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ICT INTEGRATION IN YOUTH POLYTECHNICS


INTRODUCTION

Successful Youth Graduate &Happily employed This booklet provides steps, processes, features of ICT integration, lessons learned in implementing and evaluating ICT integration based programs. This program focuses on active learning , Teacher student relationship, use of ICT in training environment, and setting up of ICT infrastructure in a Youth Polytechnic. The processes and lessons learned are replicable to ICT based programs. This booklet is intended for ICT Integrating organizations in rural areas, Youth Polytechnic training Centers, Education practitioners and development organizations in the area of creative use of ICT.

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Published by:

In Partnership With:

Š Nairobits Trust, 2013 NairoBits Digital Design School African youth online Twitter : www.twitter.com/nairobits . Blog : www.nairobits.com/blog . Web : www.nairobits.com . E-mail : info@nairobits.com .

Design and layout Victor Omondi Kennedy Kioli Written by: Victor Omondi Project Manager

With funding from

ISBN: 919-9966-1561-2-9

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Why did we decide on youth polytechnics? The government has been increasing the development budget allocation for youth polytechnics because YPs have continued to register highest enrolment among TIVET institutions.High primary schools completion rate and lower transition rate to secondary school exposes the left out youth to several challenges such as unemployment, drug addiction, early pregnancies and HIV/AIDS. Also, the need to produce quality skilled man power and link them to the production sector and the establishment of MOYAS Department through the Presidential Circular No. 1 of 2005, with a mandate of revitalizing the YPs countrywide created a conducive environment to work with YPs. MOYAS had put in place the following strategies for revitalizing the YPS: Development and implementation of the new curriculum for YPs, construction and refurbishment of YP infrastructure, staffing of the Department and YPs, provision of the Subsidized Youth Polytechnic Tuition, provision of Topup-Grants to registered public YPs, Ensuring quality assurance and standards are maintained in YPs,establishment of a legal framework for the YPs, resource mobilization and promote collaboration and networking with development partners and stakeholders in the implementation of TIVET in the YPs..

What have we achieved? We held numerous Community meetings to have the community support. Also,we borrowed largely from a similar project in Chawama in Zambia and replicated the use of white boards innovativation from a creative case study online: Cyber Smart Africa in Senegal http://www.cybersmartafrica.org/about/

Which aspects of ICT did we focus on? ICT Integration must be based on introduction of capacity building, Active learning supported by quality content and relevant technologies.

How did we achieve it? Achievements are setting up of N-computing in ICT Lab , Set up of smart boards in the workshops, capacity building of teachers and students through active learning,writing of a guiding framework and Developing of a Content Management system for the YP curriculum.

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Integration process overview ICT integration is based on tested best examples from Chawama and CyberSmartAfrica use of smart boards in classes of Senegal. The stps depicted below were used to develop the ICT integration program.

Guidelines for effective Integration programs include these steps. 1.Planning and strategizing Conduct a baseline survey and organise meetings with the stake holders about having integration program in the area.Possibly,organise for exchange visits. 2.Set-up Put in place an administrator for the project, purchase the required technologies, prepare tools for conducting needs assessments, furnish the room and then install the equipment. 3.Implementing the program Conduct Training of trainers, trainers train the students, incorporate active learning tenets. 4.Assess impact and refine. Monitor and evaluate the program impact on the target group 4


Planning and Strategizing Plan to use smart boards in the workshops. The project borrowed greatly from innovative and creative case study online: Cyber Smart Africa in Senegal http://www.cybersmartafrica. org/about/ and sought to improve on illustrated approach to the local situation. It analyzed the case study and made it suit Kenyan context.

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Planning and Strategizing wall/peace of cloth laptop

Projectorpal 360 Digital Interactive white board

This must sit on top of the Hitachi to make the projection interactive

Hitachi Projector

This is how the digital interactive whiteboard is set up Interactive white boards are ideal for training in the workshop • It allows the instructors to physically draw designs,patterns and sketches • Allow use of ICT to deliver lessons creatively • Allow recording and capturing of lesson plans,leasson teaching,lesson examples and lesson contents in real time. • Through the intenet ,the instructors are able to tap into more advanced designs, patterns and sketches. • The lessons contents are projected on the bare walls and the instructors can delete, edit, draw and save on-the-go.

Interactive teaching aide provides modern means of training people in remote and rural areas using up to date market knowledge. This is quite important for the youth learning in rural areas to be able to compete with other traininess from urban areas in the job market.

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Planning and Strategizing

Plan and strategize to achieve A to D A. ICT integration means involving all people at all levels Everyone has a role to play in improving quality of education and learning environment in YP. 1. Education policy makers 2. Law makers and government officials 3. Legal Experts 4. Donors 5. Parents 6. Youth 7. Tutors/Instructors/Trainers 8. Development activists 9. Companies /job markets/Employers

B.ICT Integration Means Providing Comprehensive Education Comprehensive Education covers five pillars 1. Supportive Learning Environment 2. Acquisition of Relevant Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills 3. Qualified teachers teaching in class/ workshop 4. Injection of good management standards 5. Greater involvement of Parents and community

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Planning and Strategizing

Successful planning targets recruitment of more girls into YP’s

C. ICT Means Efficiency And Effectiveness Efficiency and effectiveness mean that YP should be complaint ;1. YP should provide youth friendly corners 2. Integrated services for youth 3. One-stop shop for learning 4. All services available in one center 5. Extended hours of access 6. Youth friendly trainers. 7. Gender balance

D. ICT Means Behaviour Change 1. 2. 3. 4.

Enrolling more girls as teachers and students. More youth seeking education from the YP More Companies recruiting from YP More youth getting livelihood after YP education

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Planning and Strategizing Plan To Integrate Active Learning Active learning involve training youth on the relevant skills to the market including softskills. Softskills such as 1. Critical thinking 2. Creativity 3. Collaborating 4. Problem Solving

Plan To Adopt N-Computing N-computing is a computer system using one CPU for many monitors (virtual monitors). It is a high cost performance and low cost computing and reduces hardware and maintainace costs by 75% Features 1. A single modem 2. A single router 3. 15 monitors 4. Two C.P.U virtually shared with the 15 monitors. 5. one-four-in-one color printer 6. Two UP’s 7. Seven monitors share one CPU

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Planning and Strategizing Plan For Capacity Building Of Instructors And Students.

Capacity building is vital because educational and learning objective of ICT training at the polytechnic require basic digital literacy, attractive, dynamic, “entertaining� and something more relevant for the instructors to help them in their day today lessons The project introducs Instructors to text processing that is more oriented to publishing, authoring and teaching. Capacity building speed up curriculum development and ensure instructors are well prepared to provide quality education to a large group of students in a class environment where there was less supporting infrastructure,

Plan for a Content Management System for the Youth Polytechnic Curriculum. Features 1. You can use moodle,joomla, php, wordpress, the .net platform or many of the available softwares to make a content management system. 2. Ensure the curriulum has the students side and the teachers side. 3. We have to retain the polytechnic curriculum as it is. All the trainers have to do is to add designs, patterns, and better designs to help in explaining the content.

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SET-UP AND SUPPORT TOOL 11


Support tool- It has six steps to be followed Step 1: Involvment of stakeholder

Step 2 : Needs assessments

Step 3: Objective

Step 4: Evidence based intervention

Step 5: Adoption and implimentation

Step 6: Monitoring and Evaluation

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SET-UP AND SUPPORT TOOL Answering the guide will help you be on track so fill in the questions on:-

A. Involvement of the stakeholders Stakeholders will be needed for the walkabouts and informal meetings ; Scenarios building workshops ; Round table meetings and innovation workshops.

1. 1.Are Arethe the right right resources resourcesrepresented representedin inthe theplanning planning committee committee Are the following voices represented in the planning team • Project management ................................ • IT specialist ................................ • Learning experts ................................ • ICT integration framework ................................ • Technology suppliers ................................ • Trade Instructors ................................ • Youth polytechnic management ................................ • Quality assurance team ................................ • Support and maintenance team ................................ • In service training team ................................ 2. Are the project beneficiaries involved in the planning committee. Are they involved in the • Stakeholders meeting • Design of the project • In the round table meetings • Walk about and informal meetings • Scenarios building workshops • innovation workshop .

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................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................


SET-UP AND SUPPORT TOOL 3. Are the implementing partners involved in the planning committee Are they involved in the • Stakeholders meeting • Design of the project • In the round table meetings • Walk about and informal meetings • Scenarios building workshops • innovation workshop .

................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................

4. Are gate-keepers involved in the planning committee Have you sought for the support of relevant authorities • Ministry of Education ................................ • Ministry of Youth ............................... • ICTBoard ............................... • Local Administration ............................... • County government ............................... • ICTBoard ................................ Have you sought for the support of relevant community leaders, Community organizations and private companies • Parents ............................... • Community ............................... • Private companies ............................... Have you sought for the support of specialist in ICT integration • Funding partners ............................... • County government IT team ............................... • ICTBoard ............................... • Local NGO’s ...............................

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SET-UP AND SUPPORT TOOL Answering the guide will help you be on track so fill in the questions on:-

B. Needs assessments 5. Is the ICT integration intervention based on Needs assessment? Have you collected training needs of • Instructors • Youth Polytechnic trainees • Youth polytechnic management staff • Youth polytechnic board

................. ................. .................. .................

Have you collected market needs from possible employers like • leather factories .................. • Motor vehicle factories ................. • Furniture factories .................. • other relevant factories in the area ..................

C. Objectives 6.

Are the ICT integration goals clearly defined?

• Are the Integration goals smart? • Are the outcomes reflecting on the goals • Are the outputs reflecting on the goals?

................. ................. .................

7. Does the goals promote a supportive environment? • Goals include advocacy and lobbying ................ • Goals include raising awareness ................. • Are the goals promoting a supportive environment? ...................... • Goals promotes access to Iservices? .................

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SET-UP AND SUPPORT TOOL 8. Are the ICT integration goals based on a holistic approach? • Are both boys and girls involved? • Are rights of both girls and boys upheld?

................ ................

Answering the guide will help you be on track so fill in the questions on:-

D. Evidence based intervention 9. Are the facilitators creating a safe environment for the Youth polytechnic instructors to participate? Is the ICT integration-safe-environment clearly defined? • The instructors are a assigned training space(class) • Trainers’ capacity is built through Training of Trainers • Trainers are trained on curriculum delivery

................ ................ .................

10. Are the Instructors creating a safe environment for the trainees to participate? Is the ICT integration-safe-environment clearly defined? • The students a assigned training spaces (class) ................. • Students’ trained by supportive instructors team ................. • Students trained using improved patterns, and drawings . .................

11. Are the facilitators creating a safe environment a positive student-teacher relations? Facilitators engaging students in the lesson process. • Intervention provide tips for classroom management • Young people inducted using icebreakers • There is opportunity for all young people to participate

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.............. ............... ...............


SET-UP AND SUPPORT TOOL Answering the guide will help you be on track so fill in the questions on:-

E. Adoption and Implementation

12. Are the facilitators getting on-going training and support to implement appropriately? Are the project implentors professional in ICT integration. And if so do they get regular capacity building to improve on their skills. Are they privy to the relevant softwares that can be used to perform simple publishing as well as teaching? The facilitators should be able to train on active participation in class, understand the participatory educational techniques. Do you have support system in place for the facilitators? • Refresher courses/Capacity building ................. • Review meetings ................. • On the job support and feedback .................. • Supervision and monitoring .................

12. Are the facilitators getting on-going training and support to implement appropriately? Have you involved the use of publicity tools to publicize the ICT integration? • Have you involved the social media ................. • Met parents, community leaders ................. • Publications like brochures and flyers .................

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Can the intervention be replicated?

Are the steps and procedure systematic to support replication?. • Process and systems well documented ................ • There are policies guiding process ................ • Involvement of stakeholders at all levels ................

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Can implementation be sustained?

Facilitators engaging students in the lesson process. • intervention provide tips for classroom management • Young people inducted using icebreakers • There is opportunity for all young people to participate

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................. ................. .................


SET-UP AND SUPPORT TOOL Answering the guide will help you be on track so fill in the questions on:-

F. Monitoring and Evaluation 16. Have you assessed the impact of the integration intervention? Is the ICT integration behind the behaviour change witnessed? • More and more youth are enrolling into Youth Polytechnic .............. • To what level have you measured that the project has been implemented according to plan? .............. • Community members are supporting the polytechnic .............. • The curriculum content is getting rich everyday as trainers find better patterns, drawings, images and illustrations ..............

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Have you conducted situation analysis?

Have you conducted the situation analysis? • Are there new laws and policies emerging as a result of project lobby and advocacy • Is ICT integration well within the laws • Have you analyzed the existing laws, policies and regulations that affect ICT integration

.............. .............. ..............

18. Have you monitored and evaluated the process of Integration? Facilitators engaging stake holders in evaluating the integration process. • Have you developed tools that allow all stake holders evaluate one another within the project on daily, weekly and monthly .............. • Have you measured the content’s effectiveness in ICT integration and content delivery? ............... • The project facilitators are following procedures of procurement, expenditures, recruitment, and documentation? ...............

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SET-UP AND SUPPORT TOOL What is the criteria for selecting a yp? Potential YP for Integration should fulfill the following requirements: a. The YP should have secure, available space, to be allocated for ICT lab. The space should have burglar proof doors, secure ceiling and grilled windows. b. The available space to have electricity connection with safe sockets and well trunking system. c. The available space to be furnished with furniture ( i.e. tables and seats) and should be able to host at least 20 computers. d. The YP should have income generating project in place to help them sustain the project especially in terms of paying for the security (alarm) and the regular repair and maintenance of the machines. e. The YP should be owned by the ministry of youth, focused and identified as an organization with a mission to empower the disadvantaged youths living in rural areas. f. The YP should have qualified trainers who are willing to be part of the ICT Integration. They should be eager to accept the technology and to protect them against vandalism. g. The YP should look for means to ensure that the youth attending the training are given materials and moral support for them to be able to learn without failure. h. The YP to have been in existence for at least a year before it is considered for ICT Integration. i. The YP to have in place clearly defined Mission, Vision, and objectives with a clearly defined management structure with contact person (representative) with whom the project manager can communicate with. j. Lay out concrete plans on how the trained youth will share their skills with those that may not have had a chance to attend the training at the YP i.e. giving back process. k. Lay out concrete plans on how the trained youth will be linked to the employment market either for internship or employment once trained i.e. placement into job market. l. The YP should be gender sensitive, giving equal chances to both boys and girls. m. Have an office for its operations

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IMPLEMENTATION

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IMPLEMENTATION Process of implementation

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Baseline selection of YP and courses Renovation/Setting up of the ICT lab and the workshop. Collaboration or partnering with other stakeholders. Capacity development of the YP trainers in the ICT integration and lessons development using ICT tools. Development of the course materials with the YP trainers Implementation of the integrated courses( The trained trainers training students/trainees) Creating linkages with the local companies and business for internship and placement of the graduates Write up of the lessons learnt

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IMPLEMENTATION

“Baseline selection of the Youth Polytechnic to implement & the courses.” There are private and public YP’s. The project focuses on public YP’s that are owned and run by the government.

Total enrolment in YP’s in 2009 was 18,122 and the number has been growing.

You need to prioritize which of the 47 counties in the country with over 700 YP’s that train in technical vocational training courses you would implement.

Stake holders in selection of YP could be :- National government, County government, community members,participating NGO’s both foreign and local ones.

Total enrolment into public univerisities by JAB is 10,000 which is far less than what YP’s take in per year. With the high primary schools completion rate (81.0%) and lower transition rate to secondary school (59.6%) in 2007 (End Term Review of the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth Creation (ERS) 2003-2007), the relevance and timeliness of TIVETinstitutions and particularly YPs cannot be over-emphasized.

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IMPLEMENTATION

“Renovation/ Setting up of the ICT lab and the workshop” Renovation: Work with the local artisans or local entrepreneurs who normally provide services to the institution. Ask them to tendender in a competetive way. Ensure the labroom can accomodate at least 15 users at a time and well ventilated. Open workshops are fitted with curtains and there is no limit to the number they could contain. Furniture: Select the appropriate furniture for the lab. The furniture includes seats, and tables. Provide a steel cabinet for storing the equipments safely.

Security: Procure services of a security firm that have an alarm system in place that protects against intrusion and has alarm response team. Ensure the room has burglar proof doors and windows.

Electricity and Internet: Ensure electricity is provide through a trunking cable of 2.5’’ and that there are enough sockets for all the lab gadgets. Internet is to be provided through a modem and then shared through a router to the N-computers and wirelessly to other portable devices.

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IMPLEMENTATION Collaboration ICT Integration is a joint effort from different stakeholders and project partners that requires written rules of engagement. The rules of engagement must capture contribution of each partner in an M.O.U Below is a pictorial sample of a Memorundum of understanding (M.O.U) between the project partners

Identification of the key stake holders Discuss objects of the MOU and roles of the partners Set Aims, in puts and out put Discuss focus area the partnerships Discuss areas of collaboration, roles and responsible of each partner member Conflict resolution and intellectual propererty rights Amendments and termination of the MOU Authorization and entry into force of MOU

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IMPLEMENTATION Capacity development of the YP trainers in the ICT integration and lessons development using ICT tools. Capacity development Conduct Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and Training of Trainers(TOT) workshops. Instructors are introduced to text processing that is more oriented to publishing , authoring and teaching.

Guide trainers into identifying the educational and learning objectives of introducing ICT at their institution. Introduce trainers to basic digital literacy that is more attractive, dynamic, “entertaining� and probably more relevant to their day today lessons.

Lesson development Nowadays there are more and more tools that can help trainers to produce interactive material that can be used offline and online. Some of the tools are online, some other are desktop based applications Below are some of the emerging tools that enable a teacher develop simple interactive material: http://scratched.media.mit.edu/ http://animoto.com/

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IMPLEMENTATION Development of the course materials with the YP trainers

Improved Course material Instructors must keep using the trade test curriculum that is provided for by the government. Instructors to publish hand written notes into digital documents. They type hand written notes into soft copies and make lessons plans before class.

Instructors search for relevant sketches, patterns and designs from the internet to enrich their training material to the content Introduce trainers to using the interactive white board in the workshops. Teach them how to draw, illistrate, save and edit their work using white baords.

Content development using interactive whiteboard Through Interactive whiteboards the instructors learn new methods of delivering lessons. Where they used to do a lot of writing using white chalk on blackboards now they use interactive surfaces enabled by whiteboards. Instructors are empowered to perform simple text processing that is more oriented to publishing, authoring and teaching. The contents they create are instantly saved for compilation, into electronic format,by the white board. Later these sketches, patterns, drawings and other resources from internet form the larger improved e-curriculum.

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IMPLEMENTATION Implementation of the integrated courses Capacity development

Students led learning: With Integrated courses the students take active role in learning. They are empowered to do research and then make presentations in class.

Active learning: Instructors attend the TOT and then practice lessons and skills learnt with their students. It is like a candle lighting a candle. We train Instructors and then instructors train their students. Integrated courses aims at building • Knowledge • Skills • Attitudes Each course provides lots of exercise and illustrations to the student.

Content Management System for the Curriculum It is an emerging common trend to have electronic curriculums that could be accessed cross platform through such devices as mobile phones, desktops, and ipads. These curriculums can also be accessed both online and offline. A good example is Nairobits curriculum http://test.bitsacademy.org/home.html. The advantage of Management system is that the teachers themselves update the contents because it is a user generated system.

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IMPLEMENTATION Creating linkages with the local companies and businesses Business Partners database YP to create a database of business partners and to continously recruit for new ones.

Profiling the institution The YP management is encouraged to create a publicity policy which supports production of publicity materials like letterheads,banners ,newsletters, social sites,powerpoint presentations,bronchures and business cards.

Internships and placements The management to engage the partner companies by asking them to provide internship opportunitites to the YP graduates.

Networking YP staff and students to attend local meetings and events

Selling Point Selling point of the ICT intgration project is linking graduates the employment opportunity. This is deliberatly done by engaging the business partners and surrouning companies directly in the learning process of the students.

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ASSESS IMPACT AND REDIFINE 29


Assess impact and Redifine Measuring The Impact Of Ict Integration Programs For Youth Polytechnics

PROCEDURE A . Select your indicators B. Select the Monitoring and Evaluation design C. Design Tools D. Collect information F. Analyse the information F. Write a report

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Assess impact and Redifine A. Select Indicators Why do you want to do an Monitoring and Evaluation of the program? ......... .............................................................................................. .............................................................................................. Two factors to consider when thinking of indicators (Reasons for doing an outcome and output Monitoring and Evaluation):

1. Outcome We are thinking of tracking and measuring changes within people (Answering the guide will help track changes within target group fill in the questions on:-) • Youth are seeking education from YP’s now compared to be before the intervention. Are these changes attributed to the ICT integration? .............................................................................................. • Youth referring friends to the YP’s for learning .............................................................................................. • Is the program appreciated by Instructors and the trainees? .............................................................................................. • What Attitudes and Skills have changed .......................................... • What is the quality of implementation by the instructors? ..............................................................................................

2. Output We are thinking of tracking and measuring the numbers we promised to reach • How many boys and girls did you target to serve? .............................................................................................. • How many girls and boys have you reached? ................. ............................................................................ • How many business companies did you target to lobby? .............................................................................................. • How many traineess have been placed in the business companies?. ..............................................................................................

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Assess impact and Redifine B. Select the M and E design You have options to choose from in the design of M and E. 1. Pre and post test You can decide to do a pre-test by collecting information from target groups before you start implementing the ICT Integration program. You then implement the program and at the end of the program you conduct a Post test on the target groups. 2. Comparison groups You can decide to get a group of youth who have not been reached by the program and compare them with one that has been reached by the program. NB: Also plan for how you will do your sampling. Sometimes you can select all the participants in your program to be tested.

C. Design tailor made tools You can use one of these tools to collect your data 1. Questionnaires for youth and Instructors 2. Focus group discussions 3. Interviews 4. Observation Once you decide which kind of tool works for you then choose the kind of questions you will have to test on Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes.

D. Collect information Decide how data will be collected, by who , when and how. Plan to train the data collectors and walk with them through the tools. Get the consent of the persons in charge of the locations where data will be collected. Ensure there is a safe environment for data collectors and provide them with the right equipments they need.

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E. Analyse the information Do qualitative and quantitative data entry then find out what the data is telling about the program. What data is telling about the program is found from data analysis.

F. Write a report

Document your findings in a report. Report outline 1.0 ...... Summary 2.0 ......Introduction 3.0 ......Objectives of the study 4.0 ......Outcome M&E 4.1 ......Methodology : Interviews, FGD, Observation, Questionnaires 4.2 ......Sample 4.3 ......Analysis :Qualitative and Quantitative 4.4 ......Results : outcome and output 5.0 ......Conclusions 6.0 ......Recommendations

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Assess impact and Redifine Lessons learnt? 1. YP’s have almost similar trades/courses trained through out the country. These are grade three courses that are not tested by KNEC but by the Ministry of Labour under what is known as trade test headed by the director of technical training. This similarity of the trades makes the idea of replication and implementation of a similar project in another YP possible. 2. For the integration exercise to be successful the YP trainers’ capacity must be built. 3. In a project with multiple partners it takes longer time in preparation phase because of back and forth communication and negotiations. 4. It is always good to keep donors and project stakeholders in communication about the project development and progress. 5. We must involve the project beneficiaries in the project from inception to implement and after exit. For instance Isinya to insure equipments, take part in set up and recruitment. 6. ICT projects are capital intensive. They cost a lot of money especially in the initial phase of set up and implementation. 7. The project needs income generating activities to ensure that the massive investment is sustainable after the exit of the donor. 8. The infrastructure in most Youth polytechnics are quite dilapidated with open spaces for workshops. Most of the equipment and assets are old fashioned and out date. 9. Interactive digital teaching aides are a promising strategy for training a large number of participants/youth. They enable the trainer to find relevant up to date training illustrations, patterns and designs that make training lively. 10. Youth shy away from YP’s because of the old curriculum and teaching methods employed and because of this the government and the YP’s struggle to attract youth to attend their lessons from the YP’s. 11. Most of the YP’s are in remote areas making accessibility for distribution of resources and opportunity quite difficult. And because of this girls are affected mostly and they remain unable to access vocational education in these remote areas.

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Definition of terms and abbreviations IICD-I nternational Institute of Communication and Development YP- Youth Polytechnic MOYAS- Ministry Of Youth Affairs and Sports TVET - Technical Vocational Outcome measurement (in M and E) - measuring the changes made within people as a result of the program. This could touch on Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes. Output measurement (in M and E) - the numbers reached by the program. FGD- Focus group Discussion M and E - Monitoring and Evaluations

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For more information you can call Š Nairobits Trust, 2013 NairoBits Digital Design School African youth online

Twitter : www.twitter.com/nairobits . Blog : www.nairobits.com/blog . Web : www.nairobits.com . E-mail : info@nairobits.com .

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