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Contents JULY/AUGUST 2011 VOLUME 19 / ISSUE 5

42 Brunei: Monarchy, ASEAN and Defence Capabilities Dzirhan Mahadzir In 2004, Brunei released its inaugural defence White Paper setting out Brunei’s policy intent and responses to a rapidly changing global environment. The White Paper also stated that it was to be reviewed every two-three years and this was duly done in 2007 although no further updates or review has been published since

Front Cover Photo: Beginning with the 1st Infantry Regiment, FELIN will equip 6000 soldiers in the French army by the end of the year, with 22,600 equipped with FELIN systems by 2015. The 16th Bataillon de Chasseurs is tasked with developing new infantry doctrine which has to take into account the new technological advances © Sagem

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Night Vision: Asia Pacific Perspectives

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Adam Baddeley The most challenging implementation for night vision is for the dismounted soldier, whether it is thermal imaging, image intensification or fusion-vision, combining imagery from the two sensor categories into a single view

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Soldier Transformation

12 Close Air Support Doug Richardson Delivering effective close support requires that an air force has local air supremacy, so it is hardly surprising that like other conflicts in recent decades, the Libyan campaign began with attacks against Libya’s air-defences

26 Battlefield Satcom: Mobility and Capacity Adam Baddeley Militaries throughout the world are in a new era of mobile battlefield satcom. which is providing bandwidth at lower cost and with high data rates, enabling broadband operations at the lowest tactical level

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Tom Withington The fewer personnel on the deck of a warship during combat, the fewer crewmembers are placed at risk. Placing naval gunners behind the protective screen of a ship’s superstructure reduces the danger of them being hit by projectiles or shrapnel. It is this simple maxim that is guiding the development of naval remote controlled gun turrets

Taiwan – Island Defence

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Adam Baddeley Programmes to enhance dismounted soldiers’ lethality, survivability and supportability are beginning to emerge across the Asia-Pacific, providing an immediate capability against real and present internal threats, increased capability for overseas deployments as well as providing an enhanced warfighting capability to keep pace with developments elsewhere in the world

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Naval Integrated Weapons

Gordon Arthur No country in Asia, except for South Korea, faces a military threat as dire as that confronting Taiwan. Nowadays, a diminishing defence budget causes many to question whether Taiwan has the wherewithal to defend itself from its aggressive neighbour

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Editorial

HE PURSUIT of access to, and the secure transport of resources is always an important component of current and future security. With an increasing proportion of those resources now coming from Africa, the competition for the Continent’s mineral wealth is seen as emblematic of the tussle for power between East and West. The West’s pursuit of those resources is both well documented and well established. However, it is the East’s interest in the same that is prompting the greatest interest. Much is made of Chinese companies and enterprises; typically state owned or controlled carving out significant chunks of the available ore and oil throughout the continent. Trade between the two is put at $115 billion in 2010, bilateral trade deals have been established between China 45 of the 54 countries in Africa with China taking 60 percent of all Sudan’s oil exports and 71 percent of all the countries exports. After initial success however, several governments in Africa are questioning their relationship with China and the long-term benefits they are gaining. Oddly, this debate has largely ignored India and the fact that it is enlarging its presence and developing a distinct profile in Africa although India exports roughly a tenth of the goods that China does but relies on the Continent for 20 percent of its oil imports. India has more than most to offer. India has long supported African security through United Nations peacekeeping and nation building operations as well as participating in peace enforcement when the situation demanded. In February, India provided a Do 228 maritime patrol aircraft and two Cheetak helicopters to the Seychelles to improve its surveillance capabilities and has increased their patrols in the region to boost anti-piracy efforts. The effort is partly motivated by aspirations for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council but not entirely. India’s interests increasingly converge with those of the West and particularly the US, notably in seeking peace and security in the Indian Ocean with a direct interest in countering Islamic extremist in the Horn of Africa. Unlike China’s mercantilist platform for engagement India, while inevitably seeing those same resources to fuel its economic development, it has committed itself to supporting local development in Africa in a partnership. India represents pluralism and democracy, within a state with highly diverse religious and ethnic mix which is a lesson with obvious applications in Africa. India offers a third way, a way that others, not just in Asia should consider in their dealings with Africa.

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Adam Baddeley, Editor Editor: Adam Baddeley E-mail: adam@baddeley.net

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NIGHT V I S I O N

Night Vis Asia-Pacific Perspectives The most challenging implementation for night vision systems is for the dismounted soldier both for thermal imaging (TI), image intensification (I2) and fusion-vision, combining the imagery from the two sensor categories into a single view. By placing it on the man-platform, size, weight and power concerns are at their most restrictive while maintaining a desire for enhanced capability to better engage enemies at the range that matches the range of new weapons and provide clear identification of targets for rules of engagement reasons and force protection. There are however common desires in terms of requirements; the need for better image quality, contrast levels and optimisation of “detect, recognise and identify” process.

by Adam Baddeley

HE DRAGON Compact and the 2km range Dragon Long Range were launched in 2010 by Qioptiq. The Dragon C is the described as the world’s smallest multi-use sight which can be used for Clip-on, stand alone and hand held requirements. The ClipOn sight is attached in line with an existing day sight and can also be used as a weapon sight in its own right or a hand held surveillance device. In June this year, Qipotiq added three more sights in the Dragon family; the Short Range, Medium Range and Sniper, all using 320x240 thermal cores with ranges beginning with 2km man detection range for the SR and 2.5km for the other two sights. Qioptiq’s Kite sight have been trialed with India since 2009 with a potential acquisition later this year with demonstrations of both the company’s TI and I2 solutions also taking place. Qioptiq established a joint venture with local company Rolta in 2009. The com-

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Qioptic has completed delivery of over 350 of its VIPR 2 sights for Australia’s Land 125 Phase 2 programme © AJB

pany has also undertaken trials in several countries including Brazil, Malaysia and Singapore and has completed delivery of over 350 of its VIPR 2 sights for Australia’s Land 125 Phase 2 programme. In June, the company completed a new142g clip on thermal sight designed for use with the Thales Optronics Lucie –D goggle to create a fused imagery goggle. The company has plans to demonstrate the combined solution in the Asia-Pacific later this year. Qioptiq source their thermal cores from three main sources, FLIR Systems in the US, ULIS in France and in Israel. Photonis has developed a range of I2 tubes used by a wide variety of manufacturers in their surveillance devices. As with

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The TACS-M modules has been trialed by over seven countries since its launch at IDEX earlier this year Š Vectronic

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In June, Qioptiq completed a new 142g clip on thermal sight designed for use with the Thales Optronics Lucie–D goggle to create a fused imagery goggle © AJB

other manufacturers they are currently offering technologies that deal with the variable light conditions of urban areas including high light levels and the halo effect it creates. Photonis differentiate between their XR5 and the advanced tubes provided under the advanced Omni VI contract in the US in a number of ways. Both have a resolution of 72lp/mm and a signal to noise ratio of 28. In the case of Omni VI, the luminousity gain is 50,000 while the XR5 is 55,000 while the two tubes have a lifetime of 12,500 and 15,000

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hours respectively The XR5 is offered with Autogating as standard while the Omni VI tubes have that have it as an export restricted option. Unlike the Omni VI, there are no Figure of Merit (FOM) restrictions. The FOM is calculated on the basis of a figure of merit, a complex calculation which is the sum of multiplying the I2 tube’s Signal to Noise Ratio by its resolution and determines the quality of I2 technology that US companies are able to be export. The latest 16mm tubes developed by Photonis has been designed to meet the new size, weight and power requirements of the modern armies: reduced size by 40 percent, reduced in weight by 35 percent and with minimum power consumption.

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Photonis’ Intensified Camera Unit or ICU combines an Image Intensifier with a CMOS Camera in a chip with 1.3m pixels offering real time read out and processing and digital output. For Digital Night Vision Fusion, Photonis has created Griffon, weighing a little under 100g, power consumption is less than 2.5W and supports a camera link in and out. Photonis also offers the Onyx option on both its XD-4 and XR5 tubes which substitutes the usual green screen images with black and white which provides a more natural view of the world, allowing for clearer information about the contrast, shapes and shadows. Istec have developed the Modular In Line Sighting Systems, a Picatinny rail grabber which would allow the use of the PVS-14 with any day sight and mounted in line behind the day sight using a circular collar clamp. The system is already in service in Canada with the Royal Military Police Close Protection Unit operating with ACOG and EOTECH sights. Selex Galileo’s ASPIS is a state-of-the-art thermal weapon sight for assault rifles which is being offered in Canada through DRS, with potential trials later this year. Thermoteknix’s clip on solutions are the ClipIR clip on TI and the CoViD Clip-On Video injection unit. The ClipIR is designed to work with PVS-7,-14 and -15 tubes providing a matched 40 degree field of view. The CoViD unit uses a 384x288 thermal core. The two images are presented to the user in an OLED display covering the full field of view of the I2 view, with the user determining the brightness of the video being injected. The company’s TicAM 750 Night Vision Binocular is designed for a range of 2750m against man sized targets and is designed for up to eight hours of operation with a power on time of three seconds and is described as having no US export restrictions. The company is working with Canadian firm GSCI to produce a the DXQ-20 I2/thermal fusion system which offers a 60fps view in which great care has been put into eliminating the ghost effects when the two sensor images can become disjointed. The DXQ-20 uses the Photonis XR5 tube. Thermoteknix is a user of the ULIS Pico640 LWIR sensor operating in the 8-12 micron band. The sensor weighs less than 10g and has a power consumption of less than 0.16W.


For more than 50 years, ITT has earned the reputation as the world leader in breakthrough night vision technology. We are committed to supporting those on the front lines with the most reliable and highest resolution Gen 3 night vision systems and tubes in the world. The ITT Gen 3 image intensifier has a longer tube life and better performance in extreme low light conditions than anything else on the market. To learn more, visit www.nightvision.com.

It’s the dawn of a new day for mission success.

Electronic Systems • Geospatial Systems • Information Systems • Mission Systems ITT, the Engineered Blocks logo, and ENGINEERED FOR LIFE are registered trademarks of ITT Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., and are used under license. ©2011, ITT Corporation.

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The latest thermal core offered by French firm ULIS is its Pico640E a 640x480 VGA, 17micron uncooled infrared imaging sensor in a large format, small-form factor which can perform long-range detection up to approximately 2km. The sensor was launched in April this year. The US Marine Corps began receiving their ELCAN AN/PAS-28 Medium Range Thermal Biocular in 2010 with up to 10,000 ordered in a $180m award made in 2009. An off the shelf acquisition of the company’s PhantomIRxr, the AN/PAS-28 uses an 640x512 and weighs 1.6kg and is designed to run for seven hours using four AA batteries and can detect individuals at 2200m with a 70 percent probability. The latest development is the PhantomSW Short Wave Infrared Biocular which uses an indium gallium arsenide design rather than vanadium oxide (Vox) as is the case of the

Photonis also offers the Onyx option on both its XD-4 and XR5 tubes which substitutes the usual green screen images with black and white

PhantomIRxr and its thermal core improves slightly to become a 640x512 solution although it can operate for four hours using four AA batteries but features a low battery indicator. Initial sales of the PhantomIRxr in the region include to India in 2010 for the purpose of small unit trials and are being offered throughout the Asia-Pacific. Infrared Security Systems (ISS) has undertaken a significant amount of work in the region over the past years. Malaysia took delivery of 35 Thermal Sighting Systems

(TSS) in February this year and India will take deliveries of their first systems later this Summer. The sight is designed to be used with both eyes and can undertake man detection at 1200m using a 384x288 ULIS detector which has 44 percent more resolution than a 320x240 device. The TSS uses the company’s AutoCovert technology which uses a detection system in the eye piece which automatically switches the systems on and off when the firer is looking through the display and The Sword T&D sight is an integral part of France’s FELIN solution © Sagem

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switches it off when the eye moves away. The company’s Thermal Imaging Viewer (TIV) uses a 640x480 17 micron ULIS design and has, over the past three years been acquired by India, Malaysia and Thailand and has been down selected by Singapore. The TIV is offered in three versions with the TIV HDZ which is capable of detecting a man sized targets at 2.9km with all units powering up in five seconds. The 900m range Personal Surveillance Sight (PSS) was developed to meet a Malaysian requirement. The design was given to ISS in November with the first prototype being completed by the end of that

BAE Systems have been awarded contracts valued at over $1billion since 2004 © BAE Systems

month. All the 35 PSS ordered were delivered by the end of February. The design uses an athermalised lens which remains in focus and automatically compensates for temperature changes. Like the TSS it has a sensor on the eye piece which switches on and off when it detects the user’s eye to save power and reduce susceptibility to detection. Both the 1200m range PSS and the more capable PSS+ have a frame rate of 25Hz and do not require an export license. ITL was acquired by Elbit Systems in

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2011. ITL’s Mini SEAS has been bought by Australia, Thailand, Singapore and India and it had been working on the latest version of the systems to reduce weight by 20 percent. Also in an advanced stage of development was the Tarmir, a fused I2 and TI solution using Photonis technology. From ITL the company inherited the Coyote 75 and 100 uncooled TWS. Elbit’s newest Thermal Weapon Sight is the Coral-CR which uses proven 3-5mm InSb detector technology, described by the company as the smallest cooled FLIR on the market and capable of identifying a human at ranges of 2Km. The Coral range comes in four ver-

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sions. Pulse Inteco have sold 800 of its Rantel-2 night vision monocular devices to Thailand where it equips IWI Tavor assault rifles. Meprolight’s Noa Family of Uncooled Thermal Weapon Sights include the NOA 4x Compact which can detect human targets up to 850m, operate for ten hours on standard batteries and has a spectral sensitivity: 8-12 microns. FLIR Government Systems’ ThermoSight Elbit’s newest Thermal Weapon Sight is the Coral-CR which uses proven 3-5mm InSb detector technology © Elbit Systems

ACTS unit can be used with existing optical sights without the need to rebore the optical sight and are already in service with at least one ASEAN military. FLIR have recently launched its FLIRVision M32-C, a clip-on thermal imager which is compatible with a range of night vision monoculars and has an enhanced 34 degree field of view and uses 320x240 VOx microbolometer. Other clip on sights includes the MilSight TaNS and MUNS, the latter designed for snipers. ITT are the leading provider of I2 solution to US armed forces in solutions such as the PVS-14 and -7 Night Vision Goggles with Fusion of imagery from thermal and image intensified sensors combine the best of both worlds © Vectronix

either complete systems or its tubes in service with number of nations including Australia, Japan, Singapore and Thailand. ITT was awarded the US DoD’s enhanced night vision goggle (ENVG) production contract in 2005 leading to the fielding of the fused PSQ20 ENVG with US units in 2008 with 2400 units delivered under that contract. In a second contract, valued at $260 million made in August 2010, ITT are producing a further 6500 devices. In September, BAE Systems were awarded a $123 million for its light, medium, and heavy Thermal Weapon Sights for the US

FLIR have recently launched its FLIRVision M32-C, a clip-on thermal imager which is compatible with a range of night vision monoculars

Army taking total sales for the category of sights to in excess of $1 billion since 2004. The award was closely preceded by a $14m Canadian award for sights on both individual and crew-served weapons. Sagem has developed a number of rifle mounted offerings from the Sword T&D sight is an integral part of France’s FELIN solution down to the Sword Light 25 and Sword Light 35 digital thermal weapon sight which weighs 730g and equips assault rifles with a range of 300m and 400m respectively. Vectronix’s Thermal Acquisition Clip-on System(TACS-M) designed to fit on standard night vision devices including the company’s Tarsius I2 solution with a TI detection range of 300m and weighs 150g including battery.

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Royal Air Force ground crew install an MBDA Dual-Mode Brimstone missile on a Tornado strike aircraft Š UK MoD

Close Air Support:

Asia-Pacific lessons from Current

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The NATO air campaign intended to prevent attacks against civilians in Libya is using a wide range of current guided weapons developed for the close-support role. Although NATO aircraft are not conducting close-support missions intended to support rebel forces in Libya, the tactical conditions under which the campaign is being conducted are certain to be causing air arms around the world to re-evaluate their current weapons and tactics. ELIVERING effective close support requires that an air force has local air supremacy, so it is hardly surprising that like other conflicts in recent decades, the Libyan campaign began with attacks against the Libyan air-defences. This lesson has been noted by other air forces. Under an unpublicised programme, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) is purchasing Mectron Engenharia’s MAR-1 anti-radiation missiles and integrating these on its Dassault Mirage III and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex JF-17 Thunder fighters. The deal is reported to be for 100 missiles. ‘Smart’ bombs guided either by nosemounted seekers or flown to known geographic co-ordinates by a combination of inertial; and GPS guidance remain a major weapon of choice for the close-support missions, and are being used in air strikes against Libyan military assets. Bombs of both types are in widespread service in the Asian region. As documented in AMR’s earlier article on precision attack, India operated or has ordered at least four types of non-gliding ‘smart’ bomb (Paveway II, Matra BGL 1000, Israel Aerospace Industries Griffin and the Region KAB1500Kr), while Pakistan operates at least three (Raytheon Paveway II, Raytheon Enhanced Paveway, and Boeing Joint Direct Attack Munition). Similar weapons have also been selected by Japan (TRDI GCS-1 LGB and Paveway II), South Korea (Paveway II, Paveway III, and Boeing JDAM), Singapore (JDAM and LJDAM), Taiwan (Paveway II), and Thailand (Paveway II). Normally the use of an INS-guided weapon requires that the aircraft be fitted with a suitable electronic interface able to pass targeting data to the weapon. For operators of more rudimentary types of aircraft such as the A-5C `Fantan' operated by Myanmar, this poses the

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by Doug Richardson

need for an expensive avionics retrofit. One potential way of getting around this problem would be to adopt the Britanite Defence Systems SMKB family of guided bombs. These Brazilian weapons add a strapon GPS/INS guidance and control unit and tail fin unit to a standard Mk 80 series general-purpose (GP) bomb, but rely on a wireless system to handle the flow of data between the aircraft and the munition. The 500 lb-class SMKB-82 has already been cleared for use on the Embraer A-29 (Super Tucano) turboprop light-attack aircraft, and should be cleared for use from the F-5 and AMX (A-1) by a trials programme due to begin in May 2011. SAGEM’s AASM (Armement Air-Sol Modulaire) has seen combat use over Libya. Originally fielded as an INS/GPS guided weapon, it is now available in a imaging infrared variant, while a version with a millimetric-wave seeker is planned as a longerterm option. SAGEM is reported to be negotiating an

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AASM contract with India to supply weapons intended to arm the Sukhoi Su-30MKI, upgraded Mirage 2000H, Jaguar IS/Ib, and Indian Navy MiG-29K. Saudi Arabia is also seen as a potential export customer. Originally offered as a GPS/INS weapon to meet the UK’s Precision Guided Bomb requirement, the Raytheon Paveway IV now being used over Libya by the RAF was supplied with a dual-mode guidance system that includes a nose-mounted SAL seeker. The UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) agreed to this change when the upgrade was offered by Raytheon at no increase to the original contract price. Paveway IV is being offered to Saudi Arabia for inclusion in that country’s Tornado TSP upgrade programme, and could be offered to Oman for use on upgraded Jaguars. In the past, close-support missions were seen as likely to take place over a conventional battlefield with recognisable front lines and opponents who would probably be operating different equipment. Knowing that you enemy is operating T-72 tanks while your own forces use the M-60 will help reduce the risk of ‘blue-on-blue’ engagements, provided that aircrew have had adequate training in AFV recognition. But in a world where both sides operate similar equipment and may be wearing a minimal amount of uniform or even civilian clothing, the close-support task This reconnaissance photograph shows Libyan government tanks operating within the city of Mistrata. Close-support attacks in this sort of urban environment require high accuracy and the smallest size of warhead able to achieve the desired effect © NATO

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India and Saudi Arabia are potential customers for SAGEM’s AASM, seen here being readied for an operational sortie of Libya © French Ministry of Defence

becomes very difficult. In early April, Libyan government forces adopted measures to blur the difference between themselves and rebel units by adopting similar tactics to the opposition forces. Holding heavy equipment such as tanks and other armoured vehicles in second-echelon locations, they used trucks and light vehicles to move operational units to the front line. In early April, NATO strike aircraft attacked tanks operating northeast of Brega and on the road to Ajdabiya, only to learn later

SAGEM is reported to be negotiating an AASM contract with India to supply weapons intended to arm the Sukhoi Su-30MKI, upgraded Mirage 2000H, Jaguar IS/Ib, and Indian Navy MiG-29K

that these had been crewed by rebel personnel. “The situation in the area is still very fluid, with tanks and other vehicles moving in different directions, making it very difficult to distinguish who may be operating them,” said Rear Admiral Russell Harding, Deputy Commander of the Combined Joint Task Force Operation Unified Protector, following the incident. “Until this time we had not seen the TNC [Transitional National Council] operating tanks.” Firepower has to be delivered with high accuracy but with minimal destructive effects outside of the target area when fighting an enemy operating in an urban environment. This means using a smaller warhead than was common in the past. Although ‘smart’ bomb kits can be fitted to 500 lb-class munitions, combat operations in

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Afghanistan and Libya have shown that less destructive power is often advisable. The Boeing GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb is based on a 250 lb warhead, while the UK has made significant use of the even-smaller MBDA Dual-Mode Brimstone. Developed from the US AGM-114 Hellfire, but stressed for carriage on a fast jet rather than a helicopter, Brimstone was designed to carry a tandem HEAT warhead whose main charge weighs only 6.2 kg. The nearest US equivalent to Brimstone will be the planned Joint Air-to-Ground Missile, which is intended to replace the current BGM-71 TOW, AGM-114 Hellfire and AGM-65 Maverick missiles. It uses a combination of SAL, IIR and millimetric guidance. The 27-month technology demonstration phase of the JAGM programme has been completed, but the downselect between rival Lockheed Martin and Raytheon/Boeing proposals slipped from 2010 to 2011. The winner had not been announced when this article

was finalised in early May. JAGM is due to enter service in 2016, so represents a longterm option for regional air arms. In an era when missile seekers can be modified by changing their software, one future way of delivering a small warhead against a ground target might be to use a short-range air-to-air missile. In September 2009 Raytheon revealed that it had conducted test launches of the AIM-9X in a surfaceto-surface mode. A moving ground target had been engaged by a missile fired from an F-15C during a March 2007 trial. The new software had not compromised the missile’s air-to-air effectiveness, said the company, but it remains to be seen whether this new capability will be adopted by the US services or offered to export customers. There are times when even a Hellfire-class missile has a greater destructive effect than is required, or may cost more than its target. The solution being developed by companies and industrial teams around the world is to fit a semi-active laser (SAL) seeker and control system to a low-cost unguided rocket. For much of the world, that means a 2.75 inch (70 mm) rocket. In most cases, the products currently under development take the form of kits that can be used to modify an existing unguided rocket into a precision weapon. In October 2010, the US Government released information on proposed acquisitions of new military equipment requested

The Lockheed Martin JAGM candidate is fit-tested on a US helicopter © Lockheed Martin

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Like most guided-rocket schemes, Lockheed Martin’s Directional Attack Guided Rocket (DAGR) fits a guidance kit to a standard 70 mm unguided rocket © Lockheed Martin

by Saudi Arabia. Proposed acquisitions by the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG) included 2,000 70-mm laser-guided rockets for use on 10 AH-64D helicopters, while the Royal Saudi Land Forces (RSLF) planned to acquire 4,000 70 mm laser-guided rockets for use on the 24 AH-64D. The type of guided rocket to be procured was not identified, but US industry can offer several types. Lockheed Martin’s Directional Attack Guided Rocket (DAGR) recently entered lim-

Although no nation in the region had adopted the concept, ATK has already proposed design concepts for heavier armed aircraft in the class of the Airbus Military CN-235 or C-295

United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Raytheon. First fully-guided tests were conducted in September 2009, and the weapon is expected to enter production to arm the AH-64D Apache Longbow fleet of the UAE Land Forces. In 2007 the United States and South Korea signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to co-operate on development of the Low-cost Guided Imaging Rocket (LOGIR), a weapon whose development was started as a US Navy programme in 2000, but was delayed by lack of funding. The concept-

ited production to equip an unidentified customer, reported to be Iraq and for use on armed Mi-17 helicopters. Manufacture of the first low rate initial production batch (LRIP I) BAE Systems Information and Electronics Advanced Precision Kill Weapons System (APKWS) guidance sections was approved in July 2010, and the weapon will be integrated on the US Navy’s UH-1Y helicopters. Several programmes take the form of international ventures. The Talon laser-guided rocket is being developed as a joint project by Emirates Advanced Investments (EAI) of the

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demonstration phase of the LOGIR programme ended in May 2010 when an infrared-guided round launched from an AH-1W helicopter scored a direct hit on a moving fast-attack craft target. The Ukraine’s Luch design bureau has developed the AR-8L. Based on the S-8 Soviet-era 80 mm unguided rocket, this was first announced in 2004. In the following year, company representatives stated that a 70 mm guided rocket based on AR-8L technology was being developed in a joint programme with Singapore. There has been no recent news of the latter venture. The 2.75 in Guided Advanced Tactical Rocket (GATR) is a collaborative venture by Elbit Systems Ltd and Alliant Techsystems (ATK). During helicopter-launched flight tests in Israel during 2009, the weapon was fired in lock-on-before-launch mode to engage an off-boresight target at a range of approximately 3 km. While much attention is focused on 70 mm ‘smart’ rockets, other calibres are not being neglected. Elbit’s Smart Tactical Airborne Rocket (STAR) is an all-Israeli programme. It could be offered in 70 mm calibre if required by a customer, but is currently

This Iraqi pilot is about to conduct a training mission on the AC-208 Caravan © US Air Force

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The UK company Ferranti Technologies is offering the ATK/Elbit GATR guided rocket to the UK Ministry of Defence

being marketed as a guidance kit for 68 mm French rockets or 80 mm Russian rockets. In October 2009 MBDA Inc, the US subsidiary of MBDA, demonstrated a SAL guidance kit for the Zuni 5-inch unguided rocket. This is apparently being developed to meet a US Marine Corps requirement. Russia’s first laser-guided rocket was the 340 mm calibre Nudelman Precision Engineering Design Bureau S-25L derivative of the unguided S-25-OFM. First fielded in the late 1980s, it has never been exported. Rather than developing an add-on kit for existing unguided rockets, Turkey’s Roketsan opted to offer an all-new 70 mm SAL-guided rocket. Designated Jereed (Javelin), but sometimes referred to as Cirit, this began firing trials in 2006. The role of an aircraft’s internal cannon in close-support operations should not be overlooked. In 2009 the UK Royal Air Force deployed its Tornado GR.4s to Afghanistan to replace the joint RAF/Royal Navy Harrier force that had previously provided close air support for British ground forces. These aircraft pioneered the use of what was dubbed ‘laser-strafing’, using a cue presented in the pilot’s head-up display to aim the aircraft’s 27 mm cannon at a precise laser spot on the ground. This new low-cost approach to pro-

The Rocketsan Jereed/Cirit 70 mm guide rocket is being manufactured from scratch as an allnew item of ordnance © Roketsan

viding close-air support could well become a widely-accepted tactic. As counter-insurgency assumes a growing importance, many armed forces will be looking for a long-endurance platform able to linger over areas of tactical interest. One solution is to use transport aircraft rigged to operate in the armed role. ATK has reported sales of its Combat Caravan modification of the Cessna Model 208B Grand Caravan turboprop-powered light transport to Lebanon and Iraq. This scheme fits the aircraft with underwing Hellfire launch rails and a surveillance and targeting system operated from within the aircraft cabin. A crew from

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Squadron 3 of the Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) made the first Iraqi firing of a Hellfire from the Combat Caravan in late 2009. Although no nation in the region had adopted the concept, ATK has already proposed design concepts for heavier armed aircraft in the class of the Airbus Military CN235 or C-295. A family of small air-launched weapons has been developed, largely in secret, for the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). These Standoff Precision Guided Munitions (SOPGM) include the Northrop Grumman GBU-44 Viper Strike glide weapon and the Raytheon Griffin dual-mode missile. Planned platforms include the MC130W Combat Spear special operations transport aircraft and the USMC’s KC-130J tanker/transports.

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“Russia and Asia Pacific partnership based

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beneficial and constructive dialogue will make further progress, and relations between Russia and Brunei will effectively benefit our two nations in the future as well. Therefore, BRIDEX is an excellent opportunity to further strengthen relations between Russia and Brunei.Although, the same holds true for other countries of the Asia-Pacific Region.Generally, it is another step forward towards strengthening longterm mutually beneficial cooperation with Russia’s partners in the region.Tremendous experience in successful cooperation gives us every chance with this end in view.We will demonstrate at BRIDEX 2011 our real achievements and advantages of various projects.We are ready to immediately respond to requests of our partners and engage in transparent and constructive work.Our approach to business is highly appreciated both in Asia and throughout the world.

USSIA spares no effort to promote its defence-related products in arms markets of the Asia-Pacific Region, and unlike most other nations, it offers both end-products and a wide range of after-sale services, repairs, upgrades, and even licensed production of hi-tech combat materiel. Deputy Director General of the Rosoboronexport Corporation and head of the Rosoboronexport delegation at the BRIDEX 2011 International Defence Exhibition and Conference Viktor KOMARDIN expanded on prospects of defence cooperation with countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. Mr. Komardin, being head of the Rosoboronexport delegation, would you please tell our readers what your expectations of BRIDEX 2011 are? Rosoboronexport defines the importance of an exhibition through the quality and competitiveness of developments of display, the level of delegations and their ability and authority to settle issues of cooperation with Russia. BRIDEX meets every such requirement. In a nutshell, the only thing we expect from the show is productive meetings with our partners from Brunei and other states of the region. We have much to discuss, and though we hold regular meetings, including those in Russia, there are always a lot of items on the agenda. And this is good, because it means a constantly developing dialogue. By the way, Russia and Brunei Darussalam established diplomatic relations on 1 October, 1991. Over almost two decades our countries have established friendly relations and engaged in a fruitful dialogue, including in the defence sphere. The agenda has always been varied and intense. For instance, in May 2005 Rosoboronexport experts, invited by the Brunei Ministry of Defence to Bandar Seri Begawan, made a comprehensive

Viktor KOMARDIN, Deputy Director General, Rosoboronexport presentation of Russian arms and materiel, from air defence systems, aircraft, and helicopters to hardware and weapons for the Navy, the Army, and special operations forces. However, as early as June 2005 our countries saw the most crucial event for their developing relations, to wit, the first official visit to Russia of His Majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah, the Sultan andYang DiPertuan of Brunei Darussalam. His visit laid a solid groundwork for a constant dialogue between our states in the military technical sphere. Four years later in October 2009 His Majesty the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam paid a visit to the Rosoboronexport headquarters in Moscow. Naturally, it was a very interesting, important, and crucial meeting for us.We hope that this mutually

Should you divide priority and secondary issues, discussed with partners, what would such priority issues be? Even the most seemingly insignificant issues can turn out to be in the spotlight at any moment.Therefore, we pay attention to every detail. Generally speaking, negotiators will always face the following two fundamental issues: the terms of selling and procuring weapons, and the ultimate effectiveness of such weapon systems. What are Rosoboronexport’s terms of selling arms? As far as the price is concerned, it is always subject to negotiations. Every customer purchases ‘his own’ set of armament, his own configuration. Let me say this: we pursue a wellbalanced pricing policy, taking into account a variety of factors, including economic capabilities of nations, procuring our arms.The value of the


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on trust and advanced defence technologies” countries of the Asia-Pacific Region have faced the problem that certain procured weapon systems cannot survive local heat and humidity. Some systems – which naturally had not been delivered by us – malfunctioned in the course of operation in the tropical climate. After realising what happened, such states turned to Russia, whose hardware features high quality and reliability, simple maintenance, and endurance in various climates, including the adverse climate of the Asia-Pacific Region. It goes without

arms market players.We continue developing new markets and stepping up our sales. As for the Asia-Pacific Region as a whole, we actively develop ties with such nations as Bangladesh, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, etc. Our partners are aware that Rosoboronexport’s strategy aims to shape, strengthen, and develop long-term mutually beneficial relations. I would like to emphasise long-term and mutually beneficial relations.

saying that we have responded to their request and rushed to the rescue. At the same time prices and the high quality are not our only advantages over the rivals.We offer a package of services throughout life cycle of arms and materiel exported: we set up repair bases, service centres, and training. All these factors are of paramount importance to customers. For instance, in India we have founded the Rosoboronservice (India) Ltd. Indo-Russian Joint Venture, tasked with providing after-sale services to naval materiel.

What else are buyers interested in, save for the price? The quality of arms and materiel is a separate issue. It is common knowledge that a number of

What will Rosoboronexport display at the exhibition in Brunei? At the present time the potential of developing military technical relations between Russia and

the Asia-Pacific Region is extremely high: the Asia-Pacific Region boasts a vast market, while Russia offers the entire scope of the most advanced arms and materiel. Given the traditionally high interest in Russian weapons in the region and Russia’s ability to export the entire range of arms to Asia, at BRIDEX 2011 we will discuss aircraft (Yak-, Be-, and Il-family aircraft, Mi- and Ka-family helicopters, and various aircraft weapons and equipment), naval

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materiel, armour, air defence systems, hardware for special operations forces, ammunition to weapon systems exported earlier, as well as many other things of interest to countries of the Asia-Pacific Region.We will exhibit combat hardware for all armed services. Moreover, we can offer weapons that are substantially superior to their rivals in a number of specifications. Some of them boast unique engineering solutions. For instance, visitors to the exhibition will certainly pay attention to such a unique vehicle as the BMPT tank support combat vehicle.Therefore I am positive that participation in BRIDEX 2011 will yield specific results.We have a great number of very promising projects and interesting ideas, and on the whole, we have a lot to offer to our partners for years or even decades ahead.

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contract is also influenced by the fact that experience has so far demonstrated that Russian weapon systems can perfectly be adapted to meet standards of the customers. Rosoboronexport assists its partners in skilfully adapting hardware to existing defence structures, and ensuring smooth, quick, and reliable operation of the entire system.This increases the efficiency of weapon systems, reduced their overall costs, and cuts down the cost of creating and maintaining a corresponding infrastructure. Due to this policy Russia has been able to remain the world’s second largest arms exporter and continues to strengthen its positions.Thus, enormous marketing efforts, undertaken by us amid tough rivalry, yield results in the form of a constantly growing interest in Russian arms and materiel on the part of all global


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Soldier Transformation:

Transformation:

Technologies to Boost the

Infantry Programmes to enhance dismounted soldiers’ lethality, survivability and supportability are beginning to emerge across the Asia-Pacific to provide immediate capability against real and present internal threats, provide an increased capability for overseas deployment as well as develop an enhanced warfighting capability to keep pace with developments elsewhere in the world.

by Adam Baddeley

South Asia

India’s F-INSAS (Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System) programme, led by the Directorate General Infantry, continues on its official timelines of providing a complete, integrated system by 2020 with new weapons, body armour and ISR devices to be acquired in two earlier increments. At Aero India in February, BEL had on display its Indigenous Soldier Systems solution for F-INSAS which has a full range of the

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subsystems. The computer, referred to as the Commander Data Terminal Signal Interface and Power Distribution Unit had dynamically configurable multi-port connectivity supporting a power capability through and in-built CPDU with interAt Aero India in February, BEL had on display its Indigenous Soldier Systems solution for F-INSAS © AJB

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faces for a range of communications devices and a 1.2GHz CPU and uses either a Windows CE or Linux operating system. Other items include two 14.5V 10aH smart batteries, a non-GPS navigation sub system with 2m accuracy, hand head dual band SDR with simultaneous voice, data and video with built in security and a MANET waveform and a physiological monitoring systems that measures blood pressure, pulse rates, body temperature and blood oxygenation. The systems on show used a number of non-BEL products including a PowerFilm FM15300N thin film solar panel. The Pakistan Army does not have a formal programme in the same vein as F-INSAS although it is making plans to do so. In the meantime is it developing and acquiring solutions that meet its requirements for conducting counter insurgency operation in Swat and South Waziristan in joint operations using infantry, armour, artillery, avia-

tion assets and Special Forces. This has re-emphasised the importance of small unit tactical operations, individual initiative, enhanced intelligence and communications with a series on ongoing procurements delivering improved surveillance equipment, protective gear, small arms, and communication equipment. Near term procurements have resulted in the introduction of Motorola communications sets, Automatic Grenade Launchers and Global Positioning System. Doctrinal and organisational changes had seen the Organization of Air Control Teams at much lower tactical levels. Future requirements include a new assault rifle to replace the 7.62mm H&K G3 manufactured by POF along with sights and non-lethal weaponry, manportable Anti tank weapon systems, Multi-band inter/intra team radio with ground to air capabilities to

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Sri Lanka SIOT units are gaining a denser distribution of night vision devices to allow the whole units to manoeuvre at night while in jungle © DoD

be issued at the lowest tactical levels and a “Personal Net Digital Radio” with integrated GPS. Both radios will be integrated with Pakistan’s planned higher level Infantry Battle Field Command and Information System. Pakistan’s soldier night vision requirements are considerable, covering weapons sights, hand held image intensification scopes and Night Vision Goggles for commanders and operators of crew served weapons, drivers and observation capabilities for mortar fire controllers. Sri Lanka is continuing its soldier modernisation plans based on successful lessons from its counter-insurgency campaign against the LTTE. A significant factor in the outcome was the tactical innovation associated with the Special Infantry Operations Team (SIOT); four to twelve man units operating deep within enemy territory. The SIOT as supported by a number of innovations, ranging from the use of local food and medicines to increase patrols’ endurance, improved camouflages and plain

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rubber soles on combat boot that mimicked local footwear and limited the ability of the LTTE to track SIOT units. In terms of technology, work during the LTTE years concentrated on improving communications ranges, surveillance and night operations. Post-insurgency, Sri Lanka is seeking to improve its operational capabilities in number of areas including improved High Frequency communications including data, individual hands free radios and satellite phones. Denser issue of night vision devices of three or more a squad up from the current one is designed to increase a squad’s ability

New Zealand has a number of common systems with Australia and both countries have embarked upon joint acquisition programmes in the past

to manoeuvre at night, something hitherto impossible to achieve in the jungle. Sri Lanka also want to add under barrel grenade launchers to SIOT units, replacing dedicated weapons, weapon sights, improved navigation using GPS and new more efficient power sources including solar panels.

Australasia

One of the most significant developments for Australia’s Land 125 programme is the formation of Diggerworks which is designed to provide integrated Soldier Combat Systems (SCS) while ensuring continual enhancement

within the Soldier Combat systems development cycle through adaptive acquisition. Diggerworks is an adaptive organisation based around the Integrated Soldier Systems Development Directorate and consists of the Army, Capability Development Group, Defence Material Organisation and Defence Science and Technology Organisation and coordinates the collaboration of other agencies in defining and delivery of SCS capabilities. Land 125 Phase 3A has been awarded to an Elbit Systems led group providing a Sagem’s FELIN is being deployed to Afghanistan with the 1st Infantry Regiment later this year and has been widely demonstrated with elements of the systems being used to develop systems in several countries including Brazil, Jordan and Russia. It is also part of the Cassidian led Warrior 21 system selected by Spain and Switzerland © AJB

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Currently in its Applied Research phase which began in June 2009 and is due to complete in December, Korea’s Future Warrior systems places strong emphasis on CBRN protection © DoD

operated with a four power day sight, white light torch and night aiming devices. Under Land 125 3C the Austeyr will receive capabilities such as a powered rail and enhanced STA equipment. Under Land 125 Phase 4, those capability gaps that remain will be addressed and existing capabilities enhanced. In addition to Land 125, key dismounted soldier systems programme will include land 53-1 which will see a technology refresh of night fighting equipment with current fire teams each receiving the PVS-14 goggles under the Ninox night fighting equipment. New Zealand has a number of common systems with Australia and both countries have embarked upon joint acquisition programmes in the past with examples being the Steyr assault rifle. New Zealand’s stated

Dismounted BMS solution and using Harris AN/PRC-152 and Raytheon EPLRS radios as the transport layers which will equip the dismounted soldiers as part of the Land 75 programme. The Land 125 Soldier Combat Ensemble will be fielded shortly. The most recent issuing is the Soldier Combat Ensemble, covering essential worn items which includes personal protection and other items such as knee and elbow pads, gloves and load carriage platforms, which together both carry essential equipment and provide physical and environmental protection. Thales Australia has carried out considerable work on enhancing the current Austeyr assault rifle either a new architectures. The F88 SA1 rifle is currently

requirements for future soldier systems are that it be scalable, built upon base elements, developed from a wide variety of sources, satisfy Urgent Operational Requirements and use off the shelf technologies from both military and commercial soruces. Recent Situational Awareness related procurements include MINI N/SEA NVG, PEQ-15 NAD, CNVD-T2 Thermal Sight and PVS II Sights.

ASEAN

The Advanced Combat Man System (ACMS) entered service in 2010 with the 5th Singapore Infantry Battalion and deployment has now reached three battalions. The ACMS is also equipping the 2nd Battalion, Singapore Infantry Regiment (2 SIR), the Singapore Armed Forces’ (SAF) first motorised unit which uses the Terrex infantry carrier vehicles. The battalion is also commanded by the former ACMS programme manager Lt. Col. Jimmy Toh. In designing ACMS the SAF have worked to a limited weight limits with the median weight of the SAF soldier being 60kg, the standard limitation on soldier system weight is a third of body mass therefore systems should ideally no increase the burden above 20kg. The ACMS’ capabilities are broken up into six subcomponents; the integrated helmet subsystem, the weapon subsystem, communications subsystem, power systems, 1.5Kg soldier computer as well as the load carrying systems. The first ACMS began in 1998 followed by a much lighter systems issued to a section for testing when after success was increased to 60 for repetitive company trials. Based on a subsequent series of trials, a decision was made to begin series production in 2009. The results showed an increase in C2 dissemination time by 50 percent and significant reduction in casualties and a four fold reduction in the time taken to react and disengage when in contact. ACMS is part of the SAF’s so called 1-800-Dial-ABomb sensor to shooter network aimed at proUltralife’s new Genesis ensemble is in trials with a number of militaries in the region © Ultralife

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viding low level tactical units easy access to inorganic fires to engage targets outside the range and scope of their personal weapons. Continuing issues with ACMS are with ruggedisation, weight and power requirement which are being pursued through R&D. For communication the ACMS using a combination of a local produced squad level links using 2.4Ghz combined with a Selex Elsag SSR+ radio. Malaysia’s soldier modernisation programme is currently in its concept phase with Norway’s NORMANS programme which uses the Thales developed NORMANS Light system shown here is nearing final signature by the Ministry of Defence before it enters production © AJB

The prototypes of Japan’s Advanced Combat Infantry Equipment System were delivered to the Ministry of Defence for trials at the end of 2008

no publicised goals for in serviced dates although the programme was named the Soldier Advanced Kombat Technology Integrated (SAKTI) and is part of the Army 2 10 plus 10 strategic development plan. The Malaysian military have identified four major challenges in realising the future soldier vision: budget, technology, human capi-

tal and operation environment and the Army working closely with MOD's STRIDE (Science, Technology, Research in Defence) with earlier work including the Malaysian Army Future Soldier Combat Uniform MK II which was displayed in 2010. The Philippines have improved their dismounted close combat capabilities in recent years in a number of ways. Recent acquisitions in this domain includes a suite of communications devices, largely acquired from Harris RF Communications, navigation systems including GPS and new FN Minimi Squad Automatic Weapons. Still in the procurement phase are a number of items including night vision monocular, IR aiming device and a laser zeroing devices in terms of STA and a lightweight, disposable rocket launcher. A number of these items are being integrated on the soldier under the country’s Battalion of Excellence (BOE) Programme, it is pursuing a Night Fighting System to equip each soldier in rifle platoons with a night fighting capability that includes a Laser Aiming Device and Laser Zeroing Device. Thailand’s programme, dubbed ‘SFT 21’ according to some sources remains firmly in the concept phase although the country has invested in a number of modern elements that would be included in any future systems, including the acquisition of the IWI Tavor in 2009. Indonesia is currently building its capability based on the initial goal of Minimum Essential Force (MEF) although currently some units still lack of certain weapons in their arsenal. The newly structured units are aimed at upgrading the status from MEF to Ideal Essential Force which is designed for prioritised for conflict areas and border regions, with a strong focus in a quick reaction force.

North East Asia

The prototypes of Japan’s Advanced Combat Infantry Equipment System (ACIES) were delivered to the Ministry of Defence for trials at the end of 2008. After nearly two years of trials and testing the contract for the final systems in mid 2010 to Hitachi. Subcontactors on the programme are reported as being a HMD built by Shimadzu, an NEC IR camera and Brentronic for the power solutions. Delivery of the first series production ensembles could occur during 2011.

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Korea’s Future Warrior programme is in its study phase with the Agency for Defence Development (ADD) with the Applied Research phase beginning in June 2009 and is due to be completed in December 2011 which is looking at technology optimisation. Conceptually, the study is dividing the eventual systems into their requirements representing different levels of integration: Individual Equipment, Modular-type and finally an Integrated-type solution. Within the three categories a number of equipment set variants are being considered based on the battlefield function. These are regular Force, Irregular Force and Special Force Warrior and Combat /

Combat support / Combat Service Support Warrior. It terms of relative technology levels that are expected from the FWS, the Korean Defence University puts US levels at 100, the UK at 88 and those for Korea at 78. The ADD is looking at two battery types to equip the soldiers a lithium-ion solution and a combined Hybrid Fuel The Singapore Advanced Combat Man System, shown here at IDEX 2011, is now in service with three battalions with the Singapore Armed Forces including its first Motorised battalion which is equipped with the Terrex IFV © AJB

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Spain’s Comfut programme is led by Cassidian with element of the systems relating to the company’s Warrior 21 offering with Sagem © AJB

Cell combining a Fuel Cell and Lithium-Ion. An integrated head subset is planned which will include ballistic and blast protection; Night Vision Monocular, Ballistic Helmet, Gas Mask and AMOLED HMD which will display Tactical Map and Target Information and include a bone-conduction earphone. Each soldier will also be equipped with a bio and environmental sensing unit monitor located on the system’s wearable Computer. Korea also envisages working on Technical Cooperation with worldwide military R&D groups in areas that include Energy Supply, Sensor Fusion and Virtual Simulation.

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MILSATCOM T E R M I N A L S

Battlefield

Satcom:

Mobility and Capac 26

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Militaries throughout the world are in a new era of Mobile battlefield satcom which is providing more than ever before, enabling bandwidth at lower costs with high data rates combining to provide broadband operation even down to small antennas that can be used at the lowest tactical levels. The development is also providing remote portable and mobile communications and low profile SOTM antennas with more throughput but at less mass and less power.

by Adam Baddeley SOTM terminals have to withstand high levels or shock and vibration and maintain their link © Rockwell Collins

ity

HESE miniaturised Satcom Terminals operating in X, Ku, Ka and Q bands and typically enable Ad-hoc Internet Protocol (IP) enabled mesh networks, and are increasingly provided via a Software Defined Radio architecture with a parallel pursuit of Cognitive radio capabilities for greater bandwidth efficiencies. The advent of higher power satellites supports this greater mobility by enabling small portable antennas. Improved technology means less baseband and other hardware is required to do this. More concentrated satellite spot beams are available which require more gateways, but smaller user terminals are nevertheless possible. There are challenges, smaller antennas naturally radiate to several adjacent satellites simultaneously and so interference is an issue and Satcom on the Move (SOTM) configurations must tolerate shock and vibration and must self evidently do this while on the move. For mobile manpack operations, a typical requirement is to provide a 1-2Mbps solution that one person can carry in a backpack that is fully integrated, easy to use and requires battery operation. The move to highly mobile terminal originated with the advent of the military use of compact Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) terminals. Initially these could only be supported via large hubs but through a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) solution used to enable multiple terminals to transmit intermittently on the same frequency, could be far more bandwidth efficient and

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share that capability with ‘part time’ users but had to be installed and pointed by trained personnel. This evolved to see smaller antennae although were still relatively bulky by today’s standards and required considerable power with personnel requiring only minimal training in their operation. Today, terminals use auto-acquisition to align themselves, the antennas are small and easily assembled and typically required no more than 20W for a typical link with multiple modems capable of being used, supporting both full-mesh and hub spoke networks and enabling virtually

The move to highly mobile terminal originated with the advent of the military use of compact Very Small Aperture Terminal) terminals

any voice data or video applications. A number of issues still remain; autoacquisition remains a challenge due to a number of factors such as the precision of the satellite’s mechanics to accurate align itself and inherent difficulties in determining True North although this is helped but not completely alleviated by the use of GPS. Failure to align correctly can cause massive interference problems although the Global VSAT Forum has established certain standards or Type Approval to limit this in the context of civil satcom and milsatcom. There is no decisive outcome on whether

Harris RF Communication’s PRC117 family, the latest ‘G’ model shown where with a second channel mission module, is used to support a range of UHF Tacsat mobile milsatcom links © AJB

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While able to operate while moving, OTM terminals provide greater throughput while operating at the halt Š ViaSat

mobile satcom should have a mesh or star network. A star network means a hub and spoke connectivity between SOTM and mobile terminals and their hubs. Star networks simplify the connectivity matrix and aid power link budgets due to the much larger sized terminal possible with hubs. In a mesh architecture, two forward deployed small terminals can be linked via single hop between the two terminals which is counter intuitively somewhat more complex in terms of satellite connectivity, particularly when the terminal use different slots with different satellites or satellite slots and this mitigates against circuit switching for IP traffic. Meshed services can however, always revert to a star network via a double hop.

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The transformation in mobile and deployable satcom capabilities by British troops deploying in Afghanistan in 2010 versus what they were equipped with in that theatre in 2002 has changed dramatically and illustrates the increased demands for mobile and deployable satcom both military and civil satellite communications. In January 2002, as part of Op Fingal in Afghanistan satcom was limited. At the Brigade HQ and Task Force level, they were equipped with a small num-

A recent British UOR has been the acquisition of the Rockwell Collins/Swe-Dish CCT120 deployable mobile terminal with readiness levels of 98.7 percent achieved in Afghanistan l

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ber of secure Mentor phones, an X-band VCS-501 with data rates of 1Mbps, supported by secure voice and data over a 128Kbps Inmarsat link and insecure Iridium link. Battlegroups could only rely upon Inmarsat links and further insecure Iridium links. By August 2010, under Op Herrick things had changed significantly for both Brigade/Task Force and Battlegroup HQs. All staff now had secure phones along with UHF Tacsat, PSC 506, 2Mbps Ku/X-band VSAT links, Xband Talon links at 2Mbps or new Reacher terminals capable of 2-4Mbps. Whereas in 2002 Companies, Platoons and Patrol bases had only terrestrial Combat Net Radio (CNR) links, by 2010 this has increased to Mission Secret 2Mbps links over Ku and X band at rates of 256Kbps, and PSC506 Milsatcom links at company level, with lower levels also using UHF Tacsat. The UHF Tacsat satcom terminals are the Harris PRC-117F acquired


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under the Skylight programme with over 1800 in operation. A recent British UOR has been the acquisition of the Rockwell Collins/Swe-Dish CCT120 deployable mobile terminal with readiness levels of 98.7 percent achieved in Afghanistan. France has already fielded an X-band OTM capability for voice and a data using active antenna technology which is fully qualified and operational and supports OTM capabilities of 100Kbps. The Direction générale de l'armement is currently supporting a research programme using different modems to extend that to up to 2 Mbps. Work is also ongoing to migrate to a full IP network using the STANAG 4606 Ed 3 compliant EPM IP Modem which will offer high IPv6 data rates on demand and which also support VoIP. The same basic terminals are used to support the UAE’s Yahsat satellite network which has an OTM capability. France is also exploring Ka band small active antennae for armored vehicles with a high data rate for the forward link with a return link with both a lower data rate and lower spectral efficiency. Thales have a range of OTM terminals in their Xotm range using a flat panel antenna in X-band and dish antennae in Ka band although active flat panel antenna in this frequency is expected soon with a high transmit range of 128Kbps to 2Mbs and either a two or three axis stabilisation systems which allows high tracking capability in harsh environments. The systems is typically offered with the company’s Modem 21e-M modem, a high anti-jam protected modem system which uses ‘software modem’ technology and has an onboard full integrated management system although other Doppler resistant models can be used. General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies’ SmartSat technology provides auto acquisition with a lightweight 96cm-1.2m apertures terminal supporting greater than 4Mbps outbound and 18Mbps inbound in Ku, Ka and X-band band. The systems is designed for transport in ergonomically designed cases and can set

Thales’ Xotm SOTM product line are in operational services with France and the UAE, shown here in June in the French Army’s Phoenix II digitization experiment © AJB

up in less than five minutes with its drive speed of 30 degrees per second, an azimuth of 720 degrees and a continuous elevation of 180 degrees. Other features include a built in spectrum analayser and M&C systems. The company have also provided the Satellite Wide Area Network (SWAN) programme for

The Rockwell Collins CCT120 uses a common CommuniCase technology and the deployable satcom solution achieved 98.7 percent reliability in Afghanistan, where it was acquired as part of a UOR by the British Army © Rockwell Collins

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the USMC with several hundred of General Dynamic’s deployable self contained Tactical auto-acquisition SATCOM terminals operating on FSS Ku-Band with both both 96 cm and 1.2m terminals deployed. GD Satcom Technologies has also more than a hundred 45-75cm aperture SOTM terminals for X, Ku, and Ka-Band operation currently in operation with seven countries around the world, with most sales being to the DoD. The company’s Model 20-24 terminal has been selected as a solution for the WIN-T programme using the MPM1000 modem. In August 2010, Australia completed its Satcom OTM Capability and Technology Demonstrator programme, working with EM Solutions and BAE Systems Australia over a period of 18 months, designed to help develop future requirements and concepts of opertion for SOTM. The terminal used was a parabolic reflector with Cassegrain configuration and utilized closed loop monopulse tracking using beacons and supported rates of 8Mbps receive and 2Mbps transmit with EM Solutions providing a 4W Ka band solution. The demonstration, in June 2010 took place using a Bushmaster mobility vehicle. A new organisational development in Australia is the formation in January 2010 of the Directorate of Satcom Capability of the ADF, which brings together all single and joint service solutions. There are six key ADF

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CapRock’s deployable X-band terminal uses a fanless deisgn to reduce weight to 14kg and produce a virtually silent terminal © CapRock

programmes that have a heavy reliance on satcom: Air 7000, Air 6000, Sea 1000 and Sea 1439a but the land systems are the major focus – notably JP2072 Phase 2B, JP 2008 Phase 5B. The requirements are still being finalised and so number are still in flux. However there are two main trends with SOTM being seen as a specialised requirement rather than a mass implementation solution although the big changes in the requirements are for significantly increased numbers of small tactical terminals with “Large numbers” of Medium Transportable 1.5m Small Transportable 0.5m terminals and 46cm SOTM terminals being sought. Australian UHF Tacsat is supported by the current AN/PRC-148 which

ITT’s new Ku-band NOMAD SOTM a fully systemised solution that sits inside the ubiquitous standard SINCGARS vehicle rack mount

Selex Communications now Selex Elsag’s Dagger deployable satcom terminal is designed to be set up and communicating in minutes © Selex Elsag

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will be supplanted by AN/PRC-152s and AN/PRC-117Gs under Land 75/125. In Afghanistan, NATO uses two UHF Tacsat solutions both using the AN/PRC117F CNR solution; an On The Pause system with about 500 terminals deployed and an OTM solution with about 50 deployed. Five different services are available beginning with a 600bps DAMA data capability rising to a 25kbps Single Channel Per Carrier link for voice and data. Larger but still quickly mobile

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is the B-band Suitcase Satellite terminal which is a 1.2m auto tracking solution in X and Ku band and is designed to be deployed by two people in under ten minutes. When deploying to Chad in 2009, as part of the UN’s MINURCAT II mission, nonNATO Finland used a range of commercial satcom products such as the vehicles mounted as the Inmarsat based BGAN Explorer 727 linked to wireless LAN for data and nodes, LEO or GEO Tracker sat phones over Iridium and Thuraya as well as C-band VSAT links over the Atlantic Bird 3 satellite. ITT’s new Ku-band NOMAD SOTM a fully systemised solution that sits inside the ubiquitous standard SINCGARS vehicle rack mount and linked to a Raysat Stealthray low profile antenna with integrated 20W PA and has been demonstrated using the LinkwayS2, Comtech OTM, Hughes and L-3 MPM1000 modems. Rates of 512Kbp at 225Kmph have been achieved on roads with 100 percent success in retaining links in a US Army exercise using Command Post Of the Future secure VTC, secure VoIP and email with simultaneous up links of 256Kbps and 512Kbps downlinks while operating cross country at speed of over 50kmph or higher. Nomad is designed to be fitted in just 30-40 minutes using two man teams put in place using either standard or epoxy bolts. ITT has also developed the Distributed Tactical Communications System (DTCS) programme, which uses secure, Netted Iridum links for voice and data in a hand held terminal. Over 6000 handsets were delivered for use in theatre to US forces in 2010 and it is designed to complement larger terminals in ViasSat’s AN/PSC-14 is the only ruggedised BGAN terminal with integrated Type 1 encryption © ViaSat

the field. The DTCS and has a range of 160320km and would be used to link patrols and platoons over a wide area undertaking distributed operations. The Caprock Tampa Microwave TMX850MP family uses a fanless, virtually silent design which uses heat pipe technology is disperse heat. In a softcase, the entire 16W 45cm X-band system weighs just over 14Kg while supporting T1/E1 duplex bandwidth. The systems has been successfully operated on both Paradigm and XTAR satcom networks using an iDirect modem. A Ku- band version is also being developed. Weight is reduced in the auto alignment system which removes the need for a motorised mechanical

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ITT’s DTCS solution is entering widespread service with the US military providing Netted iridium coverage to dismounted patrols © ITT

systems while retaining an electronic compass, inclinometer as well as a GPS into the baseline systems. Instead of pushing a button, the terminals software guides the untrained operator to manually align the system via the screen. Rockwell Collins manpack miSAT-X terminal is used by US Special Forces in small teams of four or less personnel requiring links in the field and supports 1.5-2Mbps and supports both NIPRnet and SIPRnet connectivity and the transmission of full motion video and also uses a manual point system to save weight. The system replaces larger BGAN solution which also offered less throughput. In addition to miSAT-X the company’s CCT-90 and 120 CommuniCase terminals use larger aperture terminals and auto-acquisition as the larger the terminal the harder it is to achieve exact azimuth and elevation alignment. The CCT terminals can operate with Intelsat and Eutelsat type approval and for the US X-band certification over WGS. The terminals support iDirect’s Infinity and Evolution, ViaSat’s LinkWay S2, Advantec’s Satnet DVB-S2 and ND Satcom SkyWAN modems.

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Naval Integrated

Weapons The fewer personnel on the deck of a warship during combat, the fewer crewmembers are placed at risk. Placing naval gunners behind the protective screen of a ship’s superstructure reduces the danger of them being hit by projectiles or shrapnel. It is this simple maxim that is guiding the development of naval remote controlled gun turrets.

by Tom Withington

HESE weapons, while placed topside, can be controlled from the bridge or from elsewhere within the superstructure. The weapon’s azimuth and bearing can be adjusted using a joystick, for example, while fire control can be exercised using electro-optics or radar. A human operator may or, in the case of Raytheon’s Phalanx and Thales’ Goalkeeper Close-In Weapons System (CIWS), may not be required to control the weapon. Naval architects have arguably never had such a range of remote controlled guns to

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choose from while designing their vessels, particularly in the 12.7mm-40mm calibre range. Guns of such a size, particularly in the littoral environment, afford both striking power and high precision. This is particularly important as the waters around a coastline

Naval architects have arguably never had such a range of remote controlled guns to choose from while designing their vessels

can be crammed with trawlers, pleasure boats and other civilian vessels. Naval fire power must ensure that it is the ships’ intended target, and not such innocent craft, which are engaged. The need for such capabilities has been recognised by companies like BAE Systems, Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, Kongsberg, Raytheon and Nexter which all have naval remote controlled gun products available. BAE Systems’ Lemur family of gyro-stabilised electro-optical combined gun sites and remote controlled weapons stations use a modular concept allowing them to be customised according to the specification desired by the operator. For example, Lemur can house a ground and air target fire control system, electro-optics and target designation for missiles, a forward observer sight, and a remote controlled weapons station, which can also include a countermeasures launcher. In particular, the Lemur is well-suited to accommodating Bofors 40 and Bofors 57 weapons. The Bofors 40 can dispatch up to 330 rounds-per-minute (rpm), engaging targets at up to 12.5-kilometres; with the Bofors 57 having a slightly lower rate-of-fire at around 220 rpm. The fire control systems Although it is seen here outfitting a vehicle, BAE Systems’ Lemur family of remote controlled naval weapons systems can accommodate Bofors 40 and Bofors 57 weapons, along with a range of fire control systems © BAE Systems

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Rafael Advanced Defense Systems’ Mini-Typhoon is designated as the Remote Operated Small Arms Mount (ROSAM) Mk.49 Mod.1 in US Navy service. The weapons mount can accommodate machine guns, Gatling guns, a grenade launcher and even small missiles © US Navy

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WEAPON SYSTEMS OtoMelara’s ‘Modular Advanced Remote Lightweight Naval Weapon Station’ or MARLINWS is available in both 25mm and 30mm versions. Sales of the weapon have been forthcoming to the Netherlands © OtoMelara

Mk.38 Mod.2 give the weapon a useful secondary capability as an observation and reconnaissance system. One particularly useful design feature for this gun mount is the integral battery which contains up to two hour’s power which allows the gun to keep functioning, should it suffer a power failure as a result of battle damage. By 2015, the US Navy plans to have rolled these weapons across its surface combatant fleet; principally its destroyers, frigates and cruisers which will each receive two weapons, along with amphibious support ships which will obtain up to three, and patrol vessels which will be outfitted with a single example. Rafael Advanced Defense Systems has, meanwhile, elected to fold technology developed for its Overhead Weapons System-25 utilised on the Israeli Army’s Achzarit, Puma and M113A2 armoured vehicles into the Typhoon Mk.25 Naval Stabilised Weapons Station. The Typhoon’s design allows it to be

Kongsberg intends for the Sea Protector to outfit comparatively small-sized craft, and the Sea Protector includes a recoil dampener helping to improve precision outfitting the Lemur, allow the weapons station to be integrated with a vessel’s onboard surveillance and navigation radar. Alongside the Lemur family, BAE Systems produces a gun mount in the 35mm calibre category; the Mk.38 Mod.2, which is based on the Typhoon product of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems (see below). The Mk.38 Mod.2 is built around an ATK M242 Bushmaster chain gun which can fire up to 180 rpm at a range of around 2.5 km; although these weapons can also perform single shot and low-speed fire. The weapon is traversed onto its target using a joystick, and the integral electro-optical systems of the Along with the Lemur family of naval remote controlled weapons mounts, BAE Systems also produces the Mk.38 Mod.2 which accommodates an ATK M242 Bushmaster chain gun. This weapon is currently equipping the US Navy © BAE Systems

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used as either as stand-alone weapon, or integrated into a vessel’s combat management architecture. This is possible because all of the gun’s fire control equipment is located within the weapons mount. In addition, the weapon has a non-hull penetrating design, and can be connected to a ship’s combat management system via a single cable. Ease of operation has been designed into the weapon with the employment of a Windowsbased user interface. Rafael began its development of the Typhoon Mk.25 around 15 years ago and, since then, has sold examples to the navies of Australia, Greece, India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. A smaller variant of the Typhoon Mk.25, known as the Mini-Typhoon is also to be found in the Rafael catalogue. This weapon can be used to provide perimeter protection for large vessels, or for use as the primary armament on smaller craft. The weapon is commanded from a console which can be placed inside the vessel, with a ballistic computer that enables the calculation of a firing solution once a target has been acquired. As

One of the most famous naval weapons is Raytheon’s Phalanx close-in weapons system. Phalanx has experienced some significant modifications during its service life including improvements to its fire control system © Raytheon

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with other products surveyed in this article, the Mini-Typhoon can be used in a standalone capacity or alternatively slaved to the ship’s fire control system. Customers for the Mini-Typhoon have already been forthcoming, including the US Navy, which has acquired the weapon and designated it as the Remote Operated Small Arms Mount (ROSAM) Mk.49 Mod.1. In terms of weapons which the Mini-Typhoon can accommodate, they include a standard 7.62mm machine gun, a GAU-17 Gatling gun or Mk.19 grenade launcher. The company adds that compact missiles can also be integrated. Like the Mini-Typhoon, Kongsberg Defence Systems’ Sea Protector accommodates a comparatively low-calibre weapon; in this case a Browning M2 12.7mm gun, or alternatively FN Herstal M240 7.62mm or M249 5.56mm weapons. Kongsberg intends for the Sea Protector to outfit comparatively small-sized craft, and the Sea Protector includes a recoil dampener helping to improve precision. For customers requiring a slightly heavier calibre remote controlled weapon, Rheinmetall’s Millennium gun is available which can fire 35mm projectiles at a range of up to five kilometres, with a rate of fire of 1,000 rpm. The Millennium gun’s lightweight construction makes it ideal for vessels weigh-

US Navy Phalanx guns are now receiving upgrades to improve their overall reliability, and the Block 1B improvements can be procured either as a retrofit, or as a new-build weapons system ing between 30-100 tonnes. Moreover, the weapon can be slaved to the ship’s organic electro-optical and fire-control systems. Remote controlled weapons systems of a similar calibre are available from OtoMelara. The Koninklijke (Royal Netherlands Navy) has chosen to procure OtoMelara’s MARLINWS, opting to purchase the 30-mm version of the weapon to outfit its Holland-class patrol ships. Despite taking its name from a particularly delectable fish, MARLIN-WS is in fact an acronym for ‘Modular Advanced Remote Lightweight Naval Weapon Station’. Available in 25mm and 30mm versions, the MARLIN-WS is slaved to a combatant’s combat management system, although it also includes an integral laser range finder, and an infrared daylight camera for fire control. These fire control systems can either be

The United Kingdom is home to MSI Defence which has developed remote controlled weapons systems in use with the Royal Navy and other forces around the world, with weapons integration with a ship’s command and control architecture possible © MSI Defence

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slaved to the muzzle of the gun or moved independently to allow the weapon to point in one direction, while the operator looks elsewhere. Given the weapon’s modular construction, the customer can choose other electro-optical subsystems if preferred and, to aid accuracy, the MARLIN-WS is outfitted with a fall-of-shot calculator and ballistic computer. MARLIN-WS deliveries to the Netherlands should be completed by the end of this year. In fact, the MARLIN-WS is not the only remote controlled weapons system that OtoMelara has in production. For customers requiring a lower-calibre solution, the firm builds a 12.7mm PA (Power Assisted) gun which has a range of around 1.5 km. To control the weapon, the 12.7-mm PA is equipped with a console which can be positioned at a convenient point on board the vessel. This console can relay imagery back from the weapon’s integral, co-axial fire control system. Nevertheless, the user can choose to connect the weapon to their combat management system, enabling it to take fire control information from a ships’ radar. Along with the 12.7mm gun, the customer can also outfit the gun mount with a 40mm grenade launcher. While the 12.7mm PA can provide a ship with relatively small calibre remote controlled weapon, warships can also be furnished with heavier remote controlled OtoMelara products alongside the firm’s MARLIN-WS (see above). These include the company’s 40L70 gun which is designed to be used as the secondary armament on board a large vessel, or the main armament on a smaller combatant. These guns can have a devastating effect as they are able to deliver up to 600 rounds-perminute of fire. One of the design features of the 12.7mm PA is that it can be reloaded from inside a ship which has the important effect of ensuring that crew members do not need to venture out on deck to reload the weapon during combat. Although already impressive, some customers may need an even higher rate of fire than that offered by the 40L70, in which case they can opt for the firm’s remote controlled Single Fast Forty which can despatch up to 900 rpm. Raytheon produces one of the most wellknown remote controlled weapons systems in the form of the Phalanx CIWS. Not only are these weapons deployed on a wide range of US naval vessels, but they have also enjoyed significant export success, since their service entry in 1980. At the heart of the Phalanx is a six-barrelled, 20mm Gatling gun


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which has a rate of fire in the order of 4,500 rpm. Such is the robust nature of its design, that the weapon has been cycled through a number of improvements during their career. This has included the Block 1B enhancement that which commenced in May 2005 enabling the gun to fire ATK’s 20mm Mk.244 Enhanced Lethality Cartridge. Along with this ability to fire new ammunition, Phalanx guns have received improvements to their radar, and the introduction of a forwardlooking infra-red electro-optical system. US Navy Phalanx guns are now receiving upgrades to improve their overall reliability, and the Block 1B improvements can be procured either as a retrofit, or as a new-build weapons system. Raytheon’s long-term plans see the Phalanx as a receptacle which can accept weapons according to the mission that the gun must perform. For example, the company envisages future Phalanxes as having a robot arm which could remove the traditional six-barrelled gun and replace this with a different weapon, such as a laser for use as a non-lethal ship defence to dazzle potential attackers. Other alternative weapons include an electro-magnetic rail gun which could out-

Raytheon sees growth potential in its Phalanx CIWS design. This includes the wherewithal to add weapons such as a non-lethal dazzling laser or a electromagnetic rail gun © US Navy

fit the Phalanx once this technology becomes available for deployment. The US Navy is currently conducting a number of experiments to develop a rail gun as a working weapon, which would allow naval vessels to dispense with housing projectile propellants and explosive shells. A rail gun dispenses with conventional shells and instead uses the sheer kinetic force of a high speed projectile to destroy a target. Such a plug-and-play weapon, the company expects, could enter service in around 2015. Should this greatly enhanced Phalanx be rolled out across the US Navy, it would provide a potent vessel self defence capability in concert with the Mk.38 Mod.2 weapons that the service should also have in service by this time. Finally, Nexter of France joins Raytheon in the remote controlled weapons business in the guise of the Naval Remote Weapon Highly Accurate Lightweight (NARWHAL) system. Like its OtoMelara counterpart, the MARLIN-

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WS, the NARWHAL acronym is shared with a marine creature; in this case a medium-sized toothless whale. The gun mount is able to accommodate a variety of weapons including Nexter’s M761 30mm, M621 20mm gun, twin M693 20mm or M761 30mm single-barrelled guns. This is not the only remote controlled weapons system which involves a French company. Thales constructs the 4,200 rpm Goalkeeper CIWS which has a range of 1.5 km. Together with the Phalanx discussed above. This has become a popular weapon for navies around the world. Of course, there is another benefit inherent in remote controlled naval guns. Removing the crew member from the gun cupola allows the weapon itself to have a lower profile and, therefore, a reduced radar and visual signature. This contributes to reducing the overall topside signature of a surface combatant, helping to further enhance a ship’s survivability. The companies surveyed above produce a range of systems to suit a wide range of customer requirements. It would not be surprising if, in future, remote controlled weapons become a standard feature on the world’s naval vessels.

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RUSSIAN ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLE

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HE IDEA of an articulated carrier is rather simple: one needs just to join two carriers with active drives into a single vehicle and endow it with high cross-country capability over extremely difficult terrain. First attempts to materialise this seemingly simple idea were made in the early 20th century, but to no avail. First series-production vehicles appeared in the 1960/1970s both in the Soviet Union and in the West. Swedish company H채gglunds Vehicle AB produced the widely popular Bandvagn 206 type articulated vehicles.They had a two-tonne load-carrying capacity which was ten times less than Soviet counterparts had. Similar vehicles were developed in Finland with equally small load carrying capacity. Soviet designers succeeded in obtaining more impressive characteristics, having developed articulated vehicles with 10-30 tonnes load carrying capacity. Studies and experiments conducted for many years resulted in the family of the Vityaz unique all-terrain articulated tracked carriers, now marketed abroad by Rosoboronexport, the Russian state trade company.They pass by land and water in places where any other wheeled and tracked vehicles get hopelessly stuck. In addition, they boast high tractive characteristics, large loadcarrying capacity, and long cruising range. The Vityaz articulated carriers are made according to a trailer scheme where two units are coupled with a hinge.The front unit has a crew cabin for 4-7 persons equipped with autonomous heating and air ventilation systems, transmission and cargo compartment.The rear unit is either a body for transporting personnel and car-goes, or a platform for mounting various equipment. In contrast to conventional tracked vehicles making turns by braking the left or right track, articulated vehicles turn by jackknifing in the horizontal plane.The turning point around which one unit turns about the other is in the centre of the swivel joint.Thanks to this arrangement both units start turning simultaneously and symmetrically.The swivel joint is of a unique tri-dimensional design that


allows the vehicle to surpass walls more than one metre high and ground undulations merely by circumventing them. The Vityaz vehicle features an independent torsion-bar suspension and a caterpillar mover with dedicated polyurethane and rubber elements providing high riding smoothness as well as enhanced service life and reliability of the running gear. All four rubber fabric tracks of the articulated carrier are actively driven.Therefore it has no difficulties in surmounting obstacles or climbing on shore: when tracks of the front unit lose grip of the ground for a time, the active rear unit will give it a push, and when the rear unit gets stuck, it will be pulled out by the front unit. Besides, thanks to wide tracks the vehicle, even fully laden, develops lower ground pressure than a man does.Thanks to this feature the carrier can travel on soils with low bearing capacity. The Vityaz all-terrain vehicle marketed by Rosoboronexport is perfectly fit for operations on water as well.It has a water displacing body which can be propelled in water by revolving tracks.The tracks fitted with large metallic crossbars provide suf-ficient speed on water (4-5 km/h) and enable climbing out of water on unequipped shores. Moving in water by rewinding tracks offers significant benefits when the all-terrain vehicle is in the intermediate state of sailing afloat and driving over shallows.Most amphibians fitted with propellers or waterjets prove helpless in such environ-ment, i.e.when the water is too shallow for the vehicle to float but too deep to drive.Water pumps are installed to fight leaks. The lower part of the carrier body is reinforced with a box frame fitted with longitudinal, transverse and slant bars.This rigid structure allows mounting load-lifting, excavating, drilling and other technological equipment.There are modifications of the Vityaz articulated carriers with cargo platform developed for transporting long and heavy structures. The Vityaz all-terrain vehicles feature a hydrodynamic transmission with a sin-gle-stage hydrodynamic torque converter providing smooth control of transferred torque in function of the running resistance. A four-speed gearbox with a locking differential provides selection of the optimal driving mode for any road conditions.To provide for effective power transfer each unit is equipped with two planetary final drives and one bevel gear speed reducer with a blocking differential. Unique engineering solutions implemented in heavy articulated carriers and rich experience gained during their operation have been applied to the development of small articulated carriers with load capacity ranging from two to eight tonnes. Their design in essence is not different from that of the “heavyweights�.However, mounting a Cummins engine and an Alisson automatic transmission on the vehicles has expanded their AMR Marketing Promotion


technical capabilities as well as application areas. Small carriers can travel at a speed of up to 60 km/h and use public roads.They also retain amphibious properties as well as the capability of negotiating any obstacles. A fire-fighting and rescue system has been developed on the chassis of the articulated carrier for units of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations.The second unit carries a fixed module with an autonomous power unit and various purpose replaceable modules (firefighting module, emergency rescue module, medical aid module).The modules are replaced with a hydraulic hoist. In particular, Rosoboronexport markets the DT-3P all-terrain vehicles which can be used to transport passengers and cargoes, as well as

to accommodate various load lifting equipment. The carrier is equipped with a comfortable cabin and provides increased riding smoothness thanks to the employment of an automatic hydromechanical transmission and independent individual suspension system. It should be noted here that the individual torsion-bar suspension installed on the Vityaz small articulated carriers has substantial advantages over suspension of Western-origin articulated vehicles which use a two stage blocked suspension system with shorter dynamic roller travel and greater rigidity because of its design peculiarities. Another vulnerability of Western transporters is their swivel joint with only two degrees of freedom. When a unit turns in relation to the other in the

vertical transverse plane, the swivel joint body also functions as a damping device, which reduces reliability of the structure. Robustness and operational reliability of the Vityaz articulated carriers marketed by Rosoboronexport have been proved in practice by enterprises of oil/gas and power industries operating for many years in the Russian Western Siberia and Far North regions famous for difficult climatic, terrain and road conditions. The Vityaz all-terrain articulated tracked vehicles helped solve complex problems of oil/gas pro-duction, and oil/gas pipeline and electrical power line construction on difficult terrain thanks to their high passability characteristics and capability of travelling over fluid soils of marshlands.


REGI ON AL M I L I T A R Y

Brunei: Monarchy, ASEAN and Defence

Capabilities In 2004, Brunei released its inaugural defence White Paper setting out Brunei’s policy intent and responses to a rapidly changing global environment. The White Paper also stated that it was to be reviewed every two-three years and this was duly done in 2007 although no further updates or review has been published since. by Dzirhan Mahadzir

AFVs of the Royal Brunei Land Forces during an exercise Š Khoo Jin Kiat

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HE 2004 Brunei Defence White Paper stated that the security and prosperity of Brunei rested upon on three pillars of national policy, namely; the cohesion and stability of the nation guided by the Malay Islamic Monarchy philosophy; a stable regional environment in which Brunei’s membership of ASEAN enables it to pursue national goals free from external interference; and the maintenance of Brunei’s defence capabilities including its armed forces to preserve the nation’s sovereignty, protection of its territorial integrity and interests, and secure freedom and independence. The White Paper then went on to further state that as a result, priorities in regards to defence were; maintaining stability and cohesion within the nation; protecting national interests in adjacent maritime areas; reinforcing the integrity of the nation’s borders; enhancing national capabilities in counter terrorism; cooperation within ASEAN on issues of shared concern and supporting the stability of neighbours; further regional security cooperation through dialogue, increased transparency and crisis management; and develop a robust and flexible defence capability able to handle the complex set of current tasks while retaining the capacity to deter aggression. The 2007 Brunei Defence White Paper Update stated that while new strategic dynamics had appeared since the 2004 White Paper

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was published; there was no change to the priorities on defence. It noted that, in the aftermath of the Indian Ocean tsunami, that the impact of environmental and natural disasters and the appropriate responses to such was one of two strategic dynamics which had emerged since the 2004 White Paper. The other strategic dynamic noted was the increasingly complex intersection between broader international security trends and regional and domestic stability. Noting that the challenges of develop-

Since the publication of the 2007 Update, the JOC has become a reality with the award of a contract in January 2010 to Northrop Grumman

ment have increased domestic instability and raised the prospect of state failure, particularly among several smaller, less developed nations in the region, the 2007 Update stressed the need for neighbouring nations to support national governments in managing such pressures as being important to the stability and progress of the region as a whole. It then further went on to say that as such, in addition to the defence priorities in the 2004 White Paper, the new dynamics resulted in significant additional emphasis having to be placed upon; pro-

moting a more robust regional security dialogue to better understand and, where appropriate, develop cooperative policies and responses towards those shared strategic challenges; developing appropriate mechanisms to facilitate cooperation in responding to any major security crisis that may arise with little or no warning; significantly enhancing the capacity and availability of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces (RBAF) to contribute to those cooperative regional operations as well as priority national tasks; and strengthening Brunei’s ability to make a modest yet credible contribution to wider United Nation’s peace support and humanitarian relief operations. The 2007 Update focused upon the development of the RBAF as a flexible force, multiroled and able to configure to generate the right capability with sufficient levels of readiness, mobility, interoperability and sustainability. The multi-role aspect included missions such as humanitarian and disaster relief. It stated that the RBAF needed to be able to be flexible in the variety of tasks they can undertake across a range of transnational, natural disaster and peace operations; and at the same time not only being credible in performing specific roles but also sustainable on operations for some time. It added that the RBAF had to be potentially able to undertake several tasks concurrently and be interoperable with regional and international security partners. The 2007 Update then proceeded to state

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that the among the keys to achieving such was the improvement of the RBAF’s network capabilities and maximizing the RBAF’s capacity to operate cooperatively with other national assets and security partners. The 2007 Update listed the need to establish a Joint Operations Center (JOC) to act as a single, integrated operations centre for the RBAF. In addition to planning and directing deployments, it would be the focal point for operational coordination with other national or foreign forces and agencies. The 2007 Update also stated that the JOC would have responsibility for the development of joint doctrine and procedures, oversight of the force communications architecture, and expanding the current joint, national and multilateral exercise programmes. Since the publication of the 2007 Update, the JOC has become a reality with the award of a contract in January 2010 to Northrop Grumman Corporation United Kingdom to provide a Joint Operations Center command and control capability for the RBAF. The contract included the supply of an integrated Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) headquarters system and a deployable Joint Operations Center together with the provision of training and incountry support. The Brunei JOC uses Northrop Grumman's International-Joint Operational Command and Control System, which incorporates the company's software applications Command and Control for the PC (C2PC) and Interoperable C4I Services (ICS) which are currently deployed in more than 40 countries. Together, C2PC and ICS provide a seamless top-to-bottom architecture for command and control, from the strategic and oper-

ational levels down to the dismounted soldier. No details have been given as to when the JOC command center became operational though given the time since the contract was awarded; it is likely that the system is now operational. In regard to cooperation with foreign forces, the RBAF already carries out a number of regular bilateral exercises and meetings with its ASEAN counterparts. It also carries out exercises with the United Kingdom,

Given such and Brunei’s population numbering around 400,000, it is not surprising that the RBAF is small, particularly also as military service is voluntary

Australia and New Zealand while Brunei also forms part of the United States annual Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) series of bilateral exercises with countries in the South East Asia region. Ties with the UK are particularly strong with the United Kingdom. Singapore also maintains a training center for jungle warfare in Brunei. Of note though is the field deployment of RBAF troops on peacekeeping missions, while RBAF personnel have served on peacekeeping missions or as international monitors in Cambodia, Mindanao and Acheh in the past, the recent small deployment of RBAF personnel to Lebanon since 2008 as part of the UNIFIL mission is interesting as the personnel deployed were embedded as part of the Malaysian battalion contingent. Initially starting out as a five-strong deployment in October 2008, the number has since

Royal Brunei Air Force S-70 Blackhawk © Khoo Jin Kiat

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grown with the fifth dispatch of RBAF troops in January this year numbering 20 personnel. Brunei was asked by the United Nations if they could contribute a company of 120 personnel for the mission but declined, apparently due to problems in being able to sustain such a commitment. While the RBAF could make an initial deployment of a company, it was felt that such a commitment would put a strain on the small RBAF plus the fact that making such a deployment may inadvertently lead to Brunei having to maintain a continuous deployment of a company of troops for the open-ended UNIFIL mission. Still, the embedding of the Brunei contingent with Malaysian troops does indicate that Brunei is ensuring that a portion of its military personnel do gain experience in carrying out international missions along with indicating an increasing closeness and cooperation with Malaysia on defence and security. Malaysian Defence Minister Ahmad Zahid Hamidi in January invited Brunei, along with Indonesia to join Malaysia’s ISAF contingent in Afghanistan. While Malaysia’s current contingent in Afghanistan consists of only a 40 strong medical team whose mandate expires


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The Royal Brunei Land Forces operates a small number of Scorpion light tanks formed into a armored reconnaissance company © Khoo Jin Kiat

in October 2011, the indications given is that Malaysia is moving towards expanding the mission beyond October in numbers and roles which would include engineers for reconstruction work. No official word has emerged yet though from Brunei as to whether it would participate. Brunei’s 2007 Defence White Paper Update also called for the nurturing of the growth of the local defence industry in being able to provide maintenance and support services for the RBAF and also able to eventually upgrade the RBAF’s equipment. Given the relatively small size of the RBAF, it is clear that moving towards local manufacture or production is clearly impractical if not impossible. Brunei has been strongly receptive to Malaysia’s proposal for ASEAN countries to cooperate jointly in the defence industry along with forming a regional defence industry council and move towards defence purchases from each other’s countries though Singapore and Indonesia, with their substantial indigenous defence industry have been cool to the proposal. Currently in terms of security threats, Brunei faces no external threats though the spectre of terrorism, particularly in regard to

its oilfields, exists. However of note is that the oilfields are protected by Brunei’s Gurkha Reserve Unit, a 2,000 strong force under Brunei’s Ministry of Home Affairs an which is also responsible for the security of Brunei’s royal family. Given fact that the

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Gurkha Reserve Unit comprises ex-British army Gurkhas, their presence alone is likely to deter many terrorists. Brunei claims part of the Spratly islands though it does not have any troops or maintains any presence in the areas it claims. Given such and Brunei’s population numbering around 400,000, it is not surprising that the RBAF is small, particularly also as military service is voluntary. The Royal Brunei Land Force consist of three infantry battalions, a support battalion containing armor, engineers and a headquarters unit. In addition the RBLF has a signal squadron and Air Defence battery. One infantry battalion is a mechanised battalion using the French VAB and long term plans call for the establishment of a fourth infantry battalion and a second engineer squadron. Beyond that, there is little disclosed as to the RBLF’s future procurement plans though it can be taken that given Brunei’s limited manpower, some form of soldier system which would enhance individual soldier capabilities and protections will be considered. Development of the Royal Brunei Navy has always been a priority for Brunei though these ambitions took a knock with the aborted Nakhoda Ragam OPV programme. Though the ships were completed by BAE Systems in the early 2000’s, Brunei refused to take delivery of them, citing that the ships failed to meet the required specifications. The matter was Royal Brunei Land Forces soldiers train under the direction of US marines during the CARAT 2010 exercise © US DoD

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Royal Brunei Land Forces soldiers abseil down from a Royal Brunei Air Force S-70 Blackhawk during an exercise © Khoo Jin Kiat

finally resolved in arbitration in 2007 where German company Lürssen undertook to resell the ships. Lürssen was also contracted to build several vessels for the RBN. The RBN officially accepted two Darussalam Class Patrol Vessels, namely KDB Darussalam and KDB Darulehsan on 7th January this year at the Lürssen Shipyard in Germany. The Darussalam class has a length of 80 meters and width of 13 meters wide and has an endurance of 21 days at sea. The ships are equipped with Exocet surface to surface missiles and a medium caliber gun. Both ships started their maiden voyage back to Brunei in March and expected to arrive in May this year. The third and

final Darussalam ship, Darulaman will be delivered in August this year. The Darussalam class ships replace the Waspada class Missile Gun Boats which have been in service with the Royal Brunei Navy for more than 30 years. Two of the Waspadas, the KDB Waspada and KDB Pejuang have already been transferred to

It is unlikely that Brunei will embark on any further shipbuilding programme although upgrades to its fleet are expected

Brunei’s newest patrol craft, KDB Darussalam © Lürssen

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the Indonesian navy where they will be used as training ships. Previously, Lürssen had built a total of four 41 meter Ijhtihad class Fast Patrol Boats armed with a 27mm main gun for the RBN, with two of the class beginning operations since March 2010 followed by the remaining two vessels in August 2010. Again with manpower constraints, it is unlikely that Brunei will embark on any further shipbuilding programme although upgrades to its fleet are expected. The Royal Brunei Air Force (RBAF) has only a limited transport capability in the form of a CN-235 transport, 5 S-70 Blackhawks, 10 Bell Jet Rangers and 5 BO-105 among its primary aircraft. 3 CN-235 Maritime Patrol Aircraft have been ordered from Indonesia in recognition of the need to patrol Brunei’s maritime waters. Since the 1990’s, there have been talks about adding a combat capability to the RBAF with the Bae Hawk often mentioned but no purchase has ever occurred. Eventually though it is expected that Brunei will move towards some form of combat aircraft to support its ground and sea forces.


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Taiwan: Island Defence No country in Asia, except for South Korea, faces a military threat as dire as that confronting Taiwan. A brooding China maintains a military footing to attack this island that formed the last bastion of resistance for Chiang Kai-shek against the communists in 1949. Nowadays, a diminishing defence budget causes many to question whether Taiwan has the wherewithal to defend itself from its aggressive neighbour. HE ISSUE of Taiwan’s political status is extremely sensitive for China, which views the existence of this “renegade province” as a festering affront. China has not renounced the use of force if the Republic of China (ROC) declared de jure independence. Indeed, much of China’s military build-up focuses on weapons necessary for defeating Taiwan. It is estimated the Second Artillery Force of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has 1,500 missiles aimed at Taiwan, including

T

DF-11A and DF-15 short-range and DF-21C medium-range ballistic missiles. Taiwan’s National Security Bureau disclosed China has also begun deploying the DF-16, a new 1,000km-range missile with greater destructive power. The Taiwan Strait, spanning 130km at its narrowest point, separates the two adversaries. Measuring 394km long and 144km wide, Taiwan is characterised by

The F-CK-1 IDF was Taiwan’s attempt at producing an independent fighter. It performs well but was hampered by a high unit price © Gordon Arthur

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by Gordon Arthur

mountainous terrain, with most of its 23,000,000 inhabitants living on the western coastal plain. Importantly, the ROC controls the Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and Wuchiu island groups, some of which are very close to the mainland coast. This means they form an early-warning defensive line.

Military balance of power

China possesses the world’s secondlargest defence budget, with 2011 funding jumping 12.7 percent to


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$91.5 billion. This eclipses Taiwanese spending of $10.27 billion. Taiwan has no hope of competing with China’s overall spending, but what is of concern is that expenditure has decreased for three years under President Ma Ying-jeou’s ruling Kuomintang party. The 2008 defence budget was NT$343 billion, which decreased to NT$318.6 billion in 2009, and to NT$297.4 billion last year. The current budget, which excludes weapon system

The government wants the military to move to an all-professional force by 2014, although the diminishing defence budget will likely prevent this © Gordon Arthur

R&D, represents 2.14 percent of GDP, well below the three percent promised by Ma in his presidential campaign. Clearly the balance of power has swung decisively in the PLA’s favour, as Figure 1 shows. Both opposition and governing politicians are debating whether the ROC Armed

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Forces are financed sufficiently to defend the island, or even to act as a credible deterrent. If China initiated a war, how would Taiwan fare? Defence Minister General Kao Hua-chu said, “Should there be a first strike, we should be able to resist the attack for at least two weeks.” Elsewhere the Ministry of National Defence (MND) stated Taiwan would survive at least a month. This, Taiwan hopes, would be long enough for the US to intervene. The ROC Armed Forces boast some 275,000 active personnel, but this total will

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The M60A3 TTS is the most capable tank in the army’s inventory, although the design and technology date from the late 1970s © Gordon Arthur

drop to 215,000 by 2014. At present, 18-yearold males are required to complete twelve months of military service, but Taiwan is seeking to abolish conscription and create a wholly professional force by 2014. However, this plan seems destined to fail unless the defence budget jumps significantly. As well as serving as a credible deterrent to Chinese aggression, it should be remembered that Taiwan’s military is also regularly required to perform disaster relief missions, for example in the after-

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math of Typhoon Morakot in 2009. The Army (ROCA) is the largest branch, with an estimated 196,000 personnel, 80 percent of which are positioned on the main island. In recent years, ROCA restructuring created more mobile brigades able to move quickly to defend against invasion. Three mechanised-infantry and four armoured brigades are at the heart of the army’s combat power. Because of a lack of strategic depth, the army is the final line of defence against Chinese invasion. An Army Missile Command was formed on 1 January 2004 to oversee long-range surface-to-air missiles (SAM) and coastal-based anti-ship missiles. As Taiwan moves towards an offshore

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engagement strategy, the Navy (ROCN) and Air Force (ROCAF) become pivotal in keeping Chinese forces as far as possible from Taiwanese shores. The Navy is tasked with defending sea lines of communication against blockade, and surveillance of surrounding waters. Air defence is critical, with 30,000 personnel of the ROCAF operating 350+ fighters. Primary combat aircraft are the F-16A/B Block 20, F-CK-1A/B Indigenous Defence Fighter (IDF) and Mirage 2000-5. After five years of integration difficulties for the ROCAF, it was decided in January 2011 to return medium- and long-range SAM units to army oversight.


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the years under Section 3 of the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act. Consequently, during the 1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis the US Navy (USN) dispatched two aircraft carriers. Taiwan must ensure it can survive a war with China long enough for the US to swing into action. American policy on this issue is not explicit, but President Bush stated in 2001 that his country would do, “whatever it took” to defend Taiwan. To mitigate American naval dominance, China has begun fielding the new DF-21D anti-ship ballistic missile that could be described as a game-changer. The 3,000 km-range missile directly threatens USN vessels coming to Taiwan’s aid, and more than 50 PLA Navy (PLAN) submarines could also delay US naval reinforcements.

New equipment

Bruce Lemkin, former US Air Force deputy undersecretary for international affairs, made headlines in July 2010 when he stated Taiwan’s ability to defend its airspace had degraded due to ageing fighters, and that the sale of new craft was urgent. Indeed, Taiwan would like to buy 66 F-16C/D fighters, but Washington is refusing to sell them. Instead, the US is more likely to offer upgrades to F16A/B fighters. The US Congress was notified of a $6.46 billion arms package in October 2008, which immediately resulted in China freezing

Taiwan has no hope of competing with China’s overall spending, but what is of concern is that expenditure has decreased for three years

Political considerations

China’s Defence White Paper issued on 31 March grandiosely states, “the two sides of the Taiwan Strait are destined to ultimate reunification in the course of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.” Fortunately, cross-strait tensions eased after Ma Ying-jeou adhered to a policy of, “no unification, no independence and no use of force” after his election in May 2008. An important element in the Taiwan security equation is long-time ally US, even though the two nations have no official diplomatic relations. The US regards Taiwan as a strategic bulwark against Chinese expansion, and it has supplied defensive weapons over

defence relations with the USA. The package includes: 30 Apache AH-64D Block III helicopters; four upgraded E-2C Hawkeye 2000 aircraft; 32 Harpoon missiles; 173 Stinger SAMs; 1,000 AGM-114L Hellfire missiles; and 182 Javelin antitank missiles. A critical weapon for Taiwan is Patriot missiles, with three PAC-2 batteries being acquired in the late 1990s. The Ministry of National Defence (MND) announced in January 2010 that Lockheed Martin had been awarded a contract for Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) systems, with seven new batteries to be acquired and existing ones to be upgraded. From 2013 onwards, Taiwan will receive 60 UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters to

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replace elderly UH-1Hs. With only two serviceable submarines, the ROCN is urgently seeking eight new submarines. However, this search is proving fruitless as the US no longer produces dieselelectric submarines and no other country is willing to sell them. The US has also refused to sell upper-tier equipment like Aegisequipped destroyers, perhaps afraid the technology would find its way into Chinese hands. The MND is contemplating the purchase of Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates or Littoral Combat Ships to replace eight Knoxclass frigates transferred from the USN in the 1990s. Lockheed Martin is upgrading twelve P-3C Orion aircraft that will boost Taiwan’s ability at tracking Chinese submarines, with the first entering service this year. Taiwan has invested heavily in developing a robust command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) network able to withstand Chinese strikes. The Heng Shan Military Command Centre burrowed deep inside a Taipei mountain is connected to units all around Taiwan via landlines, fibreoptic cables and satellite and wireless networks with built-in redundancies. Phase 1 of the Po Sheng (“Broad Victory”) C4ISR programme concluded in December 2009, and Phase 2 will see warships and F-16s fitted with Link 16 terminals. The Taiwanese system is designed to plug into US networks. However, authorities realised this platform could have been compromised when Major General Lo Hsien-che was arrested in late January for spying. This case of Chinese espionage was deemed the worst in nearly 50 years of cross-strait tensions. Taiwan’s 1,100-strong tank fleet is old, consisting mainly of M48Hs and M60A3s. While a new design such as the M1A2 Abrams would be desirable, the budget has not yet allowed this. One immense hurdle for Taiwan is its political isolation and inability to buy arms from other countries, with most too fearful of Chinese reprisals. Nevertheless, Taiwan enjoys military ties with Singapore, including the permanent hosting of Singaporean troops and training equipment. To overcome its reliance on US hardware, Taipei has tried hard to develop indigenous solutions. The IDF, for example, was a direct consequence of American refusals to sell F-16s in the 1980s. The IDF was developed by the Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC), although unit costs were high because of limited production. AIDC is now developing an upgraded IDF version,

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A Mirage 2000-5Di of the ROCAF takes off from a highway in Madou being used as a temporary runway during the Han Kuang 27 exercise © Gordon Arthur

and the US has approved the export of technology for the aircraft’s radar. Another success has been the Hsiung Feng (HF, “Brave Wind”) series of anti-ship missiles from the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology (CSIST). HF-2 missile launchers are being fitted on 30 locally built Kuang Hua VI missile boats, with development also continuing of the HF-2E cruise missile. Tests of the ship-borne HF-3 are currently taking place. A little-known fact is that Taiwan test-

ed-fired a 2,000km-range missile in early 2008, a range sufficient to reach Beijing. CSIST also developed the in-service Tien Kung (“Sky Bow”) SAM, while the Wan Chien guided standoff glide bomb successfully completed evaluation trials in early 2010 and should become operational on the IDF in 2011-12. It is not all plain sailing for local defence industries however, as the saga of the CM-32 illustrates. Induction of this 8x8 armoured vehicle developed by the Ordnance Readiness

Comparison of Chinese & Taiwanese military strength EQUIPMENT

CHINA

Total Defence budget (USD) Ground forces Personnel Tanks Artillery pieces Air forces Fighters Bombers Transport Naval forces Destroyers Frigates Nuclear attack submarines Other submarines

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TAIWAN

Within range of Taiwan 91.5 billion

10.27 billion

1,250,000 7,000 8,000

400,000 3,100 3,400

196,000 1,100 1,600

1,680 620 450

330 160 40

368 0 20

25 49 6 54

15 40 2 32

4 22 0 4

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Development Centre has been persistently delayed. This vehicle is vital to the ROCA as it will equip mechanised-infantry brigades and replace tracked M113s. Low-rate initial production finally commenced in early 2011 and up to 450 vehicles could be procured.

Scenarios

Taiwan remains one of the likeliest flashpoints for conflict in Asia, and because China is wary of involving the USA, it would seek to deliver a swift fait accompli to deter American intervention. Experts refer to several potential scenarios: One: A decapitation missile strike could wipe out installations such as air defences, airbases and command nodes. Waves of hundreds of Chinese missiles could easily overwhelm Taiwanese defences. A fear of this form of attack is one reason why Taiwan keeps many of its assets mobile and has created extensive tunnels and underground facilities. For example, faced with a Chinese attack, fighters from west-coast airbases would be flown to shelters in the east. The Jiashan facility adjacent to Hualien Airbase is allegedly Taiwan’s largest underground shelter. Two: A naval blockade of Taiwan by PLAN ships and the sowing of mines could force Taipei into submission through economic constriction. However, such a blockade would not achieve control of the island itself, which is what Beijing desires. Taiwan maintains a sophisticated coastal surveillance system, and the ROCN is augmenting its minesweeper fleet with two decommissioned USN Osprey-class minesweepers and six


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locally constructed craft beginning in 2012. Three: An amphibious/airborne landing, if not on Taiwan, at least on outlying islands. Creating a lodgement on Taiwanese soil would be a formidable challenge for China, and it would prove costly in casualties. Nevertheless, the PLAN has been expanding its amphibious-warfare capabilities. For the past two years, Taiwan’s annual Han Kuang exercise has simulated counterattacks against Chinese landings in the Taichung area, with this port city considered strategically critical. Lying midway down the western coast, Chinese forces could move north to Taipei or Recent operations have made the issue of comprehensive personal protective equipment a standard feature of military operations © DoD

Recent operations have made the issue of comprehensive personal protective equipment a standard feature of military operations © DoD

south to Kaohsiung from Taichung. Alternatively, forces could bisect the island. If China attempted such an assault, Taiwan would employ porcupine tactics aimed at inflicting as much damage as possible as troops retreated into the mountains and conducted guerrilla-style warfare. Four: China could use a natural disaster such as a large-scale earthquake as raison d'être for sending paramilitary or military personnel into Taiwan on the pretext of offering help. However, all these scenarios come with inherent dangers to China. As the Tiananmen

Square massacre of 1989 demonstrated, the world would not sit idly by while China conquered Taiwan. The spectre of economic embargoes for a globalising China should send shivers up the spine of China’s leadership. Would China be willing to gamble its newfound prosperity in an attack against its neighbour? China is Taiwan’s largest export market, and these economic ties may yet result in the greatest détente. Perhaps the disincentive of economic fallout is the greatest trump card Taiwan can now play. However, Westerners should never underestimate the depth of emotion the Taiwan issue evokes in the Chinese psyche. Provoked by a declaration of Taiwanese independence, China would certainly react. Perhaps questions also need to be asked

A naval blockade of Taiwan by PLAN ships and the sowing of mines could force Taipei into submission through economic constriction

about the importance of Taiwan to the USA. Would the USA be willing to wage war against China for the sake of Taiwan? Perhaps the proposal in China’s White Paper seems best for all concerned, “The two sides should hold consultations on the basis of upholding the one-China principle to formally end hostilities and reach a peace agreement.”

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Asia Pacific Procurement Update AUSTRALIA Boeing completes RAAF Super Hornet trainer delivery

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) has received all six F/A-18E/F Super Hornet aircrew and maintenance trainers following the completion of delivery by Boeing to the RAAF Base Amberley in Queensland. The Australian government purchased the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet trainers from Boeing under a Foreign Military Sale (FMS) with the US government as part of a wider Super Hornet package including 24 Australian F/A18F Block II aircraft, initial spares, support equipment, trainers and training. They are the first Super Hornet training systems sold under an FMS contract by Boeing. The aircrew devices include two Tactical Operation Flight Trainers (TOFT), built on Boeing and L-3 Link's F/A-18 simulator common hardware and software baseline, and integrated with L-3 Link's 360-degree SimuSphere visual display, SimuView image generator, and Boeing Training Systems & Services' mission computer emulation, as well as simulated radar, electronic countermeasures, and Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System; and highfidelity crew station controls. Also included in the package are two Low Cost Trainers (LCT), both of which run a mission computer emulation and provides pilot and air combat officer training for navigation, weapons, radar, and electronic countermeasures; and has been designed to be easily reconfigured to accommodate a wide range of aircrew training combinations.

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Along with two Integrated Visual Environment Maintenance Trainers (IVEMT) which feature an interactive 3-D model environment, test/support equipment and realistic aircraft responses for full virtual training across all Super Hornet systems and subsystems, the entire system is designed to provide a completely immersive training environment for both pilots and weapons sensor officers. Completion of the F/A-18F Super Hornet delivery by Boeing to the RAAF is expected to be complete by the end of 2011.

BAE Systems to upgrade Australian Army vehicles

BAE Systems Australia is to upgrade 777 military vehicles for the Australian Army following the award of a subcontract by Elbit Systems as part of the Australian Land 200 Programme. Under the contract BAE Systems will prepare the vehicles for the installation of a Battle Group and Below Command, Control and Communications (BGC3) system. The project includes work on Macks, Unimogs, Bushmasters and M113 Armoured Personnel Carriers (APCs) in the Australian Army inventory; and the subcontract is part of the contract awarded by the Australian government to Elbit Systems for the BGC3 system in March 2010. The BGC3 system is an important aspect of the Australian Army’s network centric warfare goals. The system includes a Management System (BMS) for soldiers, Vehicle Mounted Commanders and Headquarters/Command Post Staff. It is designed to increase the commander’s situational awareness and commanASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

Australia has requested as many as a hundred AIM-120C-7 AMRAAMs from the US in a $202m FMS deal © DoD

der's battlespace awareness, automate combat messaging and assist in the execution of operations. The capability significantly reduces the risk of casualties resulting from friendly fire during operations and brings improved protection and coordination for Australian Defence Forces personnel, allowing missions to be carried out more efficiently, safely and effectively. BAE Systems will prepare the M113 APCs for the BGC3 system at the new 7RAR Facility at Edinburgh Parks in northern Adelaide; and the Mack, Unimog and Bushmaster vehicle work will be performed at the Meeandah Military Facility in Brisbane. BAE Systems is scheduled to complete their work by January 2013.

Australia requests AIM-120C-7 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles

The Australian government has requested the purchase of up to 100 AIM-120C-7 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM) and associated equipment from the US government as part of a Foreign Military Sale (FMS) at a total estimated cost of $202 million. Australia has requested the missile package for the F/A-18F Australian Super Hornet programme under phase two of the Australian Defence Force Project AIR 5349, following the successful completion of the


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initial phase which saw the F/A-18F aircraft purchased. The proposed sale will also include parts, training and logistical support. This will encompass the AMRAAM missiles themselves 10 AIM-120C-7 Air VehicleInstrumented, 16 AIM-120C-7 Captive Air Training Missiles, containers, weapon system support equipment, support and test equipment, site survey, transportation, repair and return, warranties, spare and repair parts, publications and technical data, maintenance, personnel training and training equipment; as well as US Government and contractor representative engineering, logistics, and technical support services, and other related elements of logistics support. If it goes ahead, the acquisition of the AIM-120C-7 AMRAAM will give the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) a standoff weapon capability required for Bridge Air Combat Capability, and will strengthen interoperability with the US Armed Forces. Currently in operation on the F-22, Eurofighter, F-15, F-16, F/A-18, the German F-4F, Tornado, Harrier II Plus, the JAS-39 Gripen, JA-37 Viggen, and the Norwegian Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System (NASAMS), and is currently being integrated on the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). Produced by Raytheon Missile Systems, the AMRAAM features multi-shot capability, and allows the pilots the ability to launch at enemy aircraft in all weather and light conditions.

General Dynamics to support Australian Army vehicles

General Dynamics Land Systems has been awarded a contract by the Australian Defence Force (ADF) to support and maintain Australian Army vehicles that are used in Australia and Afghanistan, including the Abrams tank and light armoured vehicle (LAV) and the Hercules recovery vehicles. Minister for Defence Materiel Jason Clare announced the new contract, which will be a performance based contract, meaning that payment is made on how well the vehicles are maintained by the company over the next five years, and is expected to see the vehicles maintain high availability with a faster supply of spare parts and quicker repairs. The Abrams tank and LAV were originally manufactured by General Dynamics, allowing them to leverage the full range of original equipment manufacturer engineering, technical support network and product service centres.

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Ongoing spare parts, repairs, maintenance and engineering tasks will be ordered as required through this integrated support contract. The contract also includes the implementation of a performance management framework for the services, which contributes toward the Commonwealth Strategic Reform Program (SRP). This provides the basis for awarding up to 15, one-year contract extensions based on performance. The contract also includes a one year phasein period, and according to General Dynamics, will change the mechanisms and business processes between the Commonwealth and General Dynamics in Australia to improve efficiency, reduce costs and promote value.

CAE wins RAAF simulator raining contract

CAE Australia has been awarded a contract by the Australian Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO) to provide aircrew training services for the Royal Australian Air Force’s (RAAF’s) KC30A air-to-air refuelling tanker. The contract will CAE support teams onsite at the KC-30A training facility at RAAF Amberley to provide maintenance and support to the simulator on which the aircrews of the KC-30A aircraft will be trained. CAE Australia already works closely with the Australian Defence Force (ADF) on its training and simulation programmes, currently holding contracts for management and support of 15 of the ADF’s Aerospace Simulators. The agreement will see CAE support the KC-30A training programme between 2012 and 2018. The KC-30A is the RAAF designated A330 Multi-Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft that were purchased by the Australian government for air-to-air refueling and personnel transport. Capable of refueling F/A-18 Hornets, F-111s, Airborne Early Warning and Control Wedgetails and Joint Strike Fighters as well as transporting troops domestically or internationally, the KC-30As will be operated by No 33 Squadron located at RAAF Base Amberley. The first KC-30A was formally delivered to and accepted by the DMO on 1 June. In RAAF service, the A330 MRTT will be equipped with two underwing refueling pods, the fly-bywire Airbus Military Aerial Refuelling Boom System (ARBS), and a Universal Aerial Refuelling Receptacle Slipway Installation (UARRSI) enabling it to be refueled from another tanker. Australia will be the first country to operate the A330 MRTT. ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

Delivery of Indonesia’s eight Super Tucano light attack and advanced training turboprops will occur in 2012 © Embraer

INDONESIA Super Tucano aircraft a step closer for Indonesia

The eight Super Tucano light attack and advanced training turboprops for the Indonesian Air Force are a step closer to delivery with the contract between Embraer and the Indonesian Ministry of Defence (MOD) coming into effect. Indonesia will become the newest operator of the aircraft when delivery of the aircraft begins in 2012. The Super Tucano was selected by the Indonesian government following a competitive bidding process in 2010. The aircraft was selected for its flexibility and multi-mission capabilities, and the fleet will carry out light attack, surveillance, air-to-air interception, and counter insurgence. The Indonesian contract also includes ground support stations and an integrated logistics package. The Super Tucano is a mature and proven aircraft, with 120,000 flight hours to its name, and is operated by a wide range of armed forces worldwide, including the Brazilian Air Force which operates 99 aircraft in the A-29 light attack aircraft configuration. It is equipped with the most recent electronic/optical/infrared and laser technology, secure radios with datalink communications, and advanced weaponry, and is able to perform missions across a wide spectrum including operating from unpaved runways. As advanced training turboprop the aircraft offers advanced solutions for basic to early advanced and weapons familiarisation training, such as inflight virtual training and also provides the superb operational characteristics required for successful internal security, operation support and counter-insurgency (COIN) missions.


REGIONAL NEWS A N D

D E V E L O P M E N T S

The arrival of nine new MiG29K carrier-borne fighter jets will take the total number of the aircraft operated Indian Navy ‘Black Panther’ squadron to 13 including MiG-29KUBs © MiG

INDIA Indian government approves C-17 purchase

India is to purchase ten C-17 Globemaster III heavy lift military aircraft following the approval of a Foreign Military Sale (FMS) with the US government worth 18,000 crore rupees ($4.1 billion). The Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh has cleared the proposal that will be the largest defence technology deal between the US and India to date. When complete the acquisition programme will see the Indian Air Force (IAF) become the operator of the biggest C17 fleet outside of the US. The deal includes an offset agreement that will see $1.2 billion pumped into the Indian domestic manufacturing industry, and overall the contract will see US-Indian defence deals pass the $9 billion mark since the first deal was signed between the countries less than a decade ago. The C-17 will provide a vital heavy-lift capability to the Indian armed forces, including rapid strategic airlift of troops and cargo to main operating bases, and

MALAYSIA FNSS wins Malaysian armoured vehicle award

FNSS, a joint venture between BAE Systems Land & Armaments sector and Nurol Holding of Turkey, has entered into an agreement with DEFTECH of Malaysia for the design, development and manufacture of DEFTECH AV-8 8 X 8 wheeled armoured vehicles for the Malaysian armed forces. The agreement also includes integrated logistics support and is worth $559 million,

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forward-operating bases overseas. As well as being able to perform tactical airlift, medical evacuation and airdrop missions, the aircraft can transport large payloads and land on short, unprepared runways. The high-wing, four-engine, T-tailed military-transport aircraft is designed to fly long distances and land in remote airfields in rough, land-locked regions make it a premier transporter for military, humanitarian and peacekeeping missions. It is able to take off from a 7,600-ft. airfield, carry a payload of 160,000 pounds, fly 2,400 nautical miles, re-fuel while in flight and land in 3,000 ft. or less on a small unpaved or paved airfield in day or night. The Indian Armed Forces have acquired nine new Russian MiG Aircraft Corporation MiG-29K carrier-borne fighter jets from Russia. The aircraft have been acquired for the Indian Navy ‘Black Panther’ squadron as part of a contract between the Indian and Russian governments signed in 2004. The contract will see Russia deliver 16 jets in total, including 12 single-seater MiG-

29K fighters and four two-seater MiG29KUB trainer combat jets. This is the second batch of deliveries under the agreement, with the first four MiG-29Ks and MiG-29KUBs delivered and inducted into the Indian Navy’s (IN’s) Black Panther squadron in February 2010. MiG Aircraft Corporation will also provide flight simulator and technical equipment to Indian under the agreement. An additional contract was signed in March 2010 for a further 29 MiG-29K Fulcrum-D carrier-based fighter jets with deliveries to India due to begin during 2012. The MiG jets are expected to bring significant new capabilities to the INS. With an extended range of 3,000 kms and capable of firing air-to-air and air-to-sea missiles, the aircraft will bring greatly increased aerial defence abilities over the existing Sea Harrier jump jets. India has purchased the MiG jets to be deployed on the INS Vikramaditya (ex Gorshkov) aircraft carrier that is currently being refurbished in Russia. Despite significant delays to the re-fit programme Russia is expected to deliver the aircraft carrier next year.

and will see FNSS redesign their PARS 8 X 8 armoured vehicle – already in use with the Turkish Armed Forces - to meet customer specifications along with DEFTECH who will also manufacture the vehicles in Malaysia. FNSS will provide technical assistance and technology transfer to DEFTECH as part of the agreement. The contract will see the first ever indigenous 8X8 armoured wheeled vehicle for the Malaysian Army. A total of 257 vehicles are to be manufactured under the initial phase of the contract, with the family to consist of

12 variants that will be known as the AV8. The indigenous development and related infrastructure and design, development and production capabilities that will come out of the programme will be a welcome boost for the Malaysian defence industry. The Malaysian Armed Forces are currently investing in their land platforms, with FNSS and DEFTECH delivering 211 ADNAN Armoured Combat Vehicles (ACV), as well as eight 120mm ACV Mortar Carriers and 48 additional ADNAN ACVs under a separate contract.

New fighters for Indian Armed Forces

ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW


REGIONAL NEWS A N D

D E V E L O P M E N T S

Armoured Gunnery & Tactical Simulator (AGTS) in 2002. This existing system will be upgraded along with the Infantry Tactical Crew Simulator (ICTS), Armoured Driving Simulator (ADS) and Infantry Driving Simulator (IDS). The new Army Gunnery Tactical & Driving Simulation Systems will be designed for maximum cost ST Electronics (Training & Simulation Systems) will deliver the S$68m Army effectiveness and to Gunnery Tactical & Driving Simulation Systems in 2014 © Singapore MoD enable easy configuration with a SINGAPORE wide range of turrets and vehicles. Indigenously developed simulators The Army Gunnery Tactical & Driving for Singapore Armed Forces Simulation System allows soldiers to train St Engineering’s electronics arm, St within a full spectrum network centric Electronics (Training & Simulation Systems), environment, including training with integrated has been awarded a contract by the Singapore combined arms operations as well as tailored Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) to supply combat scenarios. The flexible system will meet Army Gunnery Tactical & Driving Simulation the developing training needs of the Singapore Systems. The contract, worth S$68 million, will Armed Forces with its ‘roll in roll out’ concept see a highly flexible simulation system for both gunnery and driving simulators. St Electronics will begin work on the developed for the Singapore Army for use with programme immediately and full delivery of the various armoured vehicles. The contract follows a previous order for an systems is scheduled to be completed in 2014.

THAILAND Saab to update Thailand frigates

The Royal Thai Navy (RTN) has issued two contracts to Saab for the upgrade of combat management and fire control systems onboard two RTN Naresuan class frigates, at a total cost of MSEK 454. Under the contracts Saab will equip the frigates with the latest generation of combat management systems and data-link equipment to enable communication between the frigates and Thailand’s Gripen and Saab 340 aircraft. The Gripen aircraft and the Saab 340 aircraft with airborne radar surveillance system, a Saab 340 for transport and education and an integrated Command and Control system with data links, were delivered to the Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF) during 2010 and earlier this year as part of a complete air defence system. The addition of the Gripen aircraft, capable of performing an extensive range of air-to-air, air-to-surface and reconnaissance missions employing the latest weapons, will greatly

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enhance Thailand’s aerial defence capabilities. The aircraft is the world’s most agile fighter for close combat, with a highly developed secure and multi-frequency data link, providing total situational awareness for the pilot in all roles. The addition of the combat management and fire control systems, 9LV Mk4 and CEROS 200, to the Naresuan class frigates, as well as the Tacticall communication systems will enable better interoperation between the RTN and the RTAF airborne units, and bring greater capabilities to communications within the maritime arena. The Saab Electronic Defence Systems business area will supply the Sea Giraffe AMB surveillance radar system as well as data-link equipment for communication with Gripen and the ERIEYE Airborne Early Warning systems; while Security and Defence Solutions business area will supply of the combat management and fire control systems and the Tactical communication systems. Delivery is expected to be complete by 2014, with deliveries beginning during 2011.

ASIAN MILITARY REVIEW

TAIWAN Taiwan signs for AH64D Apache Block III

Taiwan has become the first export customer to sign on for the US Army AH-64D Apache Block III aircraft following the inking of a deal between the US and Taiwanese governments on 10 June. The purchase will take the form of a Foreign Military Sale (FMS) between the two nations, with Taiwan originally showing interest in the aircraft in 2008. The Boeing Apache Block III has been delivered to meet the needs of the US Army, has a requirement for 690 aircraft, 51 of which have been ordered as part of a LRIP contract. Boeing has indicated that there are other countries interested in the aircraft, including Saudi Arabia, which has requested 36 of the aircraft from the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DCSA). The Apache Block III helicopter is a significant step up in capabilities for the Taiwanese Armed Forces. It builds on the capabilities of the combat-proven AH-64D Apache by delivering superior flight performance and dramatically increased networked communications capabilities. The aircraft features open systems architecture and 26 advanced technology improvements, including level 4 unmanned aerial vehicle control for increased situational awareness. The helicopter has the flexibility to rapidly integrate technology changes throughout its service life. Taiwan will receive 30 aircraft in the deal as part of a low-rate initial production (LRIP) batch and are expected to be delivered during 2012 - 2013. The Taiwanese deal is worth an estimated $2.5 billion.


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Asian Military Review - July/August 2011 issue