. ..

182 149 13 31.0 5.2 322.0 40 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

6.3 64.4 3.3 20.5 4.3

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

41 3.9 3.5 3.0

335 8.6 23.9 11.3

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–4.0 152.2 0.6 1.7 .. .. 0.7 –57.0 ..

.. .. 1.7 3.1 .. .. 7.1 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

.. 89 .. .. ..

1.8 97 17.5 .. ..

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

61


Congo, Rep. Sub-Saharan Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

3.0 1.3 .. 580 1.9 5.3 72.2 3.5 22.5 –0.9 712.0 80.3 43.6

3.6 1.6 .. 1,790 3.9 4.1 75.0 3.8 20.9 7.3 447.8 78.7 51.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. 45 .. 0.1

179 37 10 33.0 3.0 65.5 .. .. 0.1

.. .. .. .. ..

6.0 37.1 7.7 8.5 19.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

35 5.2 20.9 14.0

856 24.5 20.5 11.1

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.3 .. 7.2 6.5 .. .. 4.8 –17.0 17.0

9.6 0.2 2.7 8.9 .. .. 3.5 24.9 10.8

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

9.7 99 .. 2.3 0.0

5.0 135 25.3 50.0 4.3

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

62

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Costa Rica Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

3.9 1.6 5.2 3,700 5.7 9.5 32.1 25.3 58.5 11.0 308.2 48.6 45.8

4.5 2.1 4.6 6,060 5.4 7.3 29.0 20.8 63.7 13.4 526.2 45.8 55.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 .. ..

121 60 12 29.0 3.5 54.8 30 10.3 3.8

.. .. .. .. ..

9.6 .. 14.9 48.6 10.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

161 2.6 17.8 16.3

330 6.8 24.2 22.0

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. 36.2 24.7 12.1 10.8 3.5 24.0 16.7 11.5

–0.8 .. 42.3 22.2 13.3 1.5 50.8 3.3 11.7

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

22.0 1,517 .. 5.4 5.8

25.5 1,863 .. 41.7 32.3

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

63


Côte d’Ivoire Sub-Saharan Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

17.3 6.7 4.1 620 3.4 24.2 24.9 21.7 50.9 2.5 712.0 40.4 33.3

20.6 8.1 .. 980 0.5 25.0 26.1 18.0 48.9 6.3 447.8 46.5 38.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

168 40 10 49.0 2.2 44.7 25 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

1.8 13.6 13.9 20.9 4.3

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

215 2.3 11.2 8.4

301 1.7 10.1 7.1

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 19.7 13.9 .. .. 15.5 .. ..

–0.3 96.4 17.7 16.1 .. .. 16.3 .. ..

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

9.7 166 .. 2.7 0.2

8.1 178 3.8 50.7 3.2

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

64

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Croatia High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

4.4 2.0 16.1 5,170 3.0 8.4 28.4 20.3 63.2 4.6 8.3 42.0 45.3

4.4 2.0 8.4 13,580 4.5 6.4 28.4 16.9 65.1 6.1 4.9 41.9 50.3

Highincome group 2008 1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 2.0 1.1

103 22 7 39.0 3.1 32.5 20 5.5 3.7

4.6 43.7 36.1 .. 16.3

10.9 6.0 60.0 42.6 16.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

746 5.2 18.8 14.5

719 6.9 27.6 24.1

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–5.3 .. 43.1 33.0 11.9 9.5 32.3 7.2 8.3

–1.1 .. 71.0 58.5 13.5 4.9 64.9 3.5 7.2

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

85.4 2,840 .. 23.3 6.8

89.1 3,738 1.8 132.6 50.5

87.0 9,753

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

65


Cuba Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

11.1 4.8 5.4 .. 4.2 6.4 47.5 38.7 46.1 .. .. 16.0 18.7

11.2 5.1 1.8 .. 3.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

600 .. 10.4 ..

60 .. .. ..

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

49.0 1,142 .. 0.1 0.5

.. 1,309 .. 3.0 12.9

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

66

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Cyprus High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.79 0.36 4.8 13,440 3.9 3.6 19.1 9.9 77.3 4.1 1.1 55.4 54.5

0.86 0.44 3.7 26,940 3.5 2.1 19.6 7.6 78.3 4.7 0.7 47.1 58.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 28 9.7 ..

40 8 6 64.0 1.5 28.8 10 10.5 ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 9.2 17.0 ..

.. 15.5 23.3 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–5.5 91.4 170.3 153.3 .. .. 211.8 4.0 1.5

0.8 162.0 204.8 190.7 .. .. 257.3 3.2 3.3

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

60.6 4,045 .. 27.8 15.3

64.0 5,441 .. 117.9 38.8

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

67


Czech Republic High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

10.3 5.1 8.8 5,800 1.0 3.9 38.1 26.8 58.0 3.9 38.6 63.4 66.4

10.4 5.2 4.4 16,650 4.6 2.5 37.6 24.7 59.9 6.4 17.1 77.1 72.5

Highincome group 2008 1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 31 .. ..

74 15 8 22.0 6.5 47.2 21 6.7 2.3

1.7 35.9 20.4 0.0 16.5

10.4 0.2 33.4 50.2 43.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 8.8 28.0 ..

.. 5.0 23.9 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.6 13.7 53.9 54.2 5.4 29.3 49.0 5.6 3.7

–1.5 26.6 55.7 60.5 5.7 3.3 52.8 4.3 4.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

100.0 5,694 .. 42.3 9.7

100.0 6,496 2.1 132.2 57.8

87.0 9,753

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

68

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Denmark High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

5.3 2.9 4.5 31,840 2.8 2.6 26.8 16.2 70.6 2.9 8.1 46.6 40.5

5.5 3.0 3.3 58,800 1.6 1.3 26.1 15.0 72.6 3.4 5.1 54.7 52.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 32 13.8 4.3

6 6 4 .. 1.1 29.2 25 14.4 8.0

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 22.5 20.2 ..

.. 0.9 21.5 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

1.7 50.1 91.8 48.1 6.2 0.7 135.3 4.9 4.9

4.8 24.1 219.2 67.8 5.7 0.3 218.0 .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

100.0 6,484 .. 63.0 39.2

100.0 6,670 .. 124.9 83.3

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

69


Djibouti Middle East & North Africa

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.73 0.30 .. 760 –0.2 3.5 15.4 2.6 81.1 .. 177.7 35.1 50.4

0.85 0.38 .. 1,130 3.5 3.9 16.9 2.5 79.3 .. 177.7 59.2 80.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

163 37 11 56.0 5.0 38.7 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

50 0.6 8.8 6.1

300 28.9 38.9 26.2

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 32.1 9.5 8.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 27.8 8.2 8.1

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

45.0 .. .. 0.0 0.2

.. .. .. 13.3 2.3

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

70

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Dominica Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.07 .. 11.0 3,200 2.2 18.1 23.5 8.8 58.4 0.9 2.7 53.3 67.5

0.07 .. .. 4,750 2.6 17.2 23.6 4.8 59.3 5.1 2.7 40.2 69.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

83 14 5 58.0 .. 37.0 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

19 6.5 28.1 8.1

5 14.6 32.7 6.9

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 76.6 69.8 .. .. 62.0 11.0 7.8

.. .. 69.1 91.5 .. .. 62.8 8.6 5.9

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

50.4 .. .. 1.7 8.4

.. .. .. 136.6 37.6

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

71


Dominican Republic Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

8.8 3.7 14.2 2,550 7.0 7.2 35.9 26.1 56.8 7.7 16.4 37.0 45.9

10.0 4.4 15.6 4,330 5.4 6.5 33.3 24.0 60.1 10.6 34.6 25.9 39.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. ..

86 19 8 88.0 3.5 39.0 25 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

8.8 17.3 12.5 30.2 9.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

1,076 4.0 20.5 ..

33 6.3 18.2 ..

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. 16.7 28.0 22.8 9.4 2.6 36.8 18.6 9.1

0.3 .. 20.9 18.8 9.7 3.5 20.9 9.2 9.6

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

49.4 709 .. 8.0 3.7

.. 1,378 .. 72.4 21.6

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

72

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Ecuador Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 12.3 Population (millions) 4.8 Labor force (millions) 9.0 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 1,340 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 0.7 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) .. Agriculture value added (% of GDP) .. Industry value added (% of GDP) .. Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) .. Services value added (% of GDP) 96.1 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 11,786.8 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 37.1 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 31.0 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

13.5 5.7 6.9 3,690 5.0 6.7 40.6 9.7 52.7 8.4 .. 37.8 37.7

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. ..

138 64 13 135.0 5.3 34.9 25 .. 0.4

.. .. .. .. ..

17.3 11.3 24.0 23.3 18.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

20 4.5 20.5 15.6

1,062 1.8 23.8 10.8

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. 12.9 31.0 32.6 26.0 8.3

.. .. .. .. 8.8 2.5 26.1 4.8 7.1

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

18.9 654 .. 3.9 1.5

14.8 788 2.5 85.6 28.8

37.6 1,310

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

73


Egypt, Arab Rep. Middle East & North Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

70.2 21.7 9.0 1,390 5.2 16.7 33.1 19.4 50.1 2.7 3.5 16.2 22.8

81.5 26.3 8.7 1,800 4.7 13.2 37.5 15.7 49.2 18.3 5.4 33.2 38.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

106 7 6 132.0 4.2 43.0 20 2.6 0.2

.. .. .. .. ..

8.8 5.3 5.6 92.4 21.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

864 1.2 18.9 9.1

2,054 5.9 22.4 14.5

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–6.7 37.4 74.3 63.9 5.6 13.6 58.7 7.9 3.8

–6.4 .. 68.8 81.3 5.3 14.8 42.9 0.4 5.7

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

78.1 958 .. 1.9 0.6

81.0 1,384 1.1 50.6 16.6

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

74

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


El Salvador Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

5.9 2.3 7.0 2,110 3.3 10.5 31.6 24.7 57.9 2.3 8.8 27.4 42.4

6.1 2.5 6.6 3,460 2.9 13.2 28.5 21.8 58.4 6.7 8.8 27.7 49.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

84 17 8 86.0 4.0 35.0 .. .. 0.5

.. .. .. .. ..

9.2 2.6 17.3 22.1 11.0

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

277 1.3 16.9 14.2

239 3.5 15.0 12.8

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–4.7 55.3 5.2 4.8 8.8 4.3 45.2 10.5 4.6

0.3 39.4 5.0 4.3 12.7 2.8 41.3 .. ..

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

19.8 680 .. 12.5 1.2

.. 939 2.3 113.3 10.6

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

75


Equatorial Guinea High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.53 0.19 .. 1,250 36.0 9.8 85.9 1.4 4.2 4.8 712.0 98.6 85.4

0.66 0.25 .. 14,980 18.9 2.0 95.7 12.4 2.3 6.6 447.8 78.3 32.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

170 136 20 133.0 .. 59.5 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. 61.3 56.2

.. .. 28.2 11.4

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 2.9 3.2 .. .. 3.0 –16.8 17.0

.. .. 2.6 5.9 .. .. 4.4 16.4 10.8

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. 0.9 0.1

.. .. .. 52.5 1.8

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

76

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Eritrea Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

3.7 1.4 .. 170 1.5 15.1 23.0 11.2 61.9 .. 9.6 15.1 81.8

4.9 2.1 .. 300 1.3 24.3 19.2 5.5 56.5 .. 15.4 6.3 34.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

175 84 13 69.0 .. 84.5 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

0.5 .. 11.9 0.0 15.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

40 4.4 23.8 5.0

.. 2.2 10.6 1.2

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 32.5 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 18.4 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

21.8 .. .. 0.0 0.1

.. .. 3.0 2.2 4.1

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

77


Estonia High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

1.4 0.66 12.8 4,220 6.5 4.8 27.5 17.7 67.6 4.0 17.0 84.6 88.2

1.3 0.70 5.5 14,570 7.4 2.9 29.1 16.7 68.0 10.4 10.7 75.6 79.8

Highincome group 2008 1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

24 7 5 35.0 3.0 49.1 21 .. ..

2.4 18.5 24.2 3.5 7.5

5.5 13.5 41.5 207.2 21.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 6.8 25.7 22.9

.. 8.3 29.3 31.0

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

0.2 6.9 33.4 24.7 12.6 1.0 36.1 2.8 3.7

3.1 4.1 85.1 43.5 9.3 1.9 97.4 1.8 2.8

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

20.1 4,629 .. 40.7 28.6

28.8 6,273 1.2 188.3 66.2

87.0 9,753

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

78

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Ethiopia Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

65.5 29.0 8.2 130 3.5 49.9 12.4 5.5 37.8 0.7 8.2 12.0 24.0

80.7 38.2 17.0 280 8.2 44.5 13.2 4.8 42.4 44.4 9.6 11.5 31.2

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 .. ..

107 9 5 40.0 3.0 31.1 30 .. ..

2.1 .. 31.0 .. 2.3

3.8 4.4 11.0 44.2 4.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 1.6 20.3 8.1

.. 0.4 20.1 5.9

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–7.6 .. 35.9 35.6 .. .. 23.1 3.8 4.9

.. .. 28.8 37.3 .. .. 18.0 –15.9 3.4

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

12.0 23 .. 0.0 0.0

12.8 40 5.0 2.4 0.4

12.1 324

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

79


Faeroe Islands High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.05 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8.1 .. ..

0.05 .. 3.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5.1 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

80

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Fiji East Asia & Pacific

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.80 0.31 .. 2,260 2.2 17.1 22.3 14.0 60.6 1.1 2.1 65.2 70.3

0.84 0.34 8.1 4,010 1.4 15.1 24.9 15.4 60.0 7.7 1.6 55.7 73.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

54 46 8 22.0 1.8 41.2 31 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

3 –0.1 15.4 10.2

90 8.9 16.0 13.0

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 36.4 36.7 .. .. 32.0 13.7 7.5

–2.9 .. 41.0 40.2 .. .. 48.2 2.8 8.1

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

49.2 .. .. 6.9 1.5

.. .. .. 71.1 12.2

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

81


Finland High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

5.2 2.7 9.7 25,470 4.9 3.5 33.7 26.2 62.8 3.4 1.1 43.5 33.9

5.3 2.7 6.4 47,600 3.0 2.7 32.4 23.6 64.9 4.1 0.7 44.2 40.3

.. .. .. .. .. .. 29 7.4 2.3

16 14 3 26.0 0.9 47.7 26 8.7 3.0

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 7.5 19.4 ..

.. –2.8 20.6 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

6.7 55.1 55.8 22.1 6.3 0.6 53.1 3.0 4.0

5.5 37.3 .. .. 7.4 0.4 85.8 3.0 2.7

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

62.0 15,286 .. 72.0 37.2

65.4 17,162 .. 128.5 82.5

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

82

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


France High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions)a Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

58.9 26.4 10.2 24,450 2.9 2.8 22.9 16.0 74.3 1.7 1.1 28.6 27.7

62.3 28.6 7.4 42,000 1.8 2.0 20.4 11.9 77.6 2.8 0.7 26.4 28.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. 37 8.9 2.3

31 7 5 32.0 1.9 65.8 33 10.8 3.3

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 3.2 19.5 ..

.. 3.5 21.9 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.7 60.7 .. .. 6.7 5.0 85.0 5.2 4.1

–2.3 66.6 .. .. 4.2 2.8 107.8 4.9 4.4

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

100.0 7,485 .. 49.3 14.4

100.0 7,772 .. 93.1 67.9

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

a. Excludes the French overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Réunion. The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

83


French Polynesia High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.24 0.10 11.7 16,080 3.5 4.7 .. .. .. .. 129.5 4.9 24.2

0.27 0.11 11.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 87.2 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

84

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Gabon Sub-Saharan Africa

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

1.2 0.54 .. 3,080 0.3 6.2 56.3 3.7 37.5 0.5 712.0 69.0 32.7

1.4 0.69 .. 7,320 2.2 4.1 64.3 3.5 31.7 5.3 447.8 66.6 32.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

158 58 9 43.0 5.0 44.7 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

2.8 22.8 6.3 34.5 18.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

12 –0.8 21.9 19.0

60 0.1 24.4 19.8

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 12.1 10.4 .. 6.6 8.7 –4.8 17.0

.. .. 9.6 12.9 10.7 8.5 8.5 9.3 10.8

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

9.9 876 .. 9.7 1.2

10.2 1,066 7.2 89.8 6.2

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

85


Gambia, The Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

1.3 0.58 .. 330 4.6 35.8 13.1 5.4 51.1 0.8 12.8 48.0 56.8

1.7 0.74 .. 400 5.1 28.5 15.1 4.9 56.4 4.5 22.2 30.0 48.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

140 27 8 26.0 3.0 292.4 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

7.3 13.6 7.6 63.9 22.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

7 10.3 17.4 12.8

35 8.9 24.8 13.9

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 30.8 29.5 .. .. 12.5 19.6 11.5

.. .. 41.7 60.1 .. .. 17.6 21.0 15.0

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

35.4 .. .. 0.4 0.9

19.3 .. 23.7 70.2 6.9

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

86

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Georgia Europe & Central Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

4.7 2.4 10.8 700 5.6 21.9 22.4 13.0 55.7 4.1 2.0 23.0 39.7

4.3 2.3 13.3 2,500 8.1 10.0 21.2 12.0 68.8 10.0 1.5 28.7 58.3

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8.2 0.7

11 3 3 4.0 3.3 15.3 .. 8.8 1.7

11.0 81.2 25.9 1.9 16.8

2.1 8.4 38.2 11.4 16.0

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

49 4.3 25.4 24.5

476 12.2 22.5 14.5

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.6 69.9 6.5 4.2 30.5 11.6 8.7 26.8 22.6

–1.9 27.0 22.4 13.8 17.1 4.1 33.3 10.2 10.9

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

93.4 1,353 .. 4.1 0.5

38.6 1,620 3.3 64.0 23.8

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

87


Germany High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Highincome group 2008

82.2 40.4 7.9 25,500 2.0 1.3 30.3 22.9 68.5 1.5 1.1 33.4 33.0

82.1 42.4 7.5 42,710 1.2 0.9 30.2 23.9 69.0 2.6 0.7 47.2 41.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. 52 18.4 1.5

25 18 9 69.0 1.2 44.9 30 11.9 1.2

.. .. .. .. ..

1.2 14.8 45.0 3.2 ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 11.1 21.5 ..

.. 0.6 19.2 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

1.4 37.8 144.5 63.1 4.2 4.7 118.6 10.4 6.2

–0.4 40.8 .. .. 4.5 2.7 107.8 .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

.. 6,636 .. 58.6 30.2

100.0 7,184 .. 128.5 75.5

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

88

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Ghana Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

19.5 8.6 10.4 330 4.4 35.3 25.4 9.0 39.3 25.2 0.5 48.8 67.2

23.4 10.6 .. 630 5.6 33.5 25.3 6.3 41.2 16.5 1.1 42.5 75.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 33 5.9 0.5

92 33 8 178.0 1.9 32.7 25 6.2 0.5

.. .. .. .. ..

4.0 18.1 16.0 24.4 6.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

10 3.3 23.1 12.7

1,434 12.7 35.9 20.3

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–6.5 .. .. .. 11.8 11.9 14.0 .. ..

–7.7 .. .. .. 12.8 7.7 17.8 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

29.6 331 .. 0.7 0.2

14.9 259 9.7 49.6 4.3

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

89


Greece High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Highincome group 2008

10.9 4.9 11.2 12,560 3.5 6.6 21.0 11.1 72.5 3.2 1.1 24.9 38.4

11.2 5.2 7.7 28,400 4.2 3.3 19.7 10.3 77.0 4.2 0.7 23.1 31.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. 40 5.7 0.7

109 19 15 24.0 2.0 47.4 25 5.4 0.8

.. .. .. .. ..

1.8 55.9 25.9 7.0 11.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.9 21.6 ..

.. 1.5 19.3 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.7 123.5 71.0 49.0 8.9 12.3 47.0 8.6 6.2

–3.7 114.1 .. .. 4.5 5.0 93.5 3.0 4.3

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

91.8 4,539 .. 54.3 9.2

.. 5,628 .. 122.8 43.1

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

90

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Greenland High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.06 .. 11.0 20,290 3.8 .. .. .. .. .. 8.1 .. ..

0.06 .. 8.4 29,740 1.2 .. .. .. .. .. 5.1 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. 26.9 31.7

.. .. .. 99.1 63.9

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

91


Grenada Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.10 .. 15.2 3,870 7.4 7.3 22.2 6.5 70.5 2.1 2.7 54.9 72.2

0.10 .. .. 5,880 2.3 5.9 21.1 4.7 73.0 8.2 2.7 28.9 70.3

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

91 20 6 29.0 .. 45.3 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

7 8.7 41.8 35.0

11 25.3 29.8 22.3

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 79.8 82.2 .. .. 75.7 11.1 7.4

.. .. 89.7 99.4 .. .. 90.7 6.5 6.3

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

61.0 .. .. 4.2 4.1

.. .. .. 58.0 23.2

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

92

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Guam High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.16 0.07 11.5 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.18 0.08 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. 17.5 16.1

.. .. .. 59.1 48.4

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

93


Guatemala Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

11.2 4.0 1.4 1,730 4.1 15.1 29.1 21.3 55.8 6.0 7.8 20.2 29.0

13.7 5.3 1.8 2,680 3.9 11.6 30.0 20.3 58.3 12.6 7.6 24.7 39.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. 0.6

110 29 11 101.0 3.0 40.9 31 .. 0.6

.. .. .. .. ..

9.2 3.8 12.8 35.3 8.0

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

147 1.2 16.1 13.7

532 2.1 17.7 14.2

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.8 17.0 21.5 16.3 8.9 7.9 19.8 13.2 10.7

–1.6 20.1 36.7 38.0 10.3 2.4 27.2 4.5 8.3

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

34.5 343 .. 7.6 0.7

.. 558 3.0 109.2 14.3

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

94

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Guinea Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 8.4 9.8 Population (millions) 4.0 4.7 Labor force (millions) .. .. Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 360 350 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 4.4 3.2 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 20.3 24.8 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 32.5 46.4 Industry value added (% of GDP) 4.0 4.5 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 47.2 28.8 Services value added (% of GDP) .. 18.4 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 1,746.9 5,500.0 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 23.6 33.2 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 27.9 38.4 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

173 41 13 26.0 3.8 49.9 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

2.7 57.3 0.9 16.1 5.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

6 0.3 18.9 14.0

89 10.1 15.5 12.0

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.4 .. .. .. .. .. 3.8 7.4 11.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. 5.7 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

16.5 .. .. 0.5 0.1

9.8 .. 33.9 39.1 0.9

12.1 324

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

95


Guinea-Bissau Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

1.3 0.54 .. 170 –2.7 56.4 13.0 10.5 30.6 8.6 712.0 31.8 51.6

1.6 0.65 .. 250 0.6 55.5 12.9 10.2 31.6 10.5 447.8 29.8 49.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

181 213 16 87.0 .. 45.9 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

2.9 22.7 0.7 20.5 8.4

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

3 0.3 11.3 1.3

29 3.5 23.9 10.6

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 7.6 12.7 .. .. 7.9 .. ..

.. .. 7.6 10.7 .. .. 9.1 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

27.9 .. .. 0.0 0.2

.. .. 9.2 31.7 2.4

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

96

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Guyana Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

0.76 0.32 9.1 870 2.5 31.1 29.0 8.2 39.9 6.1 182.4 96.1 110.7

0.76 0.34 .. 1,450 1.9 28.1 21.7 3.4 50.2 8.1 203.6 68.3 102.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

101 34 8 56.0 3.0 38.9 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

2.3 5.4 32.6 93.4 17.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

11 9.4 23.8 10.0

26 14.5 39.7 22.0

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 66.3 62.6 .. .. 57.1 10.0 8.6

.. .. 69.2 82.8 .. .. 57.0 8.8 12.2

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

7.4 .. .. 5.3 6.6

.. .. .. 36.8 26.9

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

97


Haiti Latin America & Caribbean

Low income Lowincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

8.6 3.5 7.2 .. 2.5 .. .. .. .. 13.7 21.2 12.7 33.4

9.9 4.4 .. .. 0.5 .. .. .. .. 15.5 39.1 11.1 36.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 3.8 0.0

151 195 13 17.0 5.7 40.1 .. 3.0 0.0

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

101 0.4 .. ..

176 0.4 .. ..

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 15.6 27.2 .. .. 15.5 7.3 –24.7

.. .. 15.1 30.1 .. .. 12.1 –2.8 15.7

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

24.3 35 .. 0.6 0.2

.. 30 .. 32.4 10.1

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

98

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Honduras Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

6.2 2.4 3.9 930 2.8 15.9 32.5 22.7 51.7 11.0 14.8 54.0 66.4

7.3 2.8 3.1 1,740 5.3 13.6 31.0 21.7 55.4 11.4 18.9 48.6 81.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. ..

141 14 13 95.0 3.8 48.3 30 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

4.6 6.1 8.5 27.6 16.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

127 4.0 25.8 20.3

334 6.6 32.2 28.0

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 32.8 32.6 8.8 10.6 34.1 –3.1 10.9

–0.2 .. 47.4 45.8 .. .. 51.4 7.4 8.4

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

20.4 515 .. 2.5 1.2

.. 692 2.9 84.9 13.1

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

99


Hong Kong SAR, China High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

6.7 3.4 4.9 26,570 1.8 0.1 13.4 5.4 86.5 –3.8 7.8 143.3 138.8

7.0 3.7 3.5 31,420 5.2 0.1 7.7 2.5 92.2 4.3 7.8 212.5 201.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 16 10.5 7.9

3 6 3 10.0 1.1 24.2 17 15.4 15.7

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 36.6 26.4 ..

.. 29.3 19.7 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 164.2 210.1 9.0 7.3 152.6 13.6 4.7

.. .. 153.2 289.9 12.0 0.9 142.8 3.5 4.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

100.0 5,447 .. 81.7 27.8

100.0 5,899 .. 166.0 67.0

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

100

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Hungary High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

10.2 4.2 6.6 4,660 4.2 5.4 32.2 23.5 62.4 9.8 282.2 72.2 75.8

10.0 4.3 7.8 12,810 3.6 4.3 29.4 21.7 66.2 6.1 172.1 81.4 80.2

Highincome group 2008 1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 18 9.4 2.5

47 4 4 35.0 2.0 57.5 16 10.3 4.1

5.2 27.4 21.6 9.6 32.6

13.5 0.7 48.7 48.0 39.4

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

1,168 5.8 23.0 ..

2,645 40.6 20.1 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.7 61.0 35.8 35.5 8.3 3.0 31.4 –0.3 3.1

–3.9 73.8 70.5 44.6 8.0 3.0 69.6 6.1 0.3

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

43.7 3,309 .. 30.1 7.0

37.7 3,977 2.9 121.8 58.5

87.0 9,753

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

101


Iceland High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.28 0.17 2.3 30,820 5.0 8.6 26.0 13.9 65.4 5.1 78.6 33.6 40.9

0.32 0.20 3.0 40,450 4.5 5.8 23.6 10.0 70.6 12.7 87.9 44.7 47.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 14.2 11.4

14 5 5 13.0 1.0 25.0 15 12.5 18.2

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 1.8 22.9 ..

.. 4.2 23.9 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

2.7 60.5 83.1 40.6 6.2 1.5 97.1 12.7 6.2

–12.8 83.8 150.2 60.0 6.9 0.8 319.6 13.0 7.2

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

29.5 26,221 .. 76.5 44.5

36.6 36,853 .. 108.0 90.0

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

102

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


India South Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 1,015.9 1,140.0 Population (millions) 385.4 449.9 Labor force (millions) 4.3 5.0 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 450 1,040 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 5.9 7.9 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 23.4 17.5 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 26.2 28.8 Industry value added (% of GDP) 15.6 15.8 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 50.5 53.7 Services value added (% of GDP) 4.0 8.4 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 44.9 43.5 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 13.2 22.7 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 14.2 28.0 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 39 3.7 0.0

133 30 13 56.0 7.0 64.7 34 2.7 0.0

12.9 .. .. .. 0.0

6.7 52.3 46.7 29.5 22.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

2,665 0.8 22.7 16.3

27,912 3.6 34.8 25.7

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.9 56.0 41.1 42.6 5.7 12.8 28.8 8.5 ..

–1.6 57.6 64.9 61.4 6.4 2.3 51.4 6.7 ..

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

47.5 402 .. 0.4 0.5

.. 542 .. 30.4 4.5

37.6 1,310

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

103


Indonesia East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 205.3 227.3 Population (millions) 97.0 112.8 Labor force (millions) 6.1 8.4 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 580 1,880 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) –0.6 5.2 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 15.6 14.4 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 45.9 48.1 Industry value added (% of GDP) 27.7 27.9 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 38.5 37.5 Services value added (% of GDP) 3.7 10.1 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 8,421.8 9,699.0 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 41.0 29.8 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 30.5 28.6 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 4.6 0.1

122 60 9 108.0 5.5 37.6 30 7.0 0.1

.. .. .. .. ..

4.0 14.0 34.0 23.5 22.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

642 –2.8 19.9 ..

5,739 1.8 27.6 ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.5 45.2 43.7 44.7 6.0 34.4 19.9 –1.7 6.0

–1.1 28.8 30.9 32.3 9.2 3.2 26.5 –3.9 5.1

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

57.1 402 .. 1.8 0.9

55.4 566 .. 61.8 7.9

37.6 1,310

104

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Iran, Islamic Rep. Middle East & North Africa

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 63.9 72.0 Population (millions) 22.4 27.8 Labor force (millions) 12.8 10.5 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 1,670 3,540 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 3.7 5.9 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 13.7 10.2 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 36.7 44.5 Industry value added (% of GDP) 13.2 10.6 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 49.5 45.3 Services value added (% of GDP) 14.5 25.5 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 1,766.1 9,428.5 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 22.7 32.2 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 17.4 21.5 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 54 .. ..

137 9 7 87.0 4.5 44.2 25 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

5 0.0 26.4 17.6

802 0.6 25.8 16.7

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

1.8 .. 18.3 31.4 .. .. 28.3 .. ..

7.9 .. 33.1 38.5 .. .. 49.2 –7.0 0.4

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

64.8 1,586 .. 1.5 1.0

72.8 2,325 .. 59.8 32.0

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

105


Iraq Middle East & North Africa

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

2008

25.1 30.7 6.0 7.5 .. 10.5 .. .. 17.9 –11.4 5.4 8.6 84.4 70.1 0.9 1.7 10.3 21.3 .. .. 0.3 1,193.1 .. .. .. ..

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

153 77 11 .. .. 28.4 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

284 .. .. ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8.4

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

84.3 1,161 .. 0.0 0.0

.. 1,080 .. 57.1 1.0

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

106

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Ireland High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Highincome group 2008

3.8 1.8 4.3 23,170 9.7 3.5 41.3 32.4 55.2 5.6 1.1 98.1 84.6

4.4 2.2 6.0 49,770 5.0 1.7 33.9 22.2 64.4 4.1 0.7 79.4 68.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 24 13.2 7.2

7 13 4 18.0 0.4 26.5 13 10.3 6.7

.. .. .. .. ..

2.3 11.0 37.4 28.3 17.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 26.4 23.1 ..

.. –7.4 26.3 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

4.9 40.1 88.6 68.7 6.5 1.0 105.5 –1.2 4.7

0.4 27.2 .. .. 4.7 2.6 217.0 0.3 2.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

100.0 5,796 .. 64.7 17.8

100.0 6,263 .. 121.0 62.7

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

107


Isle of Man High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.08 .. 1.6 21,980 10.4 .. .. .. .. .. 0.7 .. ..

0.08 .. 2.4 49,310 6.2 .. .. .. .. .. 0.5 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

108

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Israel High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

6.3 2.5 8.8 17,840 4.6 .. .. .. .. 1.1 4.1 37.1 37.4

7.3 3.1 6.2 24,720 3.5 .. .. .. .. 4.6 3.6 40.0 41.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 36 .. ..

29 34 5 91.0 4.0 32.6 27 11.5 4.4

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 4.7 20.4 ..

.. 4.8 18.5 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.9 .. 83.6 76.2 7.3 6.9 76.9 11.1 4.2

–1.9 .. 97.1 88.9 5.7 1.5 90.1 4.4 2.8

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

100.0 6,323 .. 70.0 20.2

100.0 7,002 .. 122.9 47.9

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

109


Italy High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

56.9 23.2 10.8 20,890 1.8 2.8 28.4 21.0 68.8 2.5 1.1 27.1 26.1

59.8 25.2 6.7 35,460 1.0 2.0 27.0 18.2 71.0 3.3 0.7 28.8 29.3

.. .. .. .. .. .. 41 13.8 1.5

78 10 6 11.0 1.8 68.4 31 12.1 2.0

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 1.2 20.3 ..

.. 0.7 20.9 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–0.7 119.4 74.8 42.2 7.0 7.8 76.0 5.0 5.2

–2.5 106.3 .. .. 6.6 4.9 105.1 3.9 4.9

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

100.0 5,299 .. 74.2 23.2

100.0 5,713 .. 151.0 41.8

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

110

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Jamaica Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

2.6 1.2 15.5 3,310 –0.5 7.0 25.5 10.6 67.4 8.2 43.0 39.1 51.9

2.7 1.2 10.6 4,800 1.8 5.3 25.3 8.8 69.3 22.0 72.8 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 33 3.5 1.0

75 8 6 62.0 1.1 51.3 33 3.7 1.2

.. .. .. .. ..

6.3 4.9 37.0 6.9 16.4

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

546 5.2 28.9 23.9

75 9.8 .. ..

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 36.0 32.8 9.2 11.0 25.7 11.5 11.7

–5.1 112.9 41.4 38.7 .. .. 28.3 –3.6 9.3

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

70.1 2,321 .. 14.2 3.1

73.3 2,542 .. 101.3 57.3

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

111


Japan High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

126.9 67.6 4.8 34,620 0.6 1.8 32.4 22.2 65.8 –0.7 107.8 11.0 9.5

127.7 66.9 4.0 38,130 1.6 1.4 29.3 21.2 69.3 1.4 103.4 17.6 15.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. 42 3.7 1.1

15 23 8 4.0 0.6 55.7 41 4.4 1.7

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.2 25.2 ..

.. 0.5 23.4 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 236.4 230.1 4.6 5.3 222.3 3.9 2.0

.. .. 153.2 186.1 3.6 1.7 163.5 2.8 1.3

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

76.6 7,971 .. 52.6 30.0

79.3 8,474 .. 86.4 75.2

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

112

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Jordan Middle East & North Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

4.8 1.4 15.8 1,790 3.2 2.3 25.5 15.7 72.1 0.7 0.7 41.8 68.5

5.9 1.9 12.7 3,470 7.2 2.9 34.1 20.5 63.0 14.9 0.7 58.2 90.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. 0.2

100 13 8 4.0 4.3 31.1 25 .. 0.6

.. .. .. .. ..

6.7 0.9 8.6 47.1 15.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

584 9.6 21.1 11.9

194 9.3 25.6 19.1

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 86.4 85.7 7.0 18.4 77.8 12.2 4.8

–1.1 115.1 110.6 106.2 10.4 4.2 83.8 –5.8 3.6

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

100.0 1,377 .. 8.1 2.7

100.0 1,956 2.6 90.0 27.0

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

113


Kazakhstan Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

14.9 7.5 12.8 1,260 1.9 8.7 40.5 17.7 50.8 13.2 142.1 56.6 49.1

15.7 8.5 8.4 6,160 9.5 5.7 43.3 12.7 51.0 17.2 120.3 57.2 36.9

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 .. ..

63 20 7 9.0 1.5 35.9 30 9.0 0.3

7.6 57.1 17.4 7.4 12.8

4.7 25.1 31.0 47.8 10.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

375 7.0 17.3 16.5

1,147 11.0 31.3 25.8

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

0.1 21.6 10.2 8.7 13.6 .. 11.2 .. ..

4.3 6.3 49.0 26.5 12.2 5.1 49.6 .. ..

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

86.5 3,170 .. 1.3 0.7

90.3 4,448 2.8 95.1 10.9

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

114

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Kenya Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

31.4 14.3 9.8 420 2.2 32.4 16.9 11.6 50.7 10.0 76.2 21.6 31.7

38.8 18.2 .. 730 4.5 27.0 18.8 12.1 54.2 26.2 69.2 27.3 41.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 4.7 0.3

95 34 12 47.0 4.5 49.7 30 5.9 0.4

.. .. .. .. ..

5.1 32.3 22.9 40.5 9.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

130 0.9 16.7 7.5

1,390 0.3 19.4 15.8

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

2.0 52.6 33.7 31.8 12.9 33.3 28.4 15.3 14.2

–4.1 .. 35.2 34.5 11.4 9.0 30.0 0.8 8.7

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

12.1 109 .. 0.4 0.3

14.1 151 6.9 42.1 8.7

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

115


Kiribati East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.08 .. 0.8 1,330 6.0 22.5 11.8 5.0 65.7 .. 1.7 7.0 47.8

0.10 .. 6.1 2,040 2.4 27.5 7.9 5.8 64.7 .. 1.2 9.7 78.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

79 21 6 4.0 .. 31.8 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

.. .. .. 0.4 1.8

.. .. .. 1.0 2.1

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

116

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Korea, Dem. Rep. East Asia & Pacific

Low income Lowincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

22.9 11.1 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

23.8 12.2 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

400 .. .. ..

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

6.4 715 .. 0.0 0.0

2.8 764 .. 0.0 0.0

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

117


Korea, Rep. High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

2008

47.0 48.6 22.7 24.4 4.4 3.2 9,910 21,530 3.5 4.5 4.6 2.5 38.1 37.1 28.3 28.1 57.3 60.3 2.3 4.7 1,131.0 1,102.0 38.6 52.9 35.7 54.1

Highincome group 2008 1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 31 .. ..

19 14 8 91.0 1.5 31.9 28 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

0.1 21.3 39.9 3.9 17.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 1.7 30.0 ..

.. 0.2 29.3 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

4.4 9.6 76.5 60.8 4.6 8.9 87.4 3.4 0.6

4.3 .. 107.5 63.4 8.8 1.1 109.1 4.3 1.3

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

74.5 5,907 .. 57.0 40.5

77.6 8,502 .. 93.8 75.8

87.0 9,753

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

118

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Kosovo Europe & Central Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

1.7 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

1.8 .. .. .. .. 12.0 20.0 16.2 68.0 9.4 .. 14.2 56.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

113 52 9 30.0 2.0 28.3 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

9.8 7.7 25.3 76.9 7.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. 27.2 18.7

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. 3.7 34.3 .. ..

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 42.8 .. ..

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

119


Kuwait High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

2.2 1.1 0.8 16,790 1.8 0.4 59.2 2.6 40.5 2.5 0.3 56.5 30.1

2.7 1.4 1.7 43,930 8.4 0.5 51.0 2.3 48.5 10.6 0.3 66.4 25.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 55 .. ..

61 35 13 78.0 4.2 15.5 15 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.0 10.7 ..

.. 0.0 18.9 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–9.4 .. 77.5 64.6 11.5 19.2 48.7 –9.7 3.0

23.4 .. 60.7 52.0 11.6 3.1 66.4 2.5 2.8

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

80.6 13,378 .. 21.7 6.8

85.0 16,198 .. 106.6 36.7

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

120

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Kyrgyz Republic Europe & Central Asia

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

4.9 2.1 12.5 280 5.4 36.7 31.4 19.5 31.9 18.7 47.7 41.8 47.6

5.3 2.5 8.3 780 4.4 29.8 19.7 13.0 50.6 24.5 36.6 56.5 93.6

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

41 11 3 17.0 4.0 59.4 .. .. 1.2

5.2 80.3 5.9 5.2 14.3

4.9 39.1 17.9 25.2 16.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

5 –0.2 18.3 10.5

75 4.6 22.7 18.6

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.9 114.5 4.2 4.9 .. .. 4.2 19.5 33.5

0.0 .. 12.2 10.2 .. .. 15.1 –1.1 15.9

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

91.1 1,904 .. 0.2 1.0

.. 1,772 5.7 64.3 16.1

12.1 324

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

121


Lao PDR East Asia & Pacific

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

2008

5.4 6.2 2.5 3.0 .. 1.4 280 760 6.1 6.9 52.5 34.7 22.9 28.2 17.0 9.3 24.6 37.1 25.1 7.6 7,887.6 8,744.1 30.0 32.7 44.1 44.4

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

167 100 7 162.0 .. 33.7 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

1.6 26.2 0.0 58.8 7.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

5 2.0 28.3 14.7

665 4.1 37.1 32.3

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 8.8 13.6 .. .. 8.9 5.5 20.0

–2.9 .. 8.6 17.5 .. .. 9.5 14.6 23.5

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

44.5 .. .. 0.2 0.1

13.4 .. 1.5 32.6 8.5

12.1 324

122

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Latvia Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

2.4 1.1 13.9 3,220 5.7 4.6 23.6 13.7 71.8 2.6 0.6 41.6 48.7

2.3 1.2 7.5 11,860 8.2 3.1 22.7 10.6 74.2 15.4 0.5 41.8 54.9

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. 4.1

27 16 5 17.0 3.0 33.0 15 .. 7.6

6.0 38.2 30.8 5.2 13.0

9.7 4.4 37.3 93.2 18.2

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

229 5.3 24.2 20.5

145 4.0 30.2 30.2

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.2 12.0 20.8 16.3 8.5 4.6 19.2 7.4 7.5

–2.6 22.8 120.5 44.5 7.3 3.6 90.2 –2.9 5.5

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

100.0 2,078 .. 16.9 6.3

100.0 3,064 0.7 98.6 60.4

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

123


Lebanon Middle East & North Africa

Upper middle income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 3.8 4.2 Population (millions) 1.2 1.4 Labor force (millions) 8.5 8.1 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 4,690 6,780 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 1.2 4.0 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 7.1 5.3 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 22.8 21.3 Industry value added (% of GDP) 13.0 10.0 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 70.1 73.5 Services value added (% of GDP) .. .. Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 1,507.5 1,507.5 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 14.2 27.2 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 35.9 56.7 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.7

108 9 5 17.0 4.0 30.2 .. .. 0.4

.. .. .. .. ..

12.0 23.7 53.5 71.6 20.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

196 5.6 21.0 16.6

3 12.3 30.7 28.9

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–18.4 .. .. .. 6.4 7.8 87.9 20.7 6.9

–10.0 .. .. .. 7.8 7.5 75.9 2.1 2.3

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

84.9 2,081 .. 19.7 8.0

.. 2,154 .. 34.0 22.5

41.8 3,052

124

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Lesotho Sub-Saharan Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

1.9 0.81 27.3 570 2.5 11.7 28.4 12.2 59.9 6.1 6.9 32.6 98.5

2.0 0.92 .. 1,060 3.9 7.2 34.8 16.0 58.0 10.7 8.3 47.3 110.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

130 40 7 44.0 2.6 18.5 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

5.6 9.2 32.7 13.9 24.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

3 15.0 40.4 31.7

9 13.4 28.3 17.5

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.7 73.1 .. .. .. .. 15.6 11.1 12.2

5.7 .. 13.6 25.8 7.9 3.5 10.9 6.0 8.5

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

18.3 .. .. 1.1 0.2

.. .. 6.8 28.3 3.6

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

125


Liberia Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

2.8 1.1 .. 140 38.9 72.0 11.6 9.5 16.4 .. 41.0 21.5 26.0

3.8 1.5 5.6 170 –1.1 61.3 16.8 12.7 21.9 .. 63.2 31.1 172.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

149 20 5 84.0 3.0 43.7 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

7.5 54.4 10.1 .. 2.4

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 3.7 4.9 2.0

22 17.1 16.4 4.3

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 3.1 22.1 14.3

.. .. .. .. .. .. 12.5 3.6 11.3

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

6.2 .. .. 0.1 0.0

.. .. 5.4 19.3 0.5

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

126

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Libya Middle East & North Africa

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

5.3 1.8 .. 4,610 .. 5.2 66.1 3.1 28.7 –2.9 0.5 35.6 15.5

6.3 2.3 .. 12,380 5.6 1.9 78.2 4.5 19.9 10.4 1.2 67.4 27.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 40 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.4 13.1 2.0

.. 4.4 27.9 5.9

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 32.1 26.5 .. .. 27.3 –9.6 4.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. 6.8 –15.5 3.5

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

57.2 2,227 .. 0.7 0.2

.. 3,871 .. 76.7 5.1

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

127


Liechtenstein High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.03 .. .. 79,640 7.4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.04 .. .. 97,990 1.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. 30.4 36.5

.. .. .. 95.4 66.0

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

128

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Lithuania Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

3.5 1.7 15.9 3,190 4.3 6.3 29.8 19.3 63.9 1.0 4.0 44.7 51.0

3.4 1.6 5.8 11,870 7.7 4.4 32.8 19.0 62.8 10.9 2.4 59.2 70.6

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6.8 1.3

26 26 7 30.0 1.5 42.7 15 9.8 2.7

6.2 31.4 15.4 5.3 14.9

9.3 3.4 47.4 63.0 15.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

388 3.3 18.7 16.4

326 3.7 24.4 22.0

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.8 .. 18.2 15.4 10.2 11.3 13.2 11.3 8.3

–3.1 18.4 62.2 32.7 7.6 4.6 62.7 –1.7 0.8

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

.. 2,517 .. 15.0 6.4

28.6 3,414 1.1 149.6 54.4

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

129


Luxembourg High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.44 0.19 2.3 43,650 6.3 0.7 18.4 11.3 81.0 3.1 1.1 150.0 129.0

0.49 0.22 5.1 69,390 4.0 0.4 15.9 8.5 83.7 3.4 0.7 179.3 150.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 37 12.9 7.9

64 24 6 52.0 2.0 20.9 30 11.7 8.0

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 524.9 20.8 ..

.. 215.6 20.1 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

5.5 4.9 .. .. 4.0 0.5 102.3 5.7 2.0

3.2 4.8 .. .. 5.2 0.2 197.5 .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

100.0 15,485 .. 69.5 22.9

100.0 16,315 .. 144.7 79.2

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

130

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Macao SAR, China High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.44 0.22 6.7 14,340 –1.1 0.0 15.7 10.1 90.3 –1.6 8.0 100.4 64.6

0.53 0.33 2.9 35,360 15.2 0.0 17.7 2.8 86.0 8.6 8.0 90.4 49.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 12 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 6.1 11.5 ..

.. 27.1 28.8 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

1.6 .. 82.8 170.8 .. .. 79.9 12.2 4.6

17.2 .. 40.1 114.0 .. .. 52.3 3.8 4.3

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

100.0 .. .. 32.0 13.6

100.0 .. .. 177.2 49.2

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

131


Macedonia, FYR Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

2.0 0.83 32.2 1,840 3.0 12.0 33.7 20.7 54.2 6.6 65.9 48.6 63.5

2.0 0.90 33.8 4,130 3.2 10.9 34.0 21.7 55.1 7.2 41.9 52.6 78.6

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 15 .. ..

32 4 4 26.0 2.9 16.4 10 .. ..

9.3 36.8 10.0 11.2 12.1

14.5 8.1 47.0 27.7 21.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

429 4.9 16.2 11.5

342 6.3 23.9 19.3

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. 23.1 17.8 9.9 7.7

–0.8 .. .. .. .. 6.8 43.8 2.4 3.8

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

63.8 2,929 .. 5.8 2.5

.. 3,780 2.2 122.6 41.5

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

132

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Madagascar Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 15.3 19.1 Population (millions) 7.3 9.4 Labor force (millions) 5.8 2.6 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 250 420 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 3.9 3.8 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 29.2 25.2 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 14.2 17.3 Industry value added (% of GDP) 12.2 15.3 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 56.6 57.5 Services value added (% of GDP) 11.9 9.2 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 1,353.5 1,708.4 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 30.7 26.7 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 38.0 52.0 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8.5 0.1

134 7 2 30.0 .. 39.2 .. 6.4 0.1

.. .. .. .. ..

17.1 6.8 12.2 92.1 8.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

10 2.1 15.0 8.3

102 15.6 35.6 25.9

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.0 111.9 10.1 13.0 7.1 8.6 8.8 18.0 11.5

–2.7 .. 11.3 14.8 .. .. 11.1 32.5 33.5

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

11.6 .. .. 0.4 0.2

.. .. 13.6 25.3 1.7

12.1 324

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

133


Malawi Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

11.8 5.0 .. 150 3.8 39.5 17.9 12.9 42.5 29.6 59.5 25.6 35.3

14.8 6.1 7.8 280 4.2 34.3 20.6 14.2 45.1 8.7 140.5 22.6 25.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 38 5.1 0.0

132 39 10 84.0 2.6 25.8 .. 7.5 0.1

.. .. .. .. ..

3.5 11.4 20.6 59.2 17.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

5 1.5 12.3 2.3

57 0.9 24.2 15.7

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 7.6 15.0 .. .. 9.1 17.3 19.9

.. .. 11.1 20.2 .. .. 11.4 15.0 21.7

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

19.0 .. .. 0.4 0.1

45.0 .. 1.0 12.0 2.1

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

134

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Malaysia East Asia & Pacific

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

23.3 9.7 3.0 3,450 3.7 0.9 48.3 30.9 50.8 1.5 3.8 119.8 100.6

27.0 11.7 3.2 7,250 5.5 10.2 47.7 28.0 42.0 5.4 3.3 110.2 89.9

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 28 .. 2.5

23 11 9 75.0 2.3 34.2 26 .. 2.8

7.3 .. 48.6 .. 31.4

7.8 .. 48.6 10.7 54.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

5,511 4.0 25.3 13.4

837 3.3 21.7 11.6

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.0 .. 131.0 107.6 8.5 15.4 171.3 –1.1 4.3

–4.1 .. 105.3 108.2 8.0 4.8 100.6 –3.8 3.0

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

76.2 2,743 .. 22.0 21.4

79.8 3,667 0.8 102.6 55.8

41.8 3,052

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

135


Maldives South Asia

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.27 0.09 2.0 2,150 8.5 .. .. .. .. .. 11.8 89.5 71.6

0.31 0.14 14.4 3,640 6.9 6.2 17.7 6.6 76.1 12.3 12.8 83.5 110.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

87 9 5 9.0 6.7 9.1 .. .. 2.7

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

2 2.1 26.3 ..

40 1.2 53.5 ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–5.0 40.9 .. .. .. .. 19.1 11.7 6.1

–13.7 53.8 102.2 62.0 .. .. 100.6 –0.5 6.5

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

.. .. .. 2.8 2.2

.. .. .. 142.8 23.5

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

136

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Mali Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

10.5 3.0 3.3 250 5.5 41.6 20.6 3.8 37.9 –0.7 712.0 26.8 39.4

12.7 3.7 8.8 580 5.2 36.5 24.2 3.1 39.1 9.2 447.8 27.3 37.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

156 15 7 31.0 3.6 52.1 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

2.4 31.1 7.0 48.4 8.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

366 3.4 24.6 15.9

67 1.5 23.3 14.6

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.4 .. 15.8 13.1 .. .. 16.6 .. ..

–5.6 .. 17.3 17.2 .. .. 17.1 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

12.1 .. .. 0.1 0.1

18.0 .. 4.2 27.1 1.6

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

137


Malta High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.39 0.16 6.3 9,670 4.4 .. .. .. .. 2.4 0.4 92.1 102.7

0.41 0.17 6.0 16,690 1.6 .. .. .. .. 4.3 0.3 87.7 89.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7.9 ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 8.9 ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 15.4 23.1 ..

.. 12.7 19.4 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 129.0 122.5 .. .. 106.9 –2.7 2.4

–2.2 72.6 135.7 139.7 12.6 1.6 118.5 3.7 2.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

88.0 4,313 .. 29.3 13.1

87.5 4,845 .. 93.6 48.3

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

138

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Marshall Islands East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.05 .. 30.9 2,420 –3.7 9.4 18.6 3.7 72.1 .. .. .. ..

0.06 .. .. 3,270 2.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

98 17 5 .. 2.0 64.9 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

.. .. .. 0.9 1.6

.. .. .. 1.7 3.7

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

139


Mauritania Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

2.6 1.0 20.6 460 2.3 27.6 29.7 9.0 42.6 3.3 238.9 46.2 74.2

3.2 1.4 33.0 840 5.1 12.5 46.7 5.0 40.7 7.3 258.6 57.7 64.9

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

166 19 9 31.0 8.0 86.1 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

5.8 48.2 3.2 7.5 5.9

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

43 3.7 19.4 14.8

40 3.6 25.9 21.3

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 22.0 9.5 .. .. 23.1 23.9 16.2

.. .. 27.5 11.2 .. .. 27.0 26.7 15.5

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

11.3 .. .. 0.6 0.2

26.8 .. 3.7 65.1 1.9

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

140

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Mauritius Sub-Saharan Africa

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

1.2 0.53 8.8 3,870 5.5 7.0 31.0 23.5 62.1 4.2 26.2 61.4 61.9

1.3 0.57 7.3 6,700 3.7 4.4 29.1 20.0 66.5 9.7 28.5 53.0 67.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

17 6 5 4.0 1.7 22.9 15 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

9.4 0.3 37.5 18.7 11.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

338 5.8 22.9 16.5

41 4.1 24.6 20.4

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.1 32.7 68.4 70.4 .. .. 57.5 18.3 11.2

0.6 36.1 102.2 92.2 .. .. 87.7 12.9 11.4

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

97.0 .. .. 15.2 7.3

98.0 .. 3.2 81.4 22.2

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

141


Mayotte Sub-Saharan Africa

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.16 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.19 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

.. .. .. 12.7 ..

.. .. .. 28.0 ..

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

142

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Mexico Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

98.0 39.5 2.6 5,110 5.4 4.2 28.0 20.3 67.8 9.5 9.5 30.9 32.9

106.4 46.7 4.0 9,990 2.7 3.8 37.1 18.8 59.1 5.1 11.1 28.3 30.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

51 13 8 52.0 1.8 51.0 28 7.1 4.7

.. .. .. .. ..

20.5 9.6 2.6 8.3 20.3

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

5,277 3.1 21.4 17.8

5,504 2.1 22.1 16.6

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.2 23.2 32.7 24.6 9.6 5.8 18.3 4.3 8.7

.. .. 30.5 21.7 9.6 3.2 21.1 2.1 5.7

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

32.8 1,794 .. 14.4 5.2

38.2 2,036 2.4 70.8 22.2

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

143


Micronesia, Fed. Sts. East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.11 .. 22.0 2,270 –0.3 .. .. .. .. .. 1.0 .. ..

0.11 .. .. 2,460 0.0 .. .. .. .. .. 1.0 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

127 16 7 .. 5.3 58.7 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. 67.1 ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 31.7 14.1 10.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 20.3 9.2 11.9

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

17.5 .. .. 0.0 3.7

.. .. .. 30.8 14.5

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

144

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Moldova Europe & Central Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

4.1 1.9 8.5 370 –2.6 29.0 21.7 16.3 49.2 31.3 12.4 49.8 75.4

3.6 1.5 4.0 1,500 6.3 10.9 14.7 14.1 74.5 12.8 10.4 40.7 91.5

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8.6 1.2

94 10 8 37.0 2.8 31.1 .. 9.3 2.2

7.0 73.3 28.0 19.1 8.8

7.0 15.5 30.8 24.3 9.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

25 9.9 15.4 13.8

141 11.7 34.1 32.1

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.5 73.0 14.1 11.0 30.6 20.6 12.7 5.1 8.9

–0.4 18.5 33.1 32.4 17.0 5.2 36.5 10.3 3.1

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

86.1 892 .. 3.4 1.3

85.7 1,319 1.7 66.7 23.4

37.6 1,310

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

145


Monaco High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.03 .. 3.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.03 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

100.0 .. .. .. ..

100.0 .. .. .. ..

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

146

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Mongolia East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

2.4 2.6 1.1 1.4 17.5 2.8 410 1,670 3.0 7.8 32.7 21.1 20.3 39.8 4.6 4.5 47.0 39.2 11.6 25.1 1,076.7 1,165.7 56.4 57.2 70.9 71.5

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

60 13 7 9.0 4.0 22.8 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

12.1 20.8 26.5 20.0 16.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

11 4.9 25.1 22.0

2 13.0 35.7 32.3

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

0.2 81.9 11.9 13.7 .. .. 7.2 8.6 20.2

–3.5 46.9 34.5 38.2 .. .. 43.6 –1.5 9.4

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

3.5 1,080 .. 6.5 1.3

.. 1,369 2.6 66.8 12.5

37.6 1,310

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

147


Montenegro Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

0.66 .. .. 1,840 –1.6 12.5 23.4 10.2 64.1 .. 1.1 36.8 51.1

0.62 .. 30.3 6,660 5.1 8.8 17.8 7.0 73.4 .. 0.7 40.3 74.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

71 13 12 28.0 2.0 28.9 9 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

6.8 3.4 75.9 30.9 13.0

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

10 .. 16.9 16.9

23 19.2 27.7 18.4

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 8.1 .. ..

.. .. .. .. 8.4 7.2 80.4 –0.7 5.4

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 7.0 118.1 47.2

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

148

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Morocco Middle East & North Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

28.8 10.2 12.5 1,310 3.4 14.9 29.1 17.5 56.0 1.9 10.6 28.0 33.4

31.6 11.8 9.6 2,520 5.0 14.6 30.3 14.0 55.0 3.8 7.8 36.7 50.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.4

128 12 6 85.0 1.8 41.7 .. .. 1.1

.. .. .. .. ..

11.4 10.7 12.3 18.8 17.3

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

2,135 0.6 26.0 21.3

1,043 2.8 33.1 28.4

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.1 56.5 63.6 56.4 9.8 17.5 51.0 14.0 8.2

2.9 .. 73.2 78.5 7.3 6.0 77.4 10.4 7.9

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

56.4 483 .. 8.1 0.7

62.0 707 2.5 72.2 33.0

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

149


Mozambique Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

18.2 8.9 2.2 230 8.1 24.0 24.5 12.2 51.5 12.7 15.2 17.5 37.0

22.4 10.8 .. 380 8.0 28.6 24.3 13.9 47.1 10.3 24.3 33.3 45.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

135 26 10 134.0 5.0 34.3 32 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

3.3 9.8 10.5 12.7 18.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

45 3.3 31.0 21.7

23 6.0 18.5 6.9

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 17.0 20.3 8.2 17.8 16.7 6.3 9.3

.. .. 20.0 23.4 6.7 2.8 18.4 9.8 7.3

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

18.7 122 .. 0.3 0.1

.. 472 3.0 19.7 1.6

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

150

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Myanmar East Asia & Pacific

Low income Lowincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

46.6 25.2 .. .. 8.1 57.2 9.7 7.2 33.1 –0.1 6.4 0.5 0.6

49.6 26.8 .. .. 13.0 48.4 16.2 11.6 35.4 26.8 5.4 0.2 0.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

325 .. 11.8 ..

556 .. 11.7 ..

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 11.3 14.6 .. .. 10.4 12.5 5.5

–2.0 .. 4.8 6.5 .. .. 4.7 11.1 5.0

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

11.4 75 .. 0.0 0.0

11.9 94 .. 0.7 0.2

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

151


Namibia Sub-Saharan Africa

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

1.8 0.60 20.3 2,030 3.5 11.8 28.0 12.8 60.2 .. 6.9 40.9 44.5

2.1 0.76 21.9 4,210 5.6 9.1 37.5 13.5 53.4 10.4 8.3 42.0 61.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

66 66 10 24.0 1.5 9.6 35 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

2.9 2.6 8.1 9.2 17.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

10 3.0 16.6 11.1

9 6.1 23.4 18.3

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.6 .. 46.5 35.2 8.7 3.4 39.8 –9.0 7.9

2.0 .. 56.3 38.8 8.0 3.1 45.6 0.0 5.4

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

13.6 1,226 .. 4.5 1.6

.. 1,541 1.6 49.4 5.3

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

152

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Nepal South Asia

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

24.4 10.2 8.8 220 4.6 40.8 22.1 9.4 37.0 2.5 71.1 23.3 32.4

28.8 12.9 .. 400 3.5 33.7 16.7 7.4 49.6 10.9 69.8 12.1 32.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

123 31 7 90.0 5.0 38.8 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

6.5 14.9 17.5 9.0 3.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

30 0.0 19.3 12.4

14 0.0 21.1 18.0

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. 64.6 31.9 35.2 .. .. 30.7 4.8 3.5

–1.0 43.7 57.4 61.5 .. .. 40.8 0.3 5.8

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

.. 58 .. 0.0 0.2

56.9 80 52.0 14.6 1.7

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

153


Netherlands High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

15.9 8.1 3.0 26,580 4.1 2.6 24.9 15.6 72.4 2.3 1.1 70.1 64.5

16.4 8.9 2.8 49,340 1.9 1.7 25.5 13.7 72.9 2.5 0.7 76.9 68.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 9.4 8.1

30 10 6 17.0 1.1 39.3 26 11.3 10.5

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 16.4 21.9 ..

.. –0.3 20.5 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

2.0 52.1 .. .. 5.1 1.8 134.2 0.6 1.9

0.3 43.4 .. .. 3.2 0.8 193.2 1.9 0.2

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

90.0 6,560 .. 67.5 44.0

.. 7,097 .. 125.4 87.0

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

154

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Netherlands Antilles High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.18 0.08 14.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 5.8 1.8 .. ..

0.20 0.09 12.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. 6.9 1.8 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.7 5.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 3.4 5.9

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6.0

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. 5,402 .. 16.5 1.1

.. 5,658 .. 108.6 ..

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

155


New Caledonia High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.21 0.09 .. 14,020 0.2 3.7 19.6 4.0 76.7 .. 129.5 13.1 33.0

0.25 0.10 16.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 87.2 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. 23.4 14.1

.. .. .. 79.6 34.5

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

156

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


New Zealand High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

3.9 1.9 5.9 13,450 2.6 8.9 25.3 16.9 65.8 2.6 2.2 35.5 33.8

4.3 2.3 4.1 27,830 3.1 6.4 25.5 .. 68.0 4.5 1.4 29.0 29.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. 33 14.2 14.0

2 1 1 .. 1.3 32.8 30 15.7 27.0

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 7.5 20.4 ..

.. 4.2 23.3 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

1.7 33.8 .. .. .. .. 111.6 5.8 2.9

3.2 38.9 .. .. .. .. 150.4 8.3 4.7

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

62.8 9,076 .. 40.0 47.5

65.4 9,622 .. 108.2 71.4

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

157


Nicaragua Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

5.1 1.9 9.8 730 5.0 20.9 28.2 17.0 50.9 7.1 12.7 23.9 51.1

5.7 2.3 5.2 1,080 3.5 19.4 29.6 18.9 51.1 19.8 19.4 33.2 67.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0.4

117 39 6 22.0 2.2 63.2 .. .. 0.6

.. .. .. .. ..

9.3 2.6 13.0 62.7 18.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

219 6.8 26.5 19.8

156 9.5 29.4 24.4

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.6 .. 31.7 33.5 6.3 5.2 33.2 8.8 7.3

–1.1 .. 36.1 33.3 .. .. 36.4 –3.1 6.6

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

11.1 337 .. 1.8 1.0

.. 446 12.5 54.8 3.3

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

158

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Niger Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

11.0 3.6 1.5 170 3.4 37.8 17.8 6.8 44.4 2.9 712.0 17.8 25.7

14.7 4.6 .. 330 4.4 40.0 17.3 6.4 42.7 11.3 447.8 15.4 24.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

174 17 9 35.0 5.0 46.5 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

21.1 13.7 9.3 37.1 4.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

13 0.5 11.2 4.6

55 2.7 18.9 12.5

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 5.8 5.5 .. .. 4.8 .. ..

–0.9 .. 9.0 8.7 .. .. 11.0 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

25.7 .. .. 0.0 0.0

20.7 .. 20.1 12.9 0.5

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

159


Nigeria Sub-Saharan Africa

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

124.8 39.2 .. 270 2.7 48.6 30.5 3.4 20.9 6.9 101.7 54.0 32.0

151.2 48.6 .. 1,170 6.6 32.7 40.7 2.6 26.6 11.6 118.5 41.6 24.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 .. ..

125 31 8 50.0 2.0 32.2 30 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

6.1 22.9 2.7 7.5 8.5

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

76 2.5 .. ..

3,377 1.8 .. ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 15.5 12.6 7.4 22.6 12.5 –12.2 9.6

.. .. 17.3 13.4 18.0 6.3 33.9 4.1 3.5

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

30.9 73 .. 0.0 0.1

15.0 137 26.3 41.7 15.9

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

160

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Northern Mariana Islands High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.07 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

0.09 .. 8.3 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. 4.3 ..

.. .. .. 26.2 ..

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

161


Norway High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

4.5 2.4 3.4 35,860 3.6 2.1 42.0 10.6 56.0 3.1 8.8 46.5 29.4

4.8 2.6 2.6 87,340 2.4 1.2 46.2 9.5 52.6 3.8 5.6 48.1 28.8

.. .. .. .. .. .. 28 8.5 3.4

10 7 5 13.0 0.9 41.6 28 13.6 5.9

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 4.1 18.4 ..

.. –0.3 20.8 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

15.7 23.5 66.3 44.0 7.0 1.2 75.8 –5.8 2.2

19.9 44.9 83.2 50.5 4.2 0.8 87.9 –2.1 1.8

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

76.0 24,994 .. 71.8 26.7

79.6 24,980 .. 110.1 82.5

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

162

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Oman High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Highincome group 2008

2.4 0.88 .. 6,720 3.2 2.0 57.2 5.4 40.8 –0.8 0.4 59.2 31.4

2.8 1.1 .. 14,330 4.0 1.9 55.1 8.3 43.0 12.1 0.4 55.9 40.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. 12 9.8 1.3

65 12 5 4.0 4.0 21.6 12 16.4 3.6

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 31.0 14.7 10.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.4 11.9 4.4

.. 7.5 .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–4.4 19.1 44.4 31.2 12.8 11.3 36.8 –8.3 2.4

.. .. 34.3 29.4 15.5 2.4 35.9 2.1 2.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

30.0 3,140 .. 6.7 3.5

41.3 4,484 .. 115.6 20.0

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

163


Pakistan South Asia

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

138.1 41.6 7.2 490 3.0 25.9 23.3 14.7 50.7 4.4 53.6 13.4 14.7

166.1 55.8 5.1 950 5.4 20.4 26.9 19.7 52.7 20.3 70.4 12.8 23.8

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. 0.0

85 20 10 90.0 2.8 31.6 35 .. 0.0

8.7 .. 14.6 .. 17.0

2.2 58.8 9.7 106.3 9.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

77 0.4 15.9 10.3

4,042 3.3 20.4 15.0

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–4.1 79.1 30.2 26.5 4.9 19.5 22.3 .. ..

–7.4 .. 38.2 34.7 10.4 9.1 29.5 –2.9 6.0

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

56.0 374 .. 0.2 1.4

65.4 474 34.1 53.0 11.1

37.6 1,310

164

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Palau East Asia & Pacific

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.02 .. .. 6,260 1.2 3.9 15.3 1.4 80.8 .. .. 9.6 106.1

0.02 .. 4.2 8,630 1.8 3.5 20.7 0.5 75.8 .. .. 67.8 64.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

97 28 8 .. 1.0 73.0 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

.. .. .. 12.3 20.0

.. .. .. 60.2 27.3

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

165


Panama Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Upper middleincome group 2008

3.0 1.3 13.8 3,740 5.0 7.2 19.1 10.1 73.6 1.5 1.0 72.6 69.8

3.4 1.6 6.8 6,690 6.6 6.4 17.2 6.7 76.3 8.8 1.0 74.9 74.0

.. .. .. .. .. .. 37 .. ..

77 12 6 44.0 2.5 50.1 30 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

10.3 7.7 19.2 10.2 14.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

111 5.4 21.2 17.9

942 10.4 22.2 16.6

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–0.8 .. 94.5 73.8 9.6 1.4 101.9 11.9 3.4

.. .. 81.5 78.3 13.4 1.7 89.7 –0.3 4.6

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

34.6 1,301 .. 13.9 6.6

.. 1,592 4.2 115.2 27.5

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

166

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Papua New Guinea East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

5.4 2.3 2.8 620 –0.8 35.8 41.4 7.5 22.8 15.6 2.8 66.2 49.2

6.6 2.9 .. 1,040 2.9 33.6 47.9 5.6 18.4 10.8 2.7 72.5 60.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 .. ..

102 56 8 39.0 3.0 42.3 30 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

71 2.7 20.4 ..

150 –0.4 18.1 ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.9 57.7 .. .. .. .. 17.2 3.9 9.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. 24.8 –2.1 8.0

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

3.5 .. .. 0.2 0.8

.. .. .. 9.1 1.8

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9

167


Paraguay Latin America & Caribbean

Lower middle income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 5.4 6.2 Population (millions) 2.3 2.9 Labor force (millions) 7.6 5.7 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 1,350 2,110 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) 0.1 3.7 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 17.0 20.2 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 22.5 18.3 Industry value added (% of GDP) 15.5 12.7 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 60.5 61.5 Services value added (% of GDP) 9.0 10.2 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 3,486.4 4,363.2 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 38.2 53.1 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 49.0 58.8 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Lower middleincome group 2008 3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 .. ..

124 35 7 99.0 3.9 35.0 10 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

7.9 24.5 8.2 27.2 7.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

30 1.5 17.5 ..

179 2.0 19.6 15.1

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 28.4 22.0 12.4 12.3 29.8 13.1 11.1

3.4 .. 18.4 17.2 11.2 1.2 24.5 17.4 22.7

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

50.8 880 .. 15.3 0.7

.. 958 2.3 95.5 14.3

37.6 1,310

168

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Peru Latin America & Caribbean

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

26.0 11.2 7.4 2,050 2.4 8.5 29.9 15.8 61.6 3.8 3.5 16.0 18.2

28.8 13.3 7.0 3,990 6.0 7.2 36.2 15.9 56.6 5.8 2.9 27.1 26.5

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 .. 1.4

56 41 9 17.0 3.1 40.3 30 .. ..

.. .. 26.3 .. 2.6

13.5 1.6 30.9 81.6 14.6

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

952 1.5 20.2 16.3

1,520 3.2 26.1 21.7

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.1 .. 29.0 26.1 9.1 9.0 26.0 25.4 20.2

2.0 24.3 23.3 26.1 8.3 2.2 24.8 20.9 20.2

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

13.4 678 .. 4.9 3.1

13.9 961 0.9 72.7 24.7

41.8 3,052

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

169


Philippines East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

77.7 31.5 10.1 1,030 3.5 15.8 32.3 22.2 52.0 4.0 44.2 55.4 53.5

90.3 37.9 7.4 1,890 5.1 14.9 31.6 22.3 53.5 9.3 44.3 36.9 38.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 32 .. 0.3

144 52 15 91.0 5.7 49.4 35 .. 0.3

.. .. .. .. ..

6.9 21.8 21.8 23.1 15.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

2,153 3.0 21.2 14.6

3,217 0.8 14.7 11.4

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–3.9 52.9 50.3 54.0 13.6 24.0 43.8 4.3 2.6

–1.3 77.7 36.2 51.0 11.1 4.5 28.8 1.1 4.3

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

20.0 501 .. 8.3 2.0

9.9 586 .. 75.4 6.2

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

170

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Poland Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

38.5 17.4 16.1 4,590 5.4 5.0 31.7 18.5 63.3 10.1 4.3 27.1 33.5

38.1 17.7 7.1 11,730 4.4 4.5 30.8 17.3 64.6 4.3 2.4 39.8 43.5

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 30 4.9 0.9

72 32 6 13.0 3.0 42.5 19 5.0 1.0

7.8 29.4 29.2 8.2 11.4

12.8 4.8 40.7 83.0 17.3

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

7,807 5.5 23.7 21.3

5,104 2.8 22.0 17.4

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.8 33.0 33.6 34.0 7.1 15.5 26.6 12.0 5.8

–3.7 44.8 55.4 42.1 7.9 4.4 49.8 3.9 3.3

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

68.3 3,240 .. 17.5 7.3

90.3 3,662 2.3 115.2 49.0

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

171


Portugal High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Highincome group 2008

10.2 5.2 3.9 11,590 4.2 3.8 27.6 17.1 68.6 2.8 1.1 29.8 40.6

10.6 5.6 7.6 20,680 0.9 2.4 23.9 14.3 73.7 2.6 0.7 32.9 42.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 37 7.0 2.7

48 6 6 97.0 2.0 42.9 25 7.3 4.4

.. .. .. .. ..

1.1 52.1 24.4 5.7 12.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 5.9 27.1 ..

.. 1.5 21.7 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.6 60.2 106.4 88.5 5.8 2.2 131.5 1.9 2.8

–2.7 76.0 .. .. 6.1 2.0 179.7 .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

86.0 4,014 .. 65.2 16.4

86.0 4,860 .. 140.4 42.1

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

172

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Puerto Rico High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

3.8 1.4 10.1 10,560 4.4 0.9 41.3 38.3 57.8 .. .. 75.2 98.0

4.0 1.5 11.6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

35 7 7 .. 3.8 64.7 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

94.0 .. .. 24.3 10.5

95.0 .. .. 85.8 25.3

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

173


Qatar High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.62 0.35 3.9 .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.7 3.6 67.3 22.3

1.3 0.90 .. .. 9.0 .. .. .. .. 15.0 3.6 64.2 38.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 .. ..

39 6 6 69.0 2.8 11.3 35 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. 19.5 ..

.. .. 30.2 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 26.8 .. ..

12.5 .. 55.5 38.3 .. .. 46.7 –10.0 3.9

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

90.0 13,782 .. 19.6 4.9

.. 12,915 .. 131.4 34.0

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

174

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Romania Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

22.4 11.8 7.1 1,690 –2.1 12.5 36.4 14.5 51.1 45.7 2.2 32.7 37.9

21.5 10.0 5.8 8,280 6.4 7.1 25.2 20.9 67.6 7.8 2.5 29.9 40.4

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 5.2 2.3

55 10 6 8.0 3.3 44.6 16 11.9 6.7

8.6 35.2 19.8 20.1 21.7

9.2 12.1 37.3 42.0 26.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

901 2.8 18.9 ..

3,647 6.9 31.1 26.7

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–2.0 .. 11.7 17.4 8.6 3.3 7.2 6.7 20.7

–4.6 .. 37.0 27.9 7.0 13.8 38.5 3.1 5.5

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

49.5 1,988 .. 11.1 3.6

30.2 2,452 3.0 113.7 28.8

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

175


Russian Federation Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

146.3 72.3 9.8 1,710 1.2 6.4 37.9 17.6 55.6 20.8 28.1 44.1 24.0

142.0 76.0 6.2 9,660 6.7 5.0 37.2 18.0 57.8 14.1 24.9 30.8 22.0

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 43 14.0 2.2

120 30 9 17.0 3.8 48.3 24 15.0 4.9

8.2 54.2 11.1 10.2 20.3

19.9 17.4 30.6 57.5 11.7

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

1,939 1.0 16.9 15.1

19,450 4.3 22.0 18.8

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

7.0 49.0 .. .. 12.1 7.7 13.3 –9.6 17.9

5.6 6.4 .. .. 13.6 3.8 41.0 –5.8 6.5

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

67.4 5,209 .. 2.2 2.0

80.9 6,317 1.5 140.6 31.9

41.8 3,052

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

176

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Rwanda Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

8.0 3.7 .. 250 10.1 37.2 13.6 7.0 49.2 3.9 389.7 8.7 25.7

9.7 4.8 .. 440 6.7 37.4 14.1 4.5 48.5 15.4 546.8 14.9 31.2

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

67 3 2 26.0 .. 31.3 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

5.9 4.9 15.9 18.2 10.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

8 0.5 18.3 12.1

44 2.3 24.1 13.1

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 10.6 12.1 8.1 57.0 10.4 20.6 6.9

.. .. 12.7 14.7 12.3 12.6 12.1 –0.8 9.3

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

.. .. .. 0.5 0.1

19.0 .. 13.6 13.6 3.1

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

177


Samoa East Asia & Pacific

Lower middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lower middleincome group 2008

0.18 0.06 5.0 1,360 3.3 16.8 26.0 14.8 57.2 1.0 3.3 33.8 57.2

0.18 0.06 1.3 2,820 4.0 10.8 29.3 11.7 60.0 11.5 2.6 33.5 55.4

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

57 9 5 9.0 2.5 18.9 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. 19.6 .. 9.8 ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

10 –0.7 .. ..

.. 1.1 .. ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 31.7 32.6 .. .. 30.6 8.0 4.5

.. .. 38.2 39.3 .. .. 43.7 9.6 6.6

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

14.2 .. .. 1.4 0.6

.. .. .. 69.3 5.0

37.6 1,310

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

178

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


San Marino High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

.. .. 3.0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1.1 .. ..

0.03 .. 2.6 46,770 3.9 .. .. .. .. 4.3 0.7 .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. .. .. ..

.. .. .. ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

1.3 16.5 .. .. .. .. .. 6.5 6.6

6.2 62.0 .. .. .. .. .. 5.8 5.0

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. 77.4 54.8

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

179


São Tomé and Príncipe Sub-Saharan Africa

Lower middle income Lower middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context Population (millions) 0.14 0.16 Labor force (millions) 0.05 0.06 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 14.4 16.7 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) .. 1,030 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) .. 6.5 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 19.7 16.8 Industry value added (% of GDP) 16.9 20.5 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 5.7 6.4 Services value added (% of GDP) 63.5 62.7 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) .. .. Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 7,978.2 14,695.2 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) .. .. Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) .. .. Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

3,703 1,728 5.5 2,073 8.3 13.4 41.1 26.6 45.5

35.4 33.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

180 144 10 91.0 .. 47.2 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

2 3.9 .. ..

50 18.9 .. ..

31,715 3.4 34.5 19.6

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 4.3 25.7 18.7

.. .. .. .. .. .. 28.3 7.0 19.7

–1.5 .. 98.1 48.0 10.2 4.4 82.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

68.1 .. .. 0.0 4.6

.. .. .. 30.6 15.5

37.6 1,310

180

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

34 9 58.6 3.3 40.1 8.8 1.0

6.6

47.0 13.9


Saudi Arabia High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

20.6 6.9 4.6 8,140 2.3 4.9 53.9 9.7 41.1 –1.1 3.8 43.7 24.9

24.6 9.0 5.6 17,870 4.1 2.3 70.2 8.3 27.4 9.9 3.8 68.9 37.6

.. .. .. .. .. .. 45 .. ..

13 5 4 80.0 1.5 14.5 20 .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. –1.0 17.5 ..

.. 4.8 19.3 ..

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 40.6 15.3 9.6 10.4 52.5 .. ..

.. .. 48.3 19.2 10.0 1.4 55.4 .. ..

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

29.9 5,670 .. 6.7 2.2

21.5 7,247 .. 146.1 31.5

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

181


Senegal Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

Lowincome group 2008

9.9 4.1 .. 510 4.4 19.1 23.2 14.7 57.6 0.7 712.0 27.9 37.2

12.2 5.2 11.1 980 4.5 15.7 21.7 12.8 62.6 5.8 447.8 25.0 47.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. 35 6.3 0.0

157 8 4 38.0 3.0 46.0 .. 2.3 0.0

.. .. .. .. ..

2.9 18.7 19.8 9.4 6.1

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

79 1.3 22.4 17.9

432 5.3 30.2 20.2

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–0.9 73.7 19.6 17.1 9.9 18.1 18.7 .. ..

.. .. 24.2 24.4 9.1 19.1 24.2 .. ..

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

29.3 101 .. 2.5 0.4

29.3 128 11.8 44.1 8.4

12.1 324

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

182

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6


Serbia Europe & Central Asia

Upper middle income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

7.5 .. .. 1,470 0.0 20.6 31.4 .. 48.1 71.1 63.2 23.0 39.1

7.4 .. 13.6 5,590 5.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 12.9 55.7 29.7 52.4

Upper middleincome group 2008 949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 20 .. ..

88 13 7 25.0 2.7 34.0 10 13.0 1.6

10.3 44.8 10.6 8.7 9.6

12.2 3.6 42.8 109.5 21.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

345 0.3 12.3 9.5

250 6.0 20.4 16.7

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. .. .. 18.3 21.6 47.5 –41.3 30.4

–1.6 .. .. .. 20.5 5.3 38.4 0.5 10.8

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

62.7 4,199 .. .. ..

.. 4,155 1.1 130.9 44.9

41.8 3,052

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6

183


Seychelles Sub-Saharan Africa

Upper middle income Upper middleincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

0.08 .. 9.8 7,420 6.6 3.0 29.0 19.2 68.0 6.3 5.7 78.2 81.4

0.09 .. 5.5 10,220 2.0 2.3 22.4 13.4 75.3 37.0 9.5 130.9 152.5

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

111 38 9 39.0 .. 44.1 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

7 4.0 25.2 13.8

15 43.7 28.3 24.6

82,923 3.6 21.9 16.9

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–13.9 .. 90.2 80.7 .. .. 22.3 9.4 6.0

8.1 .. 104.5 105.4 .. .. 38.4 –10.8 7.8

.. .. 51.2 39.9 9.4 3.6 44.6

84.5 .. .. 32.0 7.4

96.0 .. .. 107.5 39.0

41.8 3,052

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

184

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

949 432 8.0 7,852 4.6 6.1 33.7 17.3 60.2

27.8 27.2

47 8 37.4 2.9 44.3 10.8 3.5

6.2

95.3 30.6


Sierra Leone Sub-Saharan Africa

Low income

Country data 2000

2008

Economic and social context 4.2 5.6 Population (millions) 1.7 2.1 Labor force (millions) .. 3.4 Unemployment rate (% of labor force) 150 320 GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) –5.0 10.3 GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) 58.4 50.2 Agriculture value added (% of GDP) 28.4 23.5 Industry value added (% of GDP) 3.5 3.7 Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) 13.3 26.3 Services value added (% of GDP) .. 17.5 Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) 2,092.1 2,981.5 Exchange rate (local currency units per $) 18.1 16.3 Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 39.3 29.4 Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Lowincome group 2008 976 441 .. 523 5.8 25.0 28.5 14.3 46.5

33.9 47.1

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

148 12 6 189.0 2.6 235.6 .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

7.4 8.6 6.9 14.8 13.8

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

3 6.1 6.9 1.7

22 –0.2 14.7 8.6

7,503 5.1 26.0 15.1

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–9.3 247.4 7.3 8.5 18.5 37.9 2.1 19.0 17.0

–2.4 .. 9.7 11.9 18.7 23.3 7.1 12.0 14.8

.. .. 40.6 26.3 .. .. 36.5

7.9 .. .. 0.3 0.1

.. .. 15.9 18.1 0.3

12.1 324

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

44 9 68.7 3.8 74.4 18.2 0.5

10.8

28.5 4.6

185


Singapore High income Highincome group 2008

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

4.0 2.1 6.0 22,960 5.7 0.1 35.6 27.7 64.3 1.4 1.7 191.4 176.4

4.8 2.6 3.2 34,760 5.8 0.1 27.8 20.8 72.2 6.5 1.4 234.3 215.3

.. .. .. .. .. .. 26 10.0 2.8

1 3 3 4.0 0.8 27.8 18 19.4 7.5

.. .. .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 17.8 30.6 22.5

.. 12.5 28.5 17.0

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

11.4 86.9 117.0 109.8 10.0 3.4 109.5 2.0 4.1

8.1 102.6 110.5 111.1 8.5 1.4 107.9 4.2 5.0

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

100.0 7,575 .. 68.2 32.3

100.0 8,514 .. 131.7 69.6

87.0 9,753

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

186

2010

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1


Slovak Republic High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

5.4 2.6 18.8 5,370 3.7 4.5 36.2 24.7 59.3 12.0 1.5 70.5 73.0

5.4 2.7 9.5 16,590 6.3 3.1 38.0 23.9 58.9 4.6 0.7 83.0 85.3

Highincome group 2008 1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 29 8.1 1.7

42 16 6 26.0 4.0 48.6 19 11.8 4.1

6.1 41.2 9.6 15.2 20.0

6.7 3.1 31.5 25.0 27.0

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 7.2 25.8 23.8

.. 3.3 26.1 22.2

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

.. .. 81.1 54.3 4.6 13.7 51.1 5.0 6.4

–2.2 36.6 55.2 50.4 9.8 3.2 44.7 6.8 4.3

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

87.0 4,956 .. 23.1 9.4

87.0 5,250 1.3 102.1 66.0

87.0 9,753

Infrastructure Paved roads (% of total roads) Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) Power outages in a typical month (number) Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) Internet users (per 100 people)

The Little Data Book on Private Sector Development

2010

19 6 39.3 2.1 39.2 11.5 7.5

3.9

106.1 69.1

187


Slovenia High income

Country data 2000 Economic and social context Population (millions) Labor force (millions) Unemployment rate (% of labor force) GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method ($) GDP growth, 1995–2000 and 2000–08 (average annual %) Agriculture value added (% of GDP) Industry value added (% of GDP) Manufacturing value added (% of GDP) Services value added (% of GDP) Inflation (annual % change in consumer price index) Exchange rate (local currency units per $) Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

2008

2.0 0.96 7.2 11,090 4.4 3.3 35.8 25.8 60.9 8.9 0.9 53.9 57.4

2.0 1.0 4.4 24,230 4.4 2.4 34.4 23.4 63.3 5.7 0.7 70.2 71.5

Highincome group 2008 1,069 502 5.9 39,688 2.3 1.5 25.7 16.8 72.8

28.1 28.5

Investment climate Ease of doing business index (ranking 1–183; 1 = best) Time to start a business (days) Procedures to start a business (number) Firing cost (weeks of wages) Closing a business (years to resolve insolvency) Total tax rate (% of profit) Highest marginal tax rate, corporate (%) Business entry rate (new registrations as % of total) New business density (new regis. per working-age pop.) Enterprise surveys Time dealing with gov’t officials (% of management time) Firms expected to give gifts in meetings w/tax officials (%) Firms using banks to finance investments (% of firms) Delay in obtaining an electrical connection (days) ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

.. .. .. .. .. .. 25 4.0 1.2

53 6 3 37.0 2.0 37.5 22 10.5 3.5

4.4 14.7 12.7 6.4 32.0

7.3 14.0 52.2 60.8 28.0

Private sector investment Invest. in infrastructure w/private participation ($ millions) Private foreign direct investment, net (% of GDP) Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) Gross fixed private capital formation (% of GDP)

.. 0.7 26.1 57.3

.. 3.5 27.5 59.1

.. 2.8 20.7 ..

Finance and banking Government cash surplus or deficit (% of GDP) Government debt (% of GDP) Deposit money banks’ assets (% of GDP) Total financial system deposits (% of GDP) Bank capital to asset ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans ratio (%) Domestic credit to the private sector (% of GDP) Real interest rate (%) Interest rate spread (percentage points)

–1.1 22.2 43.6 41.2 10.1 6.5 35.9 9.9 5.7

–0.2 .. 70.0 51.9 8.4 1.6 85.6 2.5 2.6

–1.0 43.4 99.4 .. 6.3 1.9 155.9

100.0 5,778 .. 61.1 15.1

100.0 7,138 2.7 101.7 55.7

87.0 9,753