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Drig Drishya Vivek of Shri Adi Shankaracharya (with meaning in Hindi and English)

Published by International Vedanta Mission www.vmission.org.in / vmission@gmail.com


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Drig Drishya Vivek

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:ia n`';a ykspua n`d~ rn~n`';a n`Drq ekule~A n`';k% /kho`Ùk;Llk{kh n`xso u rq n`';rsAA :i n`'; gS vkSj us= n`"VkA ;s us=&n`"Vk Hkh eu dh n`f"V ls n`'; dh Js.kh esa vk tkrs gaSA eu 'kCn ls yf{kr lHkh o`fÙk;k¡ Hkh lk{kh dh n`f"V ls n`'; gaSA ;g lk{kh fdlh ds }kjk n`'; ugha curk gS] vr% og gh okLrfod n`"Vk gSA The form is perceived and the eye is its perceiver. The eye is perceived and the mind its perceiver. The mind with its modifications is perceived and the witness is verily the perceiver, but it is not perceived.

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uhyihrLFkw y lw { e gÂŞLonh?kZkfn Hksnr%A ukukfo/kkfu :ikf.k i';s Y yks p ues d /kkAA gekjh vka[k lk{kh cudj uhyk] ihyk] LFkwy] lw{e] NksVk] cM+k vkfn vusdksa izdkj ds :iksa dks ns[krh gSA The forms appear as various on account of such distinctions as blue, yellow, gross, subtle, short, long etc. The eye, on the other hand, sees them, itself remaining one and the same.

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vkU/;ekU|iVq R os " kq us=/kesZ"kq pSd/kkA ladYi;sUeu% Jks= RoxknkS ;ksT;rkfene~AA ml vka[k dk vU/kkiu] eUnrk ;k rh{.krk vkfn fofo/k /keksZa dks gekjk ,d eu tkurk gSA blh izdkj ls d.kZ] Ropk vkfn bfUnz;ksa ds fo"k;ksa ds ckjs esa Hkh le>uk pkfg;sA Such characteristics of the eye as blindness, sharpness or dullness, the mind is able to cognize because it is a unity. This also applies to the ear, skin etc.

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Drig Drishya Vivek

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dke% ladYilansgkS J)k·J)s /k`rhrjsA gªh/khZHkhZfjR;soeknhu~ Hkkl;R;sd/kk fpfr%AA dkeuk] ladYi] lansg] J)k] vJ)k] /kS;Z] yTtk] Kku] Hk; vkfn eu dh fofo/k o`fÙk;ksa dks Hkh ,d gh lk{kh psrurk izdkf'kr djrh gSA Consciousness illumines desire, determination and doubt, belief and non belief, constancy and its opposite, modesty, understanding, fear and other, because it is a unity.

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Drig Drishya Vivek

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uksnsfr ukLresR;s"kk u o`f)a ;kfr u {k;e~A Lo;a foHkkR;FkkU;kfu Hkkl;sr~ lk/kua foukAA lk{kh psrurk dk u gh mn; gksrk gS] vkSj u gh vLr gksrk gSA blesa dksbZ o`f) vFkok {k; ugha gksrs gaAS ;g Lo;a izdkf'kr gksrh gS] rFkk oxSj fdlh lk/ku dh vis{kk ds vU; leLr dks izdkf'kr djrh gSA This Consciousness does neither rise nor set. It does not increase; nor does it suffer decay. Being self-luminous, it illumines everything else without any other aid.

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fpPNk;kos'krks cq)kS Hkkua /khLrq f}/kk fLFkrkA ,dkgaÑfrjU;k L;kr~ vUr%dj.k:fi.khAA cqf) esa psrurk dk izfrfcEc iM+rs gh tM+ cqf) LQwfrZ ls ;qDr gks tkrh gSA rFkk blesa tkuus dk lkeF;Z tx tkrk gSA rRi'pkr~ ;g cqf) nks izdkj dh fof'k"V o`fÙk;ksa ls ;qDr fn[kus yxrh gSA izFke vgadkj vkSj nwljh vUr%dj.k o`fÙkA

Buddhi appears to possess luminosity on account of the reflection of Consciousness in it. Intelligence is of two kinds. One is designated egoity, the other as mind.

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Nk;kgadkj;ksjSD;a rIrk;%fi.MoUere~ A rnga d kjrknkRE;kr~ nsg'psrurkexkr~ AA izfrfcfEcr psrurk vkSj vgadkj dk lEcU/k ris gq, yksgs ds xksys vkSj vfXu ds leku gksrk gSA vgadkj tc nsg ls rknkRE; djrk gS] rc nsg Hkh psruoku~ gks tkrk gSA In the opinion of the wise, the identity of the reflection and of ego is like the identity of the fire and the iron ball. The body having been identified with the ego passes for a conscious entity.

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vgadkjL; rknkRE; fpPNk;kns g lkf{kfHk%A lgta deZta HkzkfUr tU;a p f=fo/ka Øekr~AA vgadkj dk fpnkHkkl] nsg vkSj lk{kh pSrU; ds lkFk rknkRE; Øe'k% lgt] deZt vkSj HkzkfUrtU; gksrk gSA The identification of the ego with the reflection of Consciousness, the body and the Witness are of three kinds, namely, natural, due to past karma, and due to ignorance, respectively.

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lEcfU/kuks% lrksukZfLr fuo`fÙk% lgtL; rqA deZ{k;kr~ izcks/kkPp fuorZsrs ØeknqHksAA vgadkj dk fpr~izfrfcEc ds lkFk ds lgt rknkRE; gS] mldh fuo`fÙk ugha gksrh gSA fdUrq 'ks"k nks izdkj ds rknkRE;ksa dh fuo`fÙk Øe'k% deZ{k; vkSj rÙoKku ls gksrh gSA The mutual identification of the ego and the reflection of Consciousness, which is natural, does not cease so long as they are taken to be real. The other two identification disappear after the wearing out of the result o Karma and the attainment of the knowledge of the highest Reality respectively.

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Drig Drishya Vivek

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vgadkjy;s lqIrkS Hkosn~ nsgks路I;psru%A vga d kjfodklk/kZ % LoIu% loZLrq tkxj%AA vgadkj tc iw.kZ y; dks izkIr gksrk gS] ml le; nsg dh vpsrurk ls yf{kr lq"kqfIr voLFkk izkIr gksrh gSA vgadkj ds v/kZfodkl esa LoIukoLFkk rFkk vgadkj ds iw.kZfodkl ls tkxzr voLFkk izkIr gksrh gSA In the state of deep sleep, when ego disappears the body also becomes unconscious. The state in which there is the half manifestation of the ego is called the dream state, and the full manifestation of the ego is the state of waking.

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vUr%dj.ko` f Ùk'p fpfrPNk;S D ;ekxrk%A okluk% dYi;sr~ LoIus cks/ks·{kSfoZ"k;kUcfg%AA cqf) dh vUr%dj.k o`fÙk Hkh izfrfcfEcr psrurk ds lkFk rknkRE; dj thoUr gks tkrh gSA okluk ds vuq:i LoIu txr~ dk l`tu djrh gSA tkxzr~ esa Hkh blh o`fÙk ds }kjk cká fo"k;ksa dh dYiuk gksrh gSA The inner organ which in itself but a modification identifying itself with the reflection of Consciousness imagines ideas in the dream. And the same inner organ imagines objects external to itself in the waking state with respect to the sense-organs.

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euks·gaÑR;qiknkua fyaxesda tMkRede~A voLFkk=;eUos f r tk;rs fez;rs rFkkAA vUr%dj.k o`fÙk&eu rFkk vgadkjo`fÙk dk miknku ,d gh tM+ fyax'kjhj gSA bl fyax vFkok lw{e 'kjhj ds vkokxeu ds dkj.k gh rhu voLFkkvksa dh ,oa tUe&ej.k dh izkfIr gksrh gSA The subtle body which is the material cause of the mind and egoism is one and of the nature of in sentiency. It moves in the three states and is born and it dies.

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'kfDr};a fg ek;k;k fo{ks i ko` f Ùk:ide~ A fo{ks i 'kfDrfy± x kfn czãk.MkUra txr~ l`tsr~AA ek;k dh nks 'kfDr;k¡ gS&fo{ksi 'kfDr vkSj vkoj.k 'kfDrA fo{ksi 'kfDr fyax 'kjhj ls ysdj czãk.M rd dk l`tu djrh gSA Two powers, undoubtedly, are predicated of Maya, viz., those of projecting are veiling. The projecting power creates everything from the subtle body to the gross universe.

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l`f"VukZe czã:is lfPpnkuUnoLrq f uA vC/kkS QsukfnoRk~ loZ uke:iiz l kj.kkAA tSls ,d lkxj esa vusd Qsu&cqnc ~ n q as vkfn :i mRié gksrs gS] oSls gh ,d lr~ fpr~ vkuUn Lo:i czã esa vusd uke vkSj :iksa ds izlkj.k gks tkus dks l`f"V dgrs gSA The manifesting of all names and forms in the entity which is Existence – Consciousness – Bliss and which is the same as Brahman, like the foams etc. in the ocean, is known as creation.

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vUrnZ`Xn`';;ksHksZna cfg'p cz達lxZ;ks%A vko`.kksR;ijk 'kfDr% lk lalkjL; dkj.ke~AA vUnj n`"Vk vkSj n`'; dk Hksn djds] ckgj cz達 vkSj lxZ ds Hksnksa dks ek;k dh vkoj.k 'kfDr <+d nsrh gSA ;g gh lalkj dk dkj.k gSA The other power conceals the distinction between the perceiver and the perceived objects which are cognized within the body as well as the distinction between Brahman and the phenomenal universe which is perceived outside. This power is the cause of the phenomenal universe.

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lkf{k.k% iqjrks Hkkfr fyaxa nsgsu la;qre~A fpfrPNk;klekos ' kkr~ tho% L;kn~ O;kogkfjd%AA tho 'kCn ml ¼eu ds vUrxZr fo|eku½ O;ogkj djus okys drkZ ds fy;s iz;D q r gksrk gS] tks lk{kh ds vR;Ur fudV gksrk gS] rFkk tks psrurk dh Nk;k ls ;qDr gksus ds dkj.k gh thoUr gksrk gSA The subtle body which exists in close proximity to the Witness identifying itself with gross body becomes the embodied empirical self, on account of its being affected by the reflection of Consciousness

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vL; thoRoekjksikr~ lkf{k.;I;oHkklrs A vko`ÙkkS rq fou"Vk;ka Hksns Hkkrs·i;kfr rr~AA vfoosdh euq"; bl tho ds thoRo dk vkjksi.k lk{kh esa djds ml lk{kh dks gh tho :i ls ns[krk gSA tc foosd izkIr djds tho ,oa lk{kh dks ;Fkkor~ ns[k fy;k tkrk gS rc vkoj.k 'kfDr uk'k dks izkIr gks tkrh gSA The character of an embodied self appear through false superimposition in the Sakshi also. With the disappearance of the veiling power, the distinction between the seer and the object becomes clear and with it the jiva character of the Sakshi disappears.

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Drig Drishya Vivek

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rFkk lxZczã.kks'p Hksneko`R; fr"BfrA ;k 'kfDrLr}'kkn~ czã foÑrRosu HkklrsAA ;g vkoj.k 'kfDr gh czã vkSj l`f"V ds Hksn dks Hkh <+d nsrh gS] ,oa blh ds dkj.k czã uke&:iksa ds /keksZ ls ;qDr fodkjh Hkklrk gSA Similarly Brahman, through the influence of the power that conceals the distinction between It and the phenomenal universe, appears as endowed with the attributes of change.

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v=kI;ko` f Ùkuk'ks u foHkkfr czãlxZ;ks%A HksnLr;ksfoZdkj% L;kr~ lxsZ u czãf.k Dofpr~A ;gk¡ ij Hkh vkoj.k ds uk'k gksus ij nksuksa ¼czã vkSj l`f"V½ dk Hksn Li"V gks tkrk gS vkSj fodkj ek= ^l`f"V esa gh gksrs gS czã esa ugha* ;g ckr Li"V gks tkrh gSA In this case also, the distinction between Brahman and the phenomenal universe becomes clear with the disappearance of the veiling power. Therefore change is perceived in the phenomenal universe, but never in Brahman.

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vfLr Hkkfr fiz;a :ia uke psR;a'kiapde~A vk|=;a czã:ia txnzwia rrks };e~AA txr~ dk izR;sd fo"k; ikap va'kksa ls ;qDr gksrk gSA ;s vfLr ¼gksuk½] Hkkfr ¼Hkkflr gksuk½] fiz;rk] uke rFkk :i gSA blesa izFke rhu czã:i gSa] vkSj 'ks"k nks txnzwi gSaA Every entity has five characteristics, viz., existence, effulgence, lovability, form and name. Of these, the first three are reflection of Brahman, and the next two to the creation.

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[ka ok;q vfXutyksohZ"kq nsofr;Zad~ ujkfn"kqA vfHkék% lfPpnkuUnk fHk|rs :iukeuhAA vkdk'k] ok;q] vfXu] ty] rFkk i`Foh egkHkwrksa ls cus tM+ iziap esa] rFkk nsork] i'kq euq"; vkfn psruizkf.k;ksa esa lfPpnkuUn rÙo vfHké gS] Hksn ek= uke&:iksa dh n`f"V ls gh gksrs gSA The attributes of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss are equally present in the space, air, fire, water and earth as well as in deities, animals and men etc. Names and forms alone make one differ from the other.

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mis{; uke:is }s lfPpnkuUnrRij%A lekf/ka loZnk dq;kZn~ ân;s ok·Fkok cfg%AA txr~ 'kCn ls yf{kr ^uke vkSj :iksa* dh mis{kk djds] vius eu esa vFkok cká txr~ esa lfPpnkuUn Lo:i czã dks gh loZ= ns[krs gq, mlh esa fpÙk dks lekfgr djus dk lrr iz;kl djuk pkfg;sA Having become indifferent to name and form and being devoted to Sac-chid-ananda aspects, one should always practice samadhi either within the heart or outside.

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lfodYiks fufoZZdYi% lekf/kf}Zfo/kks âfnA n`';'kCnkuqos/ksu lfodYi% iquf}Z/kkAA vc lekf/k dk ifjp; nsrs gq, dgrs gaS fd lekf/k dh izkfIr nks pj.kksa esa fl) gksrh gS] lfodYi vkSj fufoZdYi lekf/kA lfodYi lekf/ k esa Hkh Øe ls nks Li"V pj.k gksrs gSa & n`';kuqfo) vkSj 'kCnkuqfo)A Two kinds of Samadhi to be practised in the heart are know as Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Savikalpa-Samadhi is again divided into two classes, according to its association with a cognizable object or a scriptural word.

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dkek|kf'pÙkxk n`';k% rRlkf{kRosu psrue~A /;k;sn~ n`';kuqfo)ks·;a lekf/k% lfodYid%AA ân; esa n`';kuqfo) lfodYi lekf/k ds vH;kl gsrq bl rF; dk lexzrk ls vFkZ ns[kks fd ^dkekfn lHkh cqf) o`fÙk;k¡ n`'; gSa] rFkk ge mlds lk{kh psru rÙo gSaA* blds QyLo:i tks vUr%fLFkfr mRié gksrh gS mls gh n`';kuqfo) lfodYi lekf/k dgrs gSAa See the desires etc as objects of perception, and see yourself, the consciousness, as their seer. When we deeply meditate on these facts then we glide into an quiet yet awareful state which is called Dryshya prompted Savikalpa-Samadhi, facilitated by seer-seen viveka.

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vlax% lfPpnkuUn% LoizHkks }SroftZr%A vLehfr 'kCnfo)ks·;a lekf/k% lfodYid%AA rRi'pkr~ 'kCnkuqfo) lfodYi lekf/k dk vH;kl djuk pkfg;sA blesa 'kkL=ksDr y{k.kkvksa dks] tSls vlax] lfPpnkuUn] Loizdk'k] }Srjfgr rRo gh eSa gaWwA bUgsa fufeÙk cukdj Lo&Lo:i dk vkSj xgjkbZ ls Kku izkIr djds lekfgr gksdj fLFkr jgus dks 'kCnkuqfo) lfodYi lekf/k dgrs gSAa Using the scriptural pointers as: I am Existence- Consciousness-Bliss, unattached, selfluminous and free from duality etc., one should go deep into the truth of seer, and abide in that Self. This is known as the Savikalpa-Samadhi facilitated by scriptural words.

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LokuqHkwfrjlkos'kkn~ n`';'kCnkoqis{; rqA fufoZ d YiLlekf/kLL;kr~ fuokrfLFkr nhior~AA n`'; vkSj 'kCnkuqfo) lfodYi lekf/k;ksa ds gsrqHkwr rĂ&#x2122;o&foosd ds QyLo:i tc ,d rjQ LokuqHkwfr ds fnO;jl dk vR;f/kd vkfoHkkZo gksrk gS] rFkk nwljh rjQ foosdo'kkr~ gh lekfgr voLFkk ds jl ls Hkh fujis{k gksdj fuokrLFk nhi ds leku fLFkr jgrs gSa] rc fufoZdYi lekf/k lgtrk ls izkIr gks tkrh gSA The Nirviklpa-Samadhi is that in which the mind becomes steady like the light kept in a place free from wind and in which the student becomes indifferent to both objects and words on account of his complete absorption in the bliss of the realization of the Self.

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ânho ckáns'ks·fi ;fLeu~ dfLea'p oLrqfuA lekf/kjk|LlUek=kr~ uke:ii` F kDÑfr%AA ftl izdkj vius eu esa ¼n`x~&n`'; foosd ls izkjEHk dj lekf/k rd xfr gqbZ½ mlh izdkj cká ns'k esa Hkh fdlh Hkh fo"k; dks fufeÙk cukdj loZizFke n`';kuqfo) lekf/k fl) djus gsrq fo"k; ds vUrxZr lRLo:irk ls uke:i dks i`Fkd~ djuk pkfg;sA Like the samadhi prompted by drg-dryshya, one should now practice samadhi using any external objects. Here the firsst step is to discriminate between names & forms and pure existence.

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v[k.MSdjla oLrq lfPpnkuUn y{k.ke~A bR;fofPNé fpUrs;a lekf/keZ/;eks Hkosr~AA rRi'pkr~ ;g lÙkk v[k.M] ,djl] lfPpnkuUn Lo:i czã gh gSA bl izdkj fdlh u fdlh fo"k; dks fufeÙk cukdj lrr rÙofoosd cuk, j[kuk e/;e izdkj dh vFkkZr~ 'kCnkuqfo) lfodYi lekf/k gksrh gSA The entity which is always of the same nature and unlimited and which is characterized by Existence- ConsciousnessBliss, is verily Brahman. Such uninterrupted reflection is called the intermediate absorption, that is the Savikalpa-Samadhi associated with scriptural word.

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LrC/khHkkoks jlkLoknkr~ r`rh;a iwoZoUer%A ,rSLlekf/kfHk% "kM~fHk% u;sRdkya fujUrje~AA tc LokuqHkwfr ds jlkLoknu ls LrC/khHkko rqY; voLFkk gksrh gS] rc og rhljs izdkj dh vFkkZr~ fufoZdYi lekf/k gks tkrh gSA bl izdkj Ng lekf/k ds vH;kl esa viuk dky O;rhr djuk pkfg;sA The insensibility of the mind as before, on account of the experience of Bliss, is designated as the third kind of Samadhi (Nirvikalpa). The practitioner should uninterruptedly spend his time in these six kinds of Samadhi.

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nsgkfHkekus xfyrs foKkrs ijekRefuA ;= ;= euks ;kfr r= r= lek/k;%AA ftl le; nsgkfHkeku dk uk'k rFkk ijekRek dk foKku izkIr gks tkrk gS] mlds ckn eu dgha ij Hkh tk, og lekf/k voLFkk esa gh jerk gSA With the disappearance of the attachment to the body and with the realization of the Supreme Self, to whatever object the mind is directed, one effortlessly revels in Samadhi.

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fHk|rs ân;xzfUFk% fN|Urs loZla'k;k%A {kh;Urs pkL; dekZf.k rfLeu~ n`"Vs ijkojsAA ek;k ls ijs bl fnO; rÙo dk n'kZu gksus ij ân; esa fLFkr vfo|k rFkk leLr deksZ dk {k; gks tkrk gSA By beholding Him who is high and low, the fetters of the heart are broken, all doubts are solved and all his karmas wear away.

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Drig-Drishya Viveka  

Drog-Drishya Viveka is a very well-known and important text of Adwaita Vedanta. A must read by all students. We are happy to publish the moo...

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