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2018

Water Quality Report

for customers in the City of Roanoke and the Counties of Roanoke, Franklin and Botetourt, Virginia


The Western Virginia Water Authority supplies customers in the City of Roanoke and the Counties of Roanoke, Franklin and Botetourt with an annual water quality report. This provides you with information about the source of your water, what it contains and how it compares to the standards set by regulatory agencies based on data collected during calendar year 2017 or the most recent testing period. The Water Division of the Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to deliver safe drinking water. Once again, the Water Authority was in full compliance with all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements. On July 1, 2004 the Western Virginia Water Authority was formed from the former utility departments of the City of Roanoke and Roanoke County. In November 2009 Franklin County joined the Water Authority. Botetourt County joined in 2015 offering a larger regional approach to meeting the communities’ water and wastewater needs. The Authority has earned the highest industry awards for both water and wastewater, implemented energy saving measures across all departments, focused on cleaning the sanitary sewer lines and rehabilitating aging water distribution pipes.

More information about drinking water is available through these sources Virginia Department of Health: (Roanoke & Botetourt area system) 540.463.7136 Virginia Department of Health: (Franklin County water systems) 434.836.8416 Center for Disease Control and Prevention: 1.800.311.3435 404.639.3311 or 404.639.3312 (TTY) Roanoke Environmental Health Department: 540.857.7663

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EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline 800.426.4791

Authority Board of Directors The Western Virginia Water Authority’s Board of Directors, appointed by the member localities, governs the Authority. Representatives from the City of Roanoke include Mr. John P. Bradshaw, Jr., Mr. Bob Cowell and Mr. Harvey Brookins. The Roanoke County representatives include Mr. Don Davis, Mr. Thomas Gates, and Mr. Randall Hancock. Mrs. Shirley Holland represents Franklin County, and Mr. Hunter Young represents Botetourt County. Board meetings are held on the third Thursday of each month (with the exception of August and December) at 601 S. Jefferson Street. The Board meetings are open to the public.

Executive Directors The Western Virginia Water Authority has two Executive Directors that oversee the daily treatment and delivery of 19-million gallons of drinking water and the collection and treatment of 37-million gallons of wastewater a day. Michael McEvoy is the Executive Director Wastewater Services and Gary Robertson, P.E. is the Executive Director Water Operations.

Customer Service Our customer service representatives are available Monday-Friday from 8am - 5pm. If you have a water or sewer emergency after hours, calls to the Water Authority are answered by Roanoke County’s 911 Dispatch Center. 540.853.5700 | info@westernvawater.org 601 S. Jefferson Street • Suite 200 • Roanoke, VA 24011

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Lead & Copper Testing

In order to ensure that tap water is safe to drink, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribes regulations which limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water which must provide the same protection for public health. All drinking water, including bottled drinking water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that water poses a health risk.

Quality water begins at the source. It is important that the Western Virginia Water Authority knows and understands the water chemistry from each source, closely monitors the treatment process and understands the pipe material that the water can flow through. This is especially important regarding lead and copper.

How are the standards set? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) at very stringent levels. In developing the standards, EPA assumes that the average adult drinks 2 liters of water each day throughout a 70-year life span. EPA generally sets MCLs at levels that will result in no adverse health effects for some contaminants or a one-in-ten-thousand to one-in-one-million chance of having the described health effect for other contaminants. The tables of data on pages 9 - 29 summarize water-testing results from 2017 or the most recent reporting year for both regulated and non-regulated substances. Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs. The Western Virginia Water Authority constantly monitors its water supplies for various contaminants to meet all regulatory requirements. All regulated substances must be tested annually, except for lead and copper and SOCs, which must be tested every three years, and radiologicals, which must be tested every six to nine years. The TTHMs/HAA5s were derived from running annual averages.

Cryptosporidium & Giardia Cryptosporidium and Giardia are microscopic organisms that can cause fever, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms when ingested. The organisms come from animal and human wastes and are eliminated through water filtration and disinfection. Even though the presence of these organisms is not regulated by the state or federal government, the Water Authority has tested for these organisms. Giardia, 0.2 cyst per 1 liter, was detected in the raw (untreated) water at Falling Creek in March 2016 and 8 cyst per 1 liter in June 2017. Cryptosporidium was detected in the raw (untreated) water at Carvins Cove (0.1 cyst per 1 liter in January 2016 and 0.1 cyst per 1 liter in February 2016). Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons, such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. EPA/ CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and other microbiological contaminants are available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline (800-426-4791).

Copper is a nutritionally essential element, but at high levels, copper can cause gastrointestinal difficulties such as nausea and diarrhea. Elevated levels of lead, if present, can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily associated with materials and components in service lines and home plumbing. The Authority maintains over 1500 miles of pipes up to and including the lines going to the customer’s water meter. Pipe materials in our system can be cast iron, ductile iron or pvc. We do not know of any lead pipes in our distribution system. However, customers, particularly those in older homes, may have lead plumbing in their homes or pipes that were joined with lead solder. We treat the water with corrosion control or adjust the pH of the water so that pipes in our distribution system and the customers’ pipes in their homes are protected. The Western Virginia Water Authority is responsible for providing high quality drinking water but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting in your pipes for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes or until it becomes cold or reaches a steady temperature before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lead.

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Water Quality Testing

Testing Your Water


What is my Water Hardness?

Substance

Source of Substance

Barium

Discharge from drilling wastes; discharge from metal refineries; erosion of natural deposits

Chlorate

By-product of treating drinking water with chlorine dioxide

Chlorine

Required disinfectant added during treatment process to eliminate bacteria

Chlorite

By-product of treating drinking water with chlorine dioxide

Chromium

Discharge from steel and pulp mills; erosion of natural deposits

Fluoride

Erosion of natural deposits; water additive which promotes strong teeth; discharge from aluminum and fertilizer factories

HAA5s

By-product of drinking water chlorination

TTHMs

By-product of drinking water chlorination

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

Run-off from fertilizer use; leaching from septic tanks, sewage; erosion of natural deposits

Total Coliforms

Naturally present in the environment

Fecal Coliforms

Human and animal waste

Gross Alpha

Erosion of natural deposits

Gross Beta

Decay of natural and man-made deposits

Changes in water pressure in water systems, such as when water mains break or fire hydrants are used or flushed, can occasionally cause drinking water to be discolored. The discoloration is caused by sediments in pipes mixing with clear water. The sediments occur naturally from the oxidation of iron in pipes.

Radium 226/228

Erosion of natural deposits

Lead

Natural\industrial deposits, plumbing solder, brass alloy in faucets

Copper

Natural\industrial deposits, plumbing, wood preservatives

Alkalinity

Measurement of naturally occurring carbonates

Conductivity

Physical property of water

While discolored water is ordinarily safe to drink, it is best to flush any discolored water from pipes by turning on all cold-water faucets in your home or business. Avoid turning on hot-water faucets so the discolored water is not drawn into water heaters.

Corrosivity

Physical property of water that occurs when water reacts with metal

Hardness

Measurement of naturally occurring hardness metals

Iron

Naturally occurring in the environment

Manganese

Naturally occurring in the environment

Orthophosphate (as P)

Corrosion inhibitor added during treatment process

Sodium

Naturally occurring in the environment

Zinc

Naturally occurring in the environment

Xylene

Discharge from petroleum factories; discharge from chemical factory

As water naturally flows over rocks and through the soil, it picks up minerals. The more calcium and magnesium present, the harder your water. While water hardness is not a safety issue, you may notice increased mineral build-up or soap residue with harder water. Hardness can be expressed as PPM - parts per million or GPG - grains per gallon.

PPM

GPG

Rating

0 - 75

0 - 4.3

Soft

76 - 150

4.4 - 8.7

Moderately Hard

151 - 300

8.8 - 17.5

Hard

over 300

17.6 +

Very Hard

What Causes Discolored Water?

If you notice evidence of a water main break or leaking fire hydrant, please call 853.5700.

Terms Used in This Water Quality Report

Action Level (AL): The concentration of a contaminant that triggers treatment or other requirement that a water system must follow. Combined Radium: Radium 226 + Radium 228 E. coli: Bacteria from human and animal fecal waste HAA5s: Haloacetic acids. LRAA: Locational Running Annual Average Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL): The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to the MCLG as feasible using the best available treatment technology. Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG): The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety. Maximum Residual Disinfection Level (MRDL): The highest level of a disinfection allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.

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mg/L: Milligrams per liter, also referred to as parts per million (for example, one minute in two years). ND: Analyte was not detected or was below the method detection limit of the laboratory’s instrumentation. NTUs: Nephelometric Turbidity Units; a measure of turbidity. P/A: Present or Absent pCi/L: Picocuries per liter is a measure of the radioactivity in water. ppm: One part per million, also referred to as mg/L, (for example, one minute in two years). ppb: One part per billion, also referred to as μg/L (for example, one minute in 2,000 years). TTHMs: Total Trihalomethanes Treatment Technique (TT): A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water. μg/L: Micrograms per liter, also referred to as parts per billion (for example, one minute in 2,000 years). μmhos/cm: Micromhos per centimeter; a measure of conductivity.


Source Water Assessment Water Quality Testing

As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and can pick up substances resulting from the presence of animals or from human activity. Water from surface sources is treated to make it drinkable while groundwater may or may not require any treatment. Contaminants in source water may be naturally occurring substances, or may come from: • Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, and wildlife; • Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally-occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming;

Backflow Prevention & Cross-Connection Identification

• Pesticides and herbicides, which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban stormwater runoff, and residential uses;

A plumbing cross-connection is an actual or potential connection between the public water supply and any source of contamination or pollutant. Without proper plumbing precautions, contaminated substances could backflow into the public system and your drinking water supply through this connection.

• Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and petroleum production, and can also come from gas stations, urban stormwater runoff, and septic systems; and • Radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally-occurring or be the result of oil and gas production and mining activities. The Western Virginia Water Authority has worked with the Virginia Department of Health to determine our water sources susceptibility to contaminants. The assessment is a requirement of the Virginia Department of Health’s (VDH) Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) in accordance with the 1996 Amendments of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The assessment determined that Crystal Spring, Falling Creek and Carvins Cove are susceptible to contamination based on land use activities and potential types of contaminants in these areas. This designation does not mean that the source water has been impacted or that it will be impacted. It does mean that if there is a release of pollutants in the assessment area, the source water could be impacted. The VDH also completed a source water assessment of Spring Hollow Reservoir’s water source, the Roanoke River. This assessment determined that the Roanoke River may be susceptible to contamination because it is surface water exposed to a wide array of contaminants at varying concentrations. Also, changing hydrologic, hydraulic and atmospheric conditions promote migration of contaminants from land use activities of concern into the Roanoke River. The assessment also determined that the Water Authority’s wells might be susceptible to contamination because they are located in areas that promote migration of contaminants from land use activities of concern. More specific information about these reports may be obtained by contacting the Western Virginia Water Authority’s Water Division at 853.5700.

Water travelling through the Authority’s distribution system is pressurized. If the water system loses pressure, such as during a water main break, system maintenance or fire hydrant usage/ testing, the flow of the water may be reversed. If a customer has made a cross-connection with hazardous substances or even non potable water, these substances can backflow into the public water system and create a risk to public health.

What You Can Do To Protect Your Drinking Water Help us identify potential locations where backflow can occur. You can complete a simple Backflow Prevention Survey on-line at www. westernvawater.org. If necessary, contact the Water Authority to schedule a free assessment with our staff to assist you in finding and removing any potential cross-connection sources. Remove any cross-connections you find or install backflow prevention devices (available at hardware stores) where needed. A Water Authority representative is available to assist you with this process if needed. If you have a backflow prevention device installed by a certified plumber, have it tested annually or after any repairs. Questions about backflow prevention? email us at backflow@westernvawater.org call us at 853.5700

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Drinking Water Systems in the Roanoke Valley The Western Virginia Water Authority utilizes four surface water sources and multiple springs and wells as drinking water sources in the Roanoke Valley to serve customers in the City of Roanoke and the Counties of Roanoke, Franklin and Botetourt. Having an abundant supply of water helps protect against drought or other emergencies.

Carvins Cove Country Hills Crystal Spring Delaney Court Falling Creek Martin Creek Salem Source Spring Hollow

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Combined, the water treatment facilities for these sources can treat over 56-million gallons of water a day; however, current production averages about 19-million gallons per day.

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Carvins Cove Reservoir & Treatment Facility Carvins Cove Reservoir is situated within Carvins Cove Natural Reserve, a 12,672-acre watershed near Hollins University in Botetourt County. The land in the reserve above the 1,200-foot contour is owned and managed by the City of Roanoke. The land below this elevation, and the reservoir, are owned and operated by the Western Virginia Water Authority. In addition to receiving water from the watershed, the reservoir is fed from two underground tunnels that carry overflow from Tinker and Catawba Creeks. This surface water source covers 630 acres and stores 6.42-billion gallons of water at full pond. How is it treated? Carvins Cove Water Treatment Facility has the capacity to treat 28-million gallons of water from the reservoir every day. The water is first oxygenated and treated with chlorine dioxide to oxidize dissolved organic matter, iron and manganese. Water is aerated to remove unwanted dissolved gases and to oxidize dissolved metals, which reduces any unpleasant tastes and odors. Flash mixing of chemicals is the next step, where ferric sulfate is added to coagulate suspended particles. Water then flows into settling basins where the particles clump together, become heavy and settle to the bottom of the basins. Next, the water is filtered through gravel, sand and carbon and disinfected with chlorine. Fluoride is added to promote strong teeth. Sodium hydroxide is added to adjust the pH and reduce corrosivity, and orthophosphate is added to control corrosion in pipes. Where does it serve? A large part of the northeastern and northwestern parts of the city, and the majority of the southeastern part of the city, to Reserve Avenue, are served by Carvins Cove. Portions of northern and northeastern Roanoke County are also served by the Carvins Cove water source. Water from Carvins Cove also serves the Botetourt area around Exit 150 to Tinkerview and Greenfield. Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs. Water treated at the Carvins Cove Treatment Facility meets all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements.

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Carvins Cove Natural Reserve www.westernvawater.org/carvinscove Carvins Cove Natural Reserve, the second largest municipal park in the United States, offers outdoor recreation opportunities, including boating, fishing, hiking and nature viewing. You can bring your own boat or rent kayaks, paddle boats and jon boats at the reservoir. Visitors to the Natural Reserve are charged $3 per person for daily use or annual passes are available for $25. Payment drop boxes are located at the Bennett Springs, Hollins Trailhead and Timberview parking lots, or passes can be purchased from the Security Office on Reservoir Road. For more information, call the Natural Reserve at 362.1757.


Substance

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Violation

Carvins Cove Data (range) average

ppm

2

2

no

0.0515

Regulated Substances Barium Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

(0.7 - 1.0) 0.8

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

ND

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

(1.64 - 2.14) 1.84

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.06 - 0.3) 0.17

pCi/L

0

15

no

0.7

Radioactive Contaminants Gross Alpha Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

1.7

Radium 228

pCi/L

0

5

no

< 0.35

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

1 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 2.7 ppb

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.46 ppm

Lead and Copper Testing

Roanoke Systems

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorate

ppm

0.8

no

(0.018 - 0.15) 0.071

Chlorine

ppm

4

no

(1.2 - 2.4) 1.4

Chlorite

ppm

0.8

no

(ND - 0.087) 0.024

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(ND - 82) site range (4 - 62) LRAA range

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(2.8 - 110) site range (27 - 66) LRAA range

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

E.coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

no

0

99.9% removal or inactivation

no

0.1 (Jan 2016)/0.1 (Feb 2016)

Microbiological Substances

Source Water Testing - this data does not apply to treated water Cryptosporidium

Oocysts per 1L

0

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

n/a

(36 - 44) 41

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

n/a

106

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

Iron

ppm

Manganese

ppm

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

0.3 0.05 unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

n/a

(42 - 60) 50

n/a

(0.03 - 0.11) 0.05

n/a

(0.001 - 0.04) 0.02

n/a

(0.23 - 0.36) 0.31

no

(7.3 - 7.9) 7.7

n/a

4.49

n/a

0.00252

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Crystal Spring Treatment Facility Crystal Spring flows at the base of Mill Mountain in the southern part of the city. This groundwater source provides an average flow of 4.6-million gallons of water a day. How is it treated ? The water is filtered in the Crystal Spring Ultrafiltration Treatment Facility which filters out all particles larger than 0.01 micron. One micron is one thousandth of a millimeter. Filtered water is treated with chlorine and fluoride and pumped to water customers from the Crystal Spring Pumping Station. Where does it serve? Crystal Spring serves portions of southwest Roanoke County and the southwestern part of the city. With the capacity to filter five-million gallons of water a day, Crystal Spring Treatment Facility is the largest ultrafiltration plant in western Virginia. Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs. Water treated at the Crystal Spring Treatment Facility meets all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements.

Crystal Spring Historic Pump Station

Substance

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Violation

Crystal Spring Data (range) average

Regulated Substances Barium

ppm

2

2

no

0.0358

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

(0.6 - 0.7) 0.7

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.01 - 0.097) 0.028

0

15

no

1.0

0.77 N/A

Radioactive Contaminants Gross Alpha

pCi/L

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

7.7

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

no

0.7

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

1 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 2.7 ppb

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.46 ppm

Lead and Copper Testing

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorate

ppm

0.8

no

N/A

Chlorine

ppm

4

no

(1.1 - 1.1) 1.1

Chlorite

ppm

0.8

no

N/A

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(ND - 82) site range (4 - 62) LRAA range

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(2.8 - 110) site range (27 - 66) LRAA range

Unregulated and Secondary Substances

You are invited to tour the historic Crystal Spring Pump Station. Located at the corner of Jefferson and McClanahan Streets, the pump station is open for free guided tours each Saturday (12 noon - 4 pm) and Sunday (1 pm - 4 pm) between May and September. Microbiological Substances Total Coliforms E. coli

10

Units P/A P/A

EPA’s MCLG

Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

n/a

130

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

n/a

257

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

n/a

(136 - 154) 143

Iron

ppm

0.3

n/a

ND

0.05

n/a

ND

n/a

ND

no

(7.4 - 7.8) 7.6

Manganese

ppm

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

n/a

3.63

n/a

0.005

Violation

Level Detected at Crystal Spring

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

ND

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

no

ND


Falling Creek & Beaverdam Creek Reservoirs Falling Creek Reservoir is a surface water source located in Bedford County east of Vinton. It covers 21 acres and stores 85-million gallons of water at full pond. It is fed by Beaverdam Creek Reservoir, which covers 69 acres and stores 435-million gallons of water at full pond.

Where does it serve? Falling Creek Water Treatment Facility serves King Street northeast to Route 460, along Route 24 to 13th Street and east on Route 24 to Stewartsville. Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs. Water treated at the Falling Creek Treatment Facility meets all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements.

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Violation

Falling Creek Data (range) average

Regulated Substances Barium

ppm

2

2

no

0.0161

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

(0.4 - 0.7) 0.5

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

ND

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

(0.83 - 1.42) 1.19

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.14 - 0.26) 0.19

Roanoke Systems

How is it treated? The treatment process of this water source is similar to that of Spring Hollow Treatment Facility. The treatment capacity is 1.5-million gallons a day. Sodium hydroxide is added for corrosion control and zinc orthophosphate is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

Substance

Radioactive Contaminants Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

no

< 0.5

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

1.8

Radium 228

pCi/L

0

5

no

< 0.6

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

1 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 2.7 ppb

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.46 ppm

Lead and Copper Testing

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorate

ppm

0.8

no

N/A

Chlorine

ppm

4

no

(1.3 - 1.7) 1.5

Chlorite

ppm

0.8

no

N/A

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

yes

(ND - 82) site range (4 - 62) LRAA range 3rd quarter violation in the Parkway Tank service area

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(2.8 - 110) site range (27 - 66) LRAA range

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

n/a

(15 - 18) 17

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

n/a

63.8

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

Iron

ppm

Manganese

ppm

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

n/a

(16 - 20) 18

0.3

n/a

(ND - 0.03) 0.02

0.05

n/a

(0.002 - 0.006) 0.004

n/a

(0.14 - 0.19) 0.17

unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

(7.0 - 8.1) 7.5 9.84

n/a

0.00252

Microbiological Substances

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

no

0

E. coli

P/A

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

no n/a

Violation

Level Detected at Falling Creek

11


Spring Hollow Reservoir & Treatment Facility The water source for this system comes from the Roanoke River and is pumped into the Spring Hollow Reservoir, a 3.2-billion gallon side-stream storage reservoir. How is it treated? Water is withdrawn from the reservoir, oxygenated and treated with chlorine dioxide to oxidize dissolved organic matter, iron and manganese. Treatment at the Spring Hollow Treatment Facility includes clarification, filtration, chlorine disinfection and fluoridation. The Spring Hollow Water Treatment Facility currently has the capacity to treat 18-million gallons of water a day and can be expanded to 36-million gallons a day. Treated water is stored in a twomillion gallon storage tank then pumped through the north and south transmission lines to the distribution system. The current usage averages 4.5-million gallons a day. During an emergency, standby wells may be used to supplement the source water. Where does it serve? Spring Hollow supplies water to various neighborhoods in Roanoke County and Franklin County through the southern transmission lines. The northern transmission lines run along I-81 and serve the City of Roanoke and Roanoke County. Many other primary and secondary contaminants have been analyzed but were either below the instrument’s detection limits or below the MCLs. Water treated at the Spring Hollow Treatment Facility meets all state and federal monitoring and reporting requirements.

Microbiological Substances

12

Units

EPA’s MCLG

Substance

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Violation

Spring Hollow Data (range) average

Regulated Substances Barium

ppm

2

2

no

0.0330

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

(0.7 - 0.9) 0.7

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.06 - 0.12) 0.08

0.28 (0.98 - 1.46) 1.16

Radioactive Contaminants Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

no

< 0.9

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

2.4

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

no

< 0.6

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

1 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 2.7 ppb

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.46 ppm

Lead and Copper Testing

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorate

ppm

0.8

no

(ND - 0.520) 0.099

Chlorine

ppm

4

no

(1.2 - 1.2) 1.2

Chlorite

ppm

0.8

no

(ND - 0.080) 0.013

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(ND - 82) site range (4 - 62) LRAA range

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(2.8 - 110) site range (27 - 66) LRAA range

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

n/a

(130 - 142) 135

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

n/a

276

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

n/a

(150 - 164) 157

Iron

ppm

0.3

n/a

ND

0.05

n/a

0.00043

n/a

ND

no

(7.6 - 7.8) 7.7

n/a

4.98

n/a

ND

Manganese

ppm

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Level Detected at Spring Hollow

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

no

0


City of Salem Source

If you have any questions about this data, please contact the City of Salem Water Department at 375-3029. If you want to learn more about this source, please attend any of the regularly scheduled Salem City Council meetings. They are held on the second and fourth Monday of each month in council chambers. The City of Salem Water Department routinely monitors for contaminants in the drinking water mandated by Federal and State laws. The following table shows the results of monitoring for the period of January 1st to December 31st, 2017 or the most recent monitoring period. The City of Salem Water Department had no violations during this time period. The Virginia Department of Health has completed a source water assessment for Salem’s waterworks system. This assessment provides information on possible sources of contamination to our source water. As determined by the source water assessment, the possibility of contamination to our water source (Roanoke River) is high. This is due to the fact that surface water is exposed to an inconsistent array of contaminants at varying concentrations due to changing hydrologic, hydraulic and atmospheric conditions with land use activities of concern in the assessment area. To view a copy of this water assessment, please contact the City of Salem Water Department office at 540-375-3029.

Microbiological Substances Total Coliforms E. coli

Units P/A P/A

EPA’s MCLG

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Violation

City of Salem Data (range) average

Barium

ppm

2

2

no

0.042 (0.18 - 0.99)

Substance

Roanoke Systems

The Western Virginia Water Authority contracts with the City of Salem to purchase water to supply Robin Hood Park and other areas around West Main Street and Riverside Drive in Roanoke County. The City of Salem’s water source is the Roanoke River and three ground water wells.

Regulated Substances Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.022 - 0.104)

0.44 (0.63 - 1.21)

Radioactive Contaminants Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

no

0.70 ± 0.51

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

3.0 ± 0.69

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

no

0.6 ± 0.49

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = < 0.005 ppb

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.0727 ppm

Lead and Copper Testing

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorate

ppm

0.8

no

ND

Chlorine

ppm

4

no

(0.9 - 1.69)

Chlorite

ppm

0.8

no

N/A

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(14.3 - 50.23)

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(13.1 -56.8)

n/a

(101 - 207)

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

n/a

(140 - 250)

Iron

ppm

0.3

n/a

< 0.05

0.05

n/a

< 0.01

n/a

< 0.06

no

(7.21 - 8.12)

Manganese

ppm

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

n/a

5.64

n/a

< 0.01

Highest Level Allowed - EPA’s MCL

Violation

Level Detected in Salem

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

no

0

Source Water Testing - this data does not apply to treated water Cryptosporidium

Oocysts per 10L

0

99% removal by filtration plus addition as required under the LT2ESWTR

no

< 0.1 - 0.20

Giardia

Cysts per 1L

0

99% removal or inactivation

no

< 0.1 - 11

13


Community Well Systems

Wells

Martin Creek System

The Authority maintains over 27 wells in the Roanoke distribution area. While many of these wells are inactive, they offer an additional supply of water for the distribution system if needed. Wells in service 2017* included Garden City #2, LaBellevue 7, Longridge 2, Muse Spring, North Lakes 6, Starkey 1A, Starkey 2 and Starkey 3. Data presented as (range) average.

Seven wells supply this groundwater source, which is disinfected with chlorine prior to distribution. Water is distributed throughout the community by two storage tanks and distribution piping consisting of 8-inch, 6-inch and 4-inch pipe. The total source/pump capacity is equal to 76,000 gallons per day. Current usage is approximately 20,700 gallons per day. This system supplies water to the Forest Edge and Carriage Hills areas.

The Authority also maintains well systems that serve localized communities including Country Hills and Martin Creek. Data for these systems is presented as (range) average.

Delaney Court System Customers in Delaney Court had received water from a groundwater well source that was disinfected with chlorine prior to distribution. The Water Authority extended a water line along Rutrough Road and now customers in Delaney Court receive water from the Carvins Cove source.

Country Hills System Groundwater obtained from one well is the source for this system. Chlorine is used to disinfect the water prior to distribution. Water is distributed throughout the community by a storage tank and distribution piping consisting of 6-inch, 4-inch and 2-inch pipe. The total source/pump capacity is equal to 43,200 gallons per day. Usage in 2017 was approximately 700 gallons per day. Tests for volatile organics (VOCs), pesticides and synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) have been conducted, and all met current state and federal standards for drinking water. Total Xylene has a primary maximum contaminant level (PMCL) of 10,000 ppb. Total Xylene was detected in the Country Hills Water System with a range of (1.73 6.04) ppb. Ethylbenzene has a primary maximum contaminant level (PMCL) of 10,000 ppb. Ethylbenzene waas detected in the Country Hills Water System with a range of (ND - 0.68) ppb.

14

Tests for volatile organics (VOCs), pesticides and synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) have been conducted, and all met current state and federal standards for drinking water. 1, 2- Dichloropropane has a primary maximum contaminant level (PMCL) of 5 ppb. 1,2 -Dichloropropane was detected in the Martin Creek Water System with a range of (ND - 0.33) ppb.


Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Country Hills

Delaney Court

Martin Creek

Wells*

Barium

ppm

2

2

0.0021

0.0515

(0.0015 - 0.0277) 0.0111

(0.0027 - 0.1355) 0.0581

Substance Regulated Substances

ppm

4

4

0.42

(0.7 - 1.0) 0.8

(0.2 - 1.6) 0.5

(0.01 - 0.9) 0.4

ppm

10

10

1.0

ND

(0.07- 0.75) 0.32

(ND - 0.8) 0.5

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

0.037

(0.06 - 0.3) 0.17

(0.06 - 13.9) 2.7

(ND - 2.0) 0.5

Roanoke Systems

Fluoride Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N) Radioactive Contaminants Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

0.3

0.7

(0.7 - 0.7) 0.7

(ND - 2.1) 0.9

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

2.1

1.7

(1.0 - 3.3) 1.9

(ND - 4.5) 1.6

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

0.8

< 0.35

1.5

(ND - 3.2) 1.3

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

0 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 1.9 ppb

0 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 3.4ppb

1 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 2.7 ppb

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

0 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.36 ppm

0 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.26 ppm

0 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.46 ppm

Lead and Copper Testing

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products 4

(0.7 - 1.48) 0.95

(1.2 - 2.4) 1.4

(0.5 - 1.6) 1.0

(0.3 - 1.7) 1.1

0

60

n/a

(ND - 82) site range (4 - 62) LRAA range

(2.8 - 2.8) 2.8

(2-80) site range (14-53) LRAA range

ppb

0

80

n/a

(2.8 - 110) site range (27 - 66) LRAA range

17.1

(20-129) site range (30-60) LRAA range

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

0

0

0

0

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

0

0

0

0

(36 - 44) 41

Chlorine

ppm

HAA5

ppb

TTHM Microbiological Substances

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

74

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

242.8

106

(318 - 706) 491

(252 - 357) 303

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

114

(42 - 60) 50

(130 - 344) 237

(120 - 187) 156

Iron

ppm

ND

(0.03 - 0.11) 0.05

(ND - 0.09) 0.2

(ND - 0.109) 0.026 (0.00008 - 0.0473) 0.0096

Manganese

0.3

ppm

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

(112 - 204) 175

(114 - 185) 142.5

0.05

ND

(0.001 - 0.04) 0.02

(0.0002 - 0.012) 0.004

ND

(0.23 - 0.36) 0.31

(ND - 0.08) 0.03

ND

6.5 - 8.5

7.11

(7.3 - 7.9) 7.7

(6.4 - 7.5) 7.0

(7.4 - 8.0) 7.7

7.22

4.49

5

0.023

0.00252

unregulated unregulated

(12 - 27.9) 18.3

(2.85 - 11.5) 7.14

(ND - 0.868) 0.179

(ND - 0.176) 0.03

15


Drinking Water Systems in Franklin County The Western Virginia Water Authority utilizes surface water and well water sourcesto provide customers in the Franklin County service area with drinking water and fire protection. Information on each of those sources can be found on the next ten pages. For information on the water supply serving the U.S. Route 220 area, please see page 12 (Spring Hollow Water Supply) of this publication.

16


Franklin County Systems

17


Smith Mountain Lake Water Treatment Facility The Western Virginia Water Authority (WVWA) has a successful working relationship with the Bedford Regional Water Authority (BRWA) to provide treated drinking water from the Smith Mountain Lake Water Treatment Plant to customers in the Westlake Area Water System area. This facility, which opened in May, 2017, was designed to meet both utilities’ joint water needs through the year 2060 as recommended by the Regional Long Range Water Supply Plan. How is it treated? Water from Smith Mountain Lake is screened through 500 micron woven mesh stainless steel strainers to remove fine silt and then pumped to the treatment facility. The membrane plant has 216 modules that each have 10,000 membrane filter strands to provide the unique water treatment capability. The membranes can filter out particles larger than 0.02 microns. After filtration, the water is treated with sodium hypochlorite, a required disintectant to eliminate bacteria. The finished water in the distribution system is re-chlorinated at The Boardwalk, The Waterfront Section 2-9 subdivisions and at Burnt Chimney for continuous chlorination. While originally constructed to treat three million gallons of water per day from Smith Mountain Lake, the treatment capacity can be expanded to six million gallons per day within the existing building’s footprint to meet future demands. Where does it serve? Water from this treatment plant serves customers in Bedford County and Franklin County. As the water flows through pipes under Hales Ford Bridge, it enters the Westlake Area Water System service area. Customers in the Westlake Commercial District, Boardwalk, Chestnut Creek, Deer Creek, Hales Point, Long Island, Twin Cove, Waterfront, Waverly and Windmere Point communities, along Scruggs Road and along Route 122 to just past Wirtz Road are served by the Westlake Area Public Water System. The Western Virginia Water Authority and Bedford Regional Water Authority are pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. PWSID# 5067244 Data presented as (range) average.

18

Smith Mountain Lake

Water Treatment Facility

working together to provide the region’s drinking water


Substance

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Violation

Data Collected at the High Point Water Treatment Plant 0.02

Data Collected in the Westlake Area Water System

Regulated Substances Barium

ppm

2

2

no

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

0.18

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

0.069 0.28

Radioactive Contaminants Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

no

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

no

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

0 of 11 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 1.3 ppb

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 11 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.27 ppm

4

no

0.58

Lead and Copper Testing

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products ppm

(0.2 - 1.2) 0.5

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(15 - 22) LRAA (2.54 - 35) site range

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(55 - 65) LRAA (37.6 - 76.7) site range

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

no

0

Franklin County Systems

Chlorine

Microbiological Substances Total Coliforms

E. coli

P/A

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

n/a

(40 - 143) 88

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

n/a

241

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

n/a

(69 - 142) 93

Iron

ppm

0.3

n/a

(0 - 0.07) 0.01

Manganese

ppm

0.05

n/a

(0 - 0.03) 0.008

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

n/a

ND

no

(7.1 - 8.9) 7.6

n/a

10

n/a

ND

19


Alton Park Water System

Dillards Hill Water System

The Alton Park Water System is served by one groundwater well and related storage facility. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. PWSID# 5067020

In 2018, the Authority combined four existing waterworks (Contentment Island, Lands End, Highland Lakes and Lakestone) and constructed a new water treatment plant to form the Dillard Hill Water System to serve these communities.

Boxwood Green Water System Groundwater wells (Wells No. 3, 4 and 5) provide water for the Boxwood Green community. Greensand filters are used to remove iron, manganese and radium from the drinking water. Soda ash is used for pH adjustment and chlorine is used for disinfection of the water. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. PWSID# 5067042

Cherokee Hills Water System The Cherokee Hills community’s waterworks consists of two drilled wells and a storage tank. Treatment included sequestration for iron and manganese and chlorination. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. PWSID# 5067070

Compass Cove Water System This water system supplies water to the Compass Cove and Sunset Point Subdivisions. The waterworks consists of three drilled wells and a storage tank. Treatment includes iron and manganese removal. According to results of the chemical analyses for metals based on a sample collected in 2017, the sodium in the treated water is 37.9 mg/L. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 mg/L for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. PWSID# 5067083

20

The Dillards Hill Water System consists of nine drilled wells and related storage facility. Pre-treatment of the water includes the addition of soda ash, potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite solutions, and greensand filters are used to remove iron and manganese from the drinking water. According to results of the chemical analyses for metals based on a sample collected in 2016, the sodium in the treated water is 35.7mg/L. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 mg/L for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet. For 2017 data for Contentment Island, Lands End and Highland Lakes, please see the individual data sheets at www.westernvawater.org/ waterquality. Data from the Dillards Hill system presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067415


Substance

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Alton Park Water System

Boxwood Green Water System

Cherokee Hills Water System

Compass Cove Water System

Dillards Hill Water System

0.0689

0.0252

Regulated Substances Barium

ppm

2

2

0.0094

0.0349

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

0.05

0.16

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

ND

0.12

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

ND

(0.0 -2.0) 0.5

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

1.0

4.2

2.0

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

4.5

7.5

3.2

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

2.0

4.2

3.2

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 2.0 ppb

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 5.3 ppb

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 9 ppb

1 of 7 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 13 ppb

AL = 1.3

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.14 ppm

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.30 ppm

0 of 5samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.11 ppm

0 of 7 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.73 ppm

(0.2 - 2.0) 0.69

(0.11 - 2.04) 0.69

0.07 ND

0.06 ND

Radioactive Contaminants

Lead and Copper Testing Lead

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products 4

(0.1 - 3.2) 0.88

(0.01 - 2.32) 1.4

0

60

ND

3.64

ppb

0

80

ND

ND

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

0

0

0

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

0

0

0

Chlorine

ppm

HAA5

ppb

TTHM Microbiological Substances Total Coliforms

P/A

Franklin County Systems

E. coli

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

93.8

66

109

Conductivity

μmhos/ cm

unregulated

200

158

264

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

98.3

44.4

Iron

ppm

0.3

ND

0.036

ND

ND

Manganese

ppm

0.05

ND

0.0033

ND

ND

ND

0.03

ND

6.5 - 8.5

6.79

7.26

7.07

1.91

13.6

37.9

35.7

5

0.019

0.203

1.41

0.349

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

unregulated unregulated

42.1

21


Lakewood Forest Water System

Ridgecrest Water System

Groundwater wells (Wells 1, 2 and 3) provide water for the Lakewood Forest community. Ceramic media filters are used to remove iron and manganese for wells 1 and 3.

The Ridgecrest Water System is served by a groundwater well and related storage facility.

The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067400

Retreat Water System In 2018, the Authority interconnected the Retreatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distribution system to provide potable water to Cedar Ridge, Lake Forest, The Coves and The Retreat. Groundwater from wells located in Lake Forest and The Retreat is pumped to The Retreat where pre-treatment of the water includes the addition of potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite solutions, and greensand filters are used to remove iron and manganese from the drinking water. Once the water is filtered and disinfected, it is ready for consumption, and is introduced into the interconnected distribution system providing potable water to Cedar Ridge, Lake Forest, The Coves and The Retreat. Tests for volatile organics (VOCs), pesticides and synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) have been conducted, and all met current state and federal standards for drinking water. Total Xylene has a primary maximum contaminant level (PMCL) of 10,000 ppb. Total Xylene was detected in the Retreat Water System with a range of (ND - 1.28) ppb. Ethylbenzene has a primary maximum contaminant level (PMCL) of 700 ppb. Ethylbenzene waas detected in the Retreat Water System with a range of (ND - 0.38) ppb. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that the Retreat water system meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. For 2017 data for Cedar Ridge and Lake Forest, please see the individual data sheets at www.westernvawater.org/waterquality. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067776

22

Treatment consists of the addition of polyphosphate for removal of iron and manganese. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067785

Royal Estates Water System Groundwater wells (Wells 7 and 8) provide water for the Royal Estates community. Sodium hypochlorite and soda ash provide chlorine disinfection and pH adjustment. Tests for volatile organics (VOCs), pesticides and synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) have been conducted, and all met current state and federal standards for drinking water. Toluene has a primary maximum contaminant level (PMCL) of 1000 ppb. Toluene was detected in the Royal Estates water system with a value of 1.85 ppb. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067795


Substance

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Lakewood Forest Water System

Retreat Water System

Ridgecrest Water System

Royal Estates Water System

Current source for Cedar Ridge & Lake Forest

Regulated Substances Barium

ppm

2

2

(0.004 - 0.0164)

0.0405

0.0133

0.0138

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

(0.11 - 0.16)

0.07

0.06

0.04

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

(ND - 1.07)

ND

ND

0.43

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

0.08 - 0.46

ND

1.74

0.08

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

(3.1 - 6.9)

(1.9 - 6) 4.7

4.3

1.8

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

(5.8 - 6.4)

(3.5 - 12.5) 7.6

3.5

2.4

(1.43 - 2.62) 2.18

3.4

1.86)

Radioactive Contaminants

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

(0.47 - 0.98)

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 9 ppb

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.69 ppb

AL = 1.3

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.45 ppm

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.89 ppm

4

(0.01 - 3) 0.71

(0.02 - 2.3) 0.64

Lead and Copper Testing Lead

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorine

ppm

0

(0.2 - 2.12) 0.85

HAA5

ppb

0

60

ND

10.1

ND

TTHM

ppb

0

80

ND

57.6

1.91

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

0

0

1

0

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

0

0

0

0

Microbiological Substances

Franklin County Systems

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

(74 - 102)

184

77

50

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

(205 - 244)

414

198

91.9

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

Iron

ppm

Manganese

ppm

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

(74 - 100)

172

84.3

38

0.3

(ND - 0.22)

ND

0.245

0.041

0.05

(0.007 - 0.08)

0.0013

0.184

0.00192

ND

ND

0.84

0.24

(6.36 - 6.7)

7.33

7.04

6.69

(12.7 - 15)

15.3

5.66

9.46

(ND - 0.013)

0.018

0.045

0.43

unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

23


Timberlake Crossing Water System The Timberlake Crossing Water System is served by a groundwater well and related storage facility. Treatment consists of the addition of soda ash, sodium hypochlorite and potassium permanganate for disinfection and removal of iron and manganese. According to results of the chemical analyses for metals based on a sample collected in 2017, the sodium in the treated water is 31.8mg/L. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 mg/L for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet. This elevated level of sodium could be caused by the addition of soda ash for pH adjustment. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067951

Walnut Run Water System Groundwater wells (Wells 1, 2 and 3) provide water for the Walnut Run community. The three drilled wells use sodium hypochlorite and soda ash for chlorine disinfection and pH adjustment. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067951

Water’s Edge Water System Customers who live in The Water’s Edge community get their drinking water from four groundwater wells (Well No. 3, 4, 11 and 12) that are located throughout the Water’s Edge subdivision. Wells 4 and 11 go to the treatment plant where three greensand filters are used to remove iron, manganese and radium from the drinking water. In 2012, the Authority added an orthophosphate feed system for corrosion control and a sodium hydroxide feed system for pH adjustment both at the treatment plant and Well 12. Well 12 is also disinfected with chlorine. No treatment is added to Well No. 3. According to results of the chemical analyses for Metals based on a sample collected in 2015 for entry point EP001 (Wells No. 4 and 11), the sodium in the treated water is 37 mg/L and in Well 12, 32.5 mg/L (2017). This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 mg/L for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet. This elevated level of sodium could be caused by the sodium

24

hydroxide added to the water for pH adjustment. The Western Virginia Water Authority is pleased to report that this water meets all requirements, and there were no drinking water violations in calendar year 2017. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067961

Weatherwood Water System The Weatherwood Water System is served by four (4) groundwater wells and related storage facilities. The four drilled wells are treated with sodium hypochlorite and soda ash for chlorine disinfection, pH adjustment, and iron and manganese sequestration. Manganese levels are above the EPA’s recommended secondary maximum contaminant levels or (SMCLs) of 0.05 ppm. There are currently no known adverse health effects associated with the presence of manganese at this level; however, it can result in aesthetic problems such as staining or discoloration of clothes and fixtures, as well as the impairment of taste of beverages made with the water. According to results of the chemical analyses for metals based on a sample collected in 2017, the sodium in the treated water is 36.2mg/L. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 mg/L for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet. This elevated level of sodium could be caused by the addition of soda ash for pH adjustment. Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally present in the environment and are used as an indicator that other, potentially harmful, waterborne pathogens may be present or that a potential pathway exists through which contamination may enter the drinking water distribution system. We found coliforms indicating the need to look for potential problems in water treatment or distribution. When this occurs, we are required to conduct assessments to identify problems and to correct any problems that are found. During the past year, we were required to conduct one Level 1 assessment. One Level 1 assessment was completed. In addition, we were required to take three corrective actions, and we completed those three actions by adding chlorine disinfection to the water. Data presented as (range) average. PWSID# 5067959


Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Timberlake Crossing Water System

Walnut Run Water System

Water’s Edge Water System

Weatherwood Water System

Barium

ppm

2

2

0.05

0.0791

(0.003 - 0.06)

0.0484

Substance

Regulated Substances

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

0.12

ND

(0.06 - 1.71)

0.17

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

ND

0.44

(ND - 0.57)

0.06

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

ND

(ND - 32.3)

1.55

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

0.44

(-0.46 - 12.8) 6.3

2.7

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

9.2

(-0.68 - 9.4) 8.1

4.7

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

0.49

(0.94 - 4.6) 4.6

4.1

AL = 15

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 5 ppb

0 of 8 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 2.8 ppb

0 of 10 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 4 ppb

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 7 ppb

AL = 1.3

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.1 ppm

0 of 8 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.18 ppm

0 of 10 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.66 ppm

0 of 5 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 1.2 ppm

4

(0.23 - 2.5) 0.73

(0.2 1.31) 0.67

(0.01 - 0.49) 3

(0.03 - 2.0) 0.51

Radioactive Contaminants

Lead and Copper Testing Lead

Copper

ppb

ppm

0 ppb

1.3 ppm

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorine

ppm

HAA5

ppb

0

60

1.96

1.9

6.09

TTHM

ppb

0

80

8.68

1.97

15.8

Total Coliforms

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

0

0

0

2

E. coli

P/A

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

0

0

0

0

(52.5 - 86.9)

163

(24 - 151)

163

Microbiological Substances

Franklin County Systems

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

Conductivity

μmhos/cm

unregulated

(148 - 230)

413

(56.8 - 322)

350

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

(13.0 -13.4)

169

(13.8 - 136)

87.9

Iron

ppm

0.3

0.053

0.033

(ND - 1.67)

0.257

Manganese

ppm

0.05

0.0018

0.126

(ND - 0.00048)

3.18

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

ND

(ND - 0.09)

ND

7.19

(5.57 - 7.43)

7.18

31.8

10.8

(11 -37)

36.2

0.039

0.008

(ND - 0.071)

0.012

25


On July 1, 2015, Botetourt County consolidated its utility system with the Western Virginia Water Authority. This joinder allowed for the expansion of the Carvins Cove service area to include customers in the former Greenfield and Tinkerview Garden well service areas. The water quality of Carvins Cove, particularly in terms of the mineral content, is more beneficial to meeting the needs of industries and residents. Other customers in the Botetourt service area receive water from community wells.

MO

O AD

SE

E

RE

1,000 Feet

ID G E

M

CA VE

IL

500 1,000 Feet

DR

ED

BE

0

BR

500

ET

TI M

OO D

TO

W

N

D GR

W

0

LT P

C

U

R AIL WA Y

AL

H SA

O

AN

L

RR Y QU A ROA NOK E RD

LD

EH

M

C

AR

O

L

R

Griffith Park

BU R

FI E

CHURC R

FF

O

LR

Walnut Manor Reservoirs

FI

H

U

RO W N AR GE A PASS

IN D

IA

HI GH

H

AI

Keswick Farms

C KS

NC

R

Glen Wilton Griffith Park

N

BR A

Eagle Rock

BLA

UN

TA IN

Glen Wilton

Eagle Rock

Water Main Carvins Cove Dal-Nita

AR

Botetourt County Water System

TOWN OF IRON GATE

CITY OF COVINGTON CA TA W

BA

TI

M

0 150 300 Feet

BE

R

ALLEGHANY COUNTY RD

ROCKBRIDGE COUNTY

BOTETOURT COUNTY

TOWN OF TROUTVILLE

D

Y

R LE Y VAL

LE E

HW

BOTETOURT COUNTY

CRAIG COUNTY

TOWN OF BUCHANAN

TOWN OF FINCASTLE

ER RD DA LE

IN T

ER S 81 TATE NB

CL OV

Carvins Cove

TOWN OF TROUTVILLE

Carvins Cove

BEDFORD COUNTY

ROANOKE COUNTY L EL W AD D R

26

SH

ON MS L IA W IL R D

ROANOKE COUNTY

0

0.5

1 Miles

CITY OF ROANOKE

Beaverdam

0

1

2 Miles


Customers in Greenfield and along the southern end of US Route 220 to the I-81 exit 150 interchange receive water from the treatment plant that treats surface water from Carvins Cove Reservoir.

Greenfield and Tinkerview Garden Areas Substance

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Violation

Carvins Cove Data (range) average

ppm

2

2

no

0.0515

Regulated Substances Barium Fluoride

ppm

4

4

no

(0.7 - 1.0) 0.8

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

no

ND

Total Organic Carbon

ppm

TT

N/A

no

(1.64 - 2.14) 1.84

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

no

(0.06 - 0.3) 0.17

pCi/L

0

15

no

0.7

Radioactive Contaminants Gross Alpha Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

no

1.7

Radium 228

pCi/L

0

5

no

< 0.35

Lead

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

no

1 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 2.7 ppb

Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

no

0 of 51 samples exceeded AL 90th percentile = 0.46 ppm

Lead and Copper Testing

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorate

ppm

0.8

no

(0.018 - 0.15) 0.071

Chlorine

ppm

4

no

(1.2 - 2.4) 1.4

Chlorite

ppm

0.8

no

(ND - 0.087) 0.024

HAA5s

ppb

0

60

no

(ND - 82) site range (4 - 62) LRAA range

TTHMs

ppb

0

80

no

(2.8 - 110) site range (27 - 66) LRAA range

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

no

0

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

no

0

99.9% removal or inactivation

no

0.1 (Jan 2016)/0.1 (Feb 2016)

Microbiological Substances Total Coliforms E.coli

P/A

Source Water Testing - this data does not apply to treated water Cryptosporidium

Oocysts per 1L

0

Unregulated and Secondary Substances ppm

unregulated

n/a

(36 - 44) 41

μmhos/cm

unregulated

n/a

106

Hardness (Total)

ppm

unregulated

Iron

ppm

Manganese

ppm

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

n/a

(42 - 60) 50

0.3

n/a

(0.03 - 0.11) 0.05

0.05

n/a

(0.001 - 0.04) 0.02

n/a

(0.23 - 0.36) 0.31

unregulated 6.5 - 8.5 unregulated 5

no

(7.3 - 7.9) 7.7

n/a

4.49

n/a

0.00252

27

Botetourt County Systems

Alkalinity Conductivity


Botetourt Well Systems Dal-Nita Hills

Griffith Park

Water from Dal-Nita Hills well comes from a groundwater well and is distributed throughout the community by a storage tank and distribution piping. Chlorination treatment is provided. According to results of the chemical analyses for metals, the sodium in the treated water is 63.6 ppm. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 ppm for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet. A source water assessment for the Dal-Nita Hills well has been completed by the Virginia Department of Health. The assessment determined that the well may be susceptible to contamination because it is located in an area that promotes migration of contaminants from land use activities of concern. Public education materials on lead and copper are distributed to customers in this system each year.

Your drinking water is groundwater obtained from a drilled well. Water is pumped from the well to a metal storage tank behind the well house. A booster pump in the well house draws water from the tank and sends it to a pressure tank (also in the well house) and then throughout the community. Treatment is provided for iron and manganese. A small pump in the well house feeds a blend of orthophosphate and polyphosphate to sequester iron and manganese. Chlorine feed equipment was installed to continuously disinfect the water.

Eagle Rock Your drinking water is groundwater obtained from two wells. Disinfection treatment (by chlorination) is provided for both wells prior to discharge to the storage tank. Water is distributed from the storage tank by gravity. Five samples were tested for Lead. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 2.33 ppb. Five samples were tested for Copper. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 0.086 ppm.

Glen Wilton Your drinking water is groundwater and can be obtained from three wells. All wells are treated for iron and manganese removal by chemical precipitation and filtration and chlorine for disinfection. Wells 1 and 2 have higher levels of iron and manganese and these wells are normally not used. Well 3 is the primary source. Water is pumped from the treatment building to the storage tank and distribution piping. Five samples were tested for Lead. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 1.2 ppb. Five samples were tested for Copper. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 0.026 ppm. According to results of the chemical analyses for metals, the sodium in the treated water is 21.2 ppm. This is above the EPA recommended optimal level of less than 20 ppm for sodium in drinking water, which is established for those individuals on a “strict” sodium intake diet.

28

Tests for volatile organics (VOCs), pesticides and synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) have been conducted, and all met current state and federal standards for drinking water. Total Xylene has a primary maximum contaminant level (PMCL) of 10,000 ppb. Total Xylene was detected at Griffith Park with a range of (ND - 1.98) ppb. Ethylbenzene has a primary maximum contaminant level (PMCL) of 10,000 ppb. Ethylbenzene waas detected at Griffith Park with a range of (ND - 0.39) ppb. Five samples were tested for Lead. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 1.1 ppb. Five samples were tested for Copper. No samples exceeded the Action Level and the 90th percentile was 0.56 ppm.

Keswick Farms Your drinking water is groundwater obtained from a drilled well. Water is distributed throughout the community by a storage tank and distribution piping. Chlorination treatment is provided. Public education materials on lead and copper are distributed to customers in this system each year.

Walnut Manor Your drinking water is groundwater obtained from a drilled well. Water is distributed throughout the community by a storage tank and distribution piping. Chlorination treatment is provided. Public education materials on lead and copper are distributed to customers in this system each year.


Substance

Units

Ideal Goals (EPA’s MCLG)

Highest Level Allowed (EPA’s MCL)

Dal-Nita Hills Wells

Eagle Rock Wells

Glen Wilton Wells

Griffith Park Wells

Keswick Farm Wells

Walnut Manor Wells

Regulated Substances Barium

ppm

2

2

0.0426

0.174

0.144

0.128

0.141

0.121

Fluoride

ppm

4

4

0.08

<0.2

0.11

0.14

0.44

2.2

Total Nitrate & Nitrite (as N)

ppm

10

10

3.32

ND

Turbidity

NTU

TT

0.3

0.126

Gross Alpha

pCi/L

0

15

1.8

Gross Beta

pCi/L

0

50

Combined Radium

pCi/L

0

5

ppb

0 ppb

AL = 15

0.64

ND

ND

1.99

0.45

0.084

(2.94 - 16.8)

0.105

0.136

1.1

0.7

0.6

<0.27

(2.3 - 6.9)

5.1

2.1

<0.61

1.7

1.2

(0.7 - 15.9)

1.9

0.62

<0.4

1.3

<0.6

3.5

1.51

0.44

0.0158

0.00282

Radioactive Contaminants

Lead and Copper Testing Lead

See page 28 Copper

ppm

1.3 ppm

AL = 1.3

0.0335

4

(0.7 - 1.0) 0.9

(0.8-1.0) 0.9

(0.9 - 1.3) 1.1

(0.5 - 1.1) 0.9

(0.5 - 0.9) 0.7

(0.5 - 0.8) 0.7

Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products Chlorine

ppm

HAA5

ppb

0

60

5.34

ND

1.16

4.78

(ND - 2.42)

6.35

TTHM

ppb

0

80

9.61

ND

3.76

5.08

(2.82 - 4.34)

12.4

P/A

0

Presence of coliform bacteria in >5% of monthly samples

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

A routine and a repeat sample are total coliform positive, and one is also fecal coliform or E. coli positive.

0

0

0

0

0

0

134

151

322

350

Microbiological Substances Total Coliforms

E. coli

P/A

Unregulated and Secondary Substances Alkalinity

ppm

unregulated

500

μmhos/cm

unregulated

1124

362

478

810

676

ppm

unregulated

508

129

208

388

410

Iron

ppm

0.3

ND

ND

(0.941 - 4.51)

ND

0.025

Manganese

ppm

0.05

0.00018

0.00291

(0.282 - 0.418)

0.00004

0.00108

ND

ND

0.01

ND

ND

6.5 - 8.5

6.89

7.9

6.93

7.18

7.48

63.6

21.2

9.41

11.8

5.37

5

0.0123

0.00302

0.0068

0.00569

0.0735

Orthophosphate as P

ppm

pH

pH units

Sodium

ppm

Zinc

ppm

unregulated unregulated

29

Botetourt County Systems

Conductivity Hardness (Total)


The Western Virginia Water Authority utilizes four surface water sources in the Roanoke Valley - Carvins Cove, Spring Hollow, Beaverdam Creek and Falling Creek Reservoirs. Each of these bodies of water is impounded by a dam which is physically inspected annually. The Western Virginia Water Authority has published this information to inform customers in the unlikely event of a catastrophic dam failure. If this should occur, or if conditions should occur that would increase the likelihood of such an event occurring, the public would be notified through all major media outlets. You can also register your phone number with the Authority through our CodeRed system. This free service is an automated phone dialing system that notifies our customers of important information including

30


safety issues, water service interruptions and late payment notifications. To learn more about the risk of flooding to your property, and to learn how you can protect yourself, please visit the FloodSafe.gov website. FEMA also offers informative publications about dam safety. Living with Dams: Know Your Risks was published in 2013 and Living with Dams: Extreme Rainfall Events was published in 2015. If you have specific questions about the Western Virginia Water Authority dam inundation information or to see if you property is located in an inundation zone, please see https://www.westernvawater. org/drinking-water/dam-safety-information

31

get notified: www.westernvawater.org/codered


Classroom Presentations

The Authority’s outreach staff is pleased to offer free Standards of Learning (SOL) correlated lessons to students in our service area. During the past school year, more than 13,000 students participated in our outreach programs. These hands-on programs help students understand concepts such as the water cycle, watersheds and the amazing properties of water. Students in the upper grades learn about watershed protection, GIS mapping and future careers in the water and wastewater industry. Interested in bringing the Water Authority into your classroom? Email us at education@westernvawater.org to schedule a visit.

Guest Speakers

Interested in having a speaker talk to your civic league or community group? We’d be happy to talk to your group about your water source, how we treat your water and improvements we are making to the water and wastewater infrastructure. Contact us at info@westernvawater.org for scheduling and information.

Using water wisely in times of drought is critical; however, it is always important to use our valuable natural resource wisely. •

Fix leaks in faucets, toilet tanks and outside spigots. Check for a toilet leak by putting some food coloring in your toilet tank. The next morning, if any of the color shows up in the bowl without flushing, you have a leak. A leaky toilet can waste up to 200 gallons of water per day.

In the laundry or kitchen, use full loads in your washing machine and dishwasher to maximize efficiency.

Don’t overwater your lawn. If you water your lawn, it only needs 1 to 1.5 inches of water every week or two. Water your garden or lawn before 10 AM or after 7 PM when temperatures are cooler to minimize evaporation.

While brushing your teeth, turn off the water and save two gallons of water.

Taking shorter showers saves water. Shorten your shower to five minutes.

Have a leak? Fix it and let us know right away. If your meter records a continuous high flow of consumption, we’ll notify you about a potential leak.

Research

The Western Virginia Water Authority has partnered with Virginia Tech researchers and graduate students since the 1990s to lead water quality research projects on the Authority’s drinking water reservoirs. This partnership trains graduate students with realworld experiences while providing valuable data for management. Students inform reservoir management of oxygenation, discharge rates, water chemistry and more. As a result of the research, oxygen is now fed into the reservoirs to keep naturally occurring iron and manganese locked in the sediment layers, saving the expense of chemical addition in the treatment facilities. Algal blooms are also reduced as a result of the increased oxygen because it locks up nitrogen and phosphorus, essential components of algae growth, in the reservoir sediments. Through this Virginia Tech partnership, the Western Virginia Water Authority has the strongest track record of water quality monitoring of any Virginia utility.

Tours

of our treatment facilities and reservoirs are offered for students, civic and community groups. You will be amazed to learn what goes on behind the faucet as we treat and deliver the highest quality drinking water to our customers. We’d love to show you how we treat your water. To request a visit, please call 853.5700 or email education@westernvawater.org

www.westernvawater.org info@westernvawater.org 853.5700 32

Western Virginia Water Authority's 2018 Drinking Water Quality Report  

The Water Authority is pleased to provide you with information on your drinking water

Western Virginia Water Authority's 2018 Drinking Water Quality Report  

The Water Authority is pleased to provide you with information on your drinking water