Page 1


Foreword by Nick Mason I think it’s true to say that Ferrari has made plenty of bad

Ferrari has even managed to end up owning a

cars, but also many great ones. At the same time, it’s

colour to signify all that the marque stands for. Ferrari

arguable that Ferrari almost never made any ugly ones.

Red is as well known as Navy Blue at a global level.

Even the cars that left some great drivers shaking

Good, or great, design is being able not only to

with fear, and ones that left fuming customers stranded

clothe the chassis in an aerodynamically efficient

at the side of the road, were often so breathtakingly

shape but to sculpt in some indefinable element that

beautiful that all could be, and was, forgiven. I shall

expresses the function of the vehicle.

avoid any cheap jokes about comparisons to women

Even now in the 21st century, where the computer and wind tunnel have become the dictators of

at this point... For many years Ferrari could not be credited with being a leader in terms of technical development.

shape and form, Ferrari and its designers continue to triumph. This book looks at the well-

frequently

trodden Ferrari story from an

superb, but chassis design and

altogether different angle, by

the implementation of any new

analysing the inspiration (both

technology such as disc brakes or

cultural and technical) and the

mid-engine layouts were often well

evolution of Ferrari design over

behind the competition. In some

the last sixty-odd years. It also

ways the coachwork arrangements

encompasses

were even more retro, in that it was

that became necessary with

not done in-house but contracted

technical revolutions in material

out, in a manner more reminiscent

and aerodynamic flow dynamics,

of the vintage era, to the design

which have played an increasingly

houses of Italy.

vital role in car design over the

Their

engines

were

the

changes

Initially Touring designed the bodies, but was

last thirty years. And perhaps most interesting of all,

soon joined by Ghia, Vignale and Scaglietti, although

this book considers the future direction of Ferrari

once Pinin Farina got his foot in the door the others

design in the 21st century.

tended to fall by the wayside, despite Mr Ferrari's penchant for allowing the designers to compete against each other. And yet these engines, along with the work of the designers, created a brand that is the envy of every single other car manufacturer in the world. Not only that but these designs have, in many cases, become so iconic that they transcend obsolescence. Most auto enthusiasts take as much pleasure in the shape of a Lusso, Daytona or GTO as in the very latest supercars.

6 t FER R AR I D ESIGN – T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


Ă„ Nick Mason negotiates the esses at Goodwood in his 250 GTO. (LAT)

FO R E WO R D t 7


How it all began Why Italy? Why is it that so many of the world’s most admired and beautifully designed and engineered motor cars come from Italy? Professor Dale Harrow, Head of Vehicle Design at the Royal College of Art, London, offers this explanation: ‘I think what actually drove the Italian revolution was the way they were designing things at the time. If you look at Turin itself and the surrounding area, it was basically a place of metalwork. They made suits of armour in this region during the 14th and 15th centuries, so there were a lot of very good metalwork skills in that area, and I think the way they were designing cars [in the period 1940–60] is very much associated with this craft process.’ Also, Italy had long been recognised internationally as a centre for excellence in art and sculpture. Ross Ashmore, art and design critic (and classic sports car enthusiast) explains: ‘In the 18th and 19th centuries, British gentry toured Italy to visit art galleries and museums to further their education – a travel rite that became known as the Grand Tour. Italian art was HU PTWVY[HU[ PUZWPYH[PVU HUK PUÅ\LUJL K\YPUN [OL Regency period.’

Ferrari in the 1940s Any kid between the age of 5 and 95 will tell you that Ferrari sports cars are the fastest in the world and KLÄUP[LS`[OLILZ[SVVRPUN([SLHZ[[OH[^HZ[OL]PL^VM devoted Ferrari followers around the world throughout the second half of the last century. It is a reputation built up over many years in which the red Ferrari racing cars were dominant in most race categories, and in most countries where they raced. Enzo Ferrari, like many other self-styled entrepreneurs in the 20th century who were destined to head up their own motor manufacturing empires, started at the bottom of the ladder and, through hard work and perseverance, effectively wrote his own future. Names such as Porsche, Ford, Bugatti, Austin, Lamborghini, Rolls and More recently, the country’s recovery following the

Royce, are those of automotive visionaries who were

Enzo Ferrari, and Tazio

Second World War saw Italian manufacturers’ striving

way ahead of their time. Each of them, Ferrari included,

Nuvolari standing

for aesthetic and technical innovation. Their efforts

possessed foresight and an inner strength beyond

alongside a racing Alfa

were duly rewarded by rapid growth in demand for the

mere determination.

(1920s). (LAT)

stylish modern products from a range of mould-breaking

Common amongst the industry names mentioned

designers, not least from the automotive industry, and

HIV]LHUKTHU`VM[OLPYJVU[LTWVYHYPLZPU[OPZÄLSK^HZ

subsequent international recognition put Italy at the

the ability to surround themselves with knowledgeable

leading edge of modern design.

and experienced engineers and designers capable of

à Baconino Borzacchini,

14 t FER R AR I D ESIGN – T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


turning ideas into a winning formula. Another common

It had long been Ferrari’s goal to manufacture his

factor was their fascination with early motor sport, an

own racing cars, but in 1939 when he made his break he

[OL(\[V(]PV*VZ[Y\aPVUP

activity in which many of them participated personally,

had to accept a four-year ban on using his own name on

VM (LAT)

and it is possibly this that enabled many of those

his cars, as his previous employers were well aware of

budding entrepreneurs to develop an appreciation for

the considerable reputation he had built up in the motor-

engineering, and an understanding of how they thought

racing world.

they could improve the cars they were manufacturing.

-LYYHYPÂťZĂ„YZ[JHY[OL=L[[\YH[^VYVHKZ[LYZ^LYL

Ferrari began his employment at 22 at the Anonima

made), was constructed under the name of Ferrari’s

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machine tool company, Auto Avio Costruzioni, in Modena

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in 1929 he set up Scuderia Ferrari S.A., which effectively

and the chassis and 1496cc in-line eight-cylinder engine

operated as Alfa’s racing department for the next ten

^LYL KLYP]LK MYVT [OL -PH[  * )HSPSSH  ;OL

years. It provided cars and engineering, technical,

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and design services when Alfa’s own resources were

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stretched to the limit.

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running its own racing activities, setting up a dedicated in-

For most coachbuilders at that time, work would

house racing division known as Alfa Corse, and absorbing

begin on a bare chassis received from a manufacturer.

Scuderia Ferrari as a new division in the process. Alfa’s

Using small-diameter metal tubing, the carrozzeria’s

relationship with Enzo Ferrari continued and he became

JYHM[ZTLU ^V\SK Ă„YZ[ JVUZ[Y\J[ H MYHTL JSVZLS`

a consultant to the new organisation, with responsibility

YLZLTISPUN [OL ZOHWL VM [OL JHYÂťZ IVK` ;OPZ ^V\SK

for designing and developing new racing cars – an

then be welded to the chassis, and the aluminium

arrangement, however, which only lasted for a year.

body panels were formed over this frame by hand,

‘ NUOVO INIZI O’ – NE W BEG INNIN GS t 15


The legend begins At a certain point it became clear that one of us was looking for a lovely and renowned woman to dress, and the other was looking for a world-class couturier to clothe her, Enzo Ferrari reminisced. – ANTOINE PRUNE T Pininf arina Ar t and Indus tr y 1930 –20 0 0


 The Ferrari 195 Inter Berlinetta by Ghia showed great balance and elegance. (Neill Bruce)

Ä This rear three-quarter view of a two-door Ferrari 195 Inter Berlinetta by Ghia (1950) shows the strong family lineage of the 166 model. (Neill Bruce)

The year 1950 seemed to be a point at which one could see a clear sporting identity begin to emerge in Ferrari’s cars, as the 195 began to show a purposeful ZWVY[ZZ[`SPUN>P[O[OLILULÄ[VMOPUKZPNO[[OLZ[`SPUNVM the 195 S of 1950 can be seen in the 340 America, 212 Export, 250 S and many other sports and racing models YPNO[PU[V[OL Z-LYYHYP^HZHISL[VKV[OPZI`Ä[[PUN the same engines in as many models as possible, and the long bonnet style, with the cockpit set well back in the frame, enabled him to achieve this. If two coachbuilders are to be singled out as making the greatest contribution to Ferrari’s long-term styling at this early stage, they would certainly be Touring and Vignale. By 1954, Vignale had built almost 100 bodies, with no two being the same. This type of limited production run suited the exclusive and often very individualistic requirements of many Ferrari drivers. Vignale’s styling for the Modenese cars usually incorporated a long curving body line that extended

26 t FER R AR I D ESIGN – T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


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à This 1950 Ferrari

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166/195 Inter has a

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Michelotti-designed body

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by Vignale. The 195 was

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a development of the

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166 but with the engine

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enlarged to 2340cc.

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Originally purchased in

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April 1950, the car was

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returned to the Ferrari

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H[[LU[PVUZZOPM[LKMYVT[OLSVUNLY^OLLSIHZLTT

factory in September

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the following year

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and upgraded to 195

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T HE LEG END BEG INS t 27


Design in the 1950s and 1960s -LYYHYP»ZÃ&#x201E;YZ[ZLYPV\ZMVYH`PU[V[OLWYVK\J[PVUJHYTHYRL[ ^HZ ^P[O [OL   ¶ ^OPJO ^HZ KL]LSVWLK HZ H YVHK JHY ZLYPLZ HUK ^HZ ^OLYL [OL PUP[PHSZ º.;» Ã&#x201E;YZ[ HWWLHYLKVU-LYYHYPJHYZ;OPZTV]LI`-LYYHYPYLZ\S[LK PU HU \UVMÃ&#x201E;JPHS JVU[LZ[ HTVUNZ[ [OL ^LSSRUV^U 0[HSPHU JVHJOI\PSKLYZMYVT^OPJO7PUPU-HYPUHLTLYNLKHZ[OL ]PJ[VY 7PUPU -HYPUH SH[LY 7PUPUMHYPUH ^LU[ VU [V Z[`SL ]PY[\HSS` HSS WYVK\J[PVU -LYYHYPZ MYVT [OL TPK Z HUK[OLZ[\KPV»ZÃ&#x2026;HPYMVYJYLH[P]P[`HUKPUUV]H[PVUTHKL HU PTTLUZL JVU[YPI\[PVU [V [OL THYX\L»Z Z\JJLZZ ;OL HSSPHUJL 7PUPU -HYPUH MVYTLK [OYV\NO KLZPNUPUN PUU\TLYHISL -LYYHYP ZWVY[Z JHYZ V]LY [OL `LHYZ HSZV IYV\NO[LUVYTV\ZWYLZ[PNL[V[OL;\YPUKLZPNULY 0[ PZ PU[LYLZ[PUN [V UV[L [OV\NO [OL KPMMLYLUJL PU KLZPNUHUKZ[`SPUNIL[^LLU(TLYPJHHUK,\YVWLK\YPUN [OL Z;OPZKLJHKLWLYOHWZTVYL[OHUHU`V[OLY ZH^HUL^KPYLJ[PVUPU(TLYPJHUJHYKLZPNU[OH[^V\SK X\P[L SP[LYHSS` [HRL [OH[ UH[PVU PU[V HUV[OLY ^VYSK ¶ [OL ^VYSK VM ZWHJL [YH]LS ;OPZ IYH]L UL^ Z[LW ^HZ PU JVU[YHZ[[V[OL[YLUKPU,\YVWL^OLYLZ[`SPZ[ZMVSSV^LK tradition and consolidated the sophistication and LSLNHUJLMVY^OPJO[OL`OHKILJVTL^LSSRUV^U;OH[PZ

Keeping it simple According to Emanuele Nicosia, Pininfarina designer between 1976 and 1985, many of the old street-racing Ferrari cars were created by means of a few sketches and the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;battilastraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (panel beaters) in Modena, such as Scaglietti and others. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;This was the real story of the great and beautiful 250 LM. Even if it is known that Pininfarina designed it, what Pininfarina did was just the

not to say European designers were not exploratory, but

interior design, even if that interior is very poor [basic] because of its

[OLPY WYVK\J[Z [LUKLK [V IL SLZZ Ã&#x2026;HTIV`HU[ HUK TVYL

racing task,â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Nicosia said.

HLYVK`UHTPJHUK[LJOUPJHSS`MVYTLK

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The 250 LM was born by dressing up the great mid-engined chassis,

Perhaps its heritage as a nation with an extraordinary

by just covering it with metal wire sections to check any interference

talent in art established Italy as the outstanding exception

between body surfaces and mechanics. Then aluminium sheets were

[V [OL [YV\ISLZ ^P[OPU [OL JVHJOI\PSKPUN PUK\Z[Y` HM[LY

beaten and checked regularly on top of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;wire surfacesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; under the

[OL :LJVUK >VYSK >HY -YVT [OL  Z VU^HYKZ [OL

direction of the young Mauro Forghieri; it was a piece of art. After that,

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the body was checked and scanned (by hand of course) to produce real

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drawings,â&#x20AC;&#x2122; he added.

9VTLV-PH[3HUJPHHUKV[OLYZ Italyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s growing reputation in design in general, coupled ^P[O[OLWYVSPMLYH[PVUVMPTHNPUH[P]LJHYKLZPNUZJVTPUN

4 8 t FER R AR I D ESIGN â&#x20AC;&#x201C; T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


from that country, impressed even Detroit. American

closely associated with the craft process, where they

à The 1959 Ferrari 250

car manufacturers began to incorporate some of the

were making wooden models and controlling line three-

GT (SWB) is arguably

features of the new Italian designs in their new models,

dimensionally. They were making prototypes in metal of

one of the most perfectly

and also started to recruit Italian talent into their design

a very high quality,’ explained Professor Dale Harrow,

designed sports racers of

studios. Ghia worked for Chrysler and Pinin Farina for

Head of Vehicle Design at the Royal College of Art in

all time. The balance of

Nash, for example. Italian stylists also reacted against

London. ‘They were bringing very good artisan skills

aggression and elegance

the excesses of the more extreme American creations

to a modern design process, but what they didn’t do

is just right. (Author)

in the late 1950s and shifted to clean lines. It resulted in

was to adopt wholeheartedly the kind of American clay

the so-called ‘gran luce’ (full light) style, with deep, wide

model techniques, and I think that gave a certain quality

windscreens and windows. This style was later picked

[V[OLÄUPZOLK^VYR;OLX\HSP[`VMSPULHUK[OL[LUZPVU

up by other designers in the US and Europe.

of surface is something that can only really be created

‘I think the way the Italians were designing cars is

through that way of working,’ he said.

T HE LEG END BEG INS t 49


The significance of the Dino 206 GT Revisiting some of our earlier observations, we

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can see how the Italian automotive industry was a

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powerhouse of design innovation. In the late 1960s

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and early 1970s, several design studios created

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some strikingly futuristic examples in automotive

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design, such as Bertone’s Lancia Stratos 0 prototype (1970), and during this period many other

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aesthetically innovative vehicles were produced.

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Dale Harrow shares his thoughts on this design period: ‘I really

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KL[HPSPUNHYV\UK[OLKVVYOHUKSLZ(CAR magazine, South Africa)

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10 0 t FER R AR I DESIGN – T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


Dale Harrow explains, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s very complicated. I

As already mentioned, the evolution of the Dinoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

mean, even though it is a simple design, when you

development from the long wheelbase (2,340mm) to the

look at the kind of surfacing and the way this is

Ă&#x201E;UHSZOVY[^OLLSIHZLTVKLSTT^HZUV[^P[OV\[

controlled, it is very clever, and it is so easy to get that

its problems. Turning the engine from its early longitudinal

wrong. They were doing some pretty sophisticated

WVZP[PVU[VP[ZĂ&#x201E;UHS[YHUZ]LYZLSH`V\[LUHISLK[OLLUNPULLYZ

stuff at Pininfarina.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

to incorporate a more than useful rear trunk. The earlier

Harrow is fairly critical of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s designers, many

prototypeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s engine cover would lift as one large, very

of whom have abandoned the older technology, having

cumbersome panel exposing the whole rear workings of

moved away from the artisans working with designers to

the car, rather like a race car. But, by turning the engine

create shapes and control lines very carefully, to todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

sideways, it would not be necessary to open the whole

reliance on 3D Alias computer programs. He continues,

back end of the car to access just the engine, and likewise

Âş0U KVPUN ZV [OL` OH]L SVZ[ ZVTL VM [OH[ Ă&#x201E;UP[L JVU[YVS

one would not want to be exposed to a hot engine when

where [today] surfaces are created by lines in space

retrieving personal items from the boot (rear trunk). The

which are then joined up, rather than it being a kind of

answer was to create two separate covers that could be

Ă&#x2026;\PK MVYT BWYVJLZZD ;OL V[OLY [OPUN ^P[O JVTW\[LYZ PZ

lifted individually, giving easy access to the boot (trunk) or

that you can over-detail.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

(not so easy) access to the engine bay.

BE AU T Y AND T HE BE A S T â&#x20AC;&#x201C; PAR T 2 t 101


Tail-end A study of the rear lights from various Ferrari models in the 1960s makes for an interesting analysis and just shows how far styles moved during this decade. From Ä Twin-stacked – 1959/60

small twin-stacked roundels, triples, horizontal simple to

Ferrari 250 GT SWB.

horizontal complex, this decade probably witnessed the

(Author)

widest variety of Ferrari lighting styles.

à Triple stacked – 1960 Ferrari 250 GTE 2+2. (Author)

Á The single round rear lights on the 275 GTB (1964) would become a hallmark of Ferrari design, this being the most used light cluster style in the company’s history. It is still used today on the new 458 Italia. (Author)

116 t FER R AR I DESIGN – T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


Ă Triple horizontal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the 500 Superfast of 1964 had one of the most uncharacteristic of Ferrari lighting styles in the â&#x20AC;&#x2122;60s. (Author)

Ă&#x201E; Twin horizontal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona was introduced in 1968. (Author)

Ă&#x192; Twin horizontal (small) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Ă&#x201E;YZ[ZLLUVU[OL+PUV GT of 1967, this model is [OL TVKLS+PUV GTS. (Author)

Ă&#x201A; Horizontal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; introduced in 1969, the 365 GTC. (Author)

BE AU T Y AND T HE BE A S T â&#x20AC;&#x201C; PAR T 2 t 117


Following in the footsteps of the immensely successful 308 series, the 328 had big ZOVLZ[VÄSS;OPZPZH  TVKLS-LYYHYP.;) (Neill Bruce)

Ferraris as far as the L`LJHUZLL;OPZSPUL ^HZQ\Z[MVYZ[OLÄYZ[ ILPUNH .;:TVKLS (Author)

Ferrari 328 (1985) Introduced at the 1985 Frankfurt Motor Show, the 328 was really a refreshed 308. Available in both GTB and GTS guises from the outset, the 328 featured some revised styling changes, such as the grille and front bumper, which was now colour-coded to the body. 7LYOHWZ[OL^HZUV[Z\MÄJPLU[S`KPMMLYLU[MYVTP[Z predecessor to really be called a new model, but it did boast a larger 3.2-litre V8 engine mounted transversely, just as in the 308. The overall styling was more rounded, and the new model was credited with a better ride and improved performance and handling, thanks to a host of upgrades under the skin. As a tribute to the brilliance of the initial design, the 308/328 was on sale from 1975 through to 1989, during which time a total of almost 20,000 cars from both model variants were produced.

156 t FER R AR I DESIGN – T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


Ferrari F40 (1987)

intended as the platform for showcasing the company’s

It had been 40 years since the founding of the company,

technology, and it was a great disappointment to racing

Evoluzione photographed

and for a manufacturer like Ferrari it was too good an

fans that this contest did not materialise, as the motor

at Silverstone. This model

opportunity to miss. Something special would have to

sport authorities canned the Group before a wheel had

gave birth to the F40

be produced, and by golly it was. The F40 was a no-

been turned in anger.

concept. (Author)

frills, street-legal supercar that might have put some race cars to shame, given the opportunity.

Ferrari’s 288 GTO

To place the F40’s development in context, the mid1980s was a turbulent time in the automotive world, with

Aged 90, and knowing that he did not have long to

the sports car market being one of the most risky areas

live, Enzo Ferrari summoned his design team and gave

of the market. In 1986, General Motors bought Lotus,

them the brief to create the ‘ultimate Ferrari’. Styled under

while Ford acquired 75% of Aston Martin the following

the watchful eye of Pininfarina’s Leonardo Fioravanti and

year. A year later Ford purchased outright the Jaguar

honed in a windtunnel, the F40 was a development of

company, which serves to highlight the precarious nature

the 288 GTO Evoluzione.

of the upper end of the market at the time. It could be

Destined to occupy the front row of the forthcoming

argued, however, that manufacturers such as Porsche

Group B grids, the 288 GTO Evoluzione was seen as a

and Ferrari were not quite as vulnerable as the rest of the

potent race car which would have competed against the

market, since their niche products were aimed at a very

likes of Porsche’s 959. In turn, the Group B class was

small sector of the specialised sports car market.

T HE R EDHE AD t 157


Ferrari Superamerica (2005)

Á The name

Today the concept of a coupé convertible has become

‘Superamerica’ invokes

a marketing niche in its own right, but the Pininfarina-

memories of Ferrari’s

KLZPNULK :\WLYHTLYPJH ^HZ JLY[HPUS` VUL VM [OL ÄYZ[

1950s super-styled

to combine the characteristics of a Berlinetta with the

sports cars. This styling

concept of a convertible. But, this was no conventional

is almost ‘boxy’ by

folding roof. Rather, it was a state-of-the-art glass top

comparison, but today’s

[OH[ YV[H[LK ^P[OPU [OL JVUÄULZ VM [OL YLHY \WYPNO[Z VY

sports cars have to carry

B-pillars.

so much more by way of

Announced on 24 November 2004, the Ferrari

technology. (LAT)

Superamerica was a limited edition model, which premiered at the Los Angeles and Detroit Motor Shows in January the following year. The name Superamerica, traditionally only associated with Ferrari’s prestigious and limited production cars, was derived from the 575M Maranello. While the front-end styling is familiar, the cabin and rear section of the car are unique. One of the drawbacks of having a folding solid roof is that it has to be stored somewhere, and today this is usually cleverly retracted into the conventional rear boot, leaving little or no space for luggage. However, the Superamerica’s innovative roof remains rigid, rotating

Ä The Ferrari

upwards and rearwards about swivel points mounted

Superamerica drew huge

on the inside of the rear buttresses, leaving the boot

crowds at the Goodwood

capacity unchanged irrespective of whether the roof is

Festival of Speed in 2006.

open or closed. When in the open position, the solid

This close-up shows the

rear window is simply inverted, providing a convenient

swivel mechanism for the

windshield for the occupants.

innovative roof. (Author)

FRO N T- EN G INE D OMINANCE t 227


 Intended as the performance model in the family, this imposing view of the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano shows its UV[PUZPNUPÄJHU[YLHY diffuser, which works in combination with the neat boot lip spoiler. (Author)

Ä Almost replicating the Daytona’s bold styling of 1968, the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano was a combination of assertive but functional design. (Author)

The lightness of frame, which delivered a 50 per cent improvement in torsional rigidity/weight over the 575M Maranello, combined with the astonishingly powerful engine, ensured a blisteringly quick acceleration time for the 0–62mph (0–100kph) sprint of just 3.7sec. The 599’s design was developed around frontsloping lines, which gave the car a dynamic stance when viewed from the side. The front wings (fenders) extended forward into the front bumpers so that it seemed that the central section, comprising the bonnet and central vent, was set into them. The front section was strikingly sculptured with one of the main visual features being the prominent power bulge in the bonnet. With the engine and fuel tank located between the axles and the cabin pulled back, an optimal weight distribution of 47 per cent front and 53 per cent rear was achieved. With these improvements, the engineers were able to lower the car’s centre of gravity by 20mm (¾in) compared to the 575M Maranello. The Pininfarina-designed body featured aggressive yet elegant lines that incorporated advanced functional aerodynamic elements such as the cooling and intake vents which were integrated into the design of the body. Up front, the classic central Ferrari vent optimised the ÅV^VMHPY[V^HYKZ[OLYHKPH[VY^OPSL[^VPUSL[Z^OPJO ÅHURLK [OL JLU[YHS PU[HRL Z\WWSPLK JVVSPUN HPY [V [OL brakes and the intake ducts of the engine.

230 t FER R AR I DESIGN – T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


Dihedral lines which started in the centre of the front headlamps continued back along the wings (fenders), and could be traced along the door tops to the trailing LKNLVM[OLYLHY^PUNZMLUKLYZĂ&#x201E;UPZOPUNQ\Z[HIV]L[OL rear lights. This feature encouraged the eye to see the design of the 599 GTB Fiorano as one continuous form, NP]PUN[OLZWVY[ZJHYHMYLZOHUKTVKLYUHWWLHYHUJL ;OL ZPKL ]PL^ PZ H Ă&#x201E;UL L_HTWSL VM H TVKLYU interpretation of the true Ferrari GTB concept, featuring slightly sharper styling, while still retaining the shapely J\Y]LZVM`LZ[LY`LHY;OLSVUNT\ZJ\SHYIVUUL[SLH]PUN you in no doubt as to the location of the engine, was in JVU[YHZ[[V[OLZOVY[I\[H[[YHJ[P]L[HPS0UHJJVYKHUJL^P[O the tradition set by the Ferrari Berlinettas of years gone by, the 599 continued the styling with round rear light clusters, I\[ UV^ MLH[\YPUN -LYYHYPÂťZ [YHKLTHYR L_WVZLK \WWLY Z\YMHJLZ3H[LYHSOV[HPYL_P[]LU[ZWVZP[PVULKQ\Z[ILOPUK the front wheel-arches and quite high up on the wings MLUKLYZ MLH[\YLK Z[`SPZO Ă&#x2026;HZOLZ ^OPJO YLHJOLK IHJR HSVUN[OLĂ&#x2026;HURZVM[OLKVVYZ^OPSL[OLJVYYLZWVUKPUNS` SV^SL]LS JVVSPUN K\J[Z MVY [OL M\LS [HUR HUK NLHYIV_

Ă&#x192;0UUV]H[P]LKL[HJOLK

mimicked this rakish style. These features contributed to

Ă&#x2026;`PUNI\[[YLZZLZ

[OLT\ZJ\SHYZ\YMHJPUNVM[OLJHYÂťZĂ&#x2026;HURZ

LUOHUJLK[OL

The 599â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high rear haunches highlighted the carâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

HLYVK`UHTPJLMĂ&#x201E;JPLUJ`

muscular, forceful look, while still successfully presenting

VM[OL

a strikingly simple shape. According to Fabrizio Valentini,

(Author)

7PUPUMHYPUH+LZPNU=PJL+PYLJ[VY[OL

.;)-PVYHUV

ÂťZPUUV]H[P]LYLHY

YVVMWPSSHYZKPKUV[TLYLS`OH]LHZ[H[PJM\UJ[PVUI\[^LYL detached from the surface of the characteristic Berlinetta [LHYKYVWYLHY^PUKV^HUKHJ[LKHZHLYVK`UHTPJÂşĂ&#x2026;`PUN I\[[YLZZLZÂťJVU[YPI\[PUN[V^HYKZ[OL]LOPJSLÂťZULNH[P]L lift and stability. A small nolder on the trailing edge of the boot JVU[YPI\[LK [V [OL JHYÂťZ HLYVK`UHTPJ LMĂ&#x201E;JPLUJ` increasing downforce and resulting in a lift factor (Cz) of 0.190 and a Cd of 0.336. ([ [OL  [O .LUL]H 0U[LYUH[PVUHS 4V[VY :OV^ VU  4HYJO   -LYYHYP PU[YVK\JLK P[Z /HUKSPUN .; ,]VS\aPVUL /.;, WHJRHNL MVY [OL 

 .;) -PVYHUV

Ă -LYYHYPĂ&#x201E;YZ[\ZLKSHYNL

Although the outward appearance of the car changed

ZPUNSLYV\UK[HPSSPNO[ZHZ

]LY` SP[[SL [OL [LJOUPJHS TVKPĂ&#x201E;JH[PVUZ PU[YVK\JLK ^P[O

MHYIHJRHZ[OL 

[OL /.;, WHJRHNL LUZ\YLK TVYL K`UHTPJ OHUKSPUN

.;33\ZZVI\[P[^HZ

^P[O PTWYV]LK YLZWVUZP]LULZZ ^OPSZ[ Z[PSS YLTHPUPUN HU

WYVIHIS`[OL.;)VM

LHZ`JHY[VKYP]L-YVTHZ[`SPUNWVPU[VM]PL^L_[LYUHS

 ^OPJOLZ[HISPZOLK

TVKPĂ&#x201E;JH[PVUZ PUJS\KLK PU ZWSP[YPT ^OLLSZ ^OPJO

[OLZ[`SLMVY-LYYHYP;OL

ZH]LKSIRNPU\UZWY\UN^LPNO[HUK[OLYLHYKPMM\ZLY



^HZĂ&#x201E;UPZOLKPUTH[[ISHJR

KLZPNU[YHKP[PVU(Author)

.;)JVU[PU\LK[OPZ

FRO N T- EN G INE D OMINAN CE t 231


Dale Harrow says, ‘I think it is a bit of a shame they are not bringing that heritage and tradition into their new products, and have resisted actually dipping into their history. You could imagine them going back to some of those ’50s and ’60s models and reinterpreting them just like Aston Martin have done. They have gone back and kind of found that [design] language and kind of tweaked it.’ The success of many of the older Ferraris perhaps highlights the fact that a lot of the design back then was successful because it was done in an atmosphere of relative freedom. Dale Harrow goes on to say, ‘Yes, I Â The Ferrari F430

think that is true as well. And I think the current designs

is today perhaps one

have got lost in a poor aesthetic collection of shapes that

of the most complete

they just keep reinterpreting, when actually there is more

sports cars, offering

in the cupboard. And I am surprised that Ferrari has

quality, reliability, and

not gone back and looked in that cupboard, because

performance. This Spider

you could almost imagine they could hatch a stream of

was shown at the 2008

heritage vehicles, limited editions, and make some very

Geneva Motor Show.

ZLYPV\Z TVUL` HUK HJ[\HSS` YLKLÄUL [OLTZLS]LZ H SP[[SL

(Author)

bit by actually doing that.’ Research has shown that people’s taste is usually set early on in their lives, and that they tend to keep their early preferences thereafter. This makes it all the more surprising that Ferrari have not analysed their heritage more actively, since many of those motoring enthusiasts who, when they were young, dreamed about one day owning their favourite Ferrari sports car are now (if they have been successful in business) in a position to afford one. Keith Helfet shares his feelings: ‘I resent what’s happening at the moment because when I couldn’t afford the cars that I desired, there were a lot of them around to choose from. Now that I can afford one, there is nothing that I really want. There are still key cars that I yearn for, and the 328 is one of them. If I were looking for a Ferrari, that’s the car I’d still buy now, and in a way that says it all.’ However, the dynamics of the market have changed substantially from the days when designers produced sports cars that had real meaning for both the company and the car’s owner. That is to say that the owner of a Ferrari in the period between the ’50s and perhaps the ’80s was more likely to have been a motor sport enthusiast who would have been swayed by Ferrari’s racing results around the world. With the increase in the number of models now available, and therefore in total production, a greater

26 6 t FER R AR I DESIGN – T HE DEFINI T IV E S T UDY


BUILD ING O N T HE PA S T t 267

Ferrari Design: The Definitive Study by Glen Smale  

A brand new take on an old love, Ferrari Design: The Definitive Study sheds new light on the timeless designs of some of the world’s most be...

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