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Protecting Paradise: The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy

Victor Moldoveanu

Peace, equality and freedom prove to be democratic design tools that can protect the most extensive rain forest of Central America

保护 天堂


For I draw to speak my mind, and I paint to feel alive. To my heroes and mentors: C, C and E. For those moments when there was no light at the end of the tunnel.


This album incorporates material produced for the Year 5 Diploma examination of the Master of Arts in Architecture Graduate Programme at Aarhus School of Architecture. Second Edition, Revised November 2019. Compiled In London And Printed In Amsterdam. Copyright 2019 Victor Moldoveanu. All rights Reserved.


“I have only one dream. It is the oldest of humanity in time. It is Paradise. I would like to give Paradise to everyone.� Frei Paul Otto


Contents

Introduction 1 Brief 1.1 Design Brief

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2 Illustrations 2.1 Featured Illustrations 2.2 In Dialogue

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3 Design Thesis 3.1 Background 3.2 Next Stop: Paradise 3.3 Appendix

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4 Design Realisation 4.1 Overview 4.2 Building Construction 4.3 Building Performance 4.4 Entrepreneurship 4.5 Appendix

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Protecting Paradise The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy Victor Moldoveanu

September 2017 - June 2018 www.vmoldoveanu.com

Instructors CJ Lim and Eva Rosborg Aagaard Technical Consultants Simon Dickens

Senior Teaching Fellow The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

Matthew Wells

Director, Techniker Consulting Engineers

Stefan Holst

Managing Partner, Transsolar KlimaEngineering

Invited Critics Christine Hawley

Emeritus Professor The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

Chris Thurlborne

Associate Professor Aarhus School of Architecture

David Roberts

Teaching Fellow The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

Simon Herron

Senior Teaching Fellow The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

Susanne Isa

Senior Teaching Fellow The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

Diploma Examiners Christine Hawley

Emeritus Professor The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

CJ Lim

Professor of Architecture & Urbanism The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

Naina Gupta

PhD Candidate, The Architectural Association

Søren Leth Partner, Sleth


Protecting Paradise The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy Nicaragua, Central America Friendship, peace, equality, tranquillity and freedom can protect the Paradise – the most extensive rainforest of Central and South America. ‘Protecting Paradise: The Embassy Of Environmental Philanthropy’ represents a diplomatic and bilateral economic agreement that cultivates environmental protection, ethical authority, and political trust between China and the small Central American country of Nicaragua.

Protege el Paraíso La embajada de la filantropía ambiental Nicaragua, América Central La amistad, la paz, la igualdad, la tranquilidad y la libertad pueden proteger el Paraíso, el bosque pluvial más extenso de América Central y del Sur. ‘Proteger el Paraíso: La Embajada de Filantropía Ambiental’ representa un acuerdo económico diplomático y bilateral que cultiva la protección del medio ambiente, la autoridad ética y la confianza política entre China y el pequeño país centroamericano de Nicaragua.

保护 天堂 环境慈善大使馆 尼加拉瓜,中美洲 友谊,和平,平等,安宁和自由可以保护天 堂 - 中美洲和南美洲最广阔的热带雨林。 “保护天堂:环境慈善大使馆”代表了一个外 交和双边经济协议,旨在培养中国与中美 洲小国尼加拉瓜之间的环境保护,道德权 威和政治信任。


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Brief

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Inspired by ‘Inhabitable Infrastructures: Science fiction or urban future?’ (CJ Lim, Routledge, 2017) this project’s theme focuses on the potential of architecture and urban design that address the fundamental human requirements to protect, to provide and to participate. The design project explores issues of sustainability and the challenges posed through climate change, and the reciprocal benefits of simultaneously addressing the threat and the shaping of cities. The stimulus for the architecture derives from postulated narratives and processes gleaned from literatures and fiction as well as current body of scientific knowledge regarding changing environmental impacts on cities. The effects of climate change on architecture are not limited to changes of weather, but include changes in behaviour, demographics, population growth and economic environment. By understanding the urgency of climate change as a ‘security’ issue, we need to recognize the importance of revolutionising and innovating new multi-use architecture and urban design systems and programs.

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1.1 Design Brief To Protect, Provide and Participate

Walter Gropius, a scrupulously practical architect, called for architects to ‘engrave their ideas onto naked walls and build in fantasy without regard for technical difficulties. To have the gift of imagination is more important than all technology, which always adapts itself to man’s creative will.’ He went on to predict that the future architects to make ‘gardens of the desert’ and ‘heap wonders to the sky.’ Scientific research groups are looking into the technical possibilities of artificial islands to address environmental issues. Vincent Callebaut proposed the ‘Lilipad’ (2008), a 500,000 m2 floating ecopolis consisting of three marinas and three mountains with a centrally-located artificial lagoon. Although not design-based, Mark Jackson and Veronica della Dora at the School of Geographical Sciences of Bristol University have researched into the social and cultural significance of artificial islands as signifiers of global progress. Atmospheric water harvesting, another science fiction trope that has appeared in novels such as Frank Herbert’s ‘Dune’ (1966), has been identified as a viable mechanism for securing fresh water. Implemented in small rural communities in arid and semi-arid regions by agencies such as Fogquest in Canada, fogwater harvesting uses mesh screens to capture fog droplets that feed via gravity into a supply network. An assessment of the opportunities and constraints of atmospheric water collection has been carried out by Sean Graham Furey at Cranfield University and the potential for up-scaling the technology is considerable. Grimshaw Architects, designing the ‘Croton Water Treatment Plant’ (2018) in New York, a 32 acres of underground city infrastructure with public space above. Water informs the site planning and building design strategies – storm and ground water will be collected and redistributed through a system of landscape interventions and site subtractions. Through the use of bio-swales and runnels, the water will be directed to collection ponds and

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filtering locations. All surface water will flow naturally, led by gravity without the use of pumps, pipes or valves. The collection ponds, or ‘moats’, also serve as a security boundary necessary to protect plants, eliminating the need for unsightly fencing. The character of the infrastructure defines the city, its society and underlines countless nuanced forms of human activities. The pyramids, intended for the Egyptian belief in the divinity of their rulers and afterlife, were early forms of housing and storage; they were recognised as the archetypical urban infrastructure to protect. The shape of the architecture is thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun and symbolized the mythical primeval mound of creation, from which the Egyptians believed the earth was created. The architecture and planning infrastructures should afford innovative systems beyond efficient adaptation and palliative reaction. Climate change and sustainability offer opportunities for imaginative and innovative interventions and can become a new lens through which cities are forced to rethink priorities and established dogma. No longer should the issue of climate change be considered solely in the realms of scientific policy, but is an issue that is multidisciplinary – literature and narratives are most valuable in its speculative function, and can inform an urban and architectural vision. Roland Barthes comments in ‘Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives’ that ‘narrative is present in every age, in every place, in every society; it begins with the very history of mankind and there nowhere is nor has been a people without narrative. All classes, all human groups, have their narratives, enjoyment of which is often shared by men with different, even opposing, cultural backgrounds. Caring nothing for the division between good and bad literature, narrative is international, transhistorical, transcultural: it is simply there, like life itself’. In pre-secular times, it was not unusual for buildings to be constructed of and around narrative – the proportions, alignment, size and decoration

of the great Egyptian temples and tombs were determined by metaphor, not utility, while the Doge’s Palace with its winged lions in Venice, is as much an assemblage of anecdotal vignettes as building. In ‘Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan’, Rem Koolhaas depicts the city as a metaphor for the diverse human behavior. However, not only is narrative unfashionable in recent times, the modern age has also been an unkind chapter to architectural manifestos. Many manifestos in their purest forms are uncompromising calls for change. Antonio Sant’Elia wrote in ‘Manifesto of Futurist Architecture’ that ‘every generation must build its own city, and for which we fight respite against traditional cowerdice’. Nearly every important development in the modern architectural movement began with the proclamation of these convictions in the form of a program or manifesto. The manifesto for Ebenezer Howard’s garden city, for example, was inspired by the utopian tract, ‘Looking Backward: 2000-1887’, written by the American lawyer, Edward Bellamy. The third largest best-seller of its time when published in 1888, Bellamy’s novel immediately spawned a political mass movement and several communities adopting its ideals. Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City in the UK, founded on Howard’s concentric plan of open space, parkland and radial boulevards that carefully integrated housing, agriculture and industry, remain two of the few recognized realizations of utopia in existence. In ‘Potteries Thinkbelt’, Cedric Price challenged the education profession and society to radically rethink our traditional approach to the university system and see great potential within an area blighted by industrial decline. His manifesto may seem fantastical but it sought to democratize learning and reuse the industrial railway lines as a network for the transfer and exchange of knowledge over a whole region rather than within a campus.

CJ Lim, Studio 3A Design Brief at Aarhus School of Architecture

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Illustrations

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In the words of a good friend ‘I believe good work (in general) doesn’t root in solving a problem, but in inspiration, in the wish, fever, belief, hope, fascination, will, ideal, in flow. And also, it’s the nicest condition, state of mind I know to live in. Since I also think that we don’t get the condition of flow just with birth and livelong, we have to be curious and interested and happily try to hunt it!’ Essentially, that’s what the drawings are about. They cultivate optimism and a sense of messy vitality rather than obvious unity; they evoke many levels of meaning and combinations of focus: space and its elements become readable and workable in several ways at once; they employ symbolism and a fictional narrative structure to create sustainable architecture and environments of spatial and social impact, in addition to the use of political poetics as well as technical exposition; they explore issues of sustainability, resilience and climate change challenges.

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2.1 Featured Illustrations 2.1.1 The Master Plan

The master plan serves as a spatial investigation on how friendship, peace, equality, tranquillity and freedom are employed at different scales when dealing with diverse conditions of nature protection and conservation of the Paradise. The extensive operation of canal-digging involves the new valuation of what is to be deforested and how extracted earth and deforested woodland are managed while making space for sustainable human programs and functions that serve as proactive means to protect the natural environment. The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy intends to cultivate a positive legacy of ethical foreign investments through the resilience of forests and lakes.

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“I believe that drawing is King; and you can draw anything.� Christine Hawley Emeritus Professor The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

Original size 841 mm x 2378 mm

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2.1 Featured Illustrations 2.1.2 The Arrival

Friendship, peace, equality, tranquillity and freedom can protect the Paradise – the most extensive rainforest of Central and South America. ‘Protecting Paradise: The Embassy Of Environmental Philanthropy’ represents a diplomatic and bilateral economic agreement that cultivates environmental protection, ethical authority, and political trust between China and the small Central American country of Nicaragua.

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Original size 841 mm x 2378 mm

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2.1 Featured Illustrations 2.1.3 The Grand Canal Of Nicaragua

The premise of the thesis is based on China’s ‘Good Neighbour Policy’ and its new ambitions to develop positive foreign relations. China’s ‘friendly handshake’ investment to Nicaragua is a new interoceanic canal infrastructure through Nicaragua that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

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Original size 1189 mm x 1682 mm

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2.1 Featured Illustrations 2.1.4 The Five Principles Of Peaceful Coexistence

This thesis represents a discourse on foreign investments in underdeveloped countries as well as a demonstration of environmental awareness and protection practices, bringing together tourists and locals in an environment governed by five principles of peaceful coexistence.

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Original size 1189 mm x 1682 mm

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2.1 Featured Illustrations 2.1.5 Protecting Nature By Building With Nature

The engagement of the Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy in protecting nature addresses sustainable use of local resources which relate to two categories: traditional building construction processes as well as environmental and human well being. Sustainable use of local materials and as well as employment of traditional construction techniques are more familiar to local human resources. These techniques enhance the lifespan of building materials, compared to the use of technologically advanced equipment.

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Original size 841 mm x 1189 mm

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- 30,00 Canal base

Âą 0,00 Canal surface

+ 40-60,00 Forest canopy

+ 90,00 Buddha

+ 150,00 Pagoda

+ 200,00 Airship

+ 1600,00 Conception Volcano


2.1 Featured Illustrations 2.1.6 Protecting The Economy, Ecology and Human Resources

The diplomatic gesture of building the Nicaragua Canal will represent a win-win situation for both parties involved: investment in the small Central American country will facilitate local economic, social sustainability, education and environmental protection for its unique lakes, volcanoes and rain forests while providing China with an image of a reliable, credible and ethical international stakeholder.

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Original size 841 mm x 1189 mm

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1. Ada Tolla is a founding partner of LOT-EK. She has a degree in Architecture and Urban Design from the Universita’ di Napoli, Italy, and has completed post-graduate studies at Columbia University, New York. Besides heading her professional practice, she currently teaches at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation in New York. She also lectures at major universities and cultural institutions globally. 2. Michael Young is an architect and educator practicing in New York City where he is a founding partner of the architectural design studio Young & Ayata. Michael is currently an Assistant Professor at the Cooper Union. In the Fall of 2016 he was the Louis I. Kahn Visiting Assistant Professor at Yale University. He has previously taught design studios and seminars at Princeton, SCI-Arc, Yale, Columbia, Syracuse, Pratt, Cornell and Innsbruck University. His work has been exhibited in New York, Los Angeles, Paris, Rotterdam, Istanbul, Milan, Chicago, and Barcelona. Michael received his Master’s Degree from Princeton University and a Bachelor of Architecture from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. 3. Maya Alam is a German born architect and designer. She holds the title of Dipl. Ing. of Interior Architecture from the Peter Behrens School of Architecture in Düsseldorf and a Master of Architecture with Distinction from the Southern California Institute of Architecture in Los Angeles. Maya was awarded the AIA Henry Adams Certificate and a Selected Best Thesis Award at SciArc. She was the inaugural recipient of the 2016/17 Boghosian Fellowship. Her work deals with speculations on social dreaming and experimental reuse in consideration of new media and its effects on our perception.

“We love this drawing: because it’s architecture, it’s nature, it’s colour, it’s ecology, it’s fantastical.” Ada Tolla LOT-EK, Founding Partner, 2018

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2.2 In Dialogue 2.2.1 The AIA Dallas KRob Award For Excellence In Digital And Hybrid Media

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Protecting Paradise Illustrations

The Ken Roberts Memorial Delineation Competition (KRob) has celebrated the best in architectural delineation for 44 years. A Dallas classic that has received international recognition, KRob honours hand and digital delineation by professionals and students throughout the world. Averaging over 400 entries from 25 countries in the past several years, the competition’s visibility continues to grow. The Ken Roberts Memorial Delineation Competition is the most senior architectural drawing competition currently in operation anywhere in the world. This award is presented to the best student and professional entries that demonstrate excellence through an innovative use of media and technology. Submissions may be digital, or hybrid mixed media with preference given to those that push the envelope of architectural representation, including drawings produced through algorithmic processes. Both this image and the print-out don’t do justice to this drawing because it really needs to be zoomed-in. We love this drawing: because it’s architecture, it’s nature, it’s color, it’s ecology, it’s fantastical. There is a lot of detail and when you go in you discover that there is a lot of stories and the format is amazing, the vertical scroll is actually glorious. So we thought that it was super-rich and a very interesting way to create another kind of representation of architecture. Ada Tolla The drawing is evocative both in its color and its formation of the Chinese scroll and yet it’s using it to investigate a relationship between vernacular traditional construction and technological advancements within Central America: so the color palette is coming from Central America, the formation of an oblique drawing that you scan top to bottom, not Italian Renaissance single point perspective where you situate one observer, but instead something that you move through. I find that really provocative socially. I often find myself intrigued by the political and social that comes through the provocation of representation that is not literally laid onto me reiterating things I know, but making me question assumptions that I hold, and all of a sudden, I am different; and if I am different, I just got politicized! Michael Young

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1. Takahiro Kanie attended Kansai University Faculty of Engineering in 1977 and dropped out after 4 years, then moved to San Francisco for 2 years. In 1999 he founded Japan Illustrators’ Association and he is leading numerous activities as a representative of professional illustrator organizations. Apart from his main body of work, he authored the Gundam series card illustrations and many other illustrations in the advertising and publishing field. 2. Kumiko Shimoyama (Composite Business Creator & Marketing Consultant) was born in Shimomachi, Tokyo and is currently a freelancer. She has been interested in oil painting, watercolours, handicrafts, and woodworking in hands-on painting classes for 8 years, from kindergarten to elementary school, udon noodles, climbing trees and cake decorations. She believes that the teacher’s educational policy of “break the preconceived concept” is inherited, but it is just fun to challenge. She started from a printing company and worked with various companies such as confectionery makers, design offices, and advertising productions. She has consistently worked on sales promotions for major and medium-sized clients, where she saw many opportunities to experience and practice marketing, and the marketing brain is wellformed. In recent years, she has become a freelancer and has conducted seminars and workshops on my mission “I want to spread the fun and practical skills of marketing.” 3. João Vaz de Carvalho is a Portuguese artist. Since 1987 he has worked with several art galleries, participated in numerous art fairs and prepared a large number of exhibitions. Simultaneously, he has worked as a press illustrator for journals and magazines and magazine children’s books which are published in several countries. His work is marked by a very peculiar figurative language, appealing to memories and nonsense. He has won many prizes all over the world.

“Amazing abstracting compositions which reveal great care and technical ability.” João Vaz De Carvalho Artist, 2019

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2.2 In Dialogue 2.2.2 The JIA Illustration Bronze Award

The Japan Illustrators’ Association was founded in 1999. The JIA Illustration Award is a golbal illustration compeittion which has been organized every year by Japan Illustrators’ Association. 100 and up-coming Illustrators Who Fascinated The World is a subsequent catalogue of works from the competition winners, illustrators of the year winners and other world-class illustrators from around the world. Unlike the yearbooks that preceded this publication, this is a collection of works that can be fully enjoyed not only by clients who are involved in advertising and publishing, but by ones who need illustrators or anyone else that is interested in learning about some of the world’s leading illustrators. 1

描写力、構成共に非常にプロフェッショナルな作品だと思います。 非常に専門的な分野で、一般の人にはピンとこない題材だと思い ますが、もう少し分かりやすい表現の方がよかったかもしれません。 蟹江隆広 個性は十分確立されてると思うので、表現したいコト、伝えたいも のを明確に伝えるために伝わりやすいモチーフをちょっとだけ追加し てみたらいいのではと思いました。 違うテーマの作品もどんなか興味があります。

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下山久美子

I think it is a very professional work in terms of description and composition. I think this is a very specialized field that isn’t a subject for ordinary people, but it might have been better to use a more easily understood expression. Takahiro Kanie

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The individuality of the work is well established, so I thought it would be nice to add a little motif that is easy to communicate in order to clearly convey what I want to express and what I want to convey. I’m interested in works with different themes. Kumiko Shimoyama

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Design Thesis

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This Thesis represents a discourse on foreign investments in underdeveloped countries as well as a demonstration of environmental awareness and protection practices, bringing together tourists and locals in an environment governed by five principles of peaceful coexistence.

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Design Thesis Contents

Abstract

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1 Background 1.1 Acquiring Allies: An Emerging World Order 1.2 We Are All Neighbours Now

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2 Next Stop: Paradise 2.1 Five Lessons Of Peaceful Coexistence 2.2 Location And Site Reference 2.3 Scope And Function 2.4 Legacy 2.5 Design Strategies

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3 Appendix 3.1 Site Analysis 3.2 References

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Abstract Friendship, peace, equality, tranquillity and freedom can protect the Paradise – the most extensive rainforest of Central and South America. ‘Protecting Paradise: The Embassy Of Environmental Philanthropy’ represents a diplomatic and bilateral economic agreement that cultivates environmental protection, ethical authority, and political trust between China and the small Central American country of Nicaragua. The premise of the thesis is based on China’s ‘Good Neighbour Policy’ and its new ambitions to develop positive foreign relations. China’s ‘friendly handshake’ investment to Nicaragua is a new inter-oceanic canal infrastructure through Nicaragua that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The diplomatic gesture of building the Nicaragua Canal will represent a win-win situation for both parties involved: investment in the small Central American country will facilitate local economic, social sustainability, education and environmental protection for its unique lakes, volcanoes and rain forests while providing China with an image of a reliable, credible and ethical international stakeholder. The thesis represents a discourse on foreign investments in underdeveloped countries as well as a demonstration of environmental awareness and protection practices, bringing together tourists and locals in an environment governed by five principles of peaceful coexistence.

Fo Guang Shan Buddha Memorial Centre, Taiwan

Protecting Paradise Design Thesis La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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3 Thesis

Background

‘In the big scheme of things, the new grand political and economic chessboard is no longer Western capitalism versus Soviet communism; it is the West versus the East, and China is in the pole position.’ (Rapoza, 2017)

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Protecting Paradise. The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy. 保护天堂。 环境慈善事业大使馆。


Acquiring Allies: An Emerging World Order More than 2000 years ago, trekking across steppes and deserts, humans opened up the transcontinental passage connecting Asia, Africa and Europe, which we know today as the Silk Road. This ancient way opened windows of friendly cultural and economic engagement among nations, adding a splendid chapter to their history of human progress. Spanning thousands of miles and years, the ancient Silk Road embodies the spirit of peace, cooperation and mutual benefit. After World War II, the United States accounted for roughly 30% of world economic output. The U.S. had been the sole economic power since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. However, since the start of the 21st century, China has been growing at about 9% per annum, with its goods and services rapidly rising in quality and consumer’s trust. In contrast, the U.S. and Europe have staggered around 0% growth from 2007-2012. ‘China’s emerging political power and economic status have generated continual fascination by academics and the media alike.’ (Tisdal, 2014). In fact, the ‘growing influence of China’ has been named the top news story of the 21st century by the Global Language Monitor. ‘In the big scheme of things, the new grand political and economic chessboard is no longer Western capitalism

Protecting Paradise Design Thesis La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

versus Soviet communism; it is the West versus the East, and China is in the pole position.’ (Rapoza, 2017) In little more than three decades, China has transformed itself from a closed-off Asian nation mired in poverty to an emerging superpower that rivals the United States. Now, the tendrils of Chinese influence are gradually wrapping themselves around the world, upending roles and relationships that have dominated the global order for more than half a century. The latest step in China’s evolution is President Xi Jinping’s plan that draws on the millennia-old tradition of the Silk Road trading route. In the autumn of 2013, respectively in Kazakhstan and Indonesia, President Xi proposed the building of the ‘21st Century Maritime Silk Road’ (Jinping, 2017). As the Chinese saying goes, ‘Peaches and plums do not speak, but they are so attractive that a path is formed below the trees.’ (Jinping, 2017, speech at the opening of Belt and Road forum, Beijing). Four ways of how China is changing communities and lives across the globe – with its financial on culture, education, travel and the military balance of power are further explored:

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1. New Markets and Schools

2. All Roads Lead to China

In Pakistan, the locals discreetly sip cheap Chinese beer and wolf down dumplings made by Amber Shen, from China’s Anhui province. Famous American treats, like Chips Ahoy and Skittles, with Chinese packaging and even cans of stewed pork, and meat once banned in Pakistan, are all available now. Times are changing, and Pakistan must keep up, says Sabina Zakir, an administrator at the Roots millennium schools, an education system that has introduced compulsory Mandarin lessons for all students starting at age 8 and going all the way up to middle school. (Hunt, 2018)

Kenyan and Chinese workers are putting the finishing touches on the most significant infrastructure project in Kenya’s post-independence history – a $3.8 billion, 472-km (293 miles) railway that runs from the port city of Mombasa to the capital Nairobi, part of a massive Chinese-built rail network linking several countries. When the locomotives and freight wagons begin rolling in June 2014, the line could be a game-changer for Kenya. Home to East Africa’s largest port, currently the country moves its goods by a notoriously dangerous two-lane highway. (Hunt, 2018)

3. PLAN - People’s Liberation Army Navy China is building its first military base in Djibouti, just a few miles away from Camp Lemonnier, the US base that opened in 2008. The Chinese are developing a ‘blue-water’ navy capable of operating in open oceans its first domestically built aircraft carrier was launched in April 2016. (Hunt, 2018) Moreover, China’s military hardware, while not yet rivalling the US, is getting increasingly sophisticated.

4. New Tourist Hubs In 2017, 135 million Chinese tourists travelled overseas spending a whopping $261 billion, way more than any other country including America who spent $122 billion, according to the United Nations World Tourism Organization. (Hunt, 2018) Mattala Rajapaksa International Airport, the secondlargest in Sri Lanka, has been designed to handle a million passengers per year, as ‘China has entered the so-called ‘mass tourism’ era’ stated Zhou Ying, an analyst at China Galaxy Securities. (Ying, 2017)

Four case studies in Pakistan, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Djibouti display rising Chinese foreign investments in key sectors of development.

Protecting Paradise Design Thesis La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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3 Thesis

Background

‘Peace, is our policy, our idea, our principle and our pursuit.’ (Jibao, 2011)

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Protecting Paradise. The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy. 保护天堂。 环境慈善事业大使馆。


We Are All Neighbours Now ‘We are all neighbours now. [...] In our cities, we rub shoulders with strangers from every country, culture and faith.’ (Garton, 2006) ‘As the most populous country in the world and third largest in area, China also has the most significant number of neighbours (14) sharing its 22,000km land borders namely with: North Korea, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam’ (Shen, 2012). With the end of the Cold War, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the opening of China to international markets, a new type of political culture is born in Beijing. In response to Western perceptions of ‘China represents a growing influential threat’, Chinese government officials and scholars have devised a new credible perspective and brand – China the reliable and responsible international stakeholder. The cornerstone of this new Chinese foreign policy strategy is the adoption of the ‘peaceful development’ ideological doctrine, heping fazhan, for a ‘peaceful rise’, heping jueqi […] (Bijian, 1997-2004). The government rhetoric seeks to dissipate any external misconception of the country as a threat. The core of

Protecting Paradise Design Thesis La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

China’s new strategic doctrine, has been proposed first by the scholar Yan Xuetong in 1998 and officially re-introduced by the Chairman of China Reform Forum, Zheng Bijian, during the Bo’ao Forum in 2003. (Bijian, 1997-2004). Without raising fears of hegemonic intentions, the ‘good-neighbour’ policy is China’s new diplomatic approach. During the ASEAN Summit in Indonesia in 2011, the then Premier of China Wen Jiabao, passionately underscored: ‘Peace, is our policy, our idea, our principle and our pursuit. To take the road of peaceful development is to unify domestic development with an opening to the outside world, linking the development of China with that of the rest of the world, and combining the fundamental interests of the Chinese people with the common interests of all peoples around the globe. China persists in its pursuit of harmony and development internally while pursuing peace and development externally; the two aspects, closely linked and organically united, are an integrated whole, and will help to build a harmonious world of sustained common prosperity and peace.’ (Jibao, 2011)

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3 Thesis

Next Stop: Paradise

‘a positive framework of peace will include influences such as culture, and education’ (Levy & Hawkins, 2009)

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Protecting Paradise. The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy. 保护天堂。 环境慈善事业大使馆。


5 Lessons Of Peaceful Coexistence In 1988, Louis d’Amour called tourism ‘the world’s peace industry’. Others, including academics, agreed. More recently in 2008, Levy and Hawkins wrote the article ‘Peace Through Tourism: Commerce Based Principles and Practices’ which emphasised that ‘a positive framework of peace will include influences such as culture and education.’ (Levy & Hawkins, 2009) The underlying assumption of those who see tourism as a communication generator is that tourism allows people to know each other, to work with each other, and to learn to appreciate each other. Tourism represents a giant ‘peace generator’ that allows mutual understanding and, therefore, appreciation of each other’s cultures. ‘Tourism related to both educational and cultural attributes is becoming increasingly prevalent around the world.’ (Hendry, 2007, Richards, 2005) Though travel to tourism sites of natural and cultural significance have existed at least since the time of Greek Antiquity, as reflected by Hellenistic world’s invention of the Seven Wonders of the World. In more recent times, 157 countries have been ratified by the World Heritage Convention of 1972 for protecting its natural heritage, and a further 582 sites inscribed on the UNESCO world heritage list. Setting aside for the moment the trivialities of contemporary conspicuous consumption, what every Chinese tourist has in common is the notion of escape. They desire to leave behind the contemporary high-speed survival culture or outdated Communist-dominated China for the China of another era – and for a moment to experience other cultural values and lifestyles. ‘Here, travel and tourism serve as a dream of freedom from present-day strictures, impediments and reprehension. Simply put, it is a cry for freedom from censorship and despotic regulations.’ (Remnick et al., 2018)

Protecting Paradise Design Thesis La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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1 Time Travel The Chinese government has blocked all movies about time travel, stating that it is disrespectful towards history. (10 Things Banned In China, 2018) Usually, the protagonist is from the modern time and for some reasons and via some means, travels through time and all the way back to the ancient China where he/she will experience a ‘culture shock’ and eventually develop a romance with that past era.

2 Brad Pitt There are a few famous people that are blacklisted in China. The Chinese government is severe towards the supporters of The Tibetan Independence Movement. Harrison Ford and Richard Gere are banned from entering the country after they expressed their support for Tibet, and Brad Pitt is banned merely for starring in the movie ‘Seven Years In Tibet.’ (10 Things Banned In China, 2018)

3 Alice in Wonderland Another classic piece of children’s literature is banned in China. While Lewis Carroll’s imaginative tale came under criticism in America for the portrayal of drug use and political satire, China has not endorsed the story because the animals talk. When animals use the human language, it puts animals and humans on an equal level, which is disastrous according to the Chinese authority. (10 Things Banned In China, 2018)

4 Jasmine The Chinese Communist Party is worried a dainty little flower could ruin their political standing whole operation. After the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia in 2011, the government has blocked anything to do with the flower. No one can sell it, hold it, sing about it, or even say it. (10 Things Banned In China, 2018)

5 Social Media In 2009, just as Facebook was gaining much popularity, China decided it was nothing but trouble and banned it from the country. (10 Things Banned In China, 2018) The ban could be due to riots that broke out, government censorship, or protection of domestic companies. China has its own social media platform that has more users than Facebook, but it is highly censored and controlled. Google is also banned in China.

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Contextualized by the peaceful arrival of Chinese diplomatic agenda to neighbouring countries via four key development sectors (culture, education, travel and the military balance, pages 12-13), the positive framework of peace is displayed by a set of five lessons of peaceful coexistence, respectively grounded to Chinese education and cultural prohibition. The five lessons of peaceful coexistence protect nature and people, and present opportunities to learn and appreciate nature from other cultural ideologies.

Lesson 1 ―― Friendship TZhou et al. (2008) concluded that ‘nostalgia serves a protective function for individuals regarding their social connectedness.’ Nostalgia is sentimentality for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations’ (Boym, 2002). Nostalgia involves memories of people, events and places that were close to us, ‘and it will thus increase one’s sense of social connection.’ According to Zhou (2008), lonely people often have lesser perceptions of social support. The importance of social ties has been examined by researchers for decades, and Durkheim argues that ‘it is these ties that are determinant in meaningful and true friendship.’ (Durkheim, 1951) In this line, the notion of friendship is regarded by Dalai Lama in the following words: ‘Genuine friendship can only arise when there is a mutual sense of trust and respect.’ (Dalai Lama, 2012).

1916, Project for the House of Friendship in Istanbul for the Ottoman-German Alliance by Hans Poelzig

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Lesson 2 ―― Peace Seeking protection in Buddha includes standard practices of meditation, insight and cultivating wisdom. Buddhism is a religion of peace (Lopez, 2001) and is the world’s fourth-largest religion, with over 520 million followers or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. (Pew Research Centre).

Buddha statue, Bodth Gaya

Lesson 3 ―― Equality Rousseau and Kant believed that ‘moral equality derives from human rationality – the capacity to direct our thinking, is unique to humans and to be found equally in all of us.’ (Lord, 2016) Today, we might be sceptical that there is any particular ‘human nature’ that makes us different from other animals. In the 21st century, as a form of resilience, humans and cities need to change mindsets and make nature our equal and entitle them respect and spatial rights.

Forest in Nicaragua La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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Lesson 4 ―― Tranquillity When eaten, coca acts as a mild stimulant and protects against hunger, thirst, pain, and fatigue. The coca leaf has been chewed and brewed for tea traditionally for centuries among its indigenous peoples of Central and South America, being beneficial to human health. Natural landscapes, including woodlands, the presence of rivers streams, lakes and the sea, birds and other wildlife, clear open night sky all are positive stimuli to a state of being serene, secured, and worry-free.

Lesson 5 ―― Freedom Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that ‘everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference’ and ‘everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.’ (UDHR)

Coca production, Bolivia, 2010

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La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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Censored Items

Time Travel

Lessons

Nostalgia

Western Values

Friendship

Core Democratic Values

Life Liberty

Brad Pitt

Buddhism

Peace (Zen)

Happiness Justice

Jasmine

Coca

Tranquility

Equality Diversity

Alice in Wonderland

Nature

Equality

Truth Sovereignty

Facebook, Google etc.

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Social Media

Freedom (of Information)

Patriotism

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Location And Site Reference

Nicaragua, the land of evergreen forests, lakes and volcanoes

Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The paradisiacal environment’ with an abundant wealth of rainforest is often regarded as ‘the land of forests, lakes and volcanoes.’ The design thesis, ‘The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy’, is placed in a linear setting along the route of a new canal, focusing on protecting the natural environments of Paradise including the Punta Gorda rainforest and the Nicaragua Lake. The design thesis critiques the route of an existing project which is currently in development. To protect

Protecting Paradise Design Thesis La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Paradise, the newly proposed canal bypasses the largest freshwater reservoir of Central America (Lake Nicaragua) to avoid unnecessary environmental contamination and ecological disturbance. The strategy to allow the construction of the canal represents a relatively small sacrifice – protecting much of Paradise outweighs the loss of 0.42% of the natural environment (30,000 km2 out of 7.5 million km2). The ‘bigger sustainability picture‘ aims to provide longterm economic resilience and adequate environmental protection, halting illegal logging and cattle ranching activities while providing alternative employment opportunities. Paradise is an imperative environmental legacy for Nicaragua but also all global citizens.

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The plan of investing in this small area of the forest represents a sacrifice that saves ‘the bigger picture’ of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor.

site focus

1

4 2 3

1- 21st Century Maritime Silk Route 2- Atlantic Ocean 3- Pacific Ocean 4- Mesoamerican Biological Corridor

The new canal route discourses the existing project by avoiding the largest fresh water reservoir in Central America (3), and protects forests that are currently being depleted by illegal activities.

1

4

3 2

6

5

7

Existing project development

8

9

Proposed project development

1- Pacific Ocean 2- Brito 3- Lake Nicaragua 4- Punta Gorda Natural Reserve 5- Cerro Silva Natural Reserve

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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6- Punta Gorda 7- Atlantic Ocean 8- newly protected lake 9- newly protected forest

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Scope The master plan serves as a spatial investigation on how friendship, peace, equality, tranquillity and freedom are employed at different scales when dealing with diverse conditions of nature protection and conservation of Paradise. The extensive operation of canal-digging involves the new valuation of what is to be deforested and how extracted earth and deforested woodland are managed while making space for sustainable human programs and functions that serve as proactive means to protect the natural environment. The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy intends to cultivate a positive legacy of ethical foreign investments through the resilience of forests and lakes.

Masterplan 1 — North Pacific Ocean

Masterplan 2 — Lake Nicaragua

Masterplan 3 — Caribbean Highlands

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2

Masterplan 4 — Atlantic Ocean

3

4

Region Plan of Nicaragua Showing four focus areas: 1- North Pacific Ocean 2- Lake Nicaragua 3- Caribbean Highlands 4- Atlantic Ocean

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Function The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy represents the extension of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road to Central America, governed by the five principles of peaceful coexistence.

The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy protects the most extensive rainforest of Central and South America, specifically the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. It salvages the local valued environmental components of Nicaragua from forest degradation and encroachment of agricultural and livestock grazing land uses: Lake Nicaragua, Punta Gorda and Cerro Silva Natural Reserves as well as the all-natural environment that is not currently protected by any form of law. The Embassy safeguards the welfare of Nicaraguans, promoting investments and employment in four critical domains by: - Developing infrastructure through the construction of the Nicaragua Canal; - Promoting new commercial markets and education on all levels; - Providing security; - Promoting Nicaragua as a highly desired destination for ecology tourism and scientific research as a responsible way to travel to natural areas that conserve the environment; educates the traveller. The Embassy underlines the decisive role to build ethical and equitable international relationships and to argue the benefits of foreign business investments in developing countries such as Nicaragua. The Embassy promotes a new image of a reliable and credible China, as a peaceful international stakeholder and dispel the misconception of the country seen as a rising threat.

President Daniel Ortega, left, and Chinese businessman Wang Jing hold up a concession agreement for the construction of a multibillion-dollar investment in Nicaragua.

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Legacy Unfortunately and coincidentally, as the UN-led ‘International Year of Biodiversity’ was coming to its end in late 2014, it was confirmed that the 2010 targets to halt biodiversity loss internationally had not been reached. The failure of these targets to galvanise action at the scale and pace needed to counter wrongdoings toward nature and to protect and restore biodiversity has not prevented new 2020 targets being created.’ (Caldecott, 2015) The current environmental enterprise to salvage Paradise is a demonstration to the world that this foreign investment is not about destruction and pillaging but focuses on building a sustainable legacy for Nicaragua. A further breakdown of the design thesis demonstrates the core argument to protect Paradise, and why an internationally contested project such as the Nicaragua Canal will represent a win-win situation which priorities environmental protection, the wellbeing and dignity of Nicaraguan people, and drives off poverty and backwardness.

Deforestation and biodiversity destruction in Borneo, Indonesia

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Subsistence agriculture, 31% Logging, 3% Intensive agriculture, 1% Ranching, pasture, 65% 100%

55000

80%

45000

60%

35000

40%

25000

20%

15000

0%

5000 Africa

Central America

Asia

Central Asia America km2 / year 2000-2010

Africa

Drivers of Deforestation in Central America.

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2006

2011

2002

2007

2012

2003

2008

2013

2004

2009

2014

2005

2010

2015

Timeline of forest degradation in Nicaragua shows affected areas in red.

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Environmental Benefits

Guardabarranco (Eumomota superciliosa). The national bird of Nicaragua.

‘Nicaragua has a strategic geographical location for the construction of a canal, with the lowest terrain in the centre of the American continent between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, as well as abundant and little-exploited water resources in the area of the route recommended for this project’ (CDT, 2006). The environment of Nicaragua has been continuously deteriorating over the last three decades, including the increase in the forest clearing to create land for agriculture and livestock. ‘Adequate environmental management for the canal will allow the country to protect and recover the environment, which in large part entails levels of forestation and water degradation since the middle of last century’ (CDT,

Protecting Paradise Design Thesis La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

2006). South-eastern Nicaragua, including the eastern Caribbean forests and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, is undergoing rapid loss of forest cover resulting from the encroachment of agricultural and livestock grazing land uses. There has been a 40 percent reduction in forest cover in the last 28 years in the eastern Caribbean site area. Further, this rate of forest cover loss is increasing, with more forest lost in the two years between 2009 and 2011 than in the prior 26 years. It is clear that the remaining intact natural areas in southeast Nicaragua, within and outside the protected areas, are highly vulnerable. Encroachment into these remote areas is already happening without this investment taking place.

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Social Benefits

People are pictured in Tipitapa, some 25 km from Managua, capital of Nicaragua

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2090

2100

2110

2120

50,000 Employment during construction; Source: ESIA. 2030

2040

2050

2060

2070

2080

75,000 Employment projected after construction; Source: ESIA.

Both Suez and Panama Canals represent historical contributions to the development and progress of human civilisation, while they have facilitated trade as well as generated friendly relations between nations. The current design thesis will also result in similar contributions in Nicaragua and the world. The Embassy will create jobs during both its construction and afterwards (50,000 new jobs are estimated to be created directly during construction), which will contribute to improving the standard of living for the locals in Nicaragua. ‘In 2013, 3.2 million of Nicaraguans (75.8 percent) participated in the labour force, with an unemployment rate of 5.9 percent.’ (BCN, 2013) While almost a half of all Nicaraguans living in poverty, and current employment opportunities being limited, Nicaragua has a relatively small skilled workforce. Considerable investment in vocational training will

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be required, specifically for positions in construction, maintenance personnel and equipment operators, but also environmental and cultural awareness and protection. Through work as well as during construction and afterwards, workers will receive vocational training that will help increase the overall quality of skills and experience in labour force. This effect would further be expanded to supplier industries where suppliers, as a result of increased demand for their goods and services, will hire and train a new workforce. By this, not only will there be an increase in the overall skills experience, but it will enhance national human capital to support further development of the national economy. Typical jobs for Nicaraguans will include but not limited to: operators and leading hand in the excavation process, lumber construction and processing, apprentices, tradesman, as well as positions in services, catering and hospitality for the new eco-tourism along the canal.

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Economic Benefits

Photo by Brett Kaffee, somewhere in Nicaragua

Nicaragua is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere that ‘faces low per capita income, massive unemployment, and massive external debt, where the distribution of income is one of the most unequal in the world.’ (CIA World Factbook, 2014) ‘The current project will accelerate the economic growth of Nicaragua, increasing the Gross Domestic Product by nearly 200 percent compared to optimistic projections without the canal’s construction, and will also generate significant additional investments’ (CDT, 2006). Taking into account just the construction of the Nicaragua Canal, without including all the additional impacts it could have on the economy, the GDP in the year 2024 will be USE$20,800 million, compared to USD$12,800 million as an optimistic projection for that same year without establishing the Embassy. The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy will attract additional investments in various sectors (commercial markets, tourism, services, communications,

Protecting Paradise Design Thesis La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

infrastructure, manufacturing, education); will help integrate the Atlantic, Pacific, and Central regions of the country; and will allow for the economic, cultural, and social development of the Atlantic region. ‘It is anticipated that for the year 2030, the total value of goods transported through the Canal de Nicaragua and the Panama Canal combined will exceed USD$1.4 billion, which will transform them into the most important trade routes in the world’ (CDT, 2006). An infrastructure canal in Nicaragua will generate cost and sailing time savings for ships that currently travel through alternate routes. Also, fuel savings for the larger ships using the new canal will be substantial. For example, it is calculated that to go from Shanghai to Baltimore, the route through the Canal de Nicaragua will save 4,000 kilometres compared to the Suez Canal and 7,500 kilometres compared to the Cape of Good Hope. In current prices, for a container ship of average size, this represents trip savings of around USD$1 million.

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Technical Benefits

The Great Ship, or SS Great Eastern was an iron sailing steamship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, and built on the river Thames. She was by far the largest ship ever built at the time of her 1858 launch.

‘With the growth in world trade, the evolution of trade routes, and the increase in the size of cargo vessels, there is an increasing demand for the construction of a second canal in Central America’ (ESIA, 2014). Controlling this passageway of maritime traffic is a crucial asset of controlling the link in between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The majority of this traffic is primarily headed to ports on the East Coast of the United States. Historically, most of this traffic went through the Panama Canal; however, a growing percentage of trade between Asia and the East Coast of the United States has been directed to alternative routes due to the use of larger vessels traveling West of Asia, crossing the Straits of Malacca and the Suez Canal, in a more extended voyage traversing harsh weather conditions and pirated areas.

150,000 and 250,000 dry weight tons [DWT]) which will not physically fit even through the recently widened Panama Canal. The detours of the largest vessels to alternative routes will be even more significant in the upcoming years, which suggests that Panama will not be able to meet the demand of transporting merchandise between the United States and Asia. ‘Currently, maritime transport has saturated the capacity of the Panama Canal, through which ships of up to 54,000 DWT and container ships of up to 4,400 partially- loaded TEU can pass’ (ACP, 2014). Even with its expansion, the Panama Canal will allow the transit of ships of up to 170,000 DWT and container ships of up to 12,000 TEU.

Trends in the shipping industry have moved towards the construction and operation of larger vessels (between

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Design Strategies As in the case of large infrastructure projects such as Panama or Nicaragua Canals, a public-private partnership is defined by a 100-year concession contract. The primary objective of this contractual relationship is to protect and boost the resilience of the local valued environmental and social components, while in return developing the infrastructural needs for the principal operation of the project which is canal excavation activities and building of human settlements.

1 The Investment

‘Inverted World’ is a 1974 science fiction novel by British writer Christopher Priest, an entire city and its residents travel slowly across an alien planet on railway tracks. The city’s engineers must work to lay fresh track for the city, and pick up the old track as it moves.

Who will pay for nature? Under this public-private partnership in environmental protection and infrastructure development, a concession contract is signed by the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua, the Canal Authority, HK-Nicaragua Canal Development Investment Co. (HKND), and the investors (private individuals). HKND shall have the exclusive right to acquire and manage the design, development, engineering, financing, ownership and management of a traditionally navigable canal for vessels joining ports on Nicaragua’s Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy proponent would utilise both local and international contractors for the construction of the canal. As a result of the scale of the Embassy and Nicaragua’s limited industrial capacity, it is expected that use local industry will be actively encouraged to participate. The Embassy addresses three key strategies that will configure the setting of the new canal route: - Incremental digging of the new infrastructure along the canal rote; management of excavated soil and lumber mitigation will create new landscapes as well as provide sustainable local human activities; - Provision for accommodation for relocated communities that currently reside along the canal route expropriation area; - Provision for accommodation for seasonal tourists and related activities.

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Design Strategies

The framework of a large house with fluted beams in the Kwakiutl village, photographer unknown.

2 Building with Nature The engagement of the Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy in protecting nature addresses sustainable use of local resources which relate to two categories: traditional building construction processes as well as environmental and human well being. Sustainable use of local materials and as well as employment of traditional construction techniques are more familiar to local human resources. These techniques enhance the lifespan of building materials, compared to the use of technologically advanced equipment. Furthermore, they will contribute to community cohesion not only in its relationship with the newly built infrastructure but also in its engagement in the construction and maintenance procedures. Application of this design strategy is made concerning: - Incorporating symbolism of tree structures as a metaphoric dialogue of the new constructed tectonic elements and local environments. - Recycling tree trunks from excavation and tree felling activities. - Recycling soil and cultivating estuarine vegetable gardens on embankments. - Sustainable local resource management - harvesting lighting energy and collection of rainwater or river/stream water. - Providing terraces and gardens as a natural ‘friendly’

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interface between new constructions and local environments. The sweltering and humid climate in Nicaragua is tropical with a rainy and dry season and little temperature fluctuation from season to season, where temperatures average around 28°C. In tropical areas, construction activities (e.g. land clearing and excavation) may inadvertently create bodies of standing water that can become mosquito vector- breeding sites. Habitat fragmentation, the creation of new bodies of water, and potential biodiversity loss from land clearing can also open up new niches for vector species. Vector-borne diseases rely upon organisms, such as mosquito, ticks, or sand flies that have an active role in the transmission of a pathogen (parasite, bacterium, and virus) from one host to the other. Within Nicaragua, common vectorborne disease includes dengue and malaria. Design considerations to mitigate these issues include: - Textiles and curtain systems regard are vital aspects of tropical climate such as humidity, ventilation and prolonged sunlight exposure. - Net coverages and enclosures, as well as repellent fragrances, provide an active response to insect presence. - Health clinics serve each work camp with full routine and emergency medical care. Water for worker camps is served by purpose-built water treatment plants with water supplied from a mix of rainwater collection tanks and rivers/streams with appropriate water treatment.

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Site Analysis

Land Cover Site Analysis Source: Global Forest Watch

Tree cover loss in Nicaragua, 2010. Map displaying tree cover with >30% canopy density.

Agriculture

Shrubland

Settlement

Ia - Strict Nature Reserve

IV - Habitat and Species Management Area

Forest

Sparse vegetation

Bare

Ib - Wilderness Area

V - Protected Landscape or Seascape

II - National Park

Not Assigned

III - National Monument or Feature

Not Reported

Grassland Tree cover loss in Nicaragua, 2010. Map Wetland displaying tree coverWater with >30% canopy density.

Intact forest landscapes are shown in green, an a reduction in extent 2000-2013 is shown in dark yellow.

Mangrove forests

Global Forest Biodiversity Significance Low

High

Intact forest landscapes are shown in green, an a reduction in extent 2000-2013 is shown in dark yellow.

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References 10 Things Banned In China. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.brainjet.com/ world/2353440/10-things-banned-in-china/ Boym, S. (2002). The Future of Nostalgia. Basic Books. pp. xiii–xiv Bijian, Z., China’s Peaceful Rise: Speeches of Zheng Bijian 1997-2004. Accessed May 2 2018, retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/fp/ events/20050616bijianlunch.pdf Caldecott, B. (2012). Protecting and restoring biodiversity will require private investment. Accessed May 1 2018, retrieved from https://www.theguardian. com/sustainable-business/blog/protecting-restoring-biodiversity-privateinvestment Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide. A study in sociology. Ornstein, R. & Swencionis, C. (Ed.). New York: Free Press. Hendry, J. (2005). Reclaiming culture: Indigenous people and selfrepresentations, New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Hunt, K. (2018). China’s new world order. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn. com/interactive/2017/05/world/chinas-new-world-order/ Jinping, X. (2017) Chinese President delivers a keynote speech at the opening ceremony of the Belt and Road Forum (BRF) for International Cooperation in Beijing, capital of China, May 14, 2017. (Xinhua/Wang Ye) Richards, G., Culture tourism: Global and local perspectives (Ed.), New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group (2007) Garton Ash, T. (2016). Free Speech (p.22). Ten Principles For A Connected World. Yale University Press. Levy, S., & Hawkins, D. (2009). Peace Through Tourism: Commerce Based Principles and Practices. Journal Of Business Ethics, 89(S4), 569-585. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0408-2 Lopez, Donald S. (2001), The Story of Buddhism, HarperCollins Lord, B. (2016). Are We Morally Equal by Nature?. Retrieved from http://blogs. lse.ac.uk/theforum/are-we-morally-equal-by-nature/ Pew Research Center. ‘Global Religious Landscape: Buddhists’. Rapoza, K. (2017). Forbes Welcome. Acessed May 8, retrieved from https:// www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2017/03/26/the-future-chinas-rise-americasdecline/#225044273b2f Remnick, D., Cobb, J., Gregory, A., Knight, S., Wright, R., & Remnick, D. et al. (2018). China Bans Time Travel. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/ culture/richard-brody/china-bans-time-travel Shen, W., (2012). China And Its Neighbors: Troubled Relations: Eu-Asia Centre. Accessed May 12 2018, retrieved from http://www.eu-asiacentre.eu/pub_ details.php?pub_id=46 Tisdall, S. (2014). China’s presence is growing. Does a superpower collision loom? The Guardian. 1 January 2014. Accessed May 10 2018, retreived from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/01/china-military-presencesuperpower-collision-japan Zhou, X., Sedikides, C., Wildschut, T., & Gao, D. (2008). ‘Counteracting loneliness: On the restorative function of nostalgia.’ Psychological Science, 19(10), 1023–1029. ACP - Panama Canal Authority BCN - Central Bank Of Nicaragua CDT - Working Comission for Nicaragua Canal CIA - Central Intelligence Agency ERM - Environmental Resources Management ESIA - Environmental And Social Impact Assessment HKDN - Hong Kong Nicaragua Canal Development Investment Co. UDHR - Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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Design Realisation

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The Design Realisation Report aims to introduce knowledge that is required in the realisation of building projects, within professional architectural design practice. The understanding of topics, such as planning, structural principles, construction, materials, details, building performance, building codes etc. is demonstrated in relation to the main building design project. The Design Realisation includes multiple amounts of stakeholders. In order to grasp the task of project delivery, project management is presented, understanding the importance of an interdisciplinary approach and integration, in order to create a successful project.

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Design Realisation Contents

Introduction 119 1 Overview 1.1 Next Stop: Paradise 1.1.1 Next Stop: Paradise 121 1.1.2 Acquiring Allies: An E merging World Order 123 1.1.3 We Are All Neighbours Now 125 1.1.4 The Good Neighbour: C hina’s Peaceful Rise 135 1.1.5 Chinese Consumer Attractions And Tourist Destinations 137 1.1.6 Flora And Fauna Of Nicaragua 139 1.1.7 The Five Lessons Of Peaceful Coexistence 145 1.1.8 Preliminary Study Imagery 147 1.1.9 Project Location And Reference: Hong Kong Nicaragua Canal Development 153 1.1.10 Deforestation Drivers In Central America 155 1.1.11 Nicaragua Deforestation Tables And Charts 157 1.1.12 Protecting Paradise: The Embassy Of Environmental Philanthropy 159 1.1.13 Project Relevance: Environmental, Technical, Economic And Social Benefits 161 1.1.14 Preliminary Spatial Imagery 165 1.2 Large Scale Logistics 1.2.1 Canal Construction Sequence 169 1.2.2 Earthwork Management Strategy 171 1.2.3 Digging Strategy And Impact Assessment 173 1.2.4 Tourism: Arrival, Access And Seasonal Bird Migration 175 1.2.5 Systems Summary And Overlay 177 1.3 Planning 1.3.1 El Grand Canal De Nicaragua 179 1.3.2 Master Plan (1) - The Atlantic Ocean 183 1.3.3 Master Plan (2) - The Caribbean Highlands 185 1.3.4 Tectonic Elements: Paradise, P rotecting Paradise, Friendship, Equality, Tranquillity, Freedom 187 1.3.5 Project Time Line 199 1.3.6 Sectional Studies 201 1.3.7 Friendship: General Arrangements 203 1.3.8 Equality: General Arrangements 211


Design Realisation Contents

2 Building Construction 2.1 Friendship 2.1.1 Movement And Digging Systems To Address 213 2.1.2 Digging Plan, Working Areas And Systems 215 2.1.3 Excavator Movement And Advancement Principles 217 2.1.4 Excavation And Earth Management 219 2.1.5 Camp Working Conditions 221 2.1.6 Camp Living Conditions 223 2.1.7 Interior Waterproofing Systems 225 2.2 Log Embankment 2.2.1 Construction Strategy 227 2.2.2 Construction Sequence 229 2.2.3 Seal And Waterproofing 231 2.2.4 Legacy 233 2.2.5 Seal And Waterproofing Detail 235 2.2.6 Kit Of Parts 237 2.3 Equality 2.3.1 Equality Principle Structural Considerations 239 2.3.2 Mosquito Repellent Systems 241 3 Building Performance 3.1 Friendship 3.1.1 Environmental Issues Regarding Working Conditions 243 3.1.2 Catatumbo Lighting Harvesting Strategy 245 3.2 Equality 3.2.1 Principle Lighting Considerations 247 3.2.2 Rainwater Collection And Waste Management 249 3.2.2 Further Programmatic Design Considerations 251 4 Entrepreneurship 4.1 Stakeholders And Contractual Relationships 253 4.2 Consultancy Contracts: Environmental And Social Protection 257 4.3 Building Programme 259 4.4 Economy And Employment 261 4.5 Community Health And Safety 265 4.6 Community Involvement: Indigenous People Plan 269 5 Appendix 5.1 References 273


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1.1.1 Next Stop: Paradise This chapter presents the key word and main theme of this project and provides notional links to contemporary events that deal with climate change and natural environment

1.1 Next Stop: Paradise

This chapter presents the key word and main theme of this project and provides notional links to contemporary events that deal with climate change and natural environment.

In Paradisiacal Nicaragua, Contemplating A Canal Source: The New York Times By Elizabeth Zach April 24, 2015

This pastiche of natural and exotic wonder feels a world away from the bustle of mainland Nicaragua. Ometepe sits amid the largest freshwater lake in Central America, and that is one reason agua (water) is part of the country’s name. That is bound to change if Wang Jing, a Chinese billionaire, has his way. A consortium he led won approval last year from the Nicaraguan government to build a canal across the country. The plan, which would connect the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific and shave about 500 miles off the shipping route from New York to Los Angeles, is the realization of a centuries-old dream that has outlasted the construction of the Panama Canal, about 450 miles south of the proposed route.

Monkey King, Book Cover

News Excerpt

WEST?

EAST?

Nicaragua is Central America's poorest country.

This canal is connecting east and west.

Initial collage

Jing Wang, Chinese Investor

Conclusion: Protecting the Paradise is a theme informed by the initial narrative and further linked to the contemporary issue of protecting a natural paradisical environment in Nicaragua in the wake of an ill-conceived inter-oceanic canal.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/26/travel/26nicaragua-cover.htmlt

121 113


1.1.2 Acquiring Allies: An Emerging World Order This sheet brings historical perspective and looks at the progression of the Cold War as 1.2 Acquiring Allies: An Emerging World Order the eastern and western blocks of power spread influence across the globe This sheet brings historical perspective and looks at the progression of the Cold War as the eastern and western blocks of power spread influence across the globe. The term ‘Cold War’ is used to describe the rivalry on strategic, political and economic grounds, between two superpowers, namely USA & USSR, in the post World World War 2 period. It was cold in the sense that it never precipitated into a full blown military conflict between two countries. U.S.

U.S. Allies

Soviet Union

Soviet Allies

Military Coup

Non-Sovied Aligned Communist Nations

Non-Aligned Movement

1969 1945

- War in Vietnam site focus

site focus

- Laotian Civil War - Second Indochina War - Angolan War of Independence - Nicaraguan Revolution - Guinea-Bissau War of Independence - Rhodesian Bush War - Mozambiquan War of Independence - Namibian Conflicts - War of Attrition

1973 1949 site focus

- Chinese Civil War - First Indochina War - Malay Emergency

site focus

- Laotian Civil War - Second Indochina War - Angolan War of Independence - Nicaraguan Revolution - Guinea-Bissau War of Independence - Rhodesian Bush War - Mozambiquan War of Independence - Namibian Conflicts - Cambodian Civil War

1977 1953 site focus

First Indochina War Malay Emergency Cuban Revolution

site focus

- Nicaraguan Revolution - Rhodesian Bush War - Namibian Conflicts - Ethiopian Civil War - Lebanese Civil War - Angola Civil War - Mozambiquan Civil War - Ogaden War

1981 1957

site focus

- Malay Emergency - Cuban Revolution - Laotian Civil War - Second Indochina War

site focus

1985

1961

site focus

- Laotian Civil War - Second Indochina War - Congo Crisis - Angolan Independence - Berlin Crisis - Nicaraguan Revolution

site focus

site focus

- Nicaraguan Revolution - Namibian Conflicts - Ethiopian Civil War - Lebanese Civil War - Angola Civil War - Mozambiquan Civil War - Salvadoran Civil War

1989

1965

- Laotian Civil War - Second Indochina War - Congo Crisis - Angolan War of Independence Nicaraguan Revolution - Guinea-Bissau War of Independence - Rhodesian Bush War Mozambiquan War of Independence

Nicaraguan Revolution Namibian Conflicts Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Angola Civil War Mozambiquan Civil War Salvadoran Civil War

site focus

- Nicaraguan Revolution - Namibian Conflicts - Ethiopian Civil War - Lebanese Civil War - Angola Civil War - Mozambiquan Civil War - Salvadoran Civil War

Conclusion: The eastern and western blocks of power have always exerted influence and control over underdeveloped countries where political instability was common.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jE772fr8u9s Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

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1.1.3 We Are All Neighbours Now Influence and control of developing countries are themes contextualised in the case 1.3 We Are AllofNeighbours Now Influence and control of developing countries are themes contextualised contemporary emerging Chinese investments across the world in the case of contemporary emerging Chinese investments across the world. After the Cold War, the U.S. was about 30% of world economic output. The U.S. had been the sole economic power since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. China has been growing at about 9% per annum and its goods and services are rapidly rising in quality and value. In contrast, the U.S. and Europe have staggered around 0% growth from 2007-2012. China receives continual coverage in the of its emerging power status, and has been identified as a rising or emerging economic growth and military power by academics. In fact, the “growing influence of China” has been named the top news story of the 21st century by the Global Language Monitor.

1 - Rising Chinese Global Investments And The Expansion Of The 21st Century Maritime Silk Route

Bluefields

Brito

Rotterdam

Moscow Beijing

Venice Dushanbe

Athens

Calcutta Djibouti

Nicaragua

Atlantic Ocean

Zanjiang Hanoi

Colombo Singapore

Nairobi Pacific Ocean

Kitakyushu

Xian

Suez

site focus

Yantai

Jakarta Indian Ocean

Historic Silk Road

Pacific Ocean

One Belt One Road Initiative

2 - Case Study Of Chinese Investments And New Partnerships Accross The Silk Route

1

Pakistan

2

Kenya

3 Djibouti

4

Sri Lanka

Conclusion: The expansion of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Route which is behind China’s emerging foreign investments facilitates new partnerships in developing countries, which have had a positive effect on their GDP.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2017/05/world/chinas-new-world-order/

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/13/magazine/what-the-worlds-emptiest-international-airport-says-about-chinas-influence.html Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

Visionss of China - Asian Superpower”. CNN. 1999. Retrieved 19 July 2014. China’s military presence is growing. Does a superpower collision loom?”. The Guardian. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.

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1.3 We Are All Neighbours Now

The New Markets and Schools Pakistanis discreetly sip cheap Chinese beer and wolf down dumplings made by Amber Shen, from China’s Anhui province. Popular American treats, like Chips Ahoy and Skittles, with Chinese packaging and even cans of stewed pork, a meat banned in Pakistan, are all available. Times are changing and Pakistan must keep up, says Sabina Zakir, an administrator at the Roots millennium schools, an education system that has introduced compulsory Mandarin lessons for all students starting at age 8 and going all the way up to middle school.

1 ― Education

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Case Study ― Pakistan

127 119


1.3 We Are All Neighbours Now

All Roads Lead To China Kenyan and Chinese workers are putting the finishing touches on the biggest infrastructure project in Kenya’s post-independence history – a $3.8 billion, 472-km (293 mile) railway that runs from the port city of Mombasa to the capital Nairobi, part of a larger Chinese-built rail network linking several countries. When the locomotives and freight wagons begin rolling in June, the line could be a game-changer for Kenya. Home to East Africa’s largest port, the country moves its goods by a notoriously dangerous two-lane highway.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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1.3 We Are All Neighbours Now

PLAN - People’s Liberation Army Navy China is building its first military base in Djibouti, just a few miles away from Camp Lemonnier, the US base that opened in 2008, and it’s developing a “blue-water” navy capable of operating in open oceans -- in April its first domestically built aircraft carrier was launched. And China’s military hardware, while not yet rivaling the US, is getting increasingly sophisticated.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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1.3 We Are All Neighbours Now

The World’s Emptiest International Airport Mattala Rajapaksa International Airport, the second-largest in Sri Lanka, is designed to handle a million passengers per year. It currently receives about a dozen passengers per day. Business is so slow that the airport has made more money from renting out the unused cargo terminals for rice storage than from flight-related activities.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

133 125


1.1.4 The Good Neighbour: China’s Peaceful Rise This chapter displays the four case studies previously mentioned and demonstrates 1.4 The Good Neighbour: China’s Peaceful Rise China’s peaceful rise asThisachapter policy grounding these investments displays the four case studies previously mentioned and demonstrates China’s peaceful rise as a policy grounding these investments. Without raising fears of hegemonic intentions, the “good-neighbour” policy is China’s new diplomatic approach. During last ASEAN Summit, held recently in Indonesia, Premier Wen Jiabao has highlighted how China intends to strengthen its good neighbor policy: Peace, opening-up, cooperation, harmony and win-win are our policy, our idea, our principle and our pursuit. To take the road of peaceful development is to unify domestic development with opening to the outside world, linking the development of China with that of the rest of the world, and combining the fundamental interests of the Chinese people with the common interests of all peoples throughout the world. China persists in its pursuit of harmony and development internally while pursuing peace and development externally; the two aspects, closely linked and organically united, are an integrated whole, and will help to build a harmonious world of sustained peace and common prosperity.

1

Pakistan

2

Kenya

3 Djibouti

4

Sri Lanka

1

Markets & Education

2

Infrastructure

3

4

Tourism

New Markets and Schools Pakistanis discreetly sip cheap Chinese beer and wolf down dumplings made by Amber Shen, from China’s Anhui province. Popular American treats, like Chips Ahoy and Skittles, with Chinese packaging and even cans of stewed pork, a meat banned in Pakistan, are all available. Times are changing and Pakistan must keep up, says Sabina Zakir, an administrator at the Roots millennium schools, an education system that has introduced compulsory Mandarin lessons for all students starting at age 8 and going all the way up to middle school.

All Roads Lead To China Kenyan and Chinese workers are putting the finishing touches on the biggest infrastructure project in Kenya’s postindependence history – a $3.8 billion, 472-km (293 mile) railway that runs from the port city of Mombasa to the capital Nairobi, part of a larger Chinese-built rail network linking several countries. When the locomotives and freight wagons begin rolling in June, the line could be a gamechanger for Kenya. Home to East Africa’s largest port, the country moves its goods by a notoriously dangerous two-lane highway.

Security

PLAN - People’s Liberation Army Navy China is building its first military base in Djibouti, just a few miles away from Camp Lemonnier, the US base that opened in 2008, and it’s developing a “blue-water” navy capable of operating in open oceans -- in April its first domestically built aircraft carrier was launched. And China’s military hardware, while not yet rivaling the US, is getting increasingly sophisticated.

The New Transport Hubs Last year, 135 million Chinese tourists traveled overseas spending a whopping $261 billion, way more than anyone else including Americans, who spent $122 billion, according to the United Nations World Tourism Organization. Mattala Rajapaksa International Airport, the second-largest in Sri Lanka, is designed to handle a million passengers per year.

Conclusion: The four case studies mentioned in this chapter cast a positive light on China’s investments in developing countries.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. Pew Research Center 2015

http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2017/05/world/chinas-new-world-order/ Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

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1.1.5 Chinese Consumer Attractions And Tourist Destinations

What Are The Chinese Consumer Attractions? 1.5 Chinese Consumer Attractions And Tourist Destinations 7

6

similar flight time

similar size

lower cost of living

5

Beijing - Auckland 10.400 km Beijing - Managa 13.767 km

Nicaragua 130,373 sq km New Zealand 270,467 sq km

Cost of living in New Zealand is 167% more expensive than in Nicaragua

4

3

2

1

0 Sport

CONSUMING SCENERY

My parents think that I should see as many sights in the shortest time possible, and buy lots of things, but I want to feel the experience! Zhang Ran

Heritage

Culture

Nature

Shopping

Chinese Tourist Attractions In New Zealand (Survey)

100

98,3 94,5

90

89,0

86,2 82,6

80 70 60

54,1

50

37,0

40

34,3

30 20

12,7

10 0

Viewing Nature

Shopping

Visiting Museum

Boat Cruise

Learning Culture

Learning Nature

Water Rafting

9,9

Dolphins& Bungee Mountain Whales Jumping Bkining

Activities Engaged While In New Zealand (Percentage)

100 90 80 70

51,1 57,8

60 50

37,3

34,9

40

31,5

31,1

30,2

28,4

28,3

30

25,1

20 10 0 Palestine

Egypt

Mariana Islands

Iceland

Tunisia

Vietnam

Uruguay Nicaragua Mongolia

Israel

Fastest Growing Tourist Destinations In 2017 (Percentages Compared To 2016)

China hails ‘first Antarctica flight’ for its tourists

By Andreas Illmer, 18 December 2017 According to Chinese media, the country’s first commercial flight to Antarctica brought 22 lucky tourists to the exotic destination this weekend. The trip is hailed as a milestone - but is it really? And what does it tell us about China’s geopolitical ambitions in the region? Sources: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-42388788

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. https://www.expatistan.com/cost-of-living/country/comparison/nicaragua/new-zealand https://mapfight.appspot.com/ni-vs-nz/nicaragua-new-zealand-size-comparison https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/worlds-fastest-growing-tourist-destinations-2017/index.html A cultural framing of nature: Chinese tourists’ motivations for, expectations of, and satisfaction with, their New Zealand tourist experience. http://dspace.lincoln.ac.nz/handle/10182/4076

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1.1.6 Flora And Fauna Of Nicaragua This category contains research related to the native flora of Nicaragua. The scheme follows the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions.

1.6 Flora And Fauna Of Nicaragua

This category contains research related to the native flora of Nicaragua. The scheme follows the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions.

Orchids

Endemic Flora

Coryanthes speciosa

Epidendrum lacustre

Lycaste aromatica

Lycaste macrophylla

Nectandra mirafloris

Gongora armeniaca

Gongora aromatica

Gongora cassidea

Maxillaria tenuifolia

Rhynchostele

Stanhopea gibbosa

Stanhopea wardii

Stanhopea cirrhata

Stanhopea costaricensis

Stanhopea ecornuta

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Coryanthes

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Gongora

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Stanhopea

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Epidendreae Laeliinae Epidendrum

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Gongora

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Stanhopea

embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Lycastinae Lycaste

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Gongora

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Stanhopea

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Lycastinae Lycaste

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Maxillariinae Maxillaria

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Stanhopea

Kingdom: Clade: Clade: Order: Family: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Kingdom: Order: Family: Tribe: Subtribe: Genus:

Plantae Angiosperms Magnoliids Laurales Lauraceae Nectandra

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Cymbidieae Oncidiinae Rhynchostele

Plantae Asparagales Orchidaceae Maxillarieae Stanhopeinae Stanhopea

131

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1.1.6 Flora And Fauna Of Nicaragua This category contains research related the native of Nicaragua. The scheme 1.6 to Flora Andflora Fauna Of Nicaragua follows the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions. This category contains research related to the native flora of Nicaragua. The scheme follows the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions.

or

ve r

na

y

ra

m en

re

ta

l

Mosquitia-Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast mangroves

Rhizophora mangle Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Malpighiales Rhizophoraceae Rhizophora

Avicennia germinans Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Lamiales Acanthaceae Avicennia

Laguncularia racemosa Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Myrtales Combretaceae Laguncularia

Conocarpus erectus Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Myrtales Combretaceae Conocarpus

Pelliciera Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Ericales Tetrameristaceae Pelliciera

bl e va

hi gh

al lig a

ly

to

lu a

rf

to

oo

xi c

d

Trees

Aegiphila fasciculata

Anacardium excelsum

Annona glabra

Annona purpurea

Bombacopsis

Caribbean pine

Cassia grandis

Castilla elastica

Cavanillesia platanifolia

Cochlospermum vitifolium

Crescentia alata

Cyrilla

Juglans olanchana

Plantae Malpighiales Rhizophoraceae Rhizophora

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Sapindales Anacardiaceae Anacardium

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Magnoliales Annonaceae Annona

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Magnoliales Annonaceae Annona

Avocado Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Laurales Lauraceae Persea

ex

tra

ct

ru

bb

er

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Malvales Malvaceae Bombacopsis

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Pinales Pinaceae Pinus

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Fabales Fabaceae Cassia

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Rosales Moraceae Castilla

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Malvales Malvaceae Cavanillesia

Plantae Malvales Bixaceae

la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Lamiales Bignoniaceae Crescentia

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Ericales Cyrillaceae Cyrilla

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

it fru e

on st Kingdom: Order: Family:

bl

ht c lig

Plantae Sapindales Meliaceae Cedrela

ed i

e

Cedrela odorata Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

ita rs

gu

m

lu ab l

ar o

va

at ic

r.

Kingdom: Order: Family: Genus:

Plantae Fagales Juglandaceae Juglans

133

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1.1.6 Flora And Fauna Of Nicaragua This category contains research related the native of Nicaragua. The scheme 1.6 to Flora Andflora Fauna Of Nicaragua This category contains research related to the native flora of Nicaragua. The scheme follows the World follows the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions. Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions.

Mammals

Geoffroy’s spider monkey Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Atelidae Ateles

Coguar Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Felidae Puma

Three-toed sloth Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Bradypodidae Bradypus

Northern tamandua Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Myrmecophagidae Tamandua

Armadillo Kingdom: Phylum: Class: Order:

Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cingulata

en

da

nd

ge

re

d

Birds

Great green macaw Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Psittacidae Ara

Toucan

True parrot Kingdom: Phylum: Superfamily:

Animalia Chordata Psittacoidea

Kingdom: Phylum: Infraorder: Family:

Animalia Chordata Ramphastides Ramphastidae

Trogon Kingdom: Phylum: Order: Family:

Animalia Chordata Trogoniformes Trogonidae

Hummingbird Kingdom: Phylum: Family:

Animalia Chordata Trochilidae

Hawksbill sea turtle Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Cheloniidae Eretmochelys

Leatherback sea turtle Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Dermochelyidae Dermochelys

Loggerhead sea turtle Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Cheloniidae Caretta

ed cr

itic

all

y

en

da

ng

er

ed cr

itic

all

y

en

da

ng

er

ed cr

itic

all

y

en

da

ng

er

ed er ng da en y all itic cr

cr

itic

all

y

en

da

ng

er

ed

Reptiles

Olive ridley sea turtle Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Cheloniidae Lepidochelys

Green sea turtle Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Cheloniidae Chelonia

Nicaragua Shark Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Animalia Chordata Carcharhinidae Carcharhinus

d er e da ng en

en

da ng

er e

d

Fish

Midas cichlid Kingdom: Phylum: Family: Genus:

Animalia Chordata Cichlidae Amphilophus

Sawfish Kingdom: Phylum: Order: Family:

Animalia Chordata Rhinopristiformes Pristidae

137

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1.7 On Nature And Western Values: 5 Lessons Of Peaceful Coexistence

1.1.7 Five Lessons Of Peaceful Coexistence Set out by the peaceful arrival of Chinese diplomatic agenda to neighbouring countries via Contextualized four key development sectors, the positive framework peace is displayed byfour a set by the peaceful arrival of Chinese diplomatic agenda of to neighbouring countries via key development sectors, of five lessons of peaceful coexistence, respectively grounded to Chinese education and grounded to Chinese the positive framework of peace is displayed by a set of five lessons of peaceful coexistence, respectively education and cultural prohibition. cultural prohibition.

Western Democratic Values Censored Items

Alice in Wonderland

Time Travel

Jasmine

Reasoning

Lessons

Democratic Values

Another classic piece of children’s literature is banned in China. While Lewis Carroll’s imaginative tale came under criticism in America for the portrayal of drug use and political satire, China doesn’t like the tale because the animals talk. When animals use the human language, it apparently puts animals and humans on the same level, which is obviously disastrous.

Nature

Equality

China blocks all movies about time travel, saying it “disrespects history.” Usually the protagonist is from the modern time and for some reasons and via some means, travels through time and all the way back to the ancient China where he/she will constantly experience the “culture shock” but gradually get used to it and eventually develop a romance in that era. Though obviously the Chinese audience is fond of this genre of shows, the country’s authority … is not happy about this trend and calls a halt to the making of this type of drama.

Nostalgia

Friendship

Coca

Tranquility

The Chinese Communist Party is worried a dainty little flower could ruin their whole operation. After the “Jasmine Revolution” in Tunisia in 2011, the government has blocked anything to do with the flower. You cannot sell it, hold it, sing about it, or even say it.

Brad Pitt

There are quite a few famous people that are the opposite of stars in China. The government has a very low tolerance when it comes to supporters of The Tibetan Independence Movement. Harrison Ford and Richard Gere cannot enter the country after they expressed their support for Tibet. Brad Pitt is banned simply for starring in the movie “Seven Years In Tibet.”

Buddhism

Peace (Zen)

Facebook, Google etc.

In 2009, just as Facebook was gaining a lot of popularity, China decided it was nothing but trouble and banned it from the country. The ban could be due to riots that broke out, government censorship, or protection of domestic companies. China has its own social media platform that actually has more users than Facebook, but it is highly censored and controlled.

Social Media

Freedom (of Informtion)

Reference: Core Democratic Values Defined Life

Liberty

Diversity

Happiness Truth

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Justice Sovereignty

Equality Patriotism

139

Civitas: A Framework for Civic Education, a collaborative project of the Center for Civic Education and the Council for the Advancement of Citizenship, National Council for the Social Studies Bulletin No. 86, 1991.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

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1.8 Initial Imagery: Bringing The East And West Together

WEST?

EAST?

Nicaragua is Central America's poorest country.

This canal is connecting east and west.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

147 141


1.8 Initial Imagery: Building With Nature

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

149 143


1.8 Initial Imagery: Tourist Arrival In Paradise

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

151 145


1.1.9 Project Location And Reference: Hong Kong Nicaragua Canal Development This chapter introduces the site location of the current project and focus area that are 1.9 Project Location And Reference: Hong Kong Nicaragua Canal Development followed further on This chapter introduces the site location of the current project and focus area that are followed further on. HKND Existing Project Canal Route

One of the main issues of this particular infrastructure investment in Nicaragua is the Canal Route. This map displays the route of a real project that broke ground in 2014. The total proposed length of the canal is approximately 275.5 kilometres. It starts about 2 kilometres north of the Punta Gorda estuary on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, making its way to the southwest, passing through Lake Nicaragua. Finally, following the Río Brito it enters the Pacific Ocean to the west.

25 km

N

Nicaragua

Cerro Silva Protected Reserve

Lake Nicaragua

Punta Gorda Brito Punta Gorda Protected Reserve

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

400 mi / 643 km

GULF OF MEXICO

EL SALVADOR

MEXICO HONDURAS CARIBBEAN SEA

GUATEMALA

Costa Rica

NICARAGUA

EL SALVADOR

Proposed Canal Route

PA N A M A C A NA L

COSTA RICA PA C I F I C O C E A N

PANAMA

The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy Canal Route

The current design project discourses the route of existing project development. To protect it, the new route of the proposed canal bypasses the largest freshwater reservoir of Central America (Lake Nicaragua).

N

25 km Nicaragua

Newly Protected Lake

Existing Protected Reserve

Newly Protected Forest

Nueva Guinea Brito

site focus 2

21st Century Maritime Silk Route Pacific Ocean

site focus 4

Punta Gorda

site focus 1 21st Century Maritime Silk Route

Lake Nicaragua

Atlantic Ocean Existing Protected Reserve

site focus 3

Costa Rica

Protection of the Lake will provide protection for a unique type of fresh water shark.

Protection of the Forests will provide protection for the hundreds of endangred species of fauna and flora.

Conclusion: The plan of investing in this small area of the forest represents a sacrifice that saves “the bigger picture” and will outweigh the future legacy and benefits of its long-term resilience and adequate environmental protection and will halt illegal logging and cattle ranching activities while providing alternative employment opportunities.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. http://earthsendangered.com/search-regions3.asp

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1.1.10 Deforestation Drivers in Central America

1.10 Central America―Deforestation Drivers 1.10 Central America―Deforestation Drivers Continental-level estimations of the importance of deforestation drivers as reported by 46 countries: (a) in terms of overall continental proportions as sum of country data weighted by net forest area change by country (km2/y, FAO, 2010a) for the period 2000–2010 (b) the same data shown in terms of absolute national net forest area change by (km2/y, FAO, 2010a), and (c) for continental estimations of relative importance of degradation drivers (Source: Hosonuma et al., 2012). Caption and image courtesy of Kissinger et al. Continental-level estimations of the importance of deforestation drivers as reported by 46 countries: (a) in terms of overall continental proportions as sum of country data weighted by net forest area change by country (km2/y, FAO, 2010a) for the period 2000–2010 (b) the same data shown in terms of absolute national net forest area change by (km2/y, FAO, 2010a), and (c) for continental estimations of relative importance of degradation drivers (Source: Hosonuma et al., 2012). Caption and image courtesy of Kissinger et al.

Drivers Of Deforestation In Central America (HK Gibbs, 2008)

Drivers Of Deforestation In Central America (Project Catalyst, 2008)

Drivers Of Deforestation In Central America (HK Gibbs, 2008)

Drivers Of Deforestation In Central America (Project Catalyst, 2008)

Drivers Of Deforestation In Central America (HK Gibbs, 2008) Drivers Of Deforestation In Central America (HK Gibbs, 2008)

Urban expansion

Infrastructure

Livestock grazing in forest Urban expansion Infrastructure Livestock grazing in forest

Mining

Agriculture (local / subsistence)

Agriculture (commercial)

Uncontrolled fires Mining

Fulewood charcoal Agriculture (local / subsistence)

Timber logging Agriculture (commercial)

Uncontrolled fires

Fulewood charcoal

Timber logging

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1.1.11 Nicaragua Deforestation Tables And Charts

1.11 Nicaragua―Deforestation Tables And Charts 1.11 Nicaragua―Deforestation Tables And Charts 1.11 Nicaragua―Deforestation Tables And Charts

The following are estimates for drivers of deforestation. Please note that this page will be updated as new data and analyses are published and become available. The causes of deforestation vary from region to region. In Latin America and Southeast Asia a majority of deforestation is today the result of industrial activities, notably cattle ranching in the Amazon and large-scale agriculture and intensive logging in Southeast Asia. Subsistence agriculture, often using slash-and-burn / fallow techniques, is the most important driver The following estimates of deforestation. note that thisover page betwenty updated as new data and analyses are published causes of forest loss inare Africa. While for netdrivers forest loss has remainedPlease relatively constant thewill past years, there have been two significant shifts and sincebecome the lateavailable. 1980s: (1)The old-growth of deforestation from region to region. In degraded, Latin America and Southeast majority of deforestation is todaydriven the result of industrial notably cattle ranching in the forests are beingvary replaced by plantations and logged-over forests;Asia anda(2) forest clearing is increasingly by industry ratheractivities, than subsistence activities.Controlling Amazon and large-scale agriculture andofintensive logging in Southeast Asia. using slash-and-burn techniques, is theavailable. most important driver deforestation is imperative tofor addressing climate change. The annual destruction of 13 hectares of forest for nearly one-fifth ofand global greenhouse gasThe emissions, The following are estimates drivers deforestation. Please note that thisSubsistence page willmillion beagriculture, updated asoften new dataaccounts and analyses are/ fallow published become causes forest loss in Africa. While net forest losscars, has remained constant overathe past twenty years, there have been two significant shifts since the late 1980s: (1) old-growth a greater share than theregion world’s ships, andrelatively airplanes combined. of deforestation vary all from to trucks, region. In Latin America and Southeast Asia majority of deforestation is today the result of industrial activities, notably cattle ranching in the forests are being replacedagriculture by plantations and degraded, logged-over forests; (2) forestagriculture, clearing is increasingly driven by industry rather than subsistence activities.Controlling Amazon and large-scale and intensive logging in Southeast Asia. and Subsistence often using slash-and-burn / fallow techniques, is the most important driver deforestation is Africa. imperative tonet addressing climate change. The annual destruction million hectares forest accounts for nearly one-fifth global greenhouse of forest loss in While forest loss has remained relatively constant over of the13past twenty years,ofthere have been two significant shiftsofsince the late 1980s:gas (1) emissions, old-growth a greater all theby world’s trucks,and cars, ships, and airplanes forests; combined. forests areshare beingthan replaced plantations degraded, logged-over and (2) forest clearing is increasingly driven by industry rather than subsistence activities.Controlling deforestation is imperative to addressing climate change. The annual destruction of 13 million hectares of forest accounts for nearly one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions, a greater share than all the world’s trucks, cars, ships, and airplanes combined. Forest Area Forest Area Forest Area

Forest Cover, 1990-2005

Other Wooded Land Cover, 1990-2005

Primary Forest Cover, 1990-2005

Forest Cover, 1990-2005

Other Wooded Land Cover, 1990-2005

Primary Forest Cover, 1990-2005

Forest Cover, 1990-2005

Other Wooded Land Cover, 1990-2005

Primary Forest Cover, 1990-2005

Potential For Reducing Emissions From Deforestation In Developing Countries In Terms Of Avoided Deforestation In Nicaragua AssumesPotential 100% reduction in deforestation, fully compensated, using FAO carbon estimates forCountries above ground biomass.OfFAO’s carbonDeforestation estimates are very rough For Reducing Emissions From Deforestation In Developing In Terms Avoided In Nicaragua Potential For Reducing Emissions From Deforestation In Developing Countries In Terms Of Avoided Deforestation In Nicaragua Assumes 100% reduction in deforestation, fully compensated, using FAO carbon estimates for above ground biomass. FAO’s carbon estimates are very rough Assumes 100% reduction in deforestation, fully compensated, using FAO carbon estimates for above ground biomass. FAO’s carbon estimates are very rough

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La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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1.1.12 Protecting Paradise: The Embassy Of Environmental Philanthropy This chapters informs about the title, program and position of this project, and states the 1.12 Protecting Paradise: The Embassy Of Environmental Philanthropy aims and objectives followed throughout development ofstates thistheproject. This chapters informs about the title, program the and position of this project, and aims and objectives followed throughout the development of this project. Protecting Paradise: The Embassy Of Environmental Philanthropy

represents a diplomatic agreement based on foreign business investment, that protects the largest rainforest of Central and South America, while cultivating environmental protection, ethical authority, and political trust between China and Nicaragua. The primary aims and objectives of this project are as follows:

1

To protect the largest rainforest of Central and South America, more specifically The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and to salvage the local valued environmental components of Nicaragua from forest degradation and encroachment of agricultural and livestock grazing land uses: Lake Nicaragua, Punta Gorda and Cerro Silva Natural Reserves as well as all natural environment that is not protected by any form of law.

2

To safeguard the welfare

4

in building ethical and equitable international relationships and to argue the benefits of foreign business investments in developing countries such as Nicaragua (and several others presented in Chapter 1.2)

of a reliable and credible China, as an international responsible stakeholder and to discourse the external perception - a misconception - of the country seen as a rising threat.

To underline the positive role

of Nicaraguans, promoting investments and employment in five key areas by: (a) opening new commercial markets; (b) encouraging education on all levels; (c) developing infrastructure; (d) providing security; (e) promoting Nicaragua as a highly desired destination for ecology tourism, as a responsible way to travel to natural areas that conserve the environment; educates the traveller; provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures.

Arrival Of Investment In Nicaragua

3

To build a new image

Representatives Of The Two Countries

Arrival Of Tourism In Nicaragua

Based on a real article, the part below identifies the current diplomatic relationship between China and Nicaragua and establishes the diplomatic agreement between the two countries as a premise and political position of this project.

THE DIPLOMAT | Read the Diplomat, Know the Asia-Pacific

Central America

The New Embassy

Source: The Diplomat China holds no diplomatic missions in 23 countries, including Nicaragua. Nicaragua only maintains official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan) instead of the People’s Republic of China. In 2007, President Daniel Ortega stated that Nicaragua will maintain its diplomatic ties with Republic of China (Taiwan).

4

7 5

3

Nicaragua 2

1

Panama

2

Costa Rica

3

Nicaragua

4

Honduras

5

El Salvador

6

Belize

7

Guatemala

1

Conclusion: The aims and objectives of this project can be narrowed down to protection of nature and people, along with serving and promoting a positive international diplomatic agenda.

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental. https://thediplomat.com/tag/china-nicaragua-relations/

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1.1.13 Project Relevance: Environmental Benefits

1.13 Project Relevance (1): Environmental Benefits

This chapter puts forward a fact sheet of the benefits provided by this foreign investment in Nicaragua, on an environmental level.

1

Environmental Benefits

The Sacrificial Plan

of the proposed canal is responsible with deforesting ca. 30.000 km2 of forest, out of 7,5 million km2 that represent the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The canal route passes through South-eastern Nicaraguan heavily deforested areas, accounting for 0,42% of the total area of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The sacrificial plan of investing in this small area of the forest will outweigh the future legacy and benefits of its long term resilience and adequate environmental protection, and will halt illegal logging and cattle ranching activities while providing alternative employment opportunities. The following points found this plan:

site focus 21st Century Maritime Silk Route

1. Nicaragua has a strategic geographical location for the construction of a canal, with the lowest terrain in the centre of the American continent between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, as well as abundant and littleexploited water resources in the area of the route recommended for the Project (CDT 2006). 2. The environment of Nicaragua has deteriorated over the last three decades, including the increase in forest clearing to create land for agriculture and livestock.

Atlantic Ocean

Mesoamerican Biological Corridor

3. Adequate environmental management for the canal will allow the country to protect and recover the environment, which in large part entails levels of forestation and water degradation since the middle of last century (CDT 2006). South-eastern Nicaragua, including the eastern Caribbean forests and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, is undergoing rapid loss of forest cover resulting from the encroachment of agricultural and livestock grazing land uses. There has been a 40 percent reduction in forest cover in the last 28 years in the eastern Caribbean slope portion of the Project area. Further, this rate of forest cover loss is increasing, with more forest lost in the 2 years between 2009 and 2011 than in the prior 26 years. It is clear that the remaining intact natural areas in southeast Nicaragua, within and outside the protected areas, are highly vulnerable. Encroachment into these remote areas is already happening without the Project.

Pacific Ocean

The canal route passes through South-eastern Nicaraguan heavily deforested areas.

Tree Cover Loss In Nicaragua, 2007-2016

depleted forests

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean The canal route avoids protected reserves on the east and centre of the country.

Cerro Silva Protected Reserve Lake Nicaragua

Punta Gorda Protected Reserve

Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean The canal area and 10 km radius is responsible for clearing of only 0,42% of the Mesoamerican Biodiversity Corridor, while granting adequate environmental protection and stopping tree forest loss. In other words, the ‘sacrificial plan’ saves and serves ‘the bigger picture’.

newly protected forests

Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

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155

CDT, Comisión de Trabajo del Gran Canal - Environmental and Social Impact Assessment by ERM

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1.1.13 Project Relevance: Technical, Economic And Social Benefits

1.13 Project Relevance (2): Technical, Economic and Social Benefits This chapter puts forward a fact sheet of the benefits provided by this foreign investment in Nicaragua, on technical, economic and social levels.

2

Technical Benefits Chart 1: Global Trade Growth 1960-2002 ($US Bn) 12

3. The detours of the largest vessels to alternative routes will be even more significant in the upcoming years, which suggests that Panama will not be able to meet the demand of transporting merchandise between the United States and Asia. Currently, maritime transport has saturated the capacity of the Panama Canal, through which ships of up to 54,000 DWT and container ships of up to 4,400 partially- loaded TEU can pass (ACP 2014). Even with its expansion, the Panama Canal will allow the transit of ships of up to 170,000 DWT and container ships of up to 12,000 TEU (see table on the right for a comparison of the specifications of the Nicaragua, Suez, and Panama canals).

3

8 6 4 2 2002

1999

1996

1993

1990

1987

1984

1981

1978

1975

1972

1969

0 1963

2. Trends in the shipping industry have moved towards the construction and operation of larger vessels (between 150,000 and 250,000 dry weight tons [DWT]) and container ships with more than 10,500 twentyfoot equivalent units (TEU).

10

1960

1. With the growth in world trade, the evolution of trade routes, and the increase in the size of cargo vessels, there is an increasing demand for the construction of a second canal in Central America (HKND 2014a). China has risen as a manufacturing center, which has sparked a significant increase in container traffic between the American and Asian markets. The majority of this traffic is primarily headed to ports on the East Coast of the United States. Historically, most of this traffic went through the Panama Canal; however, a growing percentage of trade between Asia and the East Coast of the United States has been rerouted to alternative routes due to the use of larger vessels traveling West of Asia, crossing the Straits of Malacca and the Suez Canal, in a longer voyage traversing harsh weather conditions and pirated areas.

Table 1: Comparison Between Panama, Suez and Nicaragua Canals Parameter

Nicaragua

Suez

New Panama

Canal Depth (m)

27.4 - 30

24

16.1

Canal Length (km)

259

193

80

Bottom Width (m)

230-280

121

218-366

Vessel Capacity (DWT)

400,000

240,000

170,000

Vessel Draft (m)

23

20

15

optimistic projection without investment

Economic Benefits

projection with investment

2024

2013

2002

1990

80 60 40 20

ae Isr

oli ng Mo

l

a

a gu ra ca Ni

y Ur

ug

ua

m Vi et

na

a isi Tu n

lan

yp

d

0

Eg

4

1991

1980

Chart 3: Fastest Growing Tourist Destinations In 2017 Compared To 2016 100

t

3. It is anticipated that for the year 2030, the total value of goods transported through the Canal de Nicaragua and the Panama Canal combined will exceed USD$1.4 billion, which will transform them into the most important trade routes in the world. A canal in Nicaragua will generate cost and sailing time savings for ships that currently travel through alternate routes. In addition, the fuel savings for the larger ships using the Canal de Nicaragua will be substantial. For example, it is calculated that to go from Shanghai to Baltimore, the route through the Canal de Nicaragua will save 4,000 kilometres compared to the Suez Canal and 7,500 kilometres compared to the Cape of Good Hope. In current prices, for a container ship of average size, this represents trip savings (round-trip) of USD$0.5 and USD$1 million, respectively.

Ice

2. In Nicaragua, the Project will attract additional investments in various sectors (commercial markets, tourism, services, communications, infrastructure, manufacturing, education); will help integrate the Atlantic, Pacific, and Central regions of the country; and will allow for the economic, cultural, and social development of the Atlantic region.

20 18 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

1969

Chart 2: Nicaragua GDP 1960-2018 And Projections ($US Bn) 1. The project will accelerate the economic growth of Nicaragua, increasing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita GDP by nearly 200 percent compared to optimistic projections without the canal’s construction, and will also generate significant additional investments (CDT 2006). Taking into account just the construction and operation of the Project, without including all the additional impacts it could have on the economy, the Working Commission calculated that the GDP in the year 2024 will be USE$20,800 million, compared to USD$12,800 million as an optimistic projection for that same year without the Project. In addition, the per capita income for Nicaraguans is calculated as USD$2,258 for that same year, compared to USD$1,285 USD as an optimistic projection if the canal is not built (CDT 2006). This represents an average GDP growth of approximately 9 percent with the Project compared to 4.5 percent per year (CDT 2006).

Social Benefits 50,000 jobs during consutrction

1. The Suez and Panama Canals have made notable contributions to the development and progress of human civilization, as they facilitated global trade and spawned friendly relations between nations. The Project will also result in similar contributions in Nicaragua and the world.

12,700 jobs during operation Chart 4: Nicaragua Unemployment Rate 2008-2016

2. The Project will create jobs during its construction and operation (around 50,000 new jobs are estimated to be created directly during construction and 12,700 during operation), which will contribute to improving the standard of living for Nicaraguans.

9.0

3. In addition, regionally the Project will contribute to the development of Central America, and true operational and infrastructure integration of the region, as it will boost the benefits of the Central American Customs Union, the Central American Free Trade Agreement with the United States, inter-regional trade in the Americas and the future trade agreement between Central America and the European Union, among others. Additionally, the Project will serve as a driver for greater integration of Central America with all regions of the world (CDT 2006).

7.5

8.5 8.0 7.0 6.5 6.0

• • • • • •

Offer significant benefits for Nicaragua and its people; Increase training and local employment, and stimulate local and regional economic development; Protect the ecosystems and animals of Nicaragua; Respect the local population, culture, and national heritage; Serve the best interests of the region; and Facilitate the efficient flow of international transport and trade.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. Abbreviation CDT, Comisión de Trabajo del Gran Canal - Environmental and Social Impact Assessment by ERM Abbreviation ACP, Panama Canal Authority - Environmental and Social Impact Assessment by ERM Chart 1 Source: World Bank, constant $US 2000 base Table 1 Source: Panama Canal Authority

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

2016

2014

2012

2010

5.5 2008

Benefits Concluding Summary

rising trend

157 Table 2 Source: https://tradingeconomics.com/nicaragua/gdp Chart 3 Source: https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/worlds-fastest-growing-tourist-destinations-2017/index.html Chart 4 Source: https://tradingeconomics.com/nicaragua/unemployment-rate

163


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1.2.1 Canal Construction Sequence This chapter displays the general construction and digging process of the main canal 1.15 Canal Construction connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans

Sequence

This chapter displays the general construction and digging process of the main canal connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.

A1

A2 P1 P1

Pacific Hub 1

P2

Pacific Hub 2

A1

Atlantic Hub 1

A2

Atlantic Hub 2

P2

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

N

A1

A2 P1 P2

Pacific Hub 2

P3

Pacific Hub 3

A2

Atlantic Hub 2

A3

Atlantic Hub 3

P2

A3

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

P3 N

A1

A2 P1 P3

Pacific Hub 3

A3

Atlantic Hub 3

M

Meeting Hub

Primary hubs

P2

A3

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

P3 M

N

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Secondary hubs N

100 90 80 volume (million m3)

70

2020-2023 2023-2026 2026-2029

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2020-2023 1

20

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

2023-2026 40

60

2026-2029 80

100

120

2026-2029 140

160

2023-2026 180

200

2020-2023 220

240

260

(km)

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1.2.2 Earthwork Management Strategy This chapter discusses the two options of managing the extracted material from the canal 1.16 Earthwork Management construction process

Strategy

This chapter discusses the two options of managing the extracted material from the canal construction.

The Economist Toxic Soil to Threat Public Health in China

June 8, 2017 Hunan province is the country’s largest producer of rice — and of cadmium. The local environmental-protection agency took rice samples rice this year and found it contained 50% more cadmium than allowed under Chinese law. Yet there are no limits on planting rice in polluted areas in the region, so the farmers sell their tainted rice to the local milling company which distributes it throughout southern China.

terraced farming reference

transport ship reference

Use as local terraced farming in Nicaragua

Ship excess back to China

5,000 million m3 total extracted earth

Panama Canal extracted earth volume

Giza main pyramid volume

2,5 million m3

Entire Manhattan filled up to 84m height

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.Design Realisation Protecting Paradise

“Civil Engineering”. June 1999. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007 https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.economist.com%2Fnews%2Fbriefing%2F21723128-and-fixing-it-will-be-hard-and-costly-most-neglected-threat-public-health-china&h=ATO-AtgbfDhGmwk6j2_128y8je4NprAQhyn19WcCnSKASQgmgwoTeFa6nY7OYzJ8NemeU0yQWMaj3sXHlzqBAY_vm2jZxI8duxMvzYcFD--PSjefoRIsDAxelbI

165 171


1.2.3 Digging Strategy And Impact Assessment This chapter compares three master plans of the current project to the same areas of the official version of the project 1.17 Digging Strategy and Impact Assessment This chapter compares three master plans of the current project to the same areas of the official version of the project. It argues that the digging strategy discussed in the current project is less invasive and destructive in terms of placing extracted material along the embankment of the canal.

Cerro Silva Protected Reserve

Mombacho Volcano 1344 m

Pacific O.

C. Highlands

Atlantic O.

Lake Nicaragua

21st Century Maritime Silk Route

21st Century Maritime Silk Route

Pacific Ocean

Punta Gorda Protected Reserve

Atlantic Ocean

Costa Rica

The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy version

option

15 mi / 24 km

option

N

HKDN version

North Pacific Ocean

All extracted material shipped back to China. W7

W4

W2

W6

W3 W5

two disposal areas account for approximately 30 hectares are used for agricultural purposes E6

E3 E2

E9

E10

E12

E11

E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7

E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 E10 E11 E12 E13

Storage Volume Surface Area (ha) (Million m3) 1820 329 1970 497 1960 507 4610 1437 1510 180 1980 612 5830 1601 1620 557 360 44 1360 183 860 193 480 35 970 226

All extracted material shipped back to China.

Océano Atlántico ― Mar Caribe

Atlantic Ocean

― Caribbean Sea

E7

E3

E1

E8

E13

E5

Planicie del Caribe

Caribbean Highlands

Océano Pacífico Norte

W1

Storage Volume Surface Area (Million m3) (ha) 58 430 9 60 218 980 311 1590 52 880 38 410 45 530

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

No extracted material in this area of the canal will be placed around the canal.

167

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1.2.4 Tourism: Arrival, Access And Seasonal Bird Migration This chapter displays travel options for tourists as Tourism: well as arrival period during bird and Bird Migration 1.18 Arrival, Access migration points in Nicaragua and access areas duringperiod, construction of and theaccess canal. Thisperiod, chapter displays travel options for tourists as well as arrival period during bird migration points in Nicaragua areas during construction of the canal.

Nicaragua

Brazil

Brazil

Bolivia

Bolivia

Nicaragua and Silk Route within Central American Biodiversity Corridor

Central American Biodiversity Corridor

China B

Beijing

S

Shanghai

Pomarine jaeger

Long-tailed jaeger

Parasitic jaeger

North Pacific Ocean option

Nicaragua option

A

B

E

Emerald Coast

B

Bluefields

Bluefields International

Emerald Coast International

B

B

S

E

Flight options

Arrival points in Nicaragua

P1

Pacific Hub 1

P2

Pacific Hub 2

A1

Atlantic Hub 1

A2

Atlantic Hub 2

option

option

Departure points from China

Bluefields

Emerald Coast

A2

P1

A1 P2

Pacific Ocean

N

Atlantic Ocean

15 mi / 24 km

A2

P1

A1 P2

P2

Pacific Hub 2

P3

Pacific Hub 3

A2

Atlantic Hub 2

A3

Atlantic Hub 3

A3

Pacific Ocean

P3 N

15 mi / 24 km

A2

P1

A1 P2

P3

Pacific Hub 3

A3

Atlantic Hub 3

M

Meeting Hub

Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

N

A3 Atlantic Ocean

P3

15 mi / 24 km

M

Tourist access areas and advancement during canal construction.

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1.2.5 Employed Systems Summary And Overlay

1.19 Systems Summary And Overlay

canal construction, supply system, shipment system and tourism on a time line according to local seasons

Canal under construction

Pacific Ocean N

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

15 mi / 24 km

Pacific Ocean N

Atlantic Ocean

15 mi / 24 km

Pacific Ocean N

Tourists (in and out)

15 mi / 24 km

Pacific Ocean N

Completed canal

15 mi / 24 km

Pacific Ocean N

Shipped earth (out)

15 mi / 24 km

Pacific Ocean N

Supply system (in)

Atlantic Ocean

15 mi / 24 km

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86°0’0’’W

85°50’0’’W

86°40’0’’W

85°30’0’’W

85°20’0’’W

11°50’0’’N

-10,97

-4,7

5

-7,31

,97

-10 1

-7,3 9

-5,4

-4,7

Nicaragua Lake

5

,14

-12,8

8.264 km2

-9 -5

,49

0

+32,0

11°40’0’’N

134m

-5

-7

,31 ,97

-10

,49

Concepcion Volcano

-9,1

4

1610m

387m

350m

Pan-American Highway

-10

,97

-12

306m

Belen

Los Sanches 2

Chacalapa

El Ojo de Agua Santa Elena

Bueos Aires

El Pradito

El Punte

Maderas Volcano

,80

Nancimi

El Caimito

-12

11°30’0’’N

,80

-12

1394m

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Chapter 1: Next Stop ― Paradise | 概观

1.15 El Grand Canal de Nicaragua (Es)

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Friendship

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Equality

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House of friendship, Istanbul

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1.22 Paradise Tectonic Eelements

天堂 Paradise El paraíso

Nicaragua is home to a rich variety of plants and animals. Nicaragua is located in the middle of the Americas and this privileged location has enabled the country to serve as host to a great biodiversity. This factor, along with the weather and light altitudinal variations, allows the country to harbor 248 species of amphibians and reptiles, 183 species of mammals, 705 bird species, 640 fish species, and about 5,796 species of plants.

尼加拉瓜拥有丰富多样的植 物和动物。 尼加拉瓜位于 美洲的中部,这个优越的地 理位置使该国成为一个生物 多样性的主人。 这个因素 以及天气和海拔的变化使得 该国有两栖动物和爬行动物 248种,哺乳动物183种, 鸟类705种,鱼类640种, 植物约5,796种。

Nicaragua es hogar de una rica variedad de plantas y animales. Nicaragua se encuentra en el medio de las Américas y esta ubicación privilegiada le ha permitido al país ser el anfitrión de una gran biodiversidad. Este factor, junto con el clima y las ligeras variaciones altitudinales, le permite al país albergar a 248 especies de anfibios y reptiles, 183 especies de mamíferos, 705 especies de aves, 640 especies de peces y aproximadamente 5,796 especies de plantas.

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保护 天堂 Protecting Paradise Proteger el paraíso

The master plan serves as a spatial investigation on how friendship, peace, equality, tranquillity and freedom are employed at different scales when dealing with diverse conditions of nature protection and conservation of Paradise. The extensive operation of canal-digging involves the new valuation of what is to be deforested and how extracted earth and deforested woodland are managed while making space for sustainable human programs and functions that serve as proactive means to protect the natural environment. The Embassy of Environmental Philanthropy intends to cultivate a positive legacy of ethical foreign investments through the resilience of forests and lakes.

总体规划作为空间调查,研究如何在 处理天堂保护和保护多种自然条件 时,在不同尺度上采用友谊,和平, 平等,安宁和自由。 挖掘运河的广 泛运作涉及到对砍伐森林的新估价, 以及如何管理提取地球和砍伐林地, 同时为可持续人类计划和功能提供空 间,以此作为保护自然环境的主动手 段。 环境慈善事业大使馆打算通过 森林和湖泊的恢复力,培养积极的道 德外国投资遗产。

El plan maestro sirve como una investigación espacial sobre cómo la amistad, la paz, la igualdad, la tranquilidad y la libertad se emplean a diferentes escalas cuando se trata de diversas condiciones de protección de la naturaleza y la conservación del Paraíso. La extensa operación de excavación de canales implica la nueva valoración de lo que se va a deforestar y cómo se manejan las tierras extraídas y los bosques deforestados, al tiempo que se crean espacios para programas y funciones humanas sostenibles que sirven como medios proactivos para proteger el medio ambiente. La Embajada de Filantropía Ambiental tiene la intención de cultivar un legado positivo de inversiones extranjeras éticas a través de la resiliencia de los bosques y lagos.

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友谊 Friendship Amistad

The Chinese government has blocked all movies about time travel, stating that it is disrespectful towards history. (10 Things Banned In China, 2018) Usually, the protagonist is from the modern time and for some reasons and via some means, travels through time and all the way back to the ancient China where he/she will experience a ‘culture shock’ and eventually develop a romance with that past era. Lesson 1 - Friendship TZhou et al. (2008) concluded that ‘nostalgia serves a protective function for individuals regarding their social connectedness.’ Nostalgia is sentimentality for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations’ (Boym, 2002). Nostalgia involves memories of people, events and places that were close to us, ‘and it will thus increase one’s sense of social connection.’ According to Zhou (2008), lonely people often have lesser perceptions of social support. The importance of social ties has been examined by researchers for decades, and Durkheim argues that ‘it is these ties that are determinant in meaningful and true friendship.’ (Durkheim, 1951) In this line, the notion of friendship is regarded by Dalai Lama in the following words: ‘Genuine friendship can only arise when there is a mutual sense of trust and respect.’ (Dalai Lama, 2012). 中国政府封锁了所有关于时间旅行的电影,称 其对历史不敬。 (中国禁止的10件事,2018 年)通常情况下,主角来自现代,出于某种原 因,通过某种方式,经历时间和一路回到古代 中国,在那里他们将经历一种“文化冲击”并最 终与过去的时代发展浪漫。 第一课 - 友谊 TZhou等人。 (2008)得出结论:“怀旧对 个人社会关系有保护作用”,怀旧对过去是多 愁善感,典型的情况是在一段时期或某个地 方拥有快乐的个人联谊会(Boym,2002) 。怀旧往往包括与我们亲近的人们,事件和 地方的回忆,“这样会增加人们的社会联系 感。”Zhou(2008)认为,孤独的人对社会支 持的看法往往较低。研究人员已经研究了几十 年的社会关系的重要性,而涂尔干认为“正是 这些关系在有意义和真正的友谊中才是决定性 的”(Durkheim,1951)。在这一方面,达 赖喇嘛认为友谊的概念用下面的话来说:’只有 在相互信任和尊重的情况下,才能产生真正的 友谊。“(达赖喇嘛,2012)。

El gobierno chino ha bloqueado todas las películas sobre el viaje en el tiempo, afirmando que es irrespetuoso hacia la historia. (10 cosas prohibidas en China, 2018) Por lo general, el protagonista es de la época moderna y por algunas razones, y de alguna manera, viaja en el tiempo y todo el camino de vuelta a la antigua China, donde experimentará un “choque cultural”. y eventualmente desarrollar un romance con esa era pasada. Lección 1 - Amistad TZhou et al. (2008) concluyeron que “la nostalgia cumple una función protectora para los individuos con respecto a su conexión social.” La nostalgia es sentimentalismo del pasado, típicamente por un período o lugar con asociaciones personales felices “(Boym, 2002). La nostalgia involucra recuerdos de personas, eventos y lugares que estaban cerca de nosotros, “y así aumentará nuestro sentido de conexión social”. Según Zhou (2008), las personas solitarias a menudo tienen menos percepciones de apoyo social. La importancia de los vínculos sociales ha sido examinada por los investigadores durante décadas, y Durkheim argumenta que “son estos lazos los que determinan una amistad significativa y verdadera” (Durkheim, 1951). En esta línea, Dalai Lama considera la noción de amistad. en las siguientes palabras: “La amistad genuina solo puede surgir cuando hay un sentido mutuo de confianza y respeto” (Dalai Lama, 2012).

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平等 Equality Igualidad

Another classic piece of children’s literature is banned in China. While Lewis Carroll’s imaginative tale came under criticism in America for the portrayal of drug use and political satire, China has not endorsed the story because the animals talk. When animals use the human language, it puts animals and humans on an equal level, which is disastrous according to the Chinese authority. (10 Things Banned In China, 2018) Lesson 3 - Equality Rousseau and Kant believed that ‘moral equality derives from human rationality – the capacity to direct our thinking, is unique to humans and to be found equally in all of us.’ (Lord, 2016) Today, we might be sceptical that there is any particular ‘human nature’ that makes us different from other animals. In the 21st century, as a form of resilience, humans and cities need to change mindsets and make nature our equal and entitle them respect and spatial rights.

中国禁止了另一部经典的儿童文学作品。 虽 然刘易斯卡罗尔的想象力故事在美国受到批 评,因为他们描绘了吸毒和政治讽刺,但中国 并没有认可这个故事,因为这些动物说话。 当动物使用人类语言时,它将动物和人类置于 同等水平,这是中国当局的灾难。 (中国禁 止的10件事,2018年) 第三课 - 平等 卢梭和康德认为,道德平等源于人类的理 性 - 指导我们思考的能力,对人类来说是独 一无二的,在我们所有人身上都是一样的。 (Lord,2016)今天,我们可能会怀疑有没 有人 特别的’人性’使我们与其他动物不同。 在 二十一世纪,人类和城市作为一种复原力,需 要改变思维方式,使自然平等,并尊重他们的 尊重和空间权利。

Otra pieza clásica de literatura infantil está prohibida en China. Si bien la imaginativa historia de Lewis Carroll fue criticada en Estados Unidos por la imagen del uso de drogas y la sátira política, China no ha respaldado la historia porque los animales hablan. Cuando los animales usan el lenguaje humano, pone a los animales y a los humanos en un nivel igual, lo cual es desastroso según la autoridad china. (10 cosas prohibidas en China, 2018) Lección 3 - Igualdad Rousseau y Kant creían que “la igualdad moral se deriva de la racionalidad humana: la capacidad de dirigir nuestro pensamiento, es única para los humanos y se encuentra por igual en todos nosotros”. (Lord, 2016) Hoy, podemos ser escépticos de que exista alguna particular ‘naturaleza humana’ que nos hace diferentes de otros animales. En el siglo XXI, como una forma de resiliencia, los seres humanos y las ciudades necesitan cambiar su forma de pensar y hacer que la naturaleza sea igual a nosotros y les da derecho a respetar y derechos espaciales.

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宁静 Tranquillity Tranquilidad

The Chinese Communist Party is worried a dainty little flower could ruin their political standing whole operation. After the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia in 2011, the government has blocked anything to do with the flower. No one can sell it, hold it, sing about it, or even say it. (10 Things Banned In China, 2018) Lesson 4 - Tranquillity When eaten, coca acts as a mild stimulant and protects against hunger, thirst, pain, and fatigue. The coca leaf has been chewed and brewed for tea traditionally for centuries among its indigenous peoples of Central and South America, being beneficial to human health. Natural landscapes, including woodlands, the presence of rivers streams, lakes and the sea, birds and other wildlife, clear open night sky all are positive stimuli to a state of being serene, secured, and worry-free.

中国共产党担心一只美丽的小花可能会破坏他 们的政治整体运作。 2011年突尼斯茉莉花革 命后,政府阻止了与花卉有关的任何事情。 没有人可以出售,持有,唱歌,甚至可以说出 来。 (中国禁止的10件事,2018年) 第4课 - 宁静 当食用时,古柯起到温和的兴奋剂的作用,可 以防止饥饿,口渴,疼痛和疲劳。 古柯叶在 中美洲和南美洲的土着人民中传统上已被咀嚼 和煮泡数个世纪,对人类健康有益。 自然景 观,包括林地,河流溪流,湖泊和大海,鸟类 和其他野生动植物,清澈的夜空都是积极的刺 激,让人感到宁静,安全和无忧无虑。

El Partido Comunista Chino está preocupado de que una pequeña flor delicada pueda arruinar su funcionamiento político. Después de la Revolución de los Jazmines en Túnez en 2011, el gobierno ha bloqueado todo lo que tenga que ver con la flor. Nadie puede venderlo, sostenerlo, cantar al respecto, o incluso decirlo. (10 cosas prohibidas en China, 2018) Lección 4 - Tranquilidad Cuando se come, la coca actúa como un estimulante suave y protege contra el hambre, la sed, el dolor y la fatiga. La hoja de coca ha sido masticada y elaborada para el té tradicionalmente durante siglos entre sus pueblos indígenas de América Central y del Sur, y es beneficiosa para la salud humana. Los paisajes naturales, incluidos los bosques, la presencia de corrientes de ríos, lagos y el mar, las aves y otros animales salvajes, el cielo despejado y abierto son estímulos positivos para un estado sereno, seguro y sin preocupaciones.

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自由 Freedom Libertad

In 2009, just as Facebook was gaining much popularity, China decided it was nothing but trouble and banned it from the country. (10 Things Banned In China, 2018) The ban could be due to riots that broke out, government censorship, or protection of domestic companies. China has its own social media platform that has more users than Facebook, but it is highly censored and controlled. Google is also banned in China. Lesson 5 - Freedom Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that ‘everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference’ and ‘everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.’ (UDHR)

2009年,随着Facebook越来越受欢迎,中国 认为这只不过是麻烦而已,并被禁止出国。 (中国禁止的10件事,2018年)禁令可能是 由于暴乱,政府审查或保护国内公司造成的。 中国拥有自己的社交媒体平台,用户数量超过 Facebook,但受到高度审查和控制。 谷歌也 在中国被禁止。 第5课 - 自由 “世界人权宣言”第十九条规定,“人人有权持有 不受干涉的意见”,“人人有言论自由权; 这项 权利应包括以任何方式,无论是口头,书面还 是印刷,以艺术的形式,或通过他选择的任何 其他媒介,寻求,接受和传播各种信息和思想 的自由。’(UDHR)

En 2009, justo cuando Facebook estaba ganando mucha popularidad, China decidió que no era más que un problema y lo prohibió en el país. (10 cosas prohibidas en China, 2018) La prohibición podría deberse a disturbios que estallaron, la censura del gobierno o la protección de las empresas nacionales. China tiene su propia plataforma de redes sociales que tiene más usuarios que Facebook, pero está muy censurada y controlada. Google también está prohibido en China. Lección 5 - Libertad El artículo 19 de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos establece que “todos tendrán derecho a opinar sin interferencia” y que “todos tendrán derecho a la libertad de expresión”; este derecho incluirá la libertad de buscar, recibir y difundir información e ideas de todo tipo, independientemente de las fronteras, ya sea en forma oral, escrita o impresa, en forma de arte o en cualquier otro medio de su elección. “(DUDH)

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1 Shale planer and

lumber yard systems

2 Main workspace 3 Canteen & showers 4 Bumper system

5m

Buddha Memorial Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Project of the House of Friendship, Istanbul

5-7 Wood workshops 8 Insent stick 9 Hanging Gardens 10 Dormitory housing units

10

structure 3

Tree Houses

1

structure 5

structure 4

Ship Hull

2

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

Shale Planer

201


1.26 Friendship: General Arrangements

This page displays the first floor of the building, which is responsible with extraction and management of earth.

1.3.7 Friendship: General Arangements

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

3

1

1

22,0m 6,0m

22,0m

100,0 m

2

6,0m 22,0m

150,0 m

25,0 m 1

4

6

5

general arrangement

Digging Plan

Cut quarry, Indiana 1

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

300,0 m

Digging Plan

scale 1 / 1500

1 Digging systems 2 Working decks 3 Extracted earth

15 m

N

4 Retaining wall 5 Canal water 6 Embankment

201

203


1.26 Friendship: General Arrangements

This page displays the second floor of the building, showing lumber yards (2) and working camp facilities such as canteens and showers (3).

1.3.7 Friendship: General Arangements

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

1

80,0 m

8,0 m 2

22,0m 6,0m

22,0m

150,0 m

6,0m

25,0 m

22,0m 4

30,0 m

3

6 5

general arrangement

Lumber Yards

Lumber Yards Sorting Tables, Oregon 1

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

300,0 m

Lumber Yards Plan

scale 1 / 1500

1 Forest 2 Lumber yards 3 Canteen & showers

15 m

N

4 Embankment 5 Dock 6 Buddha

203

205


1.26 Friendship: General Arrangements

This page displays the second floor of the building, showing organization of accommodation of the dormitory units (2).

1.3.7 Friendship: General Arangements

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

1

22,0m 2

6,0m

22,0m

150,0 m

6,0m 3 22,0m 4

general arrangement

Housing Units

Tree House 13

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

300,0 m

Housing Plan

scale 1 / 1500

1 Forest 2 Hanging walkway

15 m

N

3 Housing unit 4 Workshops in Buddha

205

207


1.26 Friendship: General Arrangements

This page shows the overhead hanging gardens (1) on which provide shading and cultivation areas for inhabitants.

1.3.7 Friendship: General Arangements

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

30,0m

22,0m 6,0m

22,0m

150,0 m

6,0m 1 22,0m 2

general arrangement

Gardens

Hanging gardens, Babylon 13

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

300,0 m

Hanging Gardens Plan

scale 1 / 1500

15 m

N

1 Suspended garden 2 Workshops in Buddha

207

209


1.3.8 Equality: General Arangements

1.27 Equality: General Arrangements This page displays the general arrangements of the tourist accommodation.

+11,20 7 6 5

+6,80 +5,50

4

+2,20 3

+1,20 ±0,00

2 1

-3,00

8,5 m

8,5 m

8,5 m 30,0 m

8m

8m

Tree Houses Section A

scale 1 / 200

Overall Arrangement Diagram

8m

8m

2m

scale 1 / 1000

10 m ±30,00

8m 8m

±0,00

8m

Section A

1 Canal water 5 Bungalow / sleeping area

Section B

2 Boat 6 Curtain system

Traditional Chinese junk ships

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

http://www.organiclifestylemagazine.com/repel-mosquitoes-by-cultivating-marigolds

3 Marigold garden 7 Rainwater tank

Typical tree house

4 Mosquito net system

Mariygold flower plantation

209

211


2.1.1 Movement And Digging Systems To Address

2.1 Movement And Digging Systems To Address

1

2

3

water propulsion

land clearing

trench digging

land is cleared and deforested while material is processed on lower decks

water from canal is used to drive the digging process from front end

Lake Vyrnwy dam, Wales

excavated material is removed and placed in main hull for later shipment and processing

Lumber yard sorting tables, Oregon

4

Chinese gold miners, California

5

30m

6

30m

waterproof system

30m

locomotion system

the inflated acts like a seal preventing water access to the frontal the digging area

excavation system

wheels provide movement to the piece of infrastructure In the interests of environmental protection, Pronal has developed a land barrier system. This system can be deployed for the purposes of flood prevention.

Water filled barrier tubes, Colorado

a four array bucket system covers the entire height of the canal As envisaged by Ernest Bazin, the main hull was lifted out of the water, with large hollow discs attached to each side. These discs would provide the buoyancy and propulsive power.

Roller ship, unbuilt

Bucket wheel excavator, Germany

This system acts as a continuous digging machine in largescale open-pit mining operations. It uses a large wheel consisting of a continuous pattern of buckets used to scoop material as the wheel turns.

Incremental Digging Process

The incremental digging process which employs the systems enumerated in diagrams 4,5 and 6 will account for a total digging period of 9 years based on a typical system depicted in diagram 6 which digs at a rate of 4 centimetres per hour, accounting for an overall advancement period of 20 metres per day.

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental. https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap061122.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roller_ship https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/1850_Woman_and_Men_in_California_Gold_Rush.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Lumber_yard_sorting_table%2C_Falls_City%2C_Oregon_%283229272695%29.jpg

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

213

213


2.1.2 Digging Plan, Working Areas And Systems Digging Plan Specific Working Areas This chapter displays a program2.2 diagram of the digging area and systems employed in thisAnd Systems This chapter displays a program diagram of the digging area and systems employed in this process, according to the specific areas where they act. process, according to the specific areas where they act 1

Cut quarry, Indiana

Soil

Material to be extracted

2

3

1 B

A

Embankment working area, Weedon machinery on top

Dry Area

Working and advancement area

4

120,0 m C 2

3

Waterproof retaining wall

4

5

Water

Canal waterway

5

300,0 m

Breakdown of consutrction areas according to working systems employed in the digging scheme.

Restored embankment

A. Bucket wheel excavator This system acts as a continuous frontal digging machine. It uses a large wheel consisting of a continuous array of buckets used to scoop material as the wheel turns.

open cut

1 - front end cutting area Bucket wheel excavator, Germany

dry area

B. Back actors

This system acts as a corner area digging machine. It uses a arms that rotate in order to facilitate radial digging. 2 - corner cutting area

Steam navy, Wembley

waterproof dam

C. Puddled clay lining

Layers of clay are manually spread over the whole site, then moistened in order to make it workable. Puddling is done either by persistent treading with boots or rollers and tampers. Puddled clay lining in a typical pond

3 - embankment construction embankment Employed working system Dedicated area for particular system

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

1 Cut quarry 3 Puddeled clay lining

2 Gravel layer 4 Waterproof retaining wall

5 Restored embankment 215

215


2.1.3 Excavator Movement And Advancement Principles This chapter highlights how the excavation process is driven by water from the back. Issues such as orientation are discussed, taking into account the different geology of the area to be extracted

projected position

plan of lower deck

horizontal load to

8-bucket wheel array

radio transmission 6 recalibrate track

10,0 m

projected position

5

horizontal load through

conveyor arms rebound

90,0 m impact The excavator majestically advances through the forest while constantly projecting its advancement and future position.

4

4,0 m

20,0 m

4,0 m

forward movement

unit focus study

horizontal load through

lower deck chassis

15,0 m initial sketch showing scheme of acting horizontal loads

3

2 1

1 Retaining log - vertical 4 Lower deck

2 Waterproof dam 5 Principle side conveyors

6

3 Expansion bellow 6 8-Shale plane array system 3 horizontal load on

waterproof dam

Canteen Plan

Bucket wheel excavator, Germany

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental. http://www.patilgroup.in/rubber-expansion-bellow.htm

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

scale 1 / 500

5m

Typical rubber expansion bellow

217 April 25, discussions with structural engineer Matthew Wells.

217


2.1.4 Excavation And Earth Management This chapter displays the general principles of extraction and processing of extracted material. The key topic to be studied is extracting, and shipping earth to China, which is all done in the lower deck of this piece of architecture plan of lower deck

The sequences below describe the earth managament process breakdown and the employed systems.

lumber yards above

11

10 digging system done by 10,0 m

8-bucket wheel array

12

earth management through

principle conveyor Sequence 1

8-shale planer array commence digging

Sequence 2

extracted material directed via principle side conveyors

Sequence 3

extracted material directed via secondary conveyors

1

1 90,0 m

1

unit focus study

20,0 m

4,0 m

4,0 m 9

Sequence 4

sorting and packaging area for selected mateirals to be shipped

Sequence 5 material placed on elevator platforms

Sequence 6 material placed on pontoon ready for shipment

2 15,0 m

2 Sketch displaying initial predimensionig of working area in relationship with principle side conveyors

2 8

3 4

7

1 Sorting & packaging 5 Transport ship 9 Neighbouring deck 1

2 Elevator 3 Pontoons access 6 Surveillance boat 7 Canal water 10 Digging area 11 Bucket excavator 10

4 Pontoon 8 Waterproof dam 12 Principle conveyors 12 5

6 Canteen Plan

Packaging area, China

Quarry planer, Lower Oxford

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

https://depositphotos.com/187963626/stock-video-conveyor-belt-on-industry-ceramic.html

scale 1 / 500

5m

Typical clay conveyor

219 219

April 25, discussions with structural engineer Matthew Wells.


2.1.5 Camp Working Conditions 2.5such Camp And Working Conditions This chapter addresses working conditions highlighting programs as canteen and This chapter addresses working conditions highlighting programs such as canteen and dining area and served food dining area and served food options throughout the day, based on local produce options throughout the day, based on local produce. <1,600 kcal

Food energy intake

This map of average daily dietary energy availability per capita in 2006–2008 displays Nicaragua ranking 119 with an average daily dietary energy consumption per capita of 2,420 kilo-calories.

plan of middle deck

1,800-2,000 kcal 2,200-2,400 kcal 2,600-2,800 kcal 3,200-3,400 kcal >3,600 kcal

2

3 4 5 1.878 g/person

1

6

World daily grams consumption 1 Produce 2 Dairy & Eggs 3 Meat 4 Other 5 Sugar & Fat 6 Grain

Yearly amounts requirements 1.878 g / person / day x 500 pax / working unit = 1.03 tons / day x 365 days x 8 units = 3007.6 tons

Source: National Geographic “What the world eats”

Breakfast

emergency

3/4 yogurt 1 cup blueberries 2 hard boiled eggs = 350 calories

access core

1

Lunch and dinner

2

salad, spicy grilled shrimp, rice / mushroms, oil and vinegar dressing = 500-700 calories

salad, breaded / fried chicken, croutons, rice and creamy dressing = 800 - 1000 calories 2

Snacks

1/2 cup of cooked pasta 1/2 cup nuts 1.5 ounces of cheese

3

unit focus study 6

4,0 m

20,0 m

emergency

access core

4,0 m

4

5

Canteen Plan

scale 1 / 500

The current menu selection is based on local produce sources and may vary from area to area.

1 Working area 2 Access ladders 5 Toilets, showers and changing rooms

3 Dining area 4 Storage & preparation area 6 Vertical access core 7 Canal water

1

3

Lumber yard, Mendocino, California

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. http://www.fotolibra.com/gallery/919618/cerebos-salt-factory-canteen-1924/ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/canteen-worker

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

5m

Salt factory canteen, 1924, United Kingdom

221

221


2.6 Living Conditions

2.1.6 Camp Living Conditions

This chapter displays living conditions and the employed shading system. solar noon at 11:45 AM at 80° altitude

90°C

Sunlight and Shading

The sun in Managua often shines in the dry period, while in the rainy season it shines for a few hours a day.

0°C -90°C Rise

Meridian

detail location

Set

+30,00

8 bed dormitory

Housing Unit

3,6m

Emergency

Access Core 14,6m

6,6m

Suspended

Hanging Gardens

+15,00

working unit

this unit acomodates 8 people, accounting for a total number of 300 people / working unit, and a total number of 2400 people in 8 working units.

2

1 Access corridor 2 Curtain system 3 Shared toilet 4 Sleeping area

Working camp dormitories La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

1

3

4

Accommodation unit plan 223

https://www.climatestotravel.com/climate/nicaragua

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

223


2.7 Buddha Interior Waterproofing

2.1.7 Interior Waterproofing Systems

This chapter displays waterproofing issues in ‘Buddha’ structure.

300mm

Rain patterns

As displayed in the diagram on the right, Weather patterns in Nicaragua indicate that most rainfall is seen from May throughout October.

150mm 0mm

12 months

detail location

This waterproofing issue arises from the fact that ‘‘Buddha’ is a hollow structure built out of layered vertical strips.

waterproof membrane

outside Buddha

outsie

inside Buddha

outsie

workshop

inside

17,0m

waterproof membrane

workshop

inside

+17,50

+17,00

11,5m

+9,80

+8,30

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

225

225


2.2.1 Log Embankment Construction Strategy

tree typologies analysis Central American pine-oak forests

Step 1

Central American Atlantic moist forests

Nicaragua Ecoregion Conditions

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

N

Southern Mesoamerican Pacific mangroves

Miskito pine forests

Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests

Central American dry forests

learning from Venice

Step 2

this type of logs are to be found in the area where the land clearing takes place

The use of wood as a supporting structure may seem as a surprise, since wood is relatively less durable than stone or metal. The secret to the longevity of Veniceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wooden foundation is the fact that they are submerged underwater. Clay was also used to prevent decay of the logs.

possible decay

microorganisms 1

2

protective layer

The decay of wood is caused by microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria. As the wooden support in Venice is submerged underwater, they are not exposed to oxygen, one of the elements needed by microorganisms to survive. In addition, the constant flow of salt water around and through the wood petrifies the wood over time, turning the wood into a hardened stone-like structure.

1 Embankment 2 Clay protection layer

3

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

3 Salt Water

salt water

227


2.2.2 Log Embankment Construction Sequence This chapter looks at the cnstruction steps and components of a log embankment using 2.9 Log Embankment Construction tree trunks resulted from the deforestation process

Sequence

This chapter looks at the cnstruction steps and components of a log embankment using tree trunks resulted from the deforestation process.

50m

future water level 30m

terrace dimensioning

50m

future water level 30m

horizontal logs placement

dimensions informed by previous chapter

50m

50m

future water level 30m

slope management

deadman logs placement future water level 30m

provides structural stability for the vertical logs to come

50m

future water level 30m

clay placement 50m

future water level 30m

gravel placement 50m

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

future water level 30m

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation http://www.offroadsafety.org/get-out/vehicle-recovery/vehicle-recovery-anchors

provides slope protection and overall stability

vertical logs placement

50m

future water level 30m

technique informed by previous chapter

seeding and planting

229

229


2.2.3 Log Embankment Seal And Waterproofing This chapter studies waterproofing detail of the entire section of the canal and the 2.10 Log Embankment Seal And Waterproof technology employed to do so This further studies the detail of waterproofing the entire section of the canal and the technology employed to do so. The Embankment

The Waterproof Dam

Logs procured from deforestation process are measured, sharpened and inserted as structural poles of the embankment. Clay acts as a natural waterproof membrane as a top layer.

The dam sweeps along the finished sector of the embankment. A water tight brush sweeps along the clay embankment and acts like a temporary seal.

nature

ship side

seal

1 6 Âą0,00 canal water level behind

2

4

7

-10,0

floors provide access to maintenance area of the brush seal

8

35 m

-20,0

5

9

8

-30,0

7

3

canal base

Embankment seal scale 1 / 300

1 Retaining log - vertical 5 Compact gravel

2 Retaining log - horizontal 6 Compact earth

2

Processing to pointed piles

3 Boulders / gravel around post 7 Clay layer 8

Pipe dragon snow groomer

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

3m

4 Log deadman secured with cable clamps 8 Inflated brush seal 9 Dam Wall 8

Water filled barrier tubes, Colorado

8

NASA inflatable space station

9

Container ship side

231

231


2.2.4 Log Embankment Legacy This chapter displays the development of the embankment area after the ship and digging 2.11 Log Embankment Legacy process are completed This chapter displays the development of the embankment area after the ship and digging process is completed. The Legacy

The employed building construction method allows for natural growth and development along the entire length of the embankment, after the ship has passed.

1 6 Âą0,00 2 detail in following chapter 4

7

-10,0

8

30 m -20,0

5

9

8

-30,0

7

3

canal base

Embankment seal scale 1 / 300

1 Retaining log - vertical 5 Compact gravel

2 Retaining log - horizontal 6 Compact earth

3 Boulders / gravel around post 7 Clay layer

2

8

Processing to pointed piles

Pipe dragon snow groomer

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

3m

4 Log deadman secured with cable clamps 8 Inflated brush seal 8

Water filled barrier tubes, Colorado

8

NASA inflatable space station

9

Container ship under construction

233

233


2.2.5 Log Embankment Seal And Waterproofing Detail This chapter looks at an in-depth detail of the retaining wall and brush seal system. Forces that act as pressure on the retaining wall and maintenance system are also addressed.

This embankment seal system maintenance functions very similarly to changing a flat tire on a bicycle wheel.

B

A

7 Wall will be naturally pushed ahead by water force. Two sets of membrane address the difference in pressure in between canal water and dry area. The space in between will help adjust this pressure difference. Membrane B will act as a backup in the likely case of membrane A being torn down by friction forces. Machine will stop and inflated cavity will be deflated, removed and new one inserted much alike a bicycle tire.

2 8

1 4

brush seal attached to retaining wall and installed on the entire width of canal

Perimeter brush seal

canal

dry

water

area 5

3 0 0

m

width

Retaining wall 9 0 0 0

m

2

water pushing on the surface of the retaining wall

Pressure of water = Ď gh = 1000 m3 x 9,81 m/s2 x 30 m = 294.300 Pascals = 30010.25 kg/m2

area

3

Embankment axonometric projection

scale 1 / 500

5m

movement direction

4 sloped

dry

2

0,90m

3

1,20m

expansion

area

6

1,20m

bellow

1,20m

1,20m

1,20m

1,20m

1,20m

1,20m

B

200 cm

A 1

30 tons 1 m2

7

acting pressure form water canal 5

1 Retaining log - vertical 5 Canal water

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

2 Retaining log - horizontal 6 Construction area (dry)

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

water 3 Boulders / gravel around post 7-A,B Kevlar protected inflatable membrane

Embankment detail scale 1 / 50

0,5 m

4 Clay layer 8 Log deadman secured with cable clamps

235

235


2.2.6 Kit Of Parts This chapter addresses potential uses of this tectonic element, taking in to account the construction parts. There are three programatic options established which deal with port 2.13 Friendship Kit of Parts activities (option A), digging activities (option B)Thisand leisure activities (option C). chapter addresses potential uses of this tectonic element, taking in to account the construction parts. There are three programatic options established which deal with port activities (option A), digging activities (option B) and leisure activities (option C).

A. spaceframe & cores

B. wheels

C. walking city

+

=

D. ship hull

E. roller ship

+

=

+ 8

ferrvis wheel option

bucket excavator

+ 2

=

= option

option

offshore dock

shale planer

x 3

London’s Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is shaping up and once again inviting the multitudes in - but is it helping to provide the kind of legacy the people of east London were promised?

Some of the starkest images from the financial fall of Greece have been of its 2004 Olympic Games buildings: abandoned stadiums and peeling paint telling tales of broken promises and soured dreams. Whatever else might be said about London’s Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park three years after the 2012 Olympics, it is no tumbleweed vista. The broader issue, though, is whether it is helping to provide the kind of legacy the people of east London were promised.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation https://www.theguardian.com/cities/davehillblog/2015/jul/23/london-olympic-legacy-three-years-on-2012-games

http://www.thisisinsider.com/abandoned-olympic-venues-current-day-pictures-2016-5 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Lumber_yard_tsorting_table%2C_Falls_City%2C_Oregon_%283229272695%29.jpg

237

237


2.3.1 Equality Principle Structural Considerations This chapter displays the structural considerations of the tree houses as well as materials 2.14 Principle Structural Considerations and general dimensioning This chapter displays structural considerations of the tree houses as well as materials and general dimensions. vertical wood posts 20x40cm

+12,00 9 A

7

6

8 twisted natural rope Φ 40 mm

A

A

C

horizontal wood beams 20x30cm

2,70 m

5,8 m

3,0 m

B 5

12,0 m

+5,00

Primary structural framework

horizontal wood beams 8x14cm +2,00 4

±0,00

3

2

B

Secondary structural framework

utility core 520 x 300 x 260 cm

1

30,0 m

-30,0

C

Prefabricated utility core

1 Canal water 6 Prefabricated utility unit

2 Ship hull 7 Curtain system

Traditional Chinese junk ships

3 Ship deck 8 Bungalow / sleeping area

Typical tree house

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. https://www.orkin.com/other/mosquitoes/mosquito-habitats/

http://www.mosquitoworld.net/about-mosquitoes/habitats/ Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

http://www.organiclifestylemagazine.com/repel-mosquitoes-by-cultivating-marigolds

4 Marigold garden 9 Rainwater tank

Bamboo joint connection using rope

5 Mosquito net system

Mariygold flower plantation

241

239


2.3.2 Mosquito Repellent Systems This sheet explains environmental conditions of the site that have informed the design of 2.15 Mosquito Repellent Systems the tourist accommodation units This chapter discusses environmental condition of mosquitoes that has informed the design process of tourist accommodation.

Mosquitoes environmental preferences

Hot, humid environments are most amenable to mosquito growth and survival. Infestations can occur easily in tropical areas.

Where do mosquitoes live and lay eggs?

Relationship between mosquitoes & water

• • • • •

ponds marshes floodplains swamps other wetland habitats Notes: All conditions above are present in the current project area.

Design considerations

The design development will take into account two systems of protection against insects: • perimeter net coverage • perimeter curtain enclosure • marigold fragrance repellent

Mosquitoes are insects that mostly live in water but must make periodic trips to the water’s surface in order to eliminate carbon dioxide and inhale a fresh supply of oxygen.

+12,00

1

4

1

2

2

7,0 m

entrance system via tent zipper

mosquito swarm

perimeter net coverage provides protection against mosquitoes

3

2 +5,00

odor 5 +2,00

mobile perimeter curtain enclosure provides privacy of users

6

boat deck

1 Perimeter net coverage 4 Waterproof layer

2 Perimeter curtain enclosure 5 Marigold garden

3 Bungalow / sleeping area 6 Compact earth

1

Other Mosquito Repelling Options

5

2

Marigold are the easiest to grow, but there is a wide range of plants that repel mosquitoes: Basil Cedars Clove Eucalyptus Garlic Lavender

Lemon Thyme Mint Peppermint Pineapple weed Pitcher Plant

Pyrethrum daisies Rosemary Snowbrush Sweet Fern Tea Tree Tent net structure

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. https://www.orkin.com/other/mosquitoes/mosquito-habitats/

http://www.mosquitoworld.net/about-mosquitoes/habitats/ Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

http://www.organiclifestylemagazine.com/repel-mosquitoes-by-cultivating-marigolds

Mariygold flower plantation

Baldquin used in local tropical areas

243 April 5, discussions with climate engineer Stephan Holst.

241


3.1.1 Friendship Environmental Issues Regarding Working Conditions 3.1related Environmental Issuesdesign Regarding Working This chapter discusses three issues to the environmental requirements

Conditions

This chapter discusses three issues related to environmental requirements of the ‘Friendship’ tectonic element.

2. Temperature And Humidity Conditions

1. Sunlight and Shading

Sun-path diagram is used to determine the azimuth position of the sun at solar noon in Managua, Nicaragua. The lower diagram displays the result in horizontal lines showing the horizon, the vertical lines show the times of sunrise and sunset. N

W

3. Noise propagation

Sources of noise and vibration above ambient background noise and vibration would be present during the construction and operational phases. Some examples of construction noise generating equipment and activities during the construction phase include the excavating machinery (excavators, backhoes, front-end loaders) and material handling equipment (rock crushing, graders, rollers).

Weather patterns indicate that on average, the temperatures are always high. Under these circumstances, no other enclosure except the perimeter curtain is proposed, arguing that the optimal sleeping temperature is around 18,5°C. Due to the rains and the trade winds, relative humidity is consistently high.

solstice Jun 21st

40°C

E

25°C

solstice Dec 22nd

10°C 12 months 70%

S

60%

solar noon at 11:45 AM at 80° altitude

90°C

50% 40% 30%

0°C

20%

-90°C Rise

Meridian

10%

Set

35-40 dB

first week of May 2018

55-60 dB

1 4 2

3

Sunlight (1) is filtered through hanging gardens and tree houses which provide shading to lower level of working spaces

Stack ventilation is provided in the main working area as well as exposure to fresh air on the upper part (2) Additionally, the low temperature of canal water behind the ship acts as an active cooling method. (3)

Some of the planned noise control measures would include the following: motors will be enclosed and electric motors, rather than diesel engines, to provide power will be used. The dimensions of the studied space is configured very similar to a ship hull. In this case, this diagram displays design options meant to mitigate issues discussed above.

stacked working platforms

(2) chimney effect inside Buddha

(1) shading provided by overhead hanging system

25-40°C air temperature

windows in hull sorted material to embankment construction area material sorting conveyor

55-60 decibels

(3) water cooing

interior

main workspace

15-18°C water temperature

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247

https://www.climatestotravel.com/climate/nicaragua https://www.timeanddate.com/astronomy/nicaragua/managua

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3.1.2 Catatumbo Lighting Harvesting Strategy

1

Catatumbo lightning

Catatumbo lightning (Spanish: Relámpago del Catatumbo) is an atmospheric phenomenon in Central America. It originates from a mass of storm clouds at a height of more than 1 km, and occurs during 260 nights a year, 10 hours per day and up to 280 times per hour. The objective of this study is to put forward alternative methods of generating power for the digging process which cannot be sustained by regular power sources, due to the system high energy consumption.

ozone incense stick emits ozone to attract lightning

2

1 strike = 5 billion joules = 145 L petrol 5 billion joules / 10 milliseconds = 500 trillion watts

VIIRS I-05 image of thunderstorms near Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

4 64

The bright, almost rectangular streaks in the image are lightning strikes. The red arrow points out a lightning strike from the Catatumbo storm

x

16,56 megawatts x 64 systems = 1059 ,84 megawatts

3

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of thunderstorms near Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

1 Storm

2 Harvesting system

3 Energy storage

4 Buddha statue In her own words, Badaruddin explains that the would test:

Research reference

Farah Aliza Badaruddin from the Bartlett School of Architecture explored the large-scale architectural implications of applying radical weather technologies to the task of landscape re-mediation could be decontaminated through pyrolysis, using guided and controlled bursts of lightning.

1 the idea that lightning can be harnessed on-site to pyrolyse highly contaminated groundwater as an approach to re-mediate the polluted site.

2 These controlled and repetitive lightning strikes would also, in turn, help fertilize the soil, producing a kind of bio-electro-agricultural activities.

Employed technology to harvest lighting

Since the late 1980s, there have been several attempts to investigate the possibility of harvesting lightning energy. A single bolt of lightning carries a relatively large amount of energy. A technology capable of harvesting lightning energy would need to be able to rapidly capture the high power involved in a lightning bolt. Additionally, lightning is sporadic, and therefore energy would have to be collected and stored.

Catatumbo lighting storm

Lightning farm and harvesting system

Incense stick

Los Angeles Times Nicaragua forest fire burns almost 9,000 acres

Source: Associated Press April 10, 2018 A forest fire in Nicaragua that has been burning out of control for a week has blackened almost 9,000 acres (3,585 hectares) in the southern nature reserve of Indio Maiz very close to the border with Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s fire-fighting force said on Monday that it was told by Nicaraguan officials that soldiers are being sent to fight the blaze so no Costa Rican help was needed. Nicaragua says it has 800 soldiers, five planes and 10 boats fighting the fire.

Chapter conclusion

This method of harvesting energy proves to be sufficient to power the digging processes of the machinery. Furthermore, it will prove useful in attracting more lightning strikes, thus protecting existing forests by avoiding setting them on fire.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

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http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/npp/blog/index.php/uncategorized/catatumbo-lightning-in-the-daynight-band/attachment/catatumbo_lightning_20120510_0644_svdnb_cropped/ Knowledge, Dr. (October 29, 2007). “Why can’t we capture lightning and convert it into usable electricity?” Fogonazos: Catatumbo, the everlasting storm”. Fogonazos.blogspot.com http://www.bldgblog.com/2013/08/lightning-farm/

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3.2.1 Equality Principle Lighting Considerations This chapter presents lighting methods. Three options are considered taking into account site specific resources such as sun light storage for later emission during night, as well as and local fauna in form of the glow beetles that are naturally attracted to water. Additionally, 3.4 Lighting Issues UV used forThree a mineral gardentaking resulted from the resources digging processes. This light chapter may presentsbe lighting methods. options are considered into account site specific such as sun light storage for later emission during night, as well as and local fauna in form of the glow beetles that are naturally attracted to water. Additionally, UV light may be used for a mineral garden resulted from the digging processes.

2. Fluorescence

1. Phosphorescence

3. Fireflies and glow beetles

Fluorescence is a form of luminescence that is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed electromagnetic radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the UV region of the spectrum.

Phosphoresce is a for of luminescence that is caused by absorption of radiations. In simple terms, phosphoresce is a process in which energy absorbed by a substance is released in the form of light.

Fireflies and glow-worms (their larvae) are the best-known examples of bioluminescent creatures. They use a complex reaction to make light from a pair of chemicals called luciferin and luciferase stored in their tails.

daytime energy accumulation

night time light release

1

3

6

2

5

4

Yayoi Kusama firefly infinity room

Rocks from digging process

1 Phosphorescent light bugs ceiling 4 UV-emitting light

2 Fluorescent mineral garden 5 Boat deck

1

Phosphorescent bird figure

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental. http://www.explainthatstuff.com/luminescence.html

3 Naturally glowing beetle swarm 6 Perimeter closed curtains

2

Fluorescent minerals

3

Firefly beetle

3

Firefly swarm

247 253 April 5, discussions with climate engineer Stephan Holst.


3.2.2 Rainwater Collection And Waste Management This chapter displays three environmental issues such as water source, waste management and ventilation, raised by the fact that this is a floating structure.

3.5 Further Environmental Issues To Address

This chapter displays three environmental issues such as water source, waste management and ventilation, raised by the fact that this is a floating structure.

1. Rainwater collection

2. Waste management

Weather patterns in Nicaragua indicate that most rainfall is seen from May throughout October. Implementing a rainwater collection system also proves to be necessary, as this is the case of a structure floating on salt-water with no immediate access to fresh water reserves.

3. Ventilation system

Traditionally, agriculture fertilizer consisted of processed waste. The current proposal employs digester systems to collect waste used for fertilizing the marigold garden on the deck.

Within a tropical region, local house on stilts provides natural flow of air above, around and under the structure.

300mm

150mm

0mm

Weather patterns indicate that on average, the temperatures are always high. Under these circumstances, no other enclosure except the perimeter curtain is proposed, arguing that the optimal sleeping temperature is around 18,5°C.

40°C

In any case, to prevent possible lower night time temperatures as well as raise comfort of the tourist accommodation units, sleeping bags can be placed on the are provided in the sleeping area.

25°C 10°C 12 months

1 +12,00 2

1 - rainwater collection

8

3

3

4

4

+5,00 2 - fertilization

3 - air flow

5

+2,00 6

7

1 Gutter 5 Marigold garden

2 10,000 litre water storage 6 Compact earth

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.Design Realisation Protecting Paradise

https://weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Manaqua,Nicaragua https://worldtravelers.org/destination-bangkok.asp

3 Shower& sink 7 Biodigester

4 Toilet 8 Ceiling Fan

255 249

April 5, discussions with climate engineer Stephan Holst.


3.2.3 Further Programmatic Design Considerations This chapter displays three environmental issues such as water source, waste management 3.6 Further Programmatic Design Considerations and ventilation, by theof this fact that this is Two a floating structure. This chapter looks atraised program variations architectural tectonic. scenarios such as dealing with accidental oil spills, waste collection and passive fishing are considered.

1. Accidental spills

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. This issue is addressed here by the sponge structure element attached to the lower part of the hull.

2. Micro-plastic filtration

Marine debris released in water imposes a solution for removal techniques. It is important to note that the more difficult collection is done in the case of small sized garbage which requires special nets and filters.

2. Passive fishing techniques

Overfishing and destructive fishing are the greatest threats to aquatic environment. In this case passive fishing techniques are employed in the design of this floating tectonic, which also provide an authentic tourist experience

oil density is lower than water, in which case it will surface

List of addressed issues in this chapter

Garbage patch, Pacific

Oil spill incident, US coast

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

News coverage on oil spill control

Destructive Fishing, Phillipines

257

http://nordic.businessinsider.com/plastic-in-ocean-outweighs-fish-evidence-report-2017-1?r=US&IR=T https://blogs.ntu.edu.sg/hp331-2014-76/?page_id=90

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4.1 Stakeholders And Contractual Relationships This chapter displays three environmental issues such as water source, waste management Stakeholders and ventilation, raised by the fact that this is4.1 a floating structure. And Contractual Relationships This chapter presents the stakeholders of this project along with their contractual relationship and their specific role.

1 Client - Government of Nicaragua

2 Development Consortium - HKND Ltd.

contract 1

100

3 Service Contractors

contract 2

As in the case of large infrastructure projects such as Panama or Nicaragua Canals, a public-private partnership is defined by a 100-year concession contract. The main pros and cons of the concession model include the following: Pros: • Private sector bears a significant share of the risks. • High level of private investment. • Potential for efficiency gains in all phases of project development and implementation and technological innovation is high. Cons: • Highly complex to implement and administer • May have underlying fiscal costs to the government. • Negotiation between parties and finally making a project deal may require long time.

time

cost

The 10-km wide canal corridor is the object of a concession contract

quality

Local and International

The project is intended to follow a ‘Traditional‘ procurement contract (JTC reference). Quality is essential in terms of building process and material as well as environmental protection. Key aspects of this contract are: • Control of design lies with design team, quality can be ensured this way. • Simplicity of relationships, and issues can be resolved easier. • Time and cost fixed before construction begins.

The 10-km wide canal corridor is returned to Nicaragua after 100 years

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean

2020

2030 2040

2060

2080

Construction

2100

2120

Atlantic Ocean

2120

Operation

Operation

contract 1 - public-private contractual relationship Revenue used as security

Transfer to Government at the end of concession

Grand Canal Authority (public)

Investors

Construct, Own and Operate

Revenue

(private)

Government of Nicaragua (public)

HKDN Ltd. Provide finance

(private)

Concession agreement

Under this public-private partnership in infrastructure development, the concession contract is signed by the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua, the Canal Authority, HKNicaragua Canal Development Investment Co. (HKND), and the investors (private individuals). HKND shall have the exclusive right to acquire and manage the design, development, engineering, financing and construction (development) provisions, and the ownership, possession, operation, maintenance, and management (operation) of the following: • A traditional navigable canal for vessels (wet canal) and a railway (dry canal) for cargo, each of them joining deep-water ports on Nicaragua’s Caribbean and Pacific coasts; • The Free Trade Zones to be established where the Wet Canal connects to the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Nicaragua; and • An international airport in one of the Free Trade Zones (or, as an alternative, the expansion of an existing airport, or near one of the Free trade Zones to manage both domestic and international air traffic).

contract 2 - traditi contractual relationship

Canal Design

Changjiang Institute of Survey, Planning, Design and Research

Ports

CCCC Second Harbour Consultants

Roads

China Railway Siyuan Survey and Design Group

Construction& Equipment SBE, Belgium

The Project proponent would utilize both local and international contractors for the construction of the canal. As a result of the scale of the Project and Nicaragua’s limited industrial capacity, it is expected that substantial use of foreign suppliers would be required for construction. Local industry should be actively encouraged to participate in the Project, either directly or indirectly. Nevertheless, it is expected that the bulk of the work would be undertaken by international contractors.

Contractors Source - HKDN Ltd.

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4.2 Consultancy Contracts: Environmental 4.2 Consultancy Contracts: Environmental And Social Protection

and Social Protection (1)

This chapter illustrates consultancy contracts and the roles that these entities bear.

HKDN Ltd.

Evnironmental & Social Impacts ERM, UK

Mining and Construction

Technical Viability China Railway Construction Corporation

MEC Mining, Australia

Financial Fesability

McKinsey & Company, Denmark

Contractors Source - HKDN Ltd.

Roles of Environmental and Social Consultancy Understanding Environmental and Social Consultancy

The consultant is not responsible for the design of the project. Taking into account the protectionist policies of the current project, an environmental consultant - ERM - will provide an independent evaluation of the environmental and social impacts of the proposed Project and to advise HKND on international environmental and social norms.

Provide independent advice regarding international best practices for managing environmental and social impacts of the proposed Project; Commit to an open and transparent ESIA process – carefully consider the suggestions and concerns of the interested parties, and collaborate with groups of independent experts that could be established to review the proposed Project; and Lead the preparation of an ESIA report that will provide the government and citizens of Nicaragua, as well as the interested parties, with independent, objective, and scientifically-based information with which to make informed decisions about the Project’s merits.

1

Summary Of Principle National Laws And Regulations Applicable To Environmental Protection

To manage risks and guarantee benefits, and as a result of their experience in projects of this type, several other companies are invited to provide consultancy and are expected to provide their ample knowledge on construction standards, route scale, and selection, as well as their support on construction equipment and techniques.

Relevant Agreements ERM is contracted under the understanding that HKND will commit to comply with national and international standards and that it would evaluate the proposed Project in relation to generally accepted international best practices. Many of these national and international conventions and agreements focus on the conservation of the ecological diversity of the flora and fauna of Central America. Nicaragua is a party to a series of multilateral agreements (conventions, treaties, and protocols) that apply to Category I projects and to coastal development projects. These agreements are described in the following tables.

2

Summary Of Principle International Agreements Applicable To Environmental Protection

Legal Reference

Title

Agreement

Description

Law No. 217

General Law on the Environment and Natural Resources

Decree 9-96

General Law on the Environment and Natural Resources

Its purpose is to promote the maximum conservation of biological diversity in land and water areas of Central America, with an aim to benefiting future generations.

Decree No. 76- 2006

Environmental Evaluation System

Law No. 647

Amendments and Additions to Law No. 217, General Law on the Environment and Natural Resources

Covenant for the Conservation of Biodiversity and the Protection of Priority Wild Areas in Central America. Approved on 5 June 1992 in Managua, Nicaragua.

Law No. 585

Ban on the Cutting, Exploitation, and Commercialization of Forestry Resources

Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles. Adopted 1 December 1996 in Caracas, Venezuela.

The purpose of this convention is to establish suitable measures for the conservation and protection of sea turtles over a major part of their area of distribution.

Law No. 462

Conservation, Promotion, and Sustainable Development of the Forestry Industry

Law No. 559

Special Law on Crimes against the Environment and Natural Resources; Title XV of the Criminal Code

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Approved 10 December 1982 in Montego, Jamaica.

The purpose of this treaty is to strengthen peace, cooperation, and friendship among the signatories with respect to laws of the Sea.

Law No. 807

Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity

Law No. 626

Sustainable Development Commission for the Watershed of Lakes Apanás, Xolatlán, and Cocibolca and of the Rio San Juan

The purpose of this convention is to establish international efforts for the protection of wetlands and their associated flora and fauna.

Law No. 387

Special Law on Mining Exploration and Operation

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar). Adopted on 3 February 1971 in Ramsar, Iran.

Decree No. 33-95

Provisions for the Control of Contamination Resulting from the Discharge of Domestic, Industrial, and Agricultural Waste Waters

To provide national and regional mechanisms for avoiding changes in the use of areas with forest coverage, and to recover deforested areas.

NTON 05-012-02

Air Quality

NTON 05-015-02

Management and Disposal of Hazardous Solid Wastes

Regional Convention for the Management and Conservation of Natural Forest Ecosystems and the Development of Forest Plantations. Adopted on 29 October 1993 in Guatemala. Agreement between the Governments of Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the United States on Environmental Cooperation. Ratified on 18 February 2005.

Developed as part of the Free Trade Agreement between the Unites States, Central America and Dominican Republic, with the objective of establishing a framework for cooperation between signers to protect, improve, and preserve the environment, including natural resources, and ensure that existing environmental laws are met and executed.

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ESIA - Environmental and Social Impacts Assessment

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4.2 Consultancy Contracts: Environmental And Social Protection

4.2 Consultancy Contracts: Environmental and Social Protection (2) This chapter illustrates consultancy contracts and the roles that these entities bear.

CONTRACTOR

HKDN Ltd.

Canal Design

Changjiang Institute of Survey, Planning, Design and Research

Ports

Roads

CCCC Second Harbour Consultants

China Railway Siyuan Survey and Design Group

Construction& Equipment SBE, Belgium

SUB CONTRACTOR

Subontractors Source - HKDN Ltd.

Understanding Social Protection In addition to the permits and regulations that will apply directly to HKND, there will also be legislation that is applicable to subcontractors. This legislation must be considered in the development of any labour contract. Although this list is not exhaustive, the table below presents some of the main relevant laws relating to the construction of the canal, and the compliance required of the subcontractors.

1

Pertinent Laws That May Affect Subcontractors

Relevant Agreements The Government of Nicaragua is in the process of restructuring its social programs and controls, including the consolidation of social protection laws and regulations, as well as highlighting the role of governmental institutions in achieving sustainable exploitation of the country’s natural resources, while protecting the environment. The tables below provide a summary of legislation applicable to the social protection agenda.

2

Summary Of Principle National Laws And Regulations Applicable To Social Protection

Law

Applicability

Legal Reference

Title

185 / 1996

Work Code

Law No. 423

General Health Law

399 / 2001

Aquatic Transport

Law No. 337

474 / 2003

Reform Act to Title IV, Book One of the Labor Code

Law Creating the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation, and Response

509 / 2004

National Construction Laws

Law No. 618

General Law of Workplace Safety and Health

516 / 2005

Acquired Workers’ Rights

Law No. 28

Statutes of Autonomy of the Atlantic Coast Regions of Nicaragua

524 / 2005

Land Transport

Law No. 40

Law on Municipalities and Amendment thereto, Law 40-261

618 / 2007

General Law of Workplace Safety and Health

Law No. 445

625 / 2007

Minimum Wage Law

Law on the Communal Property Regime of the Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Communities of the Autonomous Regions of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua

664 / 2008

Work Inspection Law

Law No. 287

Childhood and Adolescence Code

815 / 2005

Labor and Social Security Procedural Code

Law No. 621

Access to Public Information Law

Law No. 1142

Law on the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of the Nation, and Decree No. 1237, Amendments to Decree 1142

Agreements

Applicability

Decree No. 39-2013

General Social Security Regulation

JCHG-017-10-07/2007

Feeding off Field Workers

Decree No. 581

Law of Expropriations

JCHG-002-08/2008

Minimum Wage

Decree No. 4336

JCHG-008-05-07

Elimination of Child Labor

Consent to the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and of Their Family Members

JCHG-019-12-08/2008

Administrative procedures of employment contracts

VGCAM-0020-10-06/2006

Dangerous Work

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Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Completion

Ship trials and operations start-up

Final commissioning

Pre-commission civil works

Commissioning

Environmental resotration and natural protection

Eastern Entrance - approach canal dredging

Dry excavation and embankment

Western entrance - approach canal dredging

Earthworks

Tourist accomodation (Tree Houses)

Mobile working camp (Digger)

Airport rehabilitation (Bluefleids and Emerald Coast)

Permanent power infrastructure

Bridges and roads

Reservoirs

River diversion works

Civil Construction

Temporary works

Clearing & pioneering

Project Establishment

Equipment transport & delivery

Mobilization on site

Establishment of power and fuel sources

Site facilities - camps, offices, workshops, on-site

Internal project roads and access

Ports

Road access to site

Project Infrastructure & Facilities

Other

Environmental and social impact assessment

Consultancy And Approvals

Resettlement (Pagodas)

Land acquisition

Land Acquisition

Contracting - progressive release

Tendering - progressive release

Documentation - rogressive release

Procurement

Documentation - progressive release

Detailed Design - progressive release

Design

Tasks and Activities

2020 S1

2020 S2

2021 S1

2021 S2

2022 S1

2022 S2

2023 S1

2023 S2

2024 S1

2024 S2

2025 S1

2025 S2

2026 S1

2026 S2

2027 S1

2027 S2

2028 S1

2028 S2

2029 S1

2029 S2

Ongoing

4.3 Building Programme

4.3 Building Programme

ERM - Environmental And Social Impact Assessment, Poroject Description

267

259


4.4 Economy And Employment This chapter looks how employment and expenditures during and after project operation 4.4 Economy And Employment (1)and This affect chapter looks howtwo employment expenditures during and after project operation and construction will affect the two main construction will the mainandreceptors of this investment: Government revenues and receptors of this investment: Government revenues and national economy. national economy. Investment

Source

Receptor

Project Construction

Employment

A. Government Tax Revenues

Project Operation

Expenditures

B. National Economy

impact 1

impact 2

Sources of Impacts on Economy and Employment

Sources of impacts include the use of workers and suppliers locally and from elsewhere in Nicaragua (see table). It is expected that there would be an in-migration of workers from other areas of the country during the construction and operation of the canal. This would consist of both workers that secured employment with the Project. Phase

Project Activity

Construction

All Activities

Operation

All Activities

Source of Impact

• • • •

Use of local and foreign workers Use of local and foreign suppliers Use of local and foreign workers Use of local and foreign suppliers

Economics Receptors

The Project would have economic and employment impacts in Nicaragua as a whole, although the characteristics of the impacts are expected to vary across the country and along different segments of the canal. The Government would be impacted mainly because it receives taxes from businesses and taxes on incomes and from taxation on spending within the economy. The rationale for including these two receptors and their importance rating is outlined in the table below. Receptor

Rationale of Inclusion

Benefits

A. Government of Nicaragua

Project-related employment and expenditures (construction and operation) would have an effect on tax revenues to the Government.

Tax revenues are a primary source of income for the Government and allow it to provide services to the people of Nicaragua.

B. Economy of Nicaragua

Project-related employment and expenditures (construction and operation) would have an effect on the national economy.

The performance of the economy, including the associated employment and income benefits, is a primary determinant of economic and social well-being.

Receptor A

Government of Nicaragua

The Government is expected to receive certain impacts to economy and employment as a result of the Project. One of the major Project impacts to the Government is the increase in Government tax revenues, which is described below.

Government revenue mostly comes from tax revenue. Direct taxes represent taxes on income and earnings, while indirect taxes relate to sales taxes and taxes on trade and international transportation. In 2013, the total Government tax revenue from all sources totalled USD$1,650 million (BCN 2013). According to the Master Concession and Implementation Agreement between the Government of Nicaragua and the Investors for the Project, HNKD is to pay USD$10 million per year for 10 years, for a total of USD$100 million over the first 10 years of Project operation. In addition to these direct payments to the Government, the indirect and induced economic activity generated in the country as a result of Project expenditures and employment would generate substantial Government tax revenues (i.e., through personal income tax, business taxes, and sales taxes). Overall, the impact of the increase in Government tax revenues would be strongly positive throughout construction and operation. This would be mainly from sales tax, business tax, and income tax. Criterion

Rating

Extent

National

Duration

Long-term

Although the current direct tax benefits from the Project are only estimated for the first 10 years of Project operation, the Project would continue to increase the Government tax revenue through other indirect and induced economic activities associated with purchases and worker earnings.

Scale

Evident

Additional annual revenue of USD$10 million would represent an estimated 0.6% increase in the Government tax revenue at the national level.

Frequency

Constant

In addition to the direct Project concession payments, there would be ongoing revenues to the Government through sales taxes, business tax, and income tax over the life of the Project.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Rationale The Project would contribute to the Government tax revenue collected at the national level.

269

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4.4 Economy And Employment This chapter looks at how the national economy will be affected by expenditures and increase in labour force during project construction and operation.

4.4 Economy And Employment (2)

This chapter looks at how the national economy will be affected by expenditures and increase in labour force during project construction and operation.

Receptor B

National Economy of Nicaragua

The national economy of Nicaragua would be expected to receive a wide variety of the impacts to economy and employment as a result of the Project. Three of these impacts are underlined below.

1

Increase in economic production, business diversity, and markets

Total construction cost is estimated at USD $50 billion with expenditures on earthworks, locks, dike, auxiliary dam, breakwater projects, infrastructure, and others. The Project would contract local and regional businesses to supply directly or indirectly to the Project. This would contribute to business revenue and spending, and consequently a higher level of economic production. Further, direct Project employees as well as those employed in suppliers’ industries would obtain higher personal income, further contributing to economic growth through increased consumer spending. Such substantial capital inflow into the economy would promote economic production, business diversity, and market development. Projects

2020-2023

2023-2026

2026-2029

Upon commencement of the operation phase of the Project in 2029, the Project would contribute to the economy through continued injections of operating expenditures and the provision of substantial employment opportunities. Expenditures are estimated at USD $788 million for the first year of Project operation. As shown in the table below, these expenditures are anticipated to increase each year of canal operation. As in the case of capital expenditures, operating expenditures would support local and regional businesses and the development of markets. This would further contribute to economic production and business diversity of the Nicaraguan economy in the long-run. Annual Operating Expenditures

Expenditure Category

Total

2020

2030

2040

2060

2800

2100

2120

Total 100 years

Earthworks

$10,566

$7,044

$11,745

$29,335

Salaries and wages

$169

$495

$578

$808

$1,037

$1,288

$1,668

$227,295

Digger Tectonic

$2,282

$1,829

$2,136

$4,418

Fuel cost

$45

$131

$153

$213

$274

$340

$440

$60,021

Embankment

$978

$657

$1,090

$2,725

Operating cost

$3

$8

$9

$13

$17

$21

$27

$3,719

Infrastructure

$1,632

$1,336

-

$2,968

Maintenance cost

$571

$631

$697

$849

$1,035

$1,262

$1,538

$178,441

Other Tectonics

$1,949

$701

$1,238

$3,888

Concession cost

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$100

Total

$17,407

$11,567

$16,209

$45,183

Total

$788

$1,265

$1,437

$1,883

$2,363

$2,911

$3,674

$496,576

USD million; Source: HKDN Ltd.

2

USD million; Source: HKDN Ltd.

Increase in labour force participation

1. Workforce breakdown during construction

For the 9-year construction period, it is estimated that the average workforce required to complete the Project is 50,000 employees per year. 2020

2021 50,000

2022 50,000

2023 50,000

2024 50,000

2025 50,000

2026 50,000

2027 50,000

2028 50,000

2029 50,000

Employees; Source: HKDN Ltd.

2. Workforce breakdown during operation

Once the canal is operational, it would provide an estimated 4,000 jobs in the first year of operation, increasing to 12,000 jobs in 2070 and an estimated 22,500 jobs in 2120. 2030

2040 3,814

2050 9,930

2060 10,746

2070

2080

2090

12,320

12,919

2100 13,815

2110

2120 22,500

Employees; Source: HKDN Ltd.

3. Workforce increase and impact on unemployment

In 2013, 3.2 million of Nicaraguans (75.8 percent) participated in the labour force, with an unemployment rate of 5.9 percent (BCN 2013). HKND estimates that about half of the workforce would be recruited from within Nicaragua. Experienced personnel (management staff, training personnel, equipment operators) would likely come from other countries, with about 25 percent from China and 25 percent from other countries. The Project is expected to reduce the Nicaraguan unemployment rate and increase labor participation both during Project construction and operation. For example, an addition of 10,000 jobs would reduce

+ 10,000 jobs

5,9% unemployed

3

the Nicaraguan unemployment rate from 5.9 percent to 5.5 percent, all else being equal. Consequently, with another 25,000 jobs for Nicaraguans during Project construction, the unemployment rate would decrease by almost a full percentage point. Construction is planned to operate two 12-hour shifts per day, 7 days per week. Initial roster arrangements are as follows: • Domestic/local workforce: two weeks on, one week off; and • Foreign/expatriate workforce: four weeks on, two weeks off (to allow sufficient time for international travel).

2

+ 25,000 jobs

5,5% unemployed

1 3

4,5% unemployed

1-Nicaraguans, 2-Chinese, 3-Other

2 x 12 hours

7/7

Increase in workforce skills and experience

With more than a half of all Nicaraguans living in poverty or extreme poverty, and current employment opportunities being limited, Nicaragua has a relatively small skilled workforce. Substantial investment in training may be required, specifically for skilled positions such as maintenance personnel and equipment operators, to meet Project staffing requirements. Through work during Project construction and operation, workers would receive on-thejob training that would help increase the overall quality of skills and experience in the labour force. This effect would be further extended to supplier industries, where suppliers, as a result of an increased demand for their goods and services, would hire and train new workers. This would additionally increase the overall skills and experience level in the workforce, and enhance national human capital to support further development and advancement of the national economy.

La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

Protecting Paradise Realisation ERM - Environmental And Social ImpactDesign Assessment, Chapter 9 BCN - Central Bank of Nicaragua

Typical job types for Nicaraguans during Project construction would include, but not be limited to: • Maintenance Level 4: Leading hand Level 3: Skilled tradesman Level 2: Semi-skilled tradesman Level 1: Apprentice • Equipment Operator Level 3: Excavator operator/ Leading hand Level 2: Skilled operator Level 1: Semi-skilled operator • Labourer

271

263


4.5 Community Health And Safety This chapter assesses the potential impacts of the project construction on community health and safety, specifically with respect to the following two categories: (1) exposure to environmental hazardous materials, (2) transmission of infectious diseases and (3) noise 4.5 Community Health And Safety (1) relatedThishealth issues. chapter assesses the potential impacts of the project construction on community health and safety, specifically with respect to the following two categories: (1) exposure to environmental hazardous materials, (2) transmission of infectious diseases and (3) noise related health issues.

1 Exposure to Environmental Hazardous Materials Air quality related health effects

The Project would generate air emissions during construction. The emissions of health concern are primarily particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Particulate emissions would be emitted during construction due to: • Extensive earth moving activities • Fugitive emissions from the two concrete batch plants • Use of off-road diesel powered equipment • Use of diesel trucks and diesel-powered vessels bringing materials and workers to and from the Project.

focus area

In summary, sensitive populations for exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 are: • Those with chronic respiratory disease (asthma), particularly children and the elderly • Those with acute respiratory infections, particularly children and the elderly • People using solid fuel for cooking • Those with chronic heart disease • Diabetics

Predicted Maximum 24-hour PM2.5 Concentrations during Project Construction

Mitigation

focus area

To avoid or reduce the air quality impacts on human settlements, we can agreed to implement the following mitigation measures: • Implement an air quality monitoring program at the Project area and affected settlements during Project construction and operation phases to monitor PM2.5 and NO2. • Implement a concurrent rehabilitation program that minimizes the amount of land that would be disturbed at any one time. • Implement a solid waste management plan and avoid burning of non-vegetative wastes at construction sites. < 10% threshold value

60-100%

10-25%

> 100%

25-60%

Predicted Maximum 1-hour NOx Concentrations during Project Construction

Water quality related health effects

The safety of drinking water is a vital component for health. Exposure to chemical contaminates in water can result in both acute and chronic adverse health effects. Project-related activities could contribute to chemical contamination of surface water sources for drinking water and livestock watering both directly and indirectly via two pathways: • Directly, from chemical spills/releases from chemicals brought to the site for the Project • Indirectly, due to creating conditions that would increase concentrations in water from chemicals already present in the environment The construction phase of the Project would consist of very large earth works and the creation of material disposal areas. These areas could generate storm-water run-off carrying existing contaminants currently in soils into surface water. In summary, the chemicals and pathways that might be of most concern if they reach surface water due to construction or operations activities are: • Organochlorine & organophosphate pesticides/ arsenic • Nitrates and nitrites • Diesel

Mitigation

Some of the recommendations for measures and controls to reduce impacts of drinking water are: • Erosion and sediment control including sediment ponds where appropriate • Re-vegetation of disturbed areas • Benching and sloping consistent with geo-technical stability guidelines. Provide slope reinforcement -e.g., cable tethering. • Implementing water supply and treatment plants

2 Transmission of infectious diseases Water-, Food-, and Air-borne Infectious Diseases Vector-relaed Diseases Vector borne diseases rely upon organisms, named vectors, such as mosquito, ticks, or sand flies that have an active role in the transmission of a pathogen (parasite, bacterium, and virus) from one host to the other. Within Nicaragua common vector borne disease include dengue, malaria, and leishmaniasis. In endemic areas with vector-borne diseases such as dengue, construction activities (e.g., land clearing and excavation) may inadvertently create bodies of standing water that can become mosquito vector- breeding sites. Habitat fragmentation, the creation of new bodies of water, and potential biodiversity loss from land clearing can also open up new niches for vector species.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. ERM - Environmental And Social Impact Assessment, Chapters 6, 9

Water and food-borne enteric illnesses are caused by viruses, such as Norovirus, or bacteria, such as shigella and salmonella, and result in cramps, nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea. The pathogens can be ingested through contaminated water or food, or through the fecal-oral route, or from hand-to-mouth transmission after touching contaminated surfaces. The consumption of unclean water can also lead to other diseases such as urinary tract infections. Therefore, unsanitary conditions and unsanitary food preparation and hand-washing practices can facilitate the spread of enteric illnesses. Air-borne respiratory infectious diseases range in severity from tuberculosis, pneumonia and some virulent flu strains, which can pose a fatal threat, to the common cold. All of these diseases are transmitted by the same general pathways: by inhaling airborne virus particles or touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the face. Therefore, being in close quarters with poor ventilation and improper or infrequent hand-washing can greatly facilitate the spread of these diseases.

Mitigation Measures that would promote worker health, including diseases prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are: • Health clinics would serve each work camp with full routine and in some cases emergency medical care. • Workers would receive health training that would address communicable disease prevention. • Worker camps would meet all applicable international and Nicaragua standards such as the IFC/European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Workers’ Accommodation Standards. • Water for worker camps would be served by purpose built water treatment plants with water supplied from a mix of rain water collection tanks and/or rivers/streams with appropriate water treatment. • Wastewater treatment from package wastewater treatment plants located an appropriate distance from the worker camps would meet international and Nicaragua standards and would be discharged in an environmentally acceptable manner.

265 273


4.5 Community Health And Safety This chapter assesses the potential impacts of the project construction on community health and safety, specifically with respect to the following two categories: (1) exposure to environmental hazardous materials, (2) transmission of infectious diseases and (3) noise 4.5 Community Health And Safety (2) relatedThishealth issues. chapter assesses the potential impacts of the project construction on community health and safety, specifically with respect to the following two categories: (1) exposure to environmental hazardous materials, (2) transmission of infectious diseases and (3) noise related health issues.

Noise related health effects

Sources of noise and vibration above ambient background noise and vibration would be present during the construction and operational phases. Some examples of construction noise generating equipment and activities during the construction phase include: • Impact equipment - pile drivers used in foundation work, jack hammers, concrete and pavement breakers, and blasting • Stationary equipment – such as power generators, air compressors, and pumps • Heavy equipment – excavating machinery (excavators, backhoes, front-end loaders) and material handling equipment (rock crushing, graders, pavers, rollers, dump trucks) • Traffic – heavy haul vehicles, trucks and commuters, as well as marine traffic to and from work site. Project Operation Noise Contours at East Canal-Lake Slope

Mitigation

Some of the planned noise and vibration control measures during construction and operation phases would include the following: • Vessel speed limits analogous to the Panama Canal will be implemented. • Underwater blasting will not be permitted. • To the extent practicable, nighttime blasting on land near urbanized area will be avoided. • Pumps and electric motors will be enclosed (i.e., pump houses). • Electric motors, rather than diesel engines (which generate more noise), to power pumps will be used.

35-40 dB

50-55 dB

40-45 dB

55-60 dB

45-50 dB

60-65 dB

Point source

Line source Project Operation Noise Contours at East Canal-Caribbean Slope

Airborne noise

There are no national noise standards in Nicaragua; therefore, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) limits for ambient/ airborne noise levels (IFC 2007) are used in this assessment as the basis of ‘significance thresholds’. In environments where the ambient noise levels already exceed a level of 55 dBA daytime and/or 45 dBA nighttime, the IFC indicates that additional noise emissions should not cause the ambient noise level in a residential area to rise by more than 3dBA. Receptor

Maximum Ambient Noise Level (dB) Daytime 7.00-22.00

Nighttime (22.00-7.00)

Residential, Educational

55

45

Industrial, Comercial

70

70

Underwater noise

Underwater noise can cause behavioural harm, physical injury, or death to marine mammals and fish. Impulsive noise such as impact pile driving and underwater blasting are major sources of underwater noise. The current injury and harassment thresholds for marine mammals and fish are summarized in the table below (WSDOT 2014). Species

Level A-injury threshold

Level B-Harassment impulsive noise

Pinnipeds

190 dB rms

160 dB rms

Cetaceans

180 dB rms

160 dB rms

Fish

206 dB peak

150 dB rms

Source: WSDOT 2014: dB = decibel; rms = root mean square. Underwater Noise Calculation Method

TL = 15 * Log (R1/R2) + αR R1 = distance in meters to point 1 R2 = distance in meters to point 2 TL = the change in noise level between R1 and R2 αR = linear absorption and scattering loss

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropía ambiental. ERM - Environmental And Social Impact Assessment, Chapters 6, 9

Ground-borne vibration

Humans can feel ground-borne vibration or air blast at very low levels and can become concerned at levels well below those that can cause damage to their property. Ground-borne vibration or air blast limits, therefore, have two aspects: • An environmental or acceptable human response (annoyance) limit; and • A limit to prevent structural damage (which should be considered separately from the limits above). No regulations regarding ground-borne vibration or airblast exist in Nicaragua. In the absence of any specific or absolute limits, potential ground-borne vibration and air blast from the Project area will be evaluated using the following guidelines or criteria: • New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) guidelines – Technical Basis for Guidelines to Minimize Annoyance due to Blasting Overpressure and Ground Vibration (ANZECC 1990). • Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Transit Noise and Vibration Impact Assessment, U.S. Department of Transportation (FTA 2006). The criteria for control of human annoyance and structural damage are defined in terms of impact on ground-borne vibration, measured as peak particle velocity (PPV) in millimetres per second (mm/s), are presented in the tables below. Vibration Type

Maximum Level

Ground-borne Vibration, PPV (mm/s)

10 mm/s

Vibration Type

Structure / Building Category

Maximum Level

Reinforced-concrete, steel or timber (no plaster)

12.7 mm / s

Engineered-concrete and masonry (no plaster)

7.6 mm / s

Non-Engineered timber and masonry buildings

5 mm / s

Buildings extremely susceptible to vibration damage (no plaster)

3 mm / s

Ground-borne Vibration, PPV (mm/s)

267 275


4.6 Community Involvement: Indigenous People Plan The Indigenous Peoples Plan describes the results of the consultation with indigenous peoples and ethnic groups. Its objective is to obtain a cultural and socio-economic characterization of the ethnic community and indigenous peoples and their perception and 4.6 Community Involvement: Indigenous People Plan (1) Indigenous Peoples Plan describes the results of the consultation with indigenous peoples and ethnic groups. Its objective is to obtain a cultural and socio-economic concerns The regarding the project. characterization of the ethnic community and indigenous peoples and their perception and concerns regarding the project.

1 The Rama-Kriol community, represented by the GTR-K, is located in the southern part of the RACS. Their territory borders northwards with Rama Cay and South San Juan del Norte, encompassing 4,068 km2 and including approximately 4,000 km2of maritime area (see Figure 1.2-2). The Rama indigenous people and Kriol ethnic groups of African descent in the communities of Monkey Point, Corn River and Greytown share strong ties due to their joint work in the defence of the land and its natural resources and the existence of mixed families. Sharing the same territory allows the appropriation of customary and common traditions (GTR-K 2007).

6km canal corridor

Rama-Kriol Communities

10km canal corridor

4

3

5

6

7

Canal centreline Rama-Kriol Territory

scoped in this chapter

2

8 9

Participatory ethnic diagnostic

In order to obtain information regarding the communities in the territory of the GTR-K, workshops were held between 13 October 2014 and 29 October 2014. The workshops focused on the collection of information required to establish the social, economic and cultural baseline of each of the communities addressed, as well as the identification of the perceptions of the attending population with respect to the current project.

Activities

scoped in next chapter

1. Georeferenced Transects

Guided tours, accompanied by members of the community, allowed for recognition of the community territories and livelihoods of the community, the natural resources that are utilized, the infrastructure available and visiting places of historical or cultural importance to the community.

2. Venn Diagrams

scoped in next chapter

With Activity 2 it was possible to identify and determine the importance of linkages and relationships within communities, organizations and the groups active in the community and how they are viewed by members; it also provided an understanding of the interaction between organizations. police NGOs

3. Social Mapping

Social mapping is a tool that involves active participation and synergies of knowledge regarding territory and territoriality. In this case, the community constructed an overall perception of its territory taking into consideration its physical characteristics, socio-economic conditions and types of political organization.

4. Time line

The development of Exercise 4 included preparation of the historical time-line. This activity focused on understanding the sociocultural changes of the community, considering the historical events that could have influenced these changes; and the social dynamics (for instance, migrations). The following chronological outline was used for this.

Ministry of Agriculture

past

me / us church

worldview

historical events

myths - legends

sociocultural and political changes

forest

Participants

present

river

one community leader

one elderly adult

one community leader

one teacher

one community leader

one elderly adult

one community leader

two elderly adults

one farmer

one fisherman

one farmer

one fisherman

one farmer

one fisherman

one woman

one young person

one woman

one young person

one woman

one young person

one woman

Location

Ethnicity

Number of Attendees

Indian River

Rama

98

Monkey Point

Kriol

60

Wiring Cay

Rama

18 24

Bangkukuk Taik

Rama

Rama Cay

Rama

80

Tiktik Kaanu

Rama

36 55

Sumu Kaat

Rama

Corn River

Kriol

31

Greytown

Kriol

73

one teacher

475

Total

Participants Involved in Indigenous Peoples Consultation

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropĂ­a ambiental.

Dissemination of Results Achieved by the Community of Wiring Cay

269 277


4.6 Community Involvement: Indigenous People Plan The Indigenous Peoples Plan describes the results of the consultation with indigenous peoples and ethnic groups. Its objective is to obtain a cultural and socio-economic characterization of the ethnic community and indigenous peoples and their perception and 4.6 Community Involvement: Indigenous People Plan (2) concerns The regarding the project. Indigenous Peoples Plan describes the results of the consultation with indigenous peoples and ethnic groups. Its objective is to obtain a cultural and socio-economic characterization of the ethnic community and indigenous peoples and their perception and concerns regarding the project.

3

1

3

3

1 1 1

2

2

1. Kaka Lagoon. Coordinates N 11° 42.252 W 83° 41.836 2. It is an area of interest to the community for fishing purposes, where species such as sabalete, tarpon, snook, turtles and red snapper can be obtained, including lizards which are sold for their skin. Local people indicate that when the weather is about to change the lagoon announces it by emitting gases (smoke).

2 1 1

3

Exercise 3 - Social Mapping 1- Fishing areas identified by Wiring Cay Population 2- Location of infrastructure of the Wiring Cay Community 3- Hunting areas identified by Wiring Cay Population

1. Infrastructure and basic services

Wiring Cay is a scattered type of settlement; there are 20 houses and a community hall which form part of the community infrastructure The characteristics of the housing and communal infrastructure are detailed below: • Dwellings. Houses are built predominantly of wood and reed and the roofs are made of royal palm straw • Community House. Three years ago the community got together to build the community house with the support of the GTR-K and it is used for holding meetings and assemblies

Exercise 2 - Social Mapping

Pacific Ocean

2. Demography

Twenty families of the Rama ethnic group used to live in Wiring Cay however, seven months ago families migrated citing the following reasons: • Lack of health services • Difficulty to attend school during the rainy season and • The presence of a criminal group known as “Salas Blanca”. Therefore, only five families (14 people) of the Rama ethnic group currently remain in Wiring Cay, although the population of mestizos (settlers) still in the area is quite large (ca. 1000)

A Venn diagram was used to identify the main recognized community leaders and their work within the community: • Community leaders • Communities • Other organizations

The main perceptions regarding the Project are related to its potential impact on the integrity of the local population, including possible effects on their customs and ways of life.

In the meeting held in Wiring Cay, a concern has been raised about the possibility of the Project altering their daily lifestyle: The main concern revolves around the cultural aspect where, due to the arrival of contractors, there is a risk that local women cohabit with those arriving and another ethnic group would appear, a mix between Rama and Chinese, Rama and gringos. We as teachers have to work hard on the identity aspect of these people because the kids, for example, that leave here and go to Bluefields lose their identity, they no longer want to eat fish or dress as Rama people. This is the biggest concern, the cultural aspect.

In addition, the participants in Wiring Cay stated that: One of the concerns we have as the Rama indigenous group [is to guarantee if possible] the security of the Rama indigenous people. We are fully aware of the gangs that exist in Salvador, [and in] Costa Rica. Will these gangs come into Nicaragua? In general, there is concern regarding the extent to which the benefits of the Project can really be exploited by the local population, as manifested by the same, they are beginning to believe that the only beneficiaries of the Project are the implementers thereof; therefore, they regard that the scope, impacts and benefits of the project must be socialized more extensively among the population.

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation La embajada de la filantropía ambiental.

3. Zones of natural resource use

Hunting and collection of fruits are intended mainly for own consumption and occasionally for trade purposes, including: meat from wild animals such as peccary, deer, guilla, agouti, as well as fish and shrimp from water resources; plus otter and crocodile skins. Fishing catch is sold and only the surplus is set apart for own consumption.

5. Sites of cultural importance

4. Social fabric

Perceptions regarding current project

1. Hunting Area related to the Majagmy arm of the Wiring Cay River. Coordinates N 11° 42.252 W 83° 41.836 2. It is an area of interest to the community for hunting purposes, where animals such as peccary, guilla, danto, deer, white- faced and red-faced monkeys and iguanas can be obtained.

The main sites of cultural importance are: the Paispan Hill and the old cemetery (which is still in use). According to tradition, a giant lives on Paispan Hill that threatens everyone who comes to the place and there is also a streak of jaguars roaming the area (Waak Sauk).

6. Traditional Medicine

Residents of the community have indicated that medicinal plants are mainly used to mitigate negative impacts on health such as: • Parasites. In cases of children with parasites, a cream made from a Jamaican plant is used and also the guanabano plant (annona muricata). • Snake bites. Coffee powder is used. • Cramps (newborns). Basil leaf.

Recommendations for Community Involvement

In order to complete an Indigenous Population Plan, the recommendations cited as follows should be taken into consideration.

1-

Promote the development of a Meeting with the GTR-K and with representatives from each of the nine communities, in order to present the impacts that the Project may have upon the community, and to set forth possible management measures for prevention, mitigation and/or compensation aimed at managing identified impacts, as well as establishing the position of each community in regards to implementation of the Nicaragua Canal Project.

2-

Propose a resettlement plan and reach an agreement regarding the communities to will be resettled as well as impact mitigation, taking into account the social and cultural particularities of indigenous and ethnic peoples. In addition, obtain permission from the GTR-K for use of the territory and to begin Project construction. Without explicit permission from the GTR-K it is not recommended that construction begin.

3-

Meetings must include participation by representatives from the Hong KongNicaragua Development Group (HKND), as Project executors and those responsible for the implementation of environmental administration and management plans. Representatives from the Nicaraguan Government, as guarantors of the duties and rights of the country’s ethnic communities, must also be present.

271 279


5.1 References

Web Links https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jE772fr8u9s http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2017/05/world/chinas-new-world-order/ https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/13/magazine/what-the-worlds-emptiest-international-airport-says-about-chinas-influence.html Visionss of China - Asian Superpower”. CNN. 1999. Retrieved 19 July 2014. China’s military presence is growing. Does a superpower collision loom?”. The Guardian. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014. Pew Research Center 2015 http://edition.cnn.com/interactive/2017/05/world/chinas-new-world-order/ https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/26/travel/26nicaragua-cover.htmlt http://earthsendangered.com/search-regions3.asp https://thediplomat.com/tag/china-nicaragua-relations/ https://tradingeconomics.com/nicaragua/gdp https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/worlds-fastest-growing-tourist-destinations-2017/index.html https://tradingeconomics.com/nicaragua/unemployment-rate “Civil Engineering”. June 1999. Archived from the original on 8 June 2007 https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.economist.com%2Fnews%2Fbriefing%2F21723128-andfixing-it-will-be-hard-and-costly-most-neglected-threat-public-health-china&h=ATO-AtgbfDhGmwk6j2_128y8je4NprAQhyn19WcCnSKASQgmgwoTeFa6nY7OYzJ8NemeU0yQWMaj3sXHlzqBAY_vm2jZxI8duxMvzYcFD--PSjefoRIsDAxelbI http://www.organiclifestylemagazine.com/repel-mosquitoes-by-cultivating-marigolds https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap061122.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roller_ship https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/1850_Woman_and_Men_in_California_Gold_Rush.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Lumber_yard_sorting_table%2C_Falls_City%2C_Oregon_%283229272695%29.jpg https://canalrivertrust.org.uk/news-and-views/blogs/nigel-crowe/puddle-clay https://brentmuseumandarchives.wordpress.com/2012/09/19/a-new-golden-age-of-postcards-in-brent/ http://www.patilgroup.in/rubber-expansion-bellow.htm https://depositphotos.com/187963626/stock-video-conveyor-belt-on-industry-ceramic.html http://www.fotolibra.com/gallery/919618/cerebos-salt-factory-canteen-1924/ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/canteen-worker https://www.climatestotravel.com/climate/nicaragua http://www.huetbois.com/en/retaining-and-foundation-wood-gross-poles https://ecoregions2017.appspot.com http://www.offroadsafety.org/get-out/vehicle-recovery/vehicle-recovery-anchors https://www.theguardian.com/cities/davehillblog/2015/jul/23/london-olympic-legacy-three-years-on-2012-games http://www.thisisinsider.com/abandoned-olympic-venues-current-day-pictures-2016-5 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/Lumber_yard_tsorting_table%2C_Falls_City%2C_Oregon_%283229272695%29.jpg https://www.orkin.com/other/mosquitoes/mosquito-habitats/ http://www.mosquitoworld.net/about-mosquitoes/habitats/ http://www.organiclifestylemagazine.com/repel-mosquitoes-by-cultivating-marigolds https://www.orkin.com/other/mosquitoes/mosquito-habitats/ http://www.mosquitoworld.net/about-mosquitoes/habitats/ http://www.organiclifestylemagazine.com/repel-mosquitoes-by-cultivating-marigolds https://www.climatestotravel.com/climate/nicaragua https://www.timeanddate.com/astronomy/nicaragua/managua http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/npp/blog/index.php/uncategorized/catatumbo-lightning-in-the-daynight-band/attachment/catatumbo_ lightning_20120510_0644_svdnb_cropped/ Knowledge, Dr. (October 29, 2007). “Why can’t we capture lightning and convert it into usable electricity?” Fogonazos: Catatumbo, the everlasting storm”. Fogonazos.blogspot.com http://www.bldgblog.com/2013/08/lightning-farm/ http://www.explainthatstuff.com/luminescence.html https://weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Manaqua,Nicaragua https://worldtravelers.org/destination-bangkok.asp http://nordic.businessinsider.com/plastic-in-ocean-outweighs-fish-evidence-report-2017-1?r=US&IR=T https://blogs.ntu.edu.sg/hp331-2014-76/?page_id=90

Abbreviations Abbreviation CDT, Comisión de Trabajo del Gran Canal - Environmental and Social Impact Assessment by ERM Abbreviation ACP, Panama Canal Authority - Environmental and Social Impact Assessment by ERM ERM - Environmental And Social Impact Assessment ESIA - Environmental and Social Impacts Assessment BCN - Central Bank of Nicaragua

Protecting Paradise Design Realisation

273


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This album incorporates material produced for the Year 5 Diploma examination of the Master of Arts in Architecture Graduate Programme at Aarhus School of Architecture. Second Edition, Revised November 2019. Compiled In London And Printed In Amsterdam. Copyright 2019 Victor Moldoveanu. All rights Reserved.


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