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‘Radio Waterloo investigation . r

Standing out from the usual battle-scarred landscape of the Federation of Students annual budget infighting this year, looms the possibility that the campus radio station, Radio Waterloo, will be faced with crippling budget cuts that would force it to cease operations. Radio Waterloo’s troubles began 1 last year with a $3O,OOO loan from the federation and administration, whose purpose was to permit the purchase of equipment and the. expansion of physical facilities’. At that time Radio Waterloo expected that, with these improvements, the station could generate revenue from the sale of broadcast quality tapes and other services, which would help offset part of its annual federation subsidy. In its budget for the upcoming however, the station year, revealed that cost overruns on last year’s construction will require a further $4,000 loan before their sales program can begin, though spokespersons remain confident

that such a program should prove readily feasible. This extra money would bring the total budget to around $23,009 for next year, including $5$09 for repayment of the original loan from the administration. It is apparently this deficit which first rankled federation president Andy Telegdi, prompting him to suggest that the station be ‘investigated’ at a federation executive meeting on March 17. At that time, Telegdi suggested three possible courses of action that could ensue follow.ing such an investigation. The first was that Radio Waterloo’s 1074-75 budget be passed as usual. The second would be to give the station only enough money to repay last year’s loan, while the- third would be to “abolish Radio Waterloo altogether”. Needless to say, both the latter options would havhe the same effect. On the basis of Telegdi’s initiative, a committee was struck to investigate Radio Waterloo,

though the three recommendations were not specifically included in its terms of reference. Members of the station’s steering committee fear, however, that this does not mean that they have been forgotten. They further take exception to the ‘appointment of Kathy Reynolds as chairperson of the Board of Communications, under whose aegis the station falls. They charge that Reynolds has shown no interest in Radio Waterloo, that she has shown no desire to communicate with the station’s personnel, and that her actions to date ’ have been indicative of a hostile attitude- towards its operation. ‘Meanwhile, in an effort to determine the station’s popularity among university of Waterloo students, Radio Waterloo and the federation have been conducting independent telephone surveys. The Radio Waterloo survey of just over two hundred people indicated that forty per cent of students listen to its broadcasts; prelimin.ary returns from the ‘unfinished federation survey give a somewhat lower figure between twenty-five and thirty per cent. What these results or any other factors will play in the question of Radio Waterloo’s survival remains undetermined. As usual, the erratic political behaviour of the federation will be the dominant force in making the final decision. -nick savage

University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario iolume 14, number 35 friday, april 5, 1974 / .

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Arts library i to cut hours According to a leaflet distributed by the senate library committee the university library “may be forced to take steps to reduce costs of operations because of budget limitations”. The committee is trying to fathom student reaction to the three options listed in the leaflet. The alleged intent of the leaflet is to find “which of the alternatives would inconvenience (students) least”. “Alternative one” specifies “delays in circulation services” as being an economy measure. Presumably the savings will be derived from staff attritions (i.e. the firing of “redundant” staffers). To the library users, there will be less efficiency in returning books to the shelves, less frequent shelf-reading (i.e. putting books in order by call number), less speedy recall of outstanding books and slower processing of material being placed on’reserve. “Alternative two” calls for the “reduction in circulation hours and reserve services”. The “reduction” will be one hour per day, meaning the library’s deadlines for taking out books will be 1l:OO p.m. instead of the present midnight. “Alternative three” is a return to the pre-1969 days when the library used to close completely at midnight every day. The library committee suggests a “compromise”; instead of returning to the midnight closing hour, the library would close at 2 and open at 8. Obviously all three “alternatives” are unacceptable as they are nothing less than cutbacks which will. cause great inconvenience to both students and non-students who use the library. When contacted a senate library committee student member said she hoped that with the additional income the university now has ($1.158 million), the library might get extra funds. The library now accounts for 2.35 percent of the university budget and its budget stands at a mere $l,OOO,OOO for books, periodicals and binding. _ _1 -john

Record bends under pressure

-In Sum day

night’s council meeting Radio Water/c% found- itself a ‘hot’ issue. Executive members had dec :idec zf on March 77 that the station was due for an ‘investigation’ and asked council to strike a commit tee. The executive also had the committee members picked for council. David College, a member of ’ ihe Rar30 Waterloo steering committee attempted to demonstrate to council that there were no grounds -for the investigation, and that the ton6 of the action was unwelcomed. The protests of the station went unl bear *d and council decided to strike the committee. The report is due before the end of April. Phc3tog [rapher was Randy Hannigan.

morris

* i

The Kitchener-Waterloo Record has stopped publishing a foodprice survey because of pressure put on them by the food retailers of the area, claims the Ontario Public Interest Research Group (OPIRG) in a letter to the chevron this week. The survey had been prepared by the campus based organization, and the Record had been publishing its results weekly since last fall. Originally, the area retailers were co-operative and some store managers agreed to sign the survey sheets. However, retailers soon began to feel that the survey was hurting their business rather than helping it, OPIRG said, fearing that constuners woulduse the guide to direct them to the cheapest items at different stores, rather than remaining in one store for all their shopping. Akcording to OPIRG, the scenario for the stores’ protest began with a threat early this year by the Central Meat Market to w-ithdraw its advertising from the Record if it did not drop the survey, but the paper refused to comply. Central Meat Market did not stop advertising-the Record is the only daily newspaper in town-but other retailers soon followed its lead and also complained to the Record. OPIRG claims that not only did A&P threaten to withdraw all its advertising from the Record, but were also prepared, if necessary, to withdraw all its outlets in the K-W community. Under this concerted pressure, the Record soon’ submitted to the retailers’ demands. The retailers-also accused OPIRG of starting a price-war, the letter stated; it now appears that the organization’s most visible activity, already absent from the Record’s pages for three weeks, will be suspended indefinitely. -Susan

johnson


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Benefit Concert for Camp Uhuru with Jonathan Kramer and Janet Mac-IDonald. 8:30-12 WLU Ballroom. $2 or $2.50 at the door - your choice. Pub featuring Stringband. 9pm-lam campus center pub area. Free.

in

5, 1974

east Kitchener.

Amateur Radio Club meeting. New members always welcome. 4: 30pm E2-

2355. Celebration 7:45am St College.

of the Holy Eucharist Bede’s Chapel, Renison

Life drawing class 7-9pm HUM386 Everyone welcome. 25 cent5. !$ponsored by the Fine Arts Build.

H U M248.

/ SUNDAY. Palm Sunday worship service 10:30am Conrad Grebel chapel. Speaker Bernie Warren from Toronto and guest vocal group. Discussion foflowing’ service.

Federation flicks: Gangbusters Chapter 13; The Bride of Frankenstein, Boris Karloff; The Don is Dead, Anthony Quinn, Fredrick Forest. 8pm AL116.

Country and western jamboree, contributions voluntary, there will be scheduled performers, all others wishing to perform are welcome to bring their guitar or whatever. 1: 30pm Princeton Centennial Hall.

.Federation flicks: Gangbusters finale; Act of the Heart - Genevieve Bujold, Donald Sutherland; The Nelson Affair - Glenda Jackson, Peter Finch. 8pm AL116.

Pub fea-turing Stringband. 9pm-lam campus centre pub area. Free.

Advanced meditators

sounds of the thirties by Jeff Weller. 8pm Kitchener Public Library.

Ba ha’i fireside. 7 : 30pm Everyone welcome. If

Anthony ’ AL1 16.

april

A whole new outlook on you and the T universe. Come and discover how you fit into God’s perfect plan. 7:30pm ssc301.

April 20 Wine and cheese party. 8pm PSY K-W Symphony Orchestra presents an ’ Black Walnut -Ballet Society presents building 3rd floor grad and faculty - orchestral the Germantown Dance Theatre, program with guest soloist lounge. All psychology students, Philadelphia, Penn, in an evening of Susanna Mildonian (harp). Humanities graduates, and faculty welcome. dance. 8pm HUM theatre. Tickets $3 theatre 2:30pm and 7:30pm. Tickets available from box office. Benefit Concert for Camp Uhuru with available at the door. Students $2; Jonathan Kramer and Janet Macothers $4. April 21 Donald. 8:30-‘12 WLU Ballroom. $2 or Federation flicks: Gangbusters Advanced lecture for transcendental $2.50 at the door - your choice. Chapter 13: The Bride of Frankenstein meditators only. 8pm E3-1101 IFthus coffee house in its second Boris Karloff; The Don is Dead - AnApril 22 season of free admission, coffee speach thony Quinn, Fredrick Forest. 8pm Kitchener Public Library Jazz Club AL116. \and love. 9-12 ML coffee shop. informal record programme. Jazz in

lecture for transcendental only. 8pm E3-1101.

India Canada Association presents a movie called Haqueequat. 1 lpm Channel 12.

MONDAY Pub closed and will re-open’wednesday May 1.

April 31 Worship service 10 :30am Grebel chapel “Suffering”

SATURDAY Federation ’ flicks: Gangbusters Chapter 13; The Bride of Frankenstein, Boris Karloff; The Don is Dead,

Gay Liberation Movement has special events 8pm CC113. For more information call ext 2372 or drop into our office CC217C.

group and sermon* May 6 Circle K meeting Everyone welcome.

Coming June 14,15,&16

The Labatt’s @ue . Can-Am Weekend at Mosport - ’ Featuring the CAN-AM and Formula 5000 Races

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friday,

april

5, 3974

still disagree with the actual disfuption tactic, but sentiment is

organization (for not “contributing to the educational, recreational and cultural values of the university ) they received little

the chevron

3

point U of T president Evans was asked by a survivor of Dachau, “How should you fight racism?“. Evans replied, “through discussion”.

Cathy Reynolds from her position as the chairperson of Communications-the area under -which they fall within the federation. They claim she has not U\ of T E-Y!SYz IpZZZ~‘~~XZs?.Z been at all c_ommunicative about not appear to.lead the lynch mob any of the proceedings of the and the Toro&o papers were left to various executive meetings where Radio Waterloo was an issue for On March 13 at the University of mourn student “apa thy”. Toronto SDS-led protestors It was not so much apathy as discussion. They found out about hostility to racism that--was at the intent to investigate the station prevented American sociologist In one of the most free-form only through another member of Edward Banfield from giving a work. SDS and others have been council meetings to date in the the fe’deration executive, one week speech--on the grounds that he is a raising the issue of racism at UT limited history of the federation after’ the initial decision had been The university will have an racist. Banfield left Toronto the for several months now, one case under president Andrew Telegdi unexpected $1.158 million to play next day vowing never to return, in point being a professor Hector at made. Council, however gave council baulked against Telegdi’s the medical school who in a report Reynolds the benefit of the doubt with. next year, Burt Matthews and so begari the most heated to the workman’s compensation rule several times and then at and refused to remove her. informed the board of governors controversy UT has seen for some others rallied for his support. It time. tioard said that Italians are Telegdi attempted to initiate a last Tuesday. The reaction in certain quarters “culturally predisposed” to .fake was the second council meeting of discussion about increasing the The additional sum comes from the recently elected represenwas almost -hysterical. The ad- injury. The very weekend before federation fees for the fall of 1974 a 7 per cent increase instead of the ministration announced plans to Banfield’s visit several hundred ta tives, Sunday March 31. but the matter was postponed until expected 5 per cent in the BIU people attended a teach-in on Council gave 1000 dollars to an the budget can be seen and rates, and from’300 BIU’s which expel those students involved. Some conservative professors racism featuring anthropologist optometry project that sends discussed-again not until the end for some reason were not included began organizing for a mass Ashley Montagu. students to the Caribbean to test of April. in the 1975-75 university budget. And professor Banfield is a hard the ‘poor’ peoples’ eyes and Burt predicts there will be a faculty meeting to defend ’ Boniferro gave a brief outline of “academic freedom”. All three-- person to defend against a charge prescribe glasses. The service is _ the present budget situation, and it surplus in the budget, as the $1.158 Toronto papers carried stories of racism. A former Nixon advisor, free to those that receive it, all doesn’t look good at all. So far the million will more than eliminate he is the author of The Unheavenly the previously forecast $5OO,oOO attacking SDS and the Sun even paid for by various foundations various boards have asked for City and Tfie Moral Basis of a called for a “Spartacus” among and some optometry coppanies. $210,000 and th& federation only deficit. the students to lead the fight for Backward Society, both used as Telegdi reported ori the has $214,000. The salaries of the Matthews, however, feels there, With the student will be “competing demands for “freedom”. texts at UT. In the first Banfield ‘federation retreat’ during the secretaries in the federation office Governme% (SAC) and the characterizes Blacks and the reports of the various executive as well as other administrative the extra money”. The “comcampus newspaper condemning “lower class” as being dishonest, petitors” will most likely be the meetings-four council members items still have to b’e worked into and promiscuous; in library, the replacement of the action, things at_ first looked attended the retreat and the cost is the budget. lazy, bleak for the radicals. general-responsible for their estimated to be just under two Considering this matter,/ council equipment (laboratories and But there was alsd sympathy poverty. The second book slanders engineering>, the increase in the hundred dollars. Telegdi was was adjourned. and support for Banfield’s banSouthern Italians in a similar criticizedseverely for organizing _ -Susan johnson unemployment insurance costs ning, especially off campus (in fashion. ($186,000) and possible unthe weekend without the conFurthermore, Banfield’s most derbudgeting in non-union staff fact the group that kept Banfield sultation of the council members off t&stage included, for.instance, vocal supporters have very poor salary increases ($215,000). and for then coming to the council people from an injured workers credentials as “freedoti fighters”. Apart from the good news of the for the subsidy. More people did organization). Both Italian Two members of the Ameridan _ attend the retreat than thefourunforeseen revenue, little else was language dailies ran front page Studies Committee which invited discussed at the meeting except but they were not council memstories supporting the action as did Banfield were outspoken adthe increase in bers. Regardless of the criticism, teaching vocates of the war measures act. the Black community newspaper. assistantships (up to $3,000 from council decided to’be good sports Letters supporting SDS were Bliss, another committee member, $2,400) and the statement from about it all and granted Telegdi the has in his own department opposed Carl Pollock, chairperson of the received from the National Black subsidy he wanted-something BURNABY, B.C. (CUP)-High the hiring a professor who is too . Coalition, ‘--the Portuguese less than one hundred dollars. school students walked out of their board about a U. of W.> engineering Canadian Democtiatic Association radical. And just to make things institution recently protesting graduate who is now receiving a There were two more apstarting salary of $18,000. Burt and severalunion locals and perfectly clear, a character named pointments made at the council locker search&s and washroom worker’s groups including one John Beattie showed up on campus checks. The searches resulted Matthews pointed out that the meeting for the year’s executive. handing out copies of a Toronto average starting signed by 100 railway workers. Speaker of council chosen by from parental pressure on the salary of Star editorial. Beattie is the head Even on campus Banfield’s council is Bill Green from Enadministration to stop alleged soft engineers is actually $9 to $10,500 supporters did not fare well. At- of the Canadian Nazi Party-or drug use in the school after one per year. vironmental Studies. He beat out : tempts to organize would be if the party’s founding -john m6rris a “pro-free Phil Lanouette for -the job, a student informed parents that soft rally had not broken up several speech” student group fell through _ council member and the executive drugs were being used on the school property. when the organizers refused to let years ago by an angry crowd. favourite. Council also appointed In this way it became apparent anyone who didn’t agree with them Garth McGuire as the Co-op Nevertheless, students felt that speak at their rally. The professors to many that t_he real issue was not Ser.vices Chairperson: the -searches and checks were unwarranted and demanded a . mass meeting was called off. SAC whether or not’ free speech would John Morris, the chairperson of held a forum on “academic be defended, but rather whether or External Relations sent ten general meeting with the adfreedom” on Wednesday (the 27th) not the university would continuet-o discuss the telegrams to the military junta in ministration to be used as a platform for 1 and the administration even Chile protesting the disappearance situation. The students contend cancelled classes for two hours so racism. So while most students of a president of a technical that their lockeF$ and the property that all could attend. However, not would still disagree with the SDS. university therein a* the personal property there. He got the aptactic, there is a much greater only did the crowd fail to be parproval of council after-the-fact for of the students and that the ticularly hostile to SDS but SAC awareness of the exl’stence of searches represent an inthe action. even backed down and allowed an racism at UT. fringement of their rights. Art Ram was appointed to the Students of the Communication SDS speaker to present their case. The debate, then, is about what university parking committee and Howevqr, -the teach?rs and inand Design Department of True, most students and faculty to do about the problem. At one stitution administrators assert Warren Turnbull was put onto the Conestoga College have debided to university bookstore committee. that the lockers are solely school call off a planned strike because of There was some objection from the property and can be searched at the closeness of the final exams. media about the appointment of any time. They did agree to end the The strike planned for Monday, r Ram-since he refuses to talk to washroom checks. March 18th was in protest to the dismissal of department chairman the campus media, they felt that Sensing the time right, the he could be a poor communicator students are also demanding a Bert Heinderson. Henderson -was about the activities of the comsecure smGking area where any fired after refusing to introduce mittee. The objection was student could enjoy a cigarette more liberal arts studies in the This is to advise that all students -who wish overlooked. without constant harraisment Communication and Design Council set up a committee to from the school administrators. Department. to apply for assistance under the Ontario investigate Radio Waterloo, their The officials say that this demand A memorandum to the adStudent Assistance Program for the May to Budget, their listening audience can not be met because some ministration of the college stated: and their operations. Radio, students are under sixteen and “We feel that Mr. Henderson acted August’ 1974 bcademic term, MUST apply Waterloo was, perhaps naturally ‘_ should not be allowed to smoke on only in the best interests of his the school property. students and the college as a enough, upset at this apparently on the old 73-74 application forms which Most teac.hers were critical of whole. We are totally dissatisfied unwarranted investigation-of their are n-o w available at the Student A wards affairs by people that to date have _the students’ ‘action and felt with Mr. Henderson’s dismissal by ,- action taken by the college adno understanding of the station, or nothing had been accomplished Office, Ira Needles Hall. ministration. theneeds it has. The committee is the walkout, they still believed that comprised of Terry Harding from the students should have used “We are ‘still unanimous in The University has been advised of this ‘proper channels’ to voice their objection to the increase in Liberal publications_, Cathy Reynolds from complaints. Teachers also Studies content within our communications, Warren Turnbull procedure by the Ministry of Colleges and resented students not being divisiqn . . . .We feel that any inthe critic-at-large, and Stan punished for their crime of crease will directly reduce the Bonif erro the treasurer. Their Univeksities within the last few days. The walking out of class and said that quality of our education.” report is due before the budget for Awards Office apologizes for any the station is to be considered-at some disciplinary action should Even though the strike has been have been taken. cancelled the students still are the latest the end of April. inconvenience this may cause students Students say more walkouts will Radio Waterloo also presented a demanding the “reinstatement petition signed ,by the people that follow if conditions do not change and exoneration of Mr. Bert registering in May,/ 1974. for the better soon. operate the station, to remove Henderson .”

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Feds report !

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Highschool policing

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TO ALL FULL-TIME SI’FING TERM STUDENTS


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5, 1974

UNIVERSITY THE CENTRE

FOR CONTINUING

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A special grant has made available opportunities for fulltime students to take a 6-week “intensive” in-residence course at our Glendon Campus (Bayview & Lawrence) this summer. Dates: July P-August 9, 1974 , Enquiries should be sent without delay to: The Centre for Continuing Education York University, 4700 Keele St. Downsview, Ont. M3J 2R6 or telephone (416) 667-2504 for information

PERSONAL Free-store my furniture over the summer and you may use it. Phone Lorne Kay 744-5798. _ MGB sportscar for rent for summer. Also new color and a ,B-W TV. ext 36213963. Moving-out? Have half ton van will do small moving jobs. Rates reasonable. Call Bob 884-6044.

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FOR SALE 1962 VW camper van. Good engine,, body, and mechanical order. $600 certified and registered, or $500 wi!hout. Call Keith at 884-6844, or drop around to Tawco Stables, corner Westmount and Columbia. See the 1952 Chev at the same time!

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Collectors item 1964 Lincoln Continental excellent condition, 62,qoO original miles, full power options, everything works. Must sell. Phone Jim 578-5902 o? 743-8159. Where were you .in ‘52’? Must s’ell, classic Chev in excellent condition, 61,000 original miles. Three on the tree, sunvisor, radio and snows, even the lighter works! Serious inquiries 884-6844. See the 62 camper at the same time! WANTED Computer

programming

help may be

needed May and Jun’e. If-you would be available please contact E J Farkas, Man-Environment. Late model sports car wanted, European or domestic model, convertiable preferred. Must have low mileage. Will pay cash. Phone 5781973. yaitresses and waiters for summer term full time job in Stratford. Call for appointment for interview l-271-1340. RIDE WANTED Ride wanted to the west, up to Vancouver if possible. Phone 576-8832 Will share expenses. RIDE AVAILABLE Ride to Ottawa every weekend leaving 5pm friday coming back sunday evening. Call Bill 745-5851 before 9 pm. Vancouver-Victoria region. I‘m leaving about April 20 and am looking for one person willing to share driving etc. Call Alan at 579-2897. TYPING Will do typing of essays and thesis in my home. Please call Mrs. McKee at 578-2243. Will do typing (Lakeshore 3466.

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Essays typed 40 cents per page. Pick at small charge if desired. ‘744-8660. . HOUSING AVAILABLE

up and delivery

Townhouse to sublet may to’ september. Fantastic summer\ location at 506-E Albert. Included laundry faciliti’es, swimming pool, next to Parkdale Plaza, finished basement, 15 minute walk to university. Rent $220, approachable. Phone 884-3957.

Do vou wantto s /makesibrnethingof it?\ ~

Sublet large two bedroom apartment partly furnished, 3 minute walk to campus, underground parking. One month free. 884-4905.

Manischewitz Concord Wine is for people who find the taste of dry wine about as pleasant as smokers’ tooth powder. Make something of it. Like: Manischewitz Purple Cow Stir together equal parts of Manischewitz Concord Wine and vodka. Serve on the rocks and add a twist of lemon. Manischewitz Hi-Boy Fill a tall glass with ice cubes. Add 3 jiggers of Manischewitz Concord Wine, and fill with ginger ale or clwb soda. Top with lemon slice. Stir. : Manischewitz Party Punch A knock-out. Dissolve %-cup sugar in juice of 6 lemons. Add tra Y of ice cubes, 1 bottle Manischewit Z Concbrd Wine and 1 bottle of club soda. Stir gently until very cold. For other interesting Manischewitz recipes, write Suite 800,234 Eglinton East, Toronto.

Townhouse to sublet, 4 bedrdoms, pool, may to September, $185. 8847815. Two bedroqm apartment available may to august. Close to both universities. Rent negotiable, partly furnished if desired. Across from Arnie’s and variety stores. Phone‘ 884-6953. Townhouse, may to September, 508F :Albert beside plaz/a, swimming pool, dryer, partially furnished, 2 bedrooms, finished basement 884-5243. Reserve your room now for , the summer term. 4 minute walk from university. Phone, bath, full kitchen facilities, privacy. Single $50; double $40. Phone Ben ext. 3520 or 884-9032 139A Columbia street west. One bedroom apartment may to September close to university and Westmount plaza. Balcony, laundry, sauna, etc. Rent $15‘0 but negotiable. 578-1266. One bedroom, 5 minutes from campus, Waterloo Towers, 137 University ave, no. 302. May to September, 1 month free rent. 884-8032. Sublet may to august, spacious two bedroom apartment, Greenbriar, close to university, -more than one month free. Available April 22, apt. 503. Phone 578-2242.

Manischewitz. Thestartd somethinggreat.

Townhouse to sublet, 3 or 4 bedrooms partially furnished, broadloom, swimming pool, beSide Parkdale Plaza. $2 19 monthly negotiable. 885-0936.

Kitchener 20-25 minutes to campus, 10 minutes to market. Rent negotiable, cheap. 125 Water Street North. 7447665. Singles-summer term. Fully insulated panelled, flourscent lighting over builtin desk. Private bath aqd entrance in clean quiet private home. Fridge but no cooking. 5 minute walk to either university. $12 weekly. &4-3629 Mrs. Dorscht 204 Lester St:, Waterloo. Townhouse to sublet may to september 1974,3 bedroom, beside Plaza, swimming pool, 510G Albert street or call 884-6222. Rent negotiible. Two large double-rtims available May 1. Full use of home, quipment and outdoor pool. Phone Mrs. Wright 8851664.

Townhouse to sublet Weber grid Albert $175_ per month. May to September 3 bedrooms, parking, swimming pool. Call 884-7815. Furnished townhouse to sublet from May to September, relaxing swimming pool. 143 Columbia Street West, E7 884-4412.

.

MacKenzie King Square. Large executive type home in prime location. This home features many stained glass. windows, walnut trim, winding staircase to second floor, parking for $ cars, large trees; and many other extras. Phone 578-1867. Need two co-op bedroom furnished university. Saunb $55 nionthly each.

students for two apartment close to and outdoor pool. 884-3785.

Full room and board, single $425, double 325. Why pay mo_re? Room only also available. 5 minutes walk from campus. Phone Waterloo Co-op Residence 884-3670. Rent may to september 5 bedroom town house, completely furnished (fully broadloomed, cable, dishwasher, 1Vi refrigerators, pool) $250. 743-8947. Townhouse to sublet 4 bedrooms, pool, near .Parkdale Plaza. Rent $185# or negotiable. 885-0837, May to September single or double room for rent. Excellent kitchen and washing facilities, close to university, male only. 884-1381. Apartments availabld; ’ one bedroom $135 per month,two bedrooms $155 per month. 5 minutes walk to campus, includes all utilities, cable TV. Phone Waterloo Co-op Retidence 884-3670. Apartment to sublet may to September Waterloo Towers, Apt 101. Largest apartment in building, 5 minutes from campus. 884-8032. ’ Together, sensitive, responsible couple wanted to share fantastic modern home set in large secluded woods 7 miles from the university. Completely furnished, gardening. $250 per month beginning May 1 to sept 1 for one full year and possibly longer. Phone 5766480. Beautifully to\ivnhouse, basement with 4 or 5. $170. 2261.

furnished, carpeted 3 bedrooms (1 in waterbed), pool. Sleeps 653 Albert street. 884-

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Four single rooms available April 15. Private entrance, fully furnished. 52 High Street. 884-6290.

House to sublet may to august 2 story, 2 bedroom house, rent $140 monthly on university, 5 minute walk from the campus. Phone 884-3303 or 885-1211 ext 2888 ask for Brian or Tom.

Sublet may to September, partially furnished house near downtown

Professor needs furnished apartment May 1 to August 31. Phone 579-4133.

(


friday,

april

5, 1974'

the chevron

5

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-. . The results of a secret ballot vote conducted this week among 175 eligible _ members of the Arts Faculty revealed that J.S. Minas of the Department of Philosophy is the “preferred choice” of 61 percent of them for appointment as Dean of Arts. His name will go before the Board of Governors as the recommendation of the Dean’s Nominating Committee, unless some surprise is forthcoming from the yes or no ratification vote that is now being taken within the faculty to confirm the recommendation. The other candidate, K.R. Davis of History, was favoured by 31.8 percent of the voters. The remaining 7.2 percent of the ‘submitted ballots, were classified as invalid, because their outer envelopes were not signed and consequently could not be checked for voter eligibility. Their contents were checked anyway, and were found dancing to the same tune as the legitimate ballots in their approval of Minas. In his memorandum announcing the polling results, vice-president academic Howie Petch also mentioned that a preference for Minas was discernible among the Church Colleges. Opinions submitted by non-voting members of the _ Arts Faculty Council were considered by the Nominating Committee as well. A follow up poll is now being taken to ratify the choice on a general acceptable nonacceptable basis. It is expected that this will simply rubberstamp the decision, since there does not seem to be any strong opposition to Minas. If solid support for him is not clearly

.

Finding/ a new. Dean of Arts. published in the Gazette) -was presented to the Arts Faculty chairman some weeks f ago and there was a substantial decline in 71-72 or 72-73. The aggregate amount of teaching activity did go down, but it isn’t wholly determined by the number of year-one students you take in; it isn’t wholly determined by anything, the whole thing is aggregated. So it has gone down somewhat. The university supported the Faculty of Arts on a kind of unit basis, and that has not gone down, as a matter of fact that’s gone up.. .If you look at what’s happened in the past two or three-years and projected that as a steady trend it would be quite serious, but there’s no reason to suppose it is a steady trend. Of course, in the Faculty of Arts each department and all of the people looking at this thing are doing everything they can do to try to reverse that kind of trend on the assumption that it’s desirable that it shouldn’t go down. Other people don’t hold that assumption, they say: what’s wrong with having a smaller faculty, intrinsically a big faculty isn’t better than a little faculty. It’s very difficult, though, in moving from a big faculty to a little faculty; but I feel that the majority of people within the faculty don’t want it to go down. Whether or not that’s a good idea of course, is debatable, but I think more people don’t want our activity to go down, and I think that there are available to the departments in the faculty means of taking steps to see that it doesn’t go down. My private prediction is that over the next two or three years it’s going to increase (this aggregate number>. As a matter of fact I’m almost certain that in September of 1974 our volume of aetivity

forthcoming, however, the administration may have to decide whether or not it would be wiser to go back to square one and look for new candidates, rather than appoint a dean whose position might be weakened by a lack of widespread support in the Faculty. Two members of the chevron staff spoke with J.S. Minas earlier this week before the results of the first referendum were known. Some of his views about Arts and its role in the university are revealed in the following excerpts from that conversation : chevron: There has been much debate recently over cutbacks in the Arts budget -I’ and about whether or not the enrollment in Arts is actually dropping, There was debate in the Arts Faculty Council emergency meeting about this. . . We were . wondering what you had to say to that. Minas: To what the numbers are? To the enrollment drop or what? chevron: If there’s going to be a reduced budget for the next few years. Minas: The way the university budgets the different faculties depends on the volume of teaching. activities going on in each faculty. If the volume of teaching activity in Arts goes down, the budget will go down; if it goes up, the budget goes up, the same way the university gets its budget from the province. So if it goes down, if goes down, ’ we teach fewer -, activity students, we get fewer dollars; and if we teach more students, we get more dollars. That’s the way it works. The teaching activity in Arts is based on the number of student courses we teach, some of whom are arts students and some of whom are not arts students. The university has a way of amalgamating all that activity, graduate, undergraduate and so on; there’s a kind of a forumula for that, and the weight, so to speak, or the measure of our teaching-activity over the . last five years (somebody told me it was

will be larger than it was in September of 1973. As long as the university continues its current budgeting practices in terms of how it funds the various faculties that c should make it okay. chevron : The faculty’s enrollment seems to have remained steady from last year. . . Minas: But that’s only one component, you see, a lot of the Arts students we don’t teach and a lot of non-Arts students we do teach, so the number of Arts students per se is not as important as the number of students we teach. There are four major factors in our activity. One of them is the “home enrollment” base which includes every Arts student irrespective of the -amount of teaching which Arts provides. Then there is ‘the number of students which we actually teach irrespective. of their home enrollment, that is, the number ’ of student courses that are taught in Arts are counted up, and that includes people from Engineering and other faculties. That’s the second factor. Then the third factor is the full time ’ equivalent Masters candidate, and the fourth factor is the full time equivalent doctoral candidate. These four combine in a certain way to produce a measure of our total volume of teaching. That may go up or go down even though some component may be going in the other direction so that, for example, our year-one intake, which is not an independent factor but one thing that people

look--at pretty strongly, could be going down and yet our volume of teaching could be going up, or our year-one intake could be going up and -yet the volume of our teaching going down because the amount of teaching that Arts students get in other faculties changes, and the amount of teaching that students in other faculties get in Arts changes, so you can’t look at a single component and make too much sense out of it. chevrdn: What are your views on the size of the Arts Faculty? I Minas: In the abstract, to my mind, size in and of itself is not very important, so if we need to expand our size in order to be able to accomplish certain academic objectives better, then we should; and if we need to contract in order to do that, we should. The anchor to that problem isn’t size, it’s what you want to do with these resources, so it does seem to me that what we should be looking at is what kinds of academic programs we should have,- and what the volume of demand is for these programs, and then gear up in that way; then, of course, the size that we need will be automatically available. There’s no- point in having a ‘huge capacity to run a program when there aren’t any students in the program,‘and there’s no point in having a tiny capacity for a program in which there are a substantial number of students. The way the province deals with the university, and the way the university deals with the faculty is based on the assumption that the government imagines the university knows what it wants to do and goes ahead and do&it, and the government provides the resources on a fair basis. And similarly the university, vis a vis the faculty. We carry out our activities, we are supposed to decide these on academic considerations and then we undertake them. The university sees to it that we get an adequate and fair share of the resources to carry them out. And of course that means if we* decide we want to go into a very costly programme where there are no students, our going into that may generate great cost but if there is nothing going onthere, there is no way we are going to pay for it. The university decides it is going to go into a very costly programme that has no students in it then the government is not going to pay the university for it. chevron: What are you going to do with

studies? I don’t know what it is now. It has an unusual status; it is not a department, it is not an interdepartmental programme because there are some courses of Canadian studies that are not in any department. chevron: Do you think you will make it into a department? Minas: I don’t really know. Dean Rowe has been having some meetings about Canadian studies, as a matter of fact she had a meeting a week ago which I attended in which a part of what we were trying to do was to figure out the most appropriate format for that programme. It may be an interdepartmental committee, it may be some sort of programme board, it may be a department.. . I don’t really know. ,

There are some people who think it should remain a kind of interdepartmental others who think it be programme, separate from all departments. But I don’t see how you can completely separate it since a substantial bulk of the courses that contribute to it are really integral parts of the other departments, history department, political science, etc.. . . I think the fact of the matter is that the sort of common agreement that we should have as much in the way of course offerings and as much as can be done to beef up the degree programme of Canadian studies as students are interested in taking and what kind of arrangement should be made to support that activity and see that it gets off the ground. . chevron: If the Arts faculty budget is contracted, Canadian Studies would be placed in a vulnerable position given the fact some Canadianists are untenured junior faculty members and therefore expendable. Would you, as dean, try to strengthen the programme or would you leave it with an indefinite status? Minas : To strengthen the Canadian Studies programme depends primarily on the quality of courses and the number of students interested. The dean can’t make a programme viable if no students will take it. chevron: Say it came to the point when the budget was being contracted and Canadian studies were particularly vulnerable : in terms of pragmatic solutions? Minas: If what you are asking is, are courses’ in Canadian Studies going to be cut back.. . chevron: That was an alternative if the budget was cut back. . . in other words what would the priorities be? Would it be a matter of saying: well, economy dictates we cut back here; or would it be a matter of saying: well it is a priority we have Canadian studies as a viable programme? Minas : Every degree programme we have in the raculty of Arts has equal priority whether it is -classics, Canadian Studies, psychology, etc. . . they all have it insofar as we have a programme. . .insofar as we make it possible for a student to take a degree in -a particular field we <are categorically committed to protecting those programmes, we are categorically committed to protecting our BA in philosophy, english, sociology, anthropology , Canadian Studies and everything else. You simply cannot manipulate the academic curriculum by letting it be led by financial considerations. That is not to say, of course, that since -we have say a BA programme in philosophy we have got to have a staff in philosophy far in excess of the volume in teaching that goes on. But no programme is ever going to have its resources cut to the-point where the programme hurts as a result; that is sort of insane. So we have programmes now, the volume of activity is very, very low, so low that if you were just sort of giving resources proportionate to the volume of ‘activity in some linear way they would only have one and half people for these programmes. These programmes are being supported, at four people which is presumably the absolute minimum you need to make a programme go. If what you are asking are any of our degree programmes going to wash themselves out for these reasons the answer is categorically-“‘no”. We will only wash a programme out for academic

Canadian

Minas:

reasons. Or if we went five years and there was not a single student taking anything, we would terminate the programme. -john

morris

and paul mamelka

.


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Village Graffiti: living iti the past\ ’ !‘Universities are condemned for being composed of either idle dreamers or unreflective technicians, depending on which of the conventional wisdoms the critic subscribes to. Residential life is a case in point. Somehow we produce accomodation which manages to be both expensive and inhumane .” .-J.G. Dimond, Residence Co-ordinator, Innis College, University of Toronto Waterloo is a confession of the failure of the university to integrate residential and academic life. The two student residences run by the university, Village One and Village Two were designed to provide a sense of ,unit identity and unit activity. They are situated a quarter-ofa-mile away from the centre of campus. The function of the residences is primarily to provide accomodation for students, not to aid in their development. The Warden of the Student Villages, Ron Eydt commented to Howard Adelman, author of the Beds of Academe that he spends most of his time as an administrative messenger boy, some of his time as a second rate policeman, a bit of his time as a third rate psychological counsellor, and almost none of his time as an educator, for which purpose he thought he was hired. Unlike Waterloo, York University in Toronto has successfully integrated the residences into the educational processes of the university. Classes are scheduled within the university residence. The major failing of most university residences has been to ignore this possibility for the residences. The buildings at the villages are mainly constructed of brick, concrete, glass and stainless steel. These aren’t the easiest of materials to feel at home ‘with but many students manage to change the residences to suit their characters with posters, stereo systems and furniture that they supply themselves. The internal layout of Village One tries to achieve an isolating effect. This is done by having a maze of halls and corners which makes it hard to really know what is happening on the floor. One place where socializing can be done is the common room which usually bears a sign saying “Please lock common room door at night to prevent ripoffs .”

-

Each common room contains a colour television, small kitchenette and uncomfortable lounge furniture. The bedrooms are very small and each one is almost identically layed-out . The external layout of Village One is built to give a clustering effect. There are four separate quadrant<each consisting of six to eight houses of about forty-eight people. To give the feeling of each quadrant being a separate unit the exits to each house open only towards the court yard in the middle of each quad. Village Two has a radically different internal and external layout. There are 48 people to a floor as opposed to 16 people to a floor in VI. The halls are long v-shaped corridors. Many of the residents like the concept of straight halls far more than the maze effect of the first residence because they know what is going on with other people on their floor and they can call down the hall to a person from their room and be heard and seen. _All of the bedrooms are double rooms. Although this means that there will be less privacy it also means that there’is always someone to talk to for the student who is lonely and finds it hard to .make friends on his own. Since there are more people to a house at Village Two the buildings have to be much bigger. There are four separate quadrants, but where in Village One there is a central plaza which makes each quadrant seem like a spoke to a wheel, Village Two has a slightly more decentralized feeling because there is a river going through the middle of the complex. The corridors at Village Two are a lot wider than those at Village One feelings of which helps prevent claustrophobia at the student’s homeaway-from-home. ’

Dons Dons, students who are hired by the residence and given responsibility for a group of about forty-eight students, are often called “glorified babysitters”, but their role can be, and frequently is, much more important. Each year, many of the first year students are spending their first year away from home in the villages and need

some kind of guidance. Some are as young as sixteen or seventeen. One Don told the chevron that she’ found many of her students floundering through their first few months in the village. The Dons’ role as part of the residence house or floor life is much more emphasized in Village Two as compared to Village One. In Village Two the Dons live right on the floor with all their fortyeight students, while in the other residence the Don lives on the ground floor separated from two-thirds of their students. Some people have suggested that the Dons could easily be eliminated Onebecause ,of their in Village separation ‘from their students and the older age of Village One residents. However, others feel this would be a mistake, for the Don’s role could be strengthened, and become an important feature of residence life. Dons have the potential of being a significant power for the students’ in terests in the village, but by various means this has been dissipated. One way in which the Dons appear to have control is in the selection committee which chooses the following year’s Dons, but this is mere tokenism. The selection committee is made up of four non-returning Dons, two to three tutors and ‘the “Warden” of the residence, H .R.N . Eydt . By appearance it seems that the Dons are in the majority, but the four Dons on the committee are always changing from meeting to meeting, giving them little insight into selection procedures. They -p are also, by stipulation, non-returning Dons-they will not be there for the following year. There is a chance that they are not returning because of lack of interest in the villages and disillusionment with their role. People with these feelings cannot be expected to be top-notch selection committee members. The decision on prospective Dons is a three choice system; yes-definitely, yesmaybe and no. At a particular meeting the Dons can over-ride Eydt’s tentative decision of ‘no’ with a yes-with reservation or a \yes-definitely . After the selection committee has gone through all the candidates they are left with about five to ten more Dons than they have places for. At this time the real “final” decision is made by Eydt. He alone decides on the five to ten

‘7 ’

applicants that will not be given Donships. He can then delete those ‘that he dislikes, but who, at one time, were favoured by the majority of Dons on the ‘\ committee. Dons have complained of this procedure but are unable to have an effective voice. The Dons never meet regularly as a group and are only able to meet one another informally. If Dons were to have regular meetings the Administration would have an effective way of getting constant feedback from the students. The administration has never encouraged such activity. The Dons are not quite sure of their role in the villages. They are caught between the administration and the students. They ’ are disallowed participation in the village council. At present they are forced to take a policing role in the village. They are , responsible for guarding the dining halls in order to prevent students _ from stealing food. This type of activity is increasingly creating a feeling of distrust on the students’ part towards their Don. The Dons can make proposals to the administration but these are presented by just one or two Dons. I Perhaps their proposals would carry much more wieght if the Dons could present a united front. This would be facilitated by regular meetings of all the Dons. One important proposal made by the Dons was ignored by the administration. The Dons wanted better orientation and training sessions before they begin their jobs. ,At present the orientation consists of a conference between various university personnel and the Dons. Dons felt that it was a waste of time and wanted it reviewed and improved. Some inservice training was started this year but this was initiated by Joe Goodman, a counsellor at Counselling Services, not the village administration. This training has* met with some success especially among the Village Two Dons who appear regularly. .The Village One Dons stopped appearing after two or three sessions referring to them as “useless sensitivity sessions”. At the end of each term all students are required to fill out a Don evaluation form which lets them remark on the capability of their-Don. Last year several Dons submitted what they felt was a better form. It was more personal and comprehensive and they felt it evaluated the Dons much more thoroughly. Eydt said that he liked his form better and nothing more could be done.

Maids

.

.

Maids, usually middle-aged women, have the hardest work of all in the villages. They are responsible for tidying up after the village residents. Each maid is responsible for housecleaning each student’s room once a week, changing the bed linen, cleaning out the shower rooms and the washrooms and the other household - drudgery that turns up during the week. T This is a considerable job since each maid is responsible for forty-eight to seventy students and for it she is paid little above the minimum wage,. At the Philip street Co-operative students are responsible for making their own beds, tidying their rooms and keeping the floor clean. Residents do not find this work too time consuming. Perhaps residents in the villages should seriously consider whether or not they should allow people to be responsible for cleaning up after them.

Entertainment Entertainment and organized social activities in the two villages is still minimal despite the potential of having a community of two-and-a-half-thousand students living together. There are the regular pubs, organized by the village council, which is little more than a social committee. The visits to the breweries are popular and there’s also the odd movie. continued on page 9

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_friday,

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continued from page 7 The kitchen is open to suggestions. from the cafeterias. This must put the and new dishes but is Don in a verv bad position when he or In the past most of the social ac- w about existing limited in ihe potential for imshe has to discipline students for the tivities usually have been ‘over beer’ but _ provements because of the large inadministration and still keep cordial in recent times-due to the initiative of relationships with the residents of their stitutional kitchens and the number of some Dons and council members coffee houses are growing in number and meals they have to make. house. ‘popularity among the villagers. There are numerous memos posted around the villages that explain the With two-and-a-half-thousand Each floor is provided with a small fining procedures and schedules to the students there should be nightly ackitchenette with several burners and a students who live there. One of these is tivities with some kind of entertainment miniature refridgerator which limits the capability of people to prepare their own reproduced in this article and pointedly to encourage villagers to get together and meet new friends. At present meals. However, it appears that more describes the atmosphere and image of’ villagers complain that it’s months and more students wish to prepare their the village administration. before they have any friends outside own food in the kitchenette. There is The topic of the role of security by the campus police in the villages is a delicate those on their floor,_- especially in first still, however, a significant demand for the present dining . hall facilities. one to discuss. The campus police have year. Disregarding a student’s time, it is much the power to arrest students for inOne of the big pluses for the village is the opportunity to meet a wide range of more economical to prepare their own fractions of the laws of the country. The people. Every effort should be made to food. most obvious examples of when they facilitate this. One complaint often heard is that the might have to lay charges against a Waterfights are waning in popularity major drawback to eating in the village student would be for infractions of liquor due to the imposition of strict rules and is not the food but the institutional laws. fines over this activity. Also, those atmosphere of the dining hall. Each Judging by the few actual arrests that involved are required to clean up the dining hall seats about three hunare talked about through the grapevine mess made by this, a favorite pastime. dred people, seated along long rows OS the campus-police rarely have to make In winter, “waterfights are restricted to tables. Some also complain about the arrests. the halls and rooms which ruins and monotony and predictability of the three A quote from a memo posted shrinks the rugs. In summer though, week cyclic menu plan. throughout the villages by Eydt .waterfights are a fine way to relieve exemplifies the actual relationship However, whether dining halls are oneself of the summer heat. Although between residents of the villages and the large or small or the menu plans are less held outdoors, last summer security was security force, “The Student Villages predictable, cafeterias cannot avoid called several times to quell the being cafeterias and hence remain a have had the most cordial relationships students. focus for students to express their with the Security Department over the At present the centre of entertainment frustrations and discontent while past many years, particularly with in the village revolves around the potentially more solvable and important reference to drinking. I know numerous television lounge on each floor. This ‘type problems remain without receiving the occasions where “the Campus Cops” of entertainment, though popular among attention deserved. have brought Villagers, the worse for most students fills most of their time drink. back to the residence and placed simply because there is little else to do in them upon their beds. I regret to inform the village except on a pub night. you that recently this humane aspect of Watching television severely limits the our Campus Security has been tried, in amount of socializing that one can have To help the administration save money that their well meant warnings to people -with others watching television. in running the villages and to protect the found drinking in a public place have Sports activity is popular among most reputation and property of the villages been met with a hostile, if not abusive villagers. Hockey and basketball and there is an elaborate fining system. response. ” other activities are played regularly. Fines are given for many “offences” at Usually a house or one floor organizes a the villages. team which plays other teams within the The people who do the fining are the Dons, village administration, and the village. campus ‘security’ force who help uphold In the future with the liquor licensing the law in the villages. The Dons do the hassles the village pubs will be restricted to certain areas. Special occasion per minor policing jobs at the villages such mits will no longer *be available and as apprehendingthose who steal food The Village tutors and Mr. Eydt have liquor will have to be served under specific strict regulations. PLEASE POST In Village One the red dining hall wilI PI.FASE POST be licensed for a proposed alternating i r-IYINC SCHEDt'LE two week cycle basis with Village Two dining hall number three and with Village One great hall. / A. Meal ,Privilege Abuse For example, in the first week, __on 1. Permitting a non-Villager to use an ID card with a Tuesday the Village Two dining hail is Food Permit . available, Thursdays the Village One or 2. Obtaining, or allowing a non-Villager to obtain food dining halls are available and on Friday withoiit using il valid guest meal card. both are available. In the second week, First offence $5.00, Second-offence $10.00 _ the great hall is available on Tuesdays, Third of fence Expulsion the Village Two dining halls are available on Thursdays, and on Fridays If a non-Villager is charged, lay a charge of pettv theft ‘the great hall and the Village Two dining through Security. halls are available. , B. Improper Behaviour at Meals (throwing of food, etc.) . Village one and two councils and the Firat offence $5.00; Second offence $10.00 tutors and Warden of the residences Subsequent offences: minimum $15.00 or Expulsion arrived at the above proposals after lengthy discussion with the students in I C. Abuse of Village Property residence and a desire “to maintain the Minimum $10.00 fine, plus repayment for damage. Village life style”. All the facilities are proposed to be in D. Malicious Damage operation from eight pm to one am.

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“Eats”! Village food is often harped-upon by villagers as the major failing of the residence. The prepared food comes out of large institutional kitchens operated by the university’s food services. It is virtually identical to that served in the Festival Room in South Campus Hall, in the campus centre cafeteria and in the Modern Languages coffee shop. Qualitatively,’ the food ranges from institutionally bland to appeal to the greatest number of residents, to dishes that are fairly well prepared, like the Chinese food or the Friday ice cream sundaes. Quantity of food is unlimited as long as the villagerseat it in the dining hall. French Fries and a variation of ’ hamburgers, grilled cheese sandwiches, and hot dogs are lunch time regulars. / Dinners can be more interesting sometimes, but ‘mystery-meat’ is a regular dish.

F-.

fine,

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for

damage.

Theft 1. Personal propertv 2. Village property

Maximum of Maximum of

Po8se88iOn -

Of Master

G.

Possession

of Room Key other

H.

Tampering with Fire Equipment (including hoses, false fire alarm, fire extinguieher and exit signs) $50.00 and non-readmission rlndzrcport to Security.

I.

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Fights Per house Per floor

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$25.00

II 1

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plus

action

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F.

J.

Key

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th,an one'8 own without permission Minimum $10.00 fine plus action by --Warden and/or Security.

Minimum $5.00 place) . $50.00 $20.00

Minimum $10.00

-

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to Security: to Security:

bf Residences.

...

the

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9

decided to conduct an experiment in coeducational living in Village One next year. The plan is to make one or two houses in the North Quad of Village One co-educational to see if such a plan is feasible 05 a larger scale. Neil Stretch and Karen Ditmers, two Village Dons recently submitted a report to the administration which instigated the present plan. They had experimented with the idea by trading floor members to see if the idea would work. The organization of a typical co-ed floor would be as follows: There will be eight *women and eight men to a floor. There - would not be mixed interconnecting rooms. Different sexes awould be segregated to the single rooms and interconnecting rooms would house two males or else two females. Mr. Eydt is confident that conflicts arising out of bathroom use would be . resolved mutually as they have been at other universities. The cost will be the same as it would be for the usual all male or all-female house. “To be eligible for a toed house, a Villager must have lived at least one ‘term in either Village and must fill in a statement-as to why they wish to live coeducationally and what they can contribute to a toed floor. This application form must be submitted then to the Don who, 1on the reverse side, will pass comments as to the Student’s suitability to handle these new life situations.” The administration will reserve the right to refuse those not deemed fit to live coeducationally and all others will be selected at random. The idea of having co-educational housing in the villages is not a new one. Several years ago this concept was tried, but unsuccessfully due to the poor response. As far as Eydt is concerned alternatives to segregated housing are fine as long’ as he can fill the residence, Hopefully this plan will succeed next year and will be able to expand evenmore to help ‘provide a more balanced way of’ life for students who live on campus. However, the plan’s success is in doubt due to the poor response to the experiment. The-date for the acceptance of applications has been extended.

-

The person who has variety in life and who is socially, intellectually and physically well rounded will usually be happier than he who lives a life within very narrow bounds, (for instance the student who spends his time either in class or in his room studying or watthing television.) The villages can play a vital role in helping Waterloo’s students to become well rounded and well adjusted in life. This can be. achieved through bringing some of the means to the student to achieve this end. Stimuli for students’ growth and development could be provided to villagers in all of the fields mentioned above. For instance, a nightly coffee, house, campus forums or increased educational activity. The church colleges have been more successful in providing these stimuli. Part of the reason for this is that the ’ church colleges were originally set up for this purpose, not to just provide accomodation for students. The church colleges are quite a bit smaller making the administration of projects more operable. If Dons are given the chance to expand their role beyond dealing with day to day problems things would start to get done in the villages. Village councils have failed to do this but can be forgiven because of the transient membership of these councils. Terms of office last only four months. New members are also inexperienced in expanding activity and development in the, villages. Dons do have this experience and, could improve the villages. It’s easy to criticize the villages’for all their failings. It must be remembered that the villages are not even ten years old. The job that needs to be done is the most difficult. Constructive criticism . and new ideas are what now need development. -story by Mike Gordon and Neil Dunning, photos by Chester Buczek


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friday,

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5, 1974

An icy dreamland

the

chevron

15

for les Quebecois

Pro hockey’s gladiator shows This article by Paul Hoch, a humanities lecturer at Montreal’s Dawson College, first appeared in Rip Off the Big Game [Toronto Doubleday Anchor 19731 an analysis of the political sociology of bigtime sport.

of dreams will an inequitable

have helped system.

to perpetuate

Anyway, those who don’t make it’ can become good hockey fans, cheering on their Francophone heroes. Though pro hockey may have provided an arena in which the French Canadian fans could vicariously act out their aggressions against English Canadians by cheering on and booing the anglos, it “their side” certainly did nothing to deal with the

‘Hockey has been one of the most positive building blocks of French Canadian life,’ the old story goes. ‘It has brought them fame and fortune, given actual grievances that caused such them heroes to identify with, has thereby aggressions. Indeed the average French helped to unite the French as a people and Canadian hockey fan wastes so much time probably intensified the pressures toward Quebec separatism in the process.’ But, if and energy worrying about the exploits of hockey has united French Canadians, his heroes that he has little time to deal behind what has it united them? with his own exploitation in factory and The Montreal Canadiens, for decades community. Hence, the gladiator matches the main focus of this rabid French of modern professional hockey have nationalism, have always been owned by become basically a new kind of bread and Anglophone Canadians. Try as they circuses for the French Canadian working might, few Quebecois could ever mistake such men as Senator Hartland Molson or Seagram’s Sam Bronfman of being French Canadian patriots. Then too, the word ‘national’ in the title National Hockey League has never been entirely clear even to English Canadians, since the League is about five-sixths owned by US millionaires and plays five sixths of its games in American cities. However, French Canadians can supthat the League _ posedly rejoice headquarters has always been in Montreal. Obvious reasons for this are that many of the top hockey gladiators have always been French Canadian, and that the almost total Canadian labour pool for the NHL’s shows is easier to control out of a Canadian head office. But most important, according to League Commission President, Clarence Campbell, a Canadian city provides what he calls a ,‘hospitable climate.’ This includes, as he patriotically explained, protection from ‘harassment in various types of the U.S. by Congressional or legislative investigations and so on.’ The words ‘so on,’ according to the Last Posts’s Nick Auf der Maur, ‘refers to U.S. antitrust laws which/forbid monopolies’. Furthermore, as one looks at the top personnel of the Canadian extensions of the NHL, one sees an English Canadian Commissioner, English Canadian owners, and even an English Canadian head of the players’ association (the president of the Ontario Tory party, no less!). The French Canadian might be forgiven if, in the light of these facts, they saw their players as part of a new kind of plantation system: American and English Canadian owners at the top and their French Canadian hockey heroes at the bottom. Nevertheless, you say, some of those population (and the English one too). The French Canadian hockey slaves have passive consumption of hockey spectacles managed to make themselves a lot of has, basically, helped to teach the fans a bread. (This applies also to their English passive, consumption oriented approach Canadian owners, who have not only made to life generally. Hockey fans are unlikely far more bread, but have sustained far to be found leading revolutions. fewer injuries.) While a few hundred It is indeed remarkable how thoroughly French Canadian players have managed and efficiently the French Canadian to make themselves sometimes quite population has been channelled into healthy livings out of pro hockey, if one hockey, a sport where aspiring looks at the balance of payments as a professional cattle are bought up for life in whole in Montreal, over the past two their mid-teens and where few, if any, decades approximately $lO,OOO,OOO has manage to get a university education. One been transferred out of the pockets of sees few, if any, French Canadians in Pro French Canadian fans and into the football, a sport requiring a four year pockets of the Molsons and Bronfmans. apprenticeship on a university farm team. Montrepl’s Francophone community French One also sees few, if any, certainly won’t get rich this way. Canadians in the Olympic sports (track But at least it gives them something to and field, swimming, etc), and one look up to, you say? And, it’s quite, true, wonders what Montreal’s Francophone that all around Montreal and Quebec population will be getting for their money generally there are literally hundreds of in Mayor Drapeau’s version of the LQ76 thousands of kinds beating each other up Games. The fact is that the French to climb the golden ladder that leads to a Canadians like every ethnic or racial pro hockey career. The problem is that, at group which at one time or another was at best, only a few hundred will ever make it. For every one who does make it, perhaps the bottom of the socio-economic pole, ten thousand others will have pretty much have been channelled into the most violent wasted their time and pften neglected sport, requiring the least education. Like their educations chasing an unreachable the blacks in heavy-weight boxing champ dream. Thus, for these kids channelling of Jack Johnson’s day, they are permitted to Quebecois into pro&ockey’s penny world cheer for their own group’s ’ leading

.

gladiators. But what does this really get them? ’ Nor is this just a problem for French Canadians. Sports impressarios have traditionally tried to provide heroes of every ethnic variety ,’ including WASP’s, to draw in the fans from each and every social background. Possibly the- upper class has the time and energy to waste oh these modern gladiator festivals. But, when working people spend twenty or thirty hours a week worrying about the exploits of their sports heroes, that time and energy must count as a deduction from other possible things they might be doing, including thinking about, and changing, the, system that oppresses them. It would be bad enough if mass spectator sports were merely a modern breadn-circuses, a new kind of opium for the people, a diversion from the real issues

and problems. Unfortunately the disease is much more serious than even that. Mass spectator sports, not only divert attention from other matters, but they inculcate the ‘fans’ (a word originally derived from ‘fanatics’) with a variety of extremely repressive values. First, the passive consumption of sport spectacle is a powerful stimulus to the development of attitudes of passivity and consumerism generally, which carried to its extreme form under mass consumption capitalism encourages people to seek their fulfillment and self-definition, not in terms of what they do, but merely in terms of how much they can passively consume. Sport has become another consumer product, and the athletes have increasingly been reduced to the status of paid.workers and, occasionally, jock promoters. The most popular North American spectator sports, football and hockey, also place a heavy emphasis on rule-governed violence and an almost paramilitary organization of authority down the ranks from the captain-of-industry type owner to his manager to the coach (a sort of foreman) to the ordinary producers of spectacle, the ‘players’. In football, capitalist division of labour has evolved into the warp and woof of the game in a form so exkreme th& the differ& football

positions now come in markedly different sizes and shapes from long and sleek for pass receivers to tight and compact for pass defenders to big and heavyweight model-T linemen. And, of course, along with specialization comes its inevitable complement, elitism. In football the division between mental and manual labor is, most graphically typified by the division of powers between the quarterback (or ‘field general’) and the line. Not surprisingly, in a society in which whites tend to occupy the dominant managerial positions, the quarterback is almost always white (as is the middle linebacker who usually directs the defensive team). The racism in the football field well reflects that in society in general, so that even {in cases whee the field foreman or quarterback happens to be black, one can always be sure that the plantation bosses (the owner, general manager, and coach) remain white. In Canada, French Canadians are of course completely disqualified because they haven’t served the proper apprenticeship on a university farm team. And women are to be found only on the sidelines, usually in some sort of ‘cheerleader’ meat parade, consigned to the role of passively worshipping at the side of a spectacle they can never really be a part of. So in football, as in society generally, sexism too is an important part of the game. Perhaps the most repressive aspect of the most popular North American sports; particularly for working class and socalled minority groups, is the conception of ‘manhood’ or ‘masculinity’ which they inculcate. Such macho sports as football and hockey transmit a view of ‘manhood’ as basically a battle to ‘prove one’s masculinity’ through intramale competition, struggle for dominance (particularly dominance over women), conquest and even physical brutality, with a heavy emphasis being placed on brawn not brain. Ideologically, this view of ‘manhood’, not only makes every man the ‘competitor’ (and, to some extent, the enemy) of every other, but forces every man to continuously ‘prove’ what is called his ‘masculinity’ by repeated proofs of potency and dominance. Thus, one gets through macho sport the same sort’ of psychopathic performance-oriented criteria of manhood that one gets in the novels of Norman Mailer (and particularly in his essay ‘The White Negro’). Basically, this is just the same sort of ‘you’re onl,y as good as what you’re putting out’ criteria . of performance that one is supposedly to be judged by in a factory or on a ball field, or, apparently, in a bedroom. The rat race to ‘masculinity’ never ends, and no matter how many games you ‘win’ (or how much you ‘score’)‘, each day the game begins , ,anew. Which is probably why Mailer describes himself as ‘The Prisoner of Sex.’ The upper class, which, by virtue of its privileged social position,, never has to produce that much of anything, can easily afford to have other, more ‘humanistic’, standards of manhood involving an emphasis on process rather than product, as well as vague ideals of what it calls human dignity. Working class men, and particularly the men of the so-called minority groups, however, often are stuck in such boring and abrasive jobs that their main consolation all too often lies in this repressive definition of ‘masculinity’. Particularly so, since this emphasis on machismo provides the ideological rationale for dominating one’s women and identifying with one’s own group’s supermasculine sports heroes. These then. become the main sops in a workingman’s life, after his job and boss have robbed him of a large, part of his potential for creativity and self-actualization and real involvement in his work. At this point he is apparently ripe to become ‘one of the boys’ by passively consuming the big game as a ‘fan’, and afterward “talking a good *game” with the guys. Not really mu& of a game.


16

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friday,

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5, 1974

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.’ Brazil: the I ’ -capitalists’, paradise ’

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Canadian multinational corporations and banking institutions readily applaud the much flaunted Brazilian ‘economic miracle’ for sound reasons: the Brazilian military-oligarchic dictatorship ensures effective liquidation of militant movements by urban and rural workers’ repression based on systematic torture. The Brazilian ‘model’ of social control allows for a cheap labour market which coupled with rampant underdevelopment guarantees a higher return in profits. Profits which-. in the last two years allowed Canada’s Brascan [best known for its watered down Labatts’ beer] to derive a net income of $181 million. Capitalists disturbed by workers’ militancy elsewhere happily extend credit to Brazil. Brazil’s foreign debt, thanks to this foreign credit, in December 31,1973 exceeded $16 million. Fred Halliday, an editor of New Left wrote the Review, and Maxine Molyneux following article for Ramparts.

In Rio it is hard to miss the two faces of Brazil. The huge statue of Christ standing on the Corcovado Mountain overlooks blocks of flats rising in the suburbs of Ipanema and Copacabana, the fashionable areas oftown where nightclubs, cafes and expensive boutiques line the streets and where rich young’ Brazilians go to buy their authentic Vietnam combat gear, complete with bloodstains .. Traffic jams of Volkswagens, music blaring from their radios, wind along the strip of land between Guanabara Bay and the mountains, and bring the Avenida Vargas in the centre of town to a rush-hour standstill. With growth-rates averaging 10 ’ percent for the past five years, inflation down to the “manageable” rate of 30 percent, and rapid expansion in exports, the capitalist development of the world’s sixth largest and seventh most populous state is well under way. As prices of primary productscoffee, sugar, soya beans -soar, Brazil is carrying out an extensive industrialization program: industrial production rose 14 percent in 1972, an estimated 15 percent in 1973. Manufactured

goods already account for over 30 percent of Brazil’s exports: Volkswagen alone exported $36 million in’ goods from Brazil in 1973. This is one side of the Brazilian “miracle”. The other is equally obvious. Downtown Rio is sporadically frozen as uncovered trucks, carrying 30 heavily armed military police, roar through with wailing sirens to unknown destinations; there may be a riot in a favella (shanty town), or a demonstration at a football match-a directly political problem. Then again there may not. Ask a Brazilian in the street and he’ll just shrug, smile, and say nobody knows. It may all just be a show of strength. In banks, armed guards in specially plated observation boxes survey every customer. Road blocks- in out-of-town districts are common. Military police control all traffic, andafter lo:30 p.m. the areas around military academies are cordoned off and placed under -guard. % Muffled echoes of violence appear in the press -enough to intimidate, but not enough to inform. Odd accounts of “bandits” and unexplained “shoot-outs” appear on the inside pages. A story about a Spanish priest mysteriously “assassinated” in a railway station neglects to mention-that he was helping to organize victims of the government’s ‘economic policy. A sensational account of the roundup of 60 teenage “hooligans” in the centre of the same town does not say who they were, that most of them were starving children from nearby favelas, nor that some of them were killed. Yet despite the facade of careless ignorance, everyone knows. Any Brazilian can tell you where the OBAN torture centre in Sao Paulo or the COD1 centre in Rio is. Everyone knows about the “death squad”, the official police group that has murdered at least 2,006 opponents under “mysterious” conditions: you cannot avoid them, because their unlicensed Cadillacs, emblazoned with the monogram “EM” and a skull and crossbones, can ,be seen prowling with darkened windows along the streets of major cities. The continued on page 18

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L continued from page 17 “death squad” has accounted for the death of 27 people in the first seven weeks of 1974, according to police sources in Rio. The dead are silent, but it is easy to find the living victim? of government terror, the women paralyzed by multiple beatings and rape, the men psychologically destroyed by their time in the hands of the government torturers. They have _ had electrodes placed all over their bodies-on their hands, feet, ears, tongues, and genitals. They have spent hours, sometimes days, tied into containers of freezing water. They have been hung for a week or more by their knees-from the pau de tiara, the parrot’s per%. While hanging they have been beaten with special clubs, and given shock treatment. Their ear drums have been pierced, they have been irljected ‘with penthotal, the “truth drug”, had their cells filled with disorienting gas. Those who can, talk. Thousands more-it is not known how many -have died. The government, like its later imitator in Chile, practices the policy of ‘the big lie, denying everything. International protests have little effect: foreign capital continues to flow and the U.S. gives both political and economic bacBing to the regime, as well as training its officers in the art of repression. In May 1971 the Western Hemisphere Affairs Subcommittee of the U.S. Senate, under the chairmanship of Senator Frank Church, held hearings which amply demonstrated the scope of torture in Brazil. In 1973 Amnesty International published a detailed Report on the Allegations of Torture in Brazil, listing 1081 documented torture victims. The government’s main response has been to issue new instructions on dealing with badly marked victims: whereas before they were sometimes released, they are now to be killed. A crippled, live body is incriminating. Stretching inland - - from Brazil’s Atlantic seaboard towns is the vast interior, over 60 percent of it still forest, a forest which generates an estimated two-thirds of the world’s oxygen. In the Amazonian wilds and in the dry lands of the North-East, more than 30 million people live in conditions as violent, over time as the worst urban prisons. Here an economic reality that was always brutal has been accentuated by the government’s “opening” of the interior. The two new highways promised wealth to the region, but instead have brought even fiercer exploitation, and the guarantee of more direct military control. Brazil’s economic development has been characterized by regional booms and Slumps, creating severe regional and structural imbalances. In the North-East, a depressed relic of the sugar-producing slave plantations, real income has fallen in the past decade to around $200 per capita and half the population dies before theage of 36. In the Amazon jungles, the Indian population is being wiped out by guns and disease. In this century alone, 87 tribes have disappeared, and the Indian population has declined from two million in the last century to less than 80,000 today. The government is aiming to settle 80,000 families along’ the n& Amazon highways. It offers them land, but no tenure, a shack but no aid. The jungle is difficult-to live in, almost impossible to farm. But the peasants have little choice; many come from~ the deserts of the North-East and having reared their children’on parched earth, are_ attracted by the promise of abundant water supplies in the Amazon jungles. Protests are occasionally heard about the fateof these families, or about the policy of genocide and governmen! expropriation; or discoveries are made of “slave” camps in which indentured labour is held by groups of armed ‘guards. And although the cries of tiictims in the jungles and deserts are even more strangled than of those in the towns, one group has achieved some attention in the past two years. They are the posseiros, the small farmers who migrated to the jungles from the North-East in the 1930’s and 40’s and are now being displaced by the speculators - grilheirosand large financial interests moving in from Sao Paulo. In 1972 a small guerrilla movement began operating near the town of Maraba in Para state, concentrating its activities along the river Araguia. Led by about 50 members of the proChinese Revolutionary Coi%munist Party of Brazil who had settled in that area in -the mid196Os, they executed a number of large estate owners and survived a series of attacks by government troops and freelance vigilantes sent in by land speculators. Their demands are for security of land tenure, and for a fair price for local produce: middlemen were selling Brazil nuts at 13 times the price they paid to the small farmers. In the province of Mato Grosso,- a French

priest, Fr. Jentel, was sentenced to ten years prison in 1973 for helping peasants to /build a health clinic and resist expropriation by grilheiros. In July 1973, 150 peasants seized the town of Porto-de-Lacerda to protest against the policies of the local estate-owners the Bertolucci brothers. These isolated rural protests reflect the violence of the process underway in the Brazilian interior. They are unlikely to impede its progress in the short-run, although the question of the rural economy is ignored at peril. The multiple opposition forces seething beneath the Brazilian surface are uncoordinated and face a brutally efficient enemy. In the first four years of military ‘rule the generals appeared divided about political guide-lines, an3 the pre-1964 constitutional bpposition hoped for a revival of “democracy”. But in 1967-1968 the situation became mor& antagonistic: the “democratic” politicians were pushed tp one side by the military; workers angry at inflation and. students protesting &ilitary rule staged mass demonstrations. Sections of leftwing opposition, exasperated by the failure of peaceful piotest, formed armed urban guerrilla groups and went, into action. The Costa e Silva’ government/responded by promulgating Institutional Act number 5 (known as (A15) under which the President received full powers. Constitutional guarantees were ended. Parliament was suspended and ministers sacked. The nationalist group of officers led by General Lima, knolvn as the.Nasserists, were purged and all pretense of a return to constitutionality was abandoned. A wave of unprecedented violent, repression swept Brazil. -’ The regime’s hardening line coincided with a radicalization of the Left. As elsewhere in Latin America, many young members of the opposition, including church radicals, influenced by the world prestige of guerilla-war (Vietnam, Cuba, China) and radicalized by the failures of the Parliamentary Left, believed that the regime could be overthrown through the building of a guerrilla movement. The’ evident futility qf the peaceful politics pursued until then, and a numbgr of initial successes (culminating in the kidnapping of U.S. Ambassador Burke Elbrick in September: 1969), appeared to offer a viable alternative. But by the end of 1971 it was clear this-policy was‘ unsuccessful: the leaders of the guerilla movement were killed (Marighela in 1969, Camara Ferreira in 1970, Lamarca in 1971); most of the guerrilla troops had been srriashed, and those that continued had all they could do to survive. Only one of the original urban guerrilla grobps, the Action for National Liberation (ALN) , riow holds to its original positions. The overall reason for the failure of the gueriilla strategy was its isolation from the masses, the absence of a mass movement parallel to the guerrilla actions. This dulled the propaganda effect of specific actionswhich appetied to most people to come out of the blueand meant that there was no “water” in which the “fish” could swim. The groups were condemned to a hermetic clandestinity. Whereas in Argentinia the guerrilla groups active in. the period preceeding Peron’s return ran side by side with a vibrant, organized working-class movement, no such movement existed in Brazil, and while the strikes of 1968 signalled deep discontent, they were not coordinated with the ’ guerrilla organizations. The slogan of the ALN was an attempt to transcend this problem: “Action Builds Organization”. In fact, action did not build organization. A self-criticism published !by some guerrilla groups in early 1973 admitted as much;After the doomed offensives of 1969-70 came a period of retrenchment. Today there are a variety of non-military forms of opposition. For example, it is true that no organized trade union opposition survives above or below ground. The existing trade uniori structure was dissolved after the coup. Labor demands are now mediated through the state-controlled t_rade union officials (known as pelegos -turncoats) who act as organizers and informers under a system inspired by the corporatism of Vargas’ Presidency. The passing -of more - than 2,000 decrees concerning labor have, replaced the courts and made trade union law the exclusive preserve of government bureaucrats. Yet amidst the massive expansion bf Sao Paulo, ‘where at least 250,000 peasants come to find work each year, labor agitation has recently resumed. In the winter of ‘73 there were a series of stoppages and iightning strikes in all-major Sao. Paul0 car works. Isolated protests were reported in July among construction workers in Belo Horizonte, the third largest town, from the dockers of

Santos, the largest port. These outbreaks in themselves did not constitute any threat to the industrial regime; but. they did show that repression could not stifle all protest. The most vocal government critics are found in sections of the media and in the Church. While cinema, a mass. medium, is heavily censored, the theatre which is attended by only a minority of the intelligentsia, expresses greater opposition. In the centre of Rio, a play called Missa Lega (Lay Mass) is staged three times a week free of charge. It is an outspoken, violent attack on the government, relying on audience participation. It gets its response; the mixed audience of students, radical bourgeois and urban workers continues to’ fdl the large theatre -and the play is in its second year. Anot-her play staged in Sao Paulo in August, Urn Grito Parado No Ar (A Cry Frozen in The Air), portrayed a group -of sad, disillusioned intellectuals harking back to an unspecified time when things were “better”. A scarcely concealed portrayal qf a torture scene, and a stream of complaints against censorship and dismissal, conveyed the d&pair which has gripped Brazil’s intelligentsia: the hopelessness of the play may have contributed to its being allowed to play. Music also remains an important form of popular protest. People still sing the radical songs of.Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso-ones they wrote befgre their imprisonment in 1968. At a recent concert &l pr-ented his latest numbers to a packed audience; they received a tepid response, but the audience nearly brought the house down when he sang his early political numbers. Gil and Veloso, after living in Europe and the U.S ., have abandoned their politics for mysticism, saying the stakes are too high; but there still exists within the world of music an important school of protest culture, headed by popular and radical Chiquo Buarque’ de Holanda. In the printed media, tighter control is maintained. Theoretical Maxist works of no apparent practical application .( Malldel,

Althusser, Marcuse) are translated and sold to those“who dare to buy them (it is believed that the newsstarids are monitored by the police, on the lookout for possible “agitators”). Books on political opposition, and especially on armed ’ struggle, are firmly balined. The daily press is entirely complicit with the sling elite, although differences among sections of the bourgeoisie are reflected in news coverage and editorials. One section of the elite is represented by ex-Minister of Planning Roberto Campos and finds expression in the weekly Politika: its main position seems to be that there should be greater “political pluralism” to correlate with the “economic pluralism”. The satirical Pasqu’im prints gossip and -graphics that might offend the public . puritanism of the regime. More serious than either of these is the weekly Opiniao (Opinign): founded in October 1972, it claimed a circulation of 300,000 and contained Brazilian coverage, plus material from the New York Review of Books, Washington Post, Le Monde, Guardian and New Statesman. Opiniao went to the limits permitted in Brazil protests by Catholic Church leaders and reports of permitted “social” problems, while its heavier criticisms were reflected in articles on

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foreign countries - repori Turkey, censorship in Vie socialism or guerilla strut Opiniao was soon blocked was banned, and since t? has been maintained. Tl the material and, to con blank spaces are permit1 black with the printec Opiniao” tell their own 1 The most active, wjc within the Catholic Churn forms. The National Con CNBB), and Archbishop Recife in particular h; demned torture and the the country’s poor majo& responded by placing bisl and-limiting their ability Lower down the hiera widespread and sometir from priests and nuns w position activities wit/h shanty towns and peasar of Dominican priests, on “Love today is political charged with having COI activities of Carlos Mari 7 Outside the ranks olE category: radical Catholic duty in campaigning for s of military rule. While Catholic Church have be yea&, there has also b complimentary direction Catholic Church, who fc have favoured armed act Church as the most concr poor. The Church also of from repression. The active crushing I s together with a subtle -designed to mobilize sul pression that all is we1

blatant example of this is 1 1973 *took the unpreceden live radio broadcasts t htatements. No medium armed opposition, or stril I’eporting of the recent m select the 1974 Presidenti leaving blank spaces wher is the key to the ideologic; of concealing governmen level. Sports heroes - Pelt Fittipaldi in racingar government policies, and used as a means of enc chauvinist feeling. It is c8 Left, to hope for national sporting events. A favorite ploy in this campaign is the promotio which are set to music, commercial advertising,’ stickers. “Say No To Infl; a samba. “Brazil Deserve Are All Part Of A Great 2 Brazil” are standard. Whc team returned from their c


>Kl 5, 1974 3 about the torture in nam, or the-building of gles. Tolerated at first, in April I973 an issue :n the tight censorship ? editors must submit eal the censorship, no !d. However spaces of -out message “Read ale. ?-rnread opposition is h, taking at least three erence of Bishops (the >om Helder Camara of. ie unflinchingly conconomic oppression of j: .‘The government has ops under house arrest to spread their. views. thy, there has been 1 ies violent opposition 10 have worked in opstudents, dwellers in s. In 196869, a group of whose slogans was )r it is nothing” were tact with the guerillla :hela. -he clergy lie a third ; who see their religious cial justice and the end Iany members of the n radicalized in recent en a movement in a militants outside the lr years before might In, now work with the te way of reaching the ers minimal protection ’ -pponents has gone ideological campaign, port and give the imin Brazil. The most

re censorship, which in ed step of banning all prevent unwelcome can mention torture, 2s. Nor was there any ans the army used to I nominee. The ban on articles have been cut campaign: the policy intervention at this in -football, Emerson boosted by covert ports are deliberately Buraging diversionary 1. tmon, on the Brazilian lefeat in international ‘jndirect” propaganda of little “messages”, placarded along with is”tributed as bumper ion” was arranged as Our Love,” and “We kccessful Enterprisethe Brazilian football World Cup victory in ‘y

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1970, President Medici greeted them with the phrase “Ninguem negura ests pais,” “No one can stop ’ this country.” If sports are the most obviously prompted diversion, another of even greater potency is macumba, the religious system of the Brazilian masses which mixes Catholicism and African religions brought by slaves. The symbols of Catholicism-statues, vestments, bells, candles and so on-are invested with the significance of in Haiti, this African religions : like voodoo syncretic belief centres on trance and often on sacrificing animals, and forms an ideological and social system for most of the population. But these practices are not confined to the poor: the top officials of the government consult their macumbeira fortune tellers, while even in the centre of Sao Paulo, shops sell devotional objects used in services. While traditional Catholicism and macumba may be neck and neck in competition for myth and ritual, they differ in a political . respect. Catholicism has an explicit, formulated moral system and a public institutional form that permits opposition to the government. Macumba, to the contrary, encourages fragmentation, resignation, and a wild forgetting of all problems. There is truth to the Catholic Church’s complaint that the military actually encourages macumba rather than Catholicism, as a tool for controlling / the population. The economic record is the rock on which the Brazilian regime now stands. Brazil has a relatively unified ruling group, in which a highly centralized system is administered by a few military and civilian figures, while private capitalists, mainly from abroa‘d, get on with their allotted tasks. Brazil has a double economic advantage: prices for its basic raw materials haverisen while foreign investment in manufacturing has also multiplied. By 1968, 69 percent of U.S. investment in Brazil was in the-manufacturing sector. This boom in both kinds of production has been facilitated by the “undogmatic” capitalist

staple black bean) rose 400 per cent in 1373 as a result of a blight and the increased production of soya beans for export; potatoes rose 300 per cent in the same period; and miIk is unavailable because the cows were slaughtered\for beef for export. In the short term this represents an economic problem -the limiting of the domestic market because of the narrow spread of rising incomes; in the long term it portends a major of thedomestic political problem - the limiting market because of the narrow spread of rising incomes; in the long term it portends a major political problem for the regimethat now muted and disorganized resentment of the population may explode. Half the population of Rio and Sao Paulo lives in shanty towns,-keeping out of the smart downtown areas. But one day they could move down and claim their own. Foreign control has grown throughout the new economic boom: 100 per cent of the car industry, 91 per cent .of the tobacco industry, 82 per cent of rubber and 54 per cent of chemicals are foreign controlled. The only leading industrial areas with strong Brazilian representation are petroleum, electricity and textiles. In the mining areas of the North-East and Amazonia, enterprises established before the end of 1974 are given tax remissions of between 10 and 15 years, provided they obtain official approval. With huge reserves of bauxite, iron, manganese, niobium and tin, Brazil is a source of metals essential to the U.S. economy’s future. So great is the exploitation of the mining boom by the U.S. that, as one observer put it, “Little by little Bethlehem (Steel Corp.) is hauling Brazilian land back to the * United States.” On top of this dependence through direct -control, and the absolute loss of material assets involved, there is a spectacular rise in Brazil’s indebtedness, both in absolute terms and as a ration of export earnings. Whlie exports are expected to rise from $4 billion in 1972 to $21 billion in 1980, the foreign debt is expected to rise from $10 billion to $75 billion in the same period.

policies associated with Economics Minister Antonio Delfim Neto. The cruzeiro has been fractionally devalued around every 40 days. Wages, prices and debts have been adjusted to compensate for inflation. The unqualified denationalization of the economy by encouraging foreign investment has been successful because of the favourable conditions already existing within and outside Brazil. Behind the blazoned figures of ten -per cent growth lie an number of problems. The cost of the “growth” needs examining. The political costthe thousands killed and torturedhas. already been mentioned. on top of this, expansion has polarized incomes : in the decade between 1960 and 1970 the richest ten per cent of the country increased their share of total income from 39.66 per cent to 47.79 per cent, while the poorest ten per cent share fell from .1.1\7 per cent to 1 .ll per cent in the same period. The official claim is that the average per capita income is $430, but this conceals the absolute fall in the wages of the majority of the population and that only between 15 per cent .and 20 per cent of the population benefit from the growth. The inflation figures also conceal the polarization: the price of- feijao (the

Most dangerous of all is the fact that Brazil’s prosperity depends on the continued stability-of the world market and on the boom in primary products. If either of these situations changes the Brazilian economy will suffer a severe recession. If not, Brazil still faces the problems of too great a dependence on the the export sector at the ‘expense of the domestic market; the labour problems created by capital intensive industry in a country already plagued by unemployment; and the continued failure to bring about desperately needed reform in the agrarian sector. So far the cracks have not appeared, and the U .S ., which helped .give birth to the military regime in 1964, is well pleased. (Five days after the Left-leaning President Goulart was overthrown on March 31, 1964, the New York Times reported Dean Rusk’s praise of the military coup as an expression of support for constitutional government. The Times observed that the only other political figure in South America who still posed a threat to U.S. interests was a Chilean senator named Salvador Allende.) Among its plans to guarantee a continuation of Brazil’s present course, Washington has promised to provide $58 million in military aid and to continue

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training hundreds of Brazilian personnel at the International Police Academy in Washington. Nixon complacently expressed his view in 1971: “We know that as Brazil goes, so will go the rest of the Latin American continent.” Indeed, Brazil’s economic and military penetration of the rest of Latin America fits the overall U.S. strategy of decentralizing its power over the continent. Brazil has a common border with every other South American state except Chile and Ecudor. Its influence has spread to all its neighbors, near and far: while Chile represented the main continental rival before the September 11 coup, the focus of rivalry is now Peronist Argentina. In Paraguay, Brazil has won a major victory by helping to finance the Itaipu dam. .This will give the Brazilians an important influence in Paraguay and enable them to control the waters of the Parana river which flow into Argentina. In the other intermediary state, Uruguay, Brazil threatened to intervene militarily in the event of a Left victory in the 1971 elections and now patron&es the Bordaberry dictatorship. Brazilian influence helped install Banzer in Bolivia in August 1971. Brazilian interrogators flew to Chile to help the military junta after the coup, and a Brazilian football team was flown in to play in the Santiago stadium when Russia refused to send its team. In a tour of Andean capitals in July 1973, Foreign Minister Gibson Barbosa signed credit agreements with Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia, and Petrobras, the state oil concern, is involved in Ecuador, Venezuela and Colombia. I x Across the Atlantic, Brazil is strengthening its ties with African states to boost. exports of Brazilian manufactured products. While Brazil has the largest timber reserves in the world, it is now planning to import timber from the West African state of Gabon. Not that politics are neglected: under the transparent banner of solidarity between Portuguese-speaking‘ countries, the Brazilian junta has invested heavily in Portugal’s African colonies as a means of supporting a like-minded regime; African liberation movements claim that Brazil has troops to aid Portugal’s colonial forces. Although firmly in command at home, the junta has been disturbed by recent trends in ’ world diplomacy. Bred in a classic anticommunism, they are opposed to the conciliatory approach to socialist countries being shown in Washington, Tokyo and the capitals of Western Europe. The junta has let it be known that in a world deprived of firm Christian leadership, Brazil is ready to assume a “more important” role. This is an ironic and plausible fantasy in the tenth year of the dictatorship, but one that will become concrete in the person of General Ernest0 Geisel, the man nominated to become president in March 1974. Geisel appears to represent a more rational and active style of executive power than that of his three predecessors: the lusterless Caste110 Branco (1964-1967), the manic Costa e Silva (1967-1969) and the thuggish Garrastazu Medici (1969-1974). He is rumored to favor a slightly more nationalist economy policy, having been the director of Petrobras until his nomination, and he is almost certain to remove Delfim Netto as economic minister. Rumors also suggest that Geisel will encourage i- oomewhat more liberal regime. This is termed “political decompression” or, as one sycophantic newspaper commentator put it, the attempt “to promote the re-encounter of the Revolution with its democratic inspirations .” No one can tell. Every president has promised liberalization and-a return to the constitution, but then has done nothing.Politics within the military are opaque, but the younger officers, members of an ultra-rightist faction known as the “Indonesians ,” favor intensified repression and have in the past blocked attempts by higher officers favoring.-a slight relaxation. There is nothing in Geisel’s own political record or in his choice of henchmen to suggest that liberalization is on the way. The vice-presidential nominee is General Adalberto Pereira dos San&, a known hardliner. Nor has 1973 been a ‘liberal’ year: the Death Squadron has become more active after two years of obscurity; several opponents have been shot by police in mysterious circumstances. Geisel himself has let it be known that, in his view, “the confinement of the armed forces to activities which are strictly related to national security is absurd.” We can be sure, however, that in the second decade of military rule, the torture-the direct mutilation of political opponents and the indirect economic torture of tens of millions-will go on.


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The role of theory in revolutionary struggle has long been debated, a situation which somewhat redundantly leads to theorizing about theory. In this article Steve Izma suggests that left political groups too often overemphasize the importance of theory to the point of irrelevance, or, more dangerously, political -elitism. He also attempts to point out that this overemphasis has arisen because of basic assumptions within the development of Marxist theory. Much of this article is an expansion of the talk given two weeks ago by Calvin Normore, entitled “Anarchism and revolutionary organization” as part of the campus forum series. When I was taking engineering classes a few years ago it was easy for me to call them boring. But when exam time came around, the boredom soon transformed into oppression: my failure to grasp the content of the classes became tortuous in the exam room. I soon realized, however, that the content of the courses was a secondary problem. One of the most important reasons why I found it so hard to get at the content was the way in which the professor or lecturer held it so high over my head. It was his knowledge; he had sweated for years under some other overlord professor to get it and he was going to make us go through similar mindbending study programs and lecture sessions before we earned the right to be known as intelligent people. The teachers glowed in having this power over us and almost every aspect of the classroom situation manifested it: his knowledge was so valuable that only classes of at least 150 students represented sufficient economic value for * him to be there; he was centrally located “on stage”; he talked most of the time, others asked a few questions; and, of course, student evaluation was totally up to him. The lecturer controlled the knowledge and it was exclusively his experience which dictated the application of the knowledge. The discussion of any of our relevant experiences was stifled by the whole classroom structure. But the lab experiments were a stark contrast this. Here the knowledge and the abstractions of the classroom began to make sense; we were doing something concrete with that knowledge and generating new knowledge at the same time. Each work-term we spent in industry was an even better example of this: here our experiences played a far more crucial role in our learning process than they ever could in a classroom. In experiments and in the workplace we applied knowledge to experience and experience to knowledge; this made- the classroom situations seem archaic or a waste of time. But it was also evident that the content of the classroom could not be altered or made more relevant’ unless the power structures of not only the classroom but of 5 the whole -, university were grappled with.

One step forvkd, two steps back-Lenin In many revolutionary ways organizations are not much of a leap from this academic situation. Most revolutionary groups in Canada today have had either their origins or their base in the university. The forms of political development which these groups engage in are largely both hierarchical and alienated from experience, and in this way they tend to reflect the structures of the university and other bourgeois institutions such as centralized, statist governments. This is not to say that these groups are unconcerned with or unable to work for social change in our society; what is

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national political st 8ructures through this strange (if seen fro] n the point of view of a growing, healthy individual) ideology: “The state will ta1 ce care of you; let usmake the decisions for you-all you need Ado is fill in the proper forms.” Of course, if one doesn’t believe this myth at first, there is always the police and the courts to back it up. But jailisn’t the only form. of state repression: no one can take control over his/her own life if ‘incarcerated or incapacitated by an ideology such as this. Even if, the bourgeois state is taken over by a revolutionary’ group this ideology is easily maintained unless people have consciously and in practice broken it down in their own lives beforehand. However, Marxist ideas of revolutionary strategy, especially those developed by Lenin, maintain the importance of the state in a revolutionary situation. For example, Lenin’s strategy during the Russian revolution was for the Bolsheviks (exclusive of any of the other revolutionary groups in Russia at the time) to take control of the state and maintain its legitimacy as a controlling structure over the population. The policies of the state would change, but its ideological, legal and military control over the population would be maintained.

Being “dialectical”, undialectically

important is that some of their fun- - natives to the repressive, alienating dame&al structures and ideals are organizations of the present society. The making their participation in social success of this demands not an elitist change very difficult. separation from or “study” of the lives \.Revolutionary groups are concerned and work of the members of society, but primarily with two things: criticizing the an integration in a non-authoritarian present society, and helping to transway of the revolutionary organizations form it into a new society. Criticism is with those projects that are attempts at relatively easy, especially if you have transforming the present institutions. both lived in a society and studied it at Since repression in our society is not its schools: the tension -between what singular or one dimensional (overyou experience and what you are taught throwing capitalism does not necessarily becomes excruciating; but at the same mean that repressive power relations will time you are taught the tools (language vanish), radical critiques and radical and philosophy) for expressing that alternatives must develop right across tension in criticism. our culture: in factories, in families, in Transformation, however, is a much living situations, in schools, in the trickier thing. As the society in which it market-place, in personal relations and is based transforms, so must the so on. The alternative to dominating and political organization which agitates for competing with each other in these that transformation. But too many of institutions is to reduce our isolation these groups are concerned with endictated within the structures of these during in the form in which they institutions. Only by sharing our originally existed, i.e. a form reflecting learning and growing--experiences and many of the uncriticized (or _ notusing this knowledge to consciously thoroughly-criticized) aspects of change the structures around us can we bourgeois culture. Thus, these groups begin to take control over our own lives. end up being more conservative than progressive. . ..and don’t forget In order to maintain a relevance to the to smash the state transformation of society a revolutionary organization must: encourage But what happens-and this is the debate among its members not only over foremost question in the theories of most problems within society but also political groups - when it comes time to problems within the structure of tne take control of the state? Throughout organization itself; and develop our growing stages we probably first operating structures that are altercome into contact with the state or

l Power -and anti-power- i .. An karchist revolutionary -

critique of. organizations

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The roots of this problem is the development of Marxist thought from a bourgeois philosophical tradition (i.e. Hegelianism) without making a fully revolutionary break from that tradition. Even though Marx himself disagreed with the idealist notions in Hegel, many of his followers could not fully understand the distinctions he made. There remained among them the concept that theorists can learn. about the world through education in pure reason and that they can remain pure observers of reality without understanding their own dialectical relationship to the events they observe. ;Jim Harding (of ManEnvironment at the University of Waterloo) in his recent paper “Historical and Dialectical Materialism” has indicated how this deviation developed even within the writings of Marx’s close friend Frederich Engels: Engels, in contrast to Marx, concerned ,himself with matters , of formalized science. And, unlike Marx, he attempted to make “dialectics” into a metascience, almost into laws in the natural law sense. For him ‘ ‘nature worked dialectically”. -He believed that the active notion of humans making history through their labour /could be abstracted into laws of nature and sub-laws of history. In the process Engels decimated epistemology-attributing to “Dialectics” a teleological role in the cosmos. . . . What is prqblematic in Engels’ dialectical materialism is how consciousness gets reduced to an unscrutinized dualism whereby mind grasps or reflects matter. Dialectics itself becomes a formal logic and subsequently a science, in the positivist sense, and becomes ipso facto accepted. The implied separation of subject and object in Engel’s view doesn’t even get confronted for, according to his notion, “dialectics” avoids all such problems. In Engels we find not historical materialism but idealism in the form of dialectical ‘materialism. This shows that a very thin line indeed , continued on page 23

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_ separa-tes Marxism from bourgeois science. . . . . . Political practice can therefore never be understood as a deduction from the supposed laws of dialectical‘-materialism. R&her is is always a moment in the dialectic of materialism (reality) which includes humans in society and both in nature. Hence practice is not a simple test of some truth held in- dependently, the way dialectical materialism sees both scientific and revolutionary theory. Thus, one development from these ideas of Engels was a purity and primacy of theory held dangerously apart from from practice. An elitism springs out of this, not only for the theory itself but also for the theorists: only those theorists sufficiently educated in these concepts can properly lead the revolution, and determine its strategy. This, unfortunately, prevents the participation of most of a society’s population as equals in political groupings. The only role left for them is participation\ in mass action without, however, a mass planning of this action. For

Marxists

Power

like

Lenin,

the

task

having control over their own lives, or sharing control over decisions and actions that affect their lives in a community or collective situation. of control” can Only in a “sharing one’s skills be fully appreciated, fullyemployed and taught to others (and learned from others) rather than manipulated into producing value for someone else’s self-centered use. Only in a “sharing of control” can one’s needs be fully appreciated and satisfied rather than distorted and made into fetishes. This ability to share does not happen overnight, nor is it given to us by “more enlightened theorists”. And it is part of a hierarchical patronization towards others that allows a political grouping to consider itself the “safeguard of revolutionary thought” or the “vanguard of class struggle” and socialist implementation. And it is in this way that a great many left organizations are mirror images of the bourgeois institutions they attempt to counter; they retain for themselves hegemony over the people they are attempting to liberate. But whqhas led the revolutions of the past? Marx’s theories are crucial in understanding this and he himself had an astute grasp of the social forces developing towards revolutionary situations. But it was not his writings which instigated revolutions. When he with Engels, the Communist wrote, Manifesto workers and non-workers all over Europe were already up in arms; the uprisings of 1871 (Paris Commune, etc.) cannot be traced to Marx’s writings and strategies in his work with the

and anti-power

became the development of a strong, centralized political party which, internal debate would through its become the vanguard of revolutionary theory. A primary task of this group was revolutionary theory; to “safeguard” therefore only certain acceptable elements were allowed into the party itself. Restrictions were especially tight in respect to the Central Committee of the party. Once a closed grouping takes on this “preserving” role, it is in a predicament: how does it judge whether dissenting views are going to cause - splits and doubt within the group, or, on the other hand, actually cause breakthroughs into more progressive and relevant areas of thought. It is especially difficult for such a group to judge relevance when its members have been largely educated through bourgeois traditions and spend most of their time writing and debating rather than participating in the work . and community activities of the people of -whom they talk. This- “practice” places the theorists and the role of theory in an elitist position above the practice of the people who actually mobilize to make the revolution. A hierarchical situation develops either consciously or unconsciously from this assumption of thevrecedence of theory over practice. The hierarchy, of course, already exists in the society which the revolutionaries are criticizing or fighting; it exists in the power relations between the state and the governed within factories with people, management controlling not just the administrative functions but the actual lives of the workers within the factory, within the family with husband over wife over children, within the educational _ structures with administration over teachers over students, and so on. It even exists within the administrative groups of one administrator attempting to manipulate zanother; of one group of students attempting to seek more influence than another group; in competition ,for various positions and ownership of objects (and people). This hierarchy is antagonistic to people

International Workingman’s Association; the bolsheviks were caught completely unaware during the February revolution of 1917 despite their large amount of , debate and theoretical development. In other words, just as Marx’s theories of scientific socialism arose out of his examination of historical movements and events, so, too, did the revolutionary theories that have survived from times of revolutionary events arise from these actions. Marx, Engels and Lenin and all other social theorists could not consistently predict what form a revolution was going to take, but only most of the things that were necessary to make it happen. During the period of the Second International (late 1800’s up to WWI) the development of Marxist thought took - place in a social Democratic or parliamentary context, a reflection of the lack of revolutionary militancy after 1871 (when there was heavy and bloody repression of the left, especially in France, where the 1871 struggles had been most disruptive to the state). Lenin, however, pushed theory back into a position of a-prerequisite for action beginning with his arrival in Russia after the February revolution. The rest of “his” bolshevik party were content to wait for the unfolding of contradictions and subsequent raising of consciousness among the people before the seizure of power by the proletariat or their representatices; they were even content to endure the “bourgeois phase” of revolutions in order to allow and agitate _for this change to occur. The bolsheviks were completely baffled by Lenin’s immediate insistence that the bolsheviks, . a minority political group even among the socialists, ’ begin strategies to seize state power in the name of the democratic soviets and workers councils. , It is because of Lenin’s superior grasp of Marxist theory and his position at the top of the party hierarchy that allowed his argument to “take power” within the party in .a matter of weeks. Had any lesser member proposed the same theory he would have been censured as a

dissident -attempting to cause splits within thee party. Part of being within a hierarchical structure means that the way ‘in which you listen to and givecredit to others is dependent on and mediated by your relative positions in the hierarchy. The results of this strategy decision were that the bolsheviks ‘over the next few months gradually spread out intoorganizations. workers and soldiers When they. had enough, influence in those organizations to rationalize their seizure of power, there occurred the COUP of October 1917. The bolshevik leaders themselves did not take part in arresting and immobilizing the provisional they were too busy government; debating and sending out instructionsto other groups who were active. They did, however, have power in the only structure left that had national or state of Soviets. In its powers : the Congress name they began to make resolutions determining the direction of the revolution.

Bureaucracy

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. was ‘a theory developed within the bourgeois concept of power and hierarchy and within the context of economic and political relations having precedence over other aspects of people’s lives. Theirs was a case of theory outrunning practice and heading over a cliff; and the imposed practice of this theory proved fatal for thousands of people. It is important to understand that similar results would have taken place if any other group had assumed state power where people were beginning to take power for themselves and erect their own democratic de-centralized institutions. ‘There is no conservative or liberal government on earth that would recognize such organizations. But most crucially, the left revolutionary groups themselves are having trouble understanding their role in the development and application of theory.

seeps in

But large numbers of the workers, soldiers and peasants who were the activists in the seizure of power and supported the bolsheviks as the theorists of the seizure of power quickly recognized and soon grew disenchanted with a growing bureaucratization. The bolsheviks had economic reasons for this bureaucratization, but these, reasons assumed that state control was necessary for the advancement of industry andidid not take into account the way in which the workers evaluated their own needs in respect to the development of industry. The workers had spontaneously erected their own factory councils and regional .soviets and were beginning large scale co-ordination of industry as well. This was their own practice of workers control; but state power in the form of the state-instigated bureaucracy imposed itself on this process. The-state felt that the autonomous experiments in workers control were slowing down production; those who were producing felt that only through their own control of organization and rates of work would sufficient goods be non-alienating cirproduced in cumstances. \

Who came first, ’ the bolsheviks or the egg? Did the bolsheviks take power too soon? Should they have waited for the fuller development of the workers control movement which had begun before the October coup? It’s never too soon to break the power of oppressive systems. If the bolsheviks hadn’t taken power in October there would have been another upheaval anyway. Soldiers were disillusioned by the war, peasants were disillusioned by the bourgeois government policies of land distribution and workers were willing to break state control over the economy and their jobs. It was not a question of power by the left, the liberals, or the right wing; it was a question of national co-ordination among autonomous, ’ self -managed groups or, conversely, state-imposed conformity of a large number of different groups-’ with differing abilities and differing needs. A revolutionary group which had more thoroughly integrated theory with practice would recognize how the ideology of the state works. If the people rose up and seized state power and then-still caught up in the notion that state power is the way to achieve human progressattempted to give to someone, no such that power revolutionary group ’ would accept it. Rather,.they would try to find ways of ; decentralizing that decision-making and cause the state to be immediately unnecessary as a means of imposed control: The bolsheviks accepted state power because they identified the dictatorship of the proletariat with the party’s use of state power in proletariat interest. It

Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world These contradictions . within left political ’ organizations lead to a new relevance for anarchism. Attacks on anarchism by ’ vanguard groups have been largely superficial, indicating a shallowness of self-criticism within those groups. ’ Anarchism is not anti-organizational;

/

it is anti7hierarchical. Anarchists do not rest their development on organizing the most militant sectors of the population and through them only becoming a political power. They attempt, rather, to point out the, contradictions of repressive society to all those with whom they come into contact. This is based on the understanding that theoretical development can and must take place among all sectors of society. The problems of our society must be dealt with on the level at which people are ready to deal with them, and at the same time suitable alternatives must be discussed as replacements for the existing problematic institutions and relationships. Anarchists are individualists only so far as they recognize and strive for the fulfillment of the immense capabilities of the individual to develop control over his/her life. However, this ideal is grounded in a certain practice and realization: that we exist in a society of individuals; that our survival depends on the sharing of the products of our labour; and that our development occurs only through the sharing of our experiences in nondominating ways. \ L In the same way that we need a unity to overcome the power that o.ppresses/represses us today, we need a unity that enables us to develop our own -self-power and autonomy. Only this can remove all necessity for and possibility of dominating relations. And this occurs only through conscious and sensitive interaction among us, and never from ungrounded theoretical developments.


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With the publishing of their special 20th anniversary issue early this year Playboy featured an intervicew with its founder Hugh Hefner and an added extraa two-sided view of their favourite for the occasion, the girl next door called Nancy. In the following article Linda McQuaig of the Varsity examines the philosophy behind the product, the enemy that Hefner thinks he is fighting and then, the real opposition. Nancy isn’t the sort of person you’d normally bother to read an article about. At 20, she’s had a pretty normal, everyday sort of life, working as a dental assistant, booking hotel reservations for rock groups and spending a lot of time doing gymnastics. In fact, if it weren’t for the fact that the running commentary on her rather dull life is in.;erspersed with full-page nude . pictures If her, needless to say, no one would read Al.J.

But then everyone knows t-hat a Playboy centrefold isn’t chosen for. her Views on world politics. Publisher Hugh Hefner has always said that his ‘Playmates” are supposed to remind the *eader of the “girl-next-door”. Yet one ;an’t help but get the impression that ~ Hefner is being a ~little hard on. the girl who really does live next door-while she may not be as well built as the one in she couldn’t possibly be r the pictures, chat dull. Reading Nancy’s account of ierself is-about as exciting as listening ;o Johnny Carson interview a fifth rate novie actress who’s just dying to tell y’ou all about her latest film. Nancy is no ordinary Playmate. She was the lucky one chosen to be spread across the pages of Playboy’s special 20th anniversary issue of January ‘74, 3nd the first playmate ever to have her oack view featured on the flip side of the ;hree-page fold-out. Said Nancy: “I’m Battered to be chosen to be‘ Playboy’s first double-gated Playmate”. Nancy’s jack side and an interview with Hefner Ire the treats offered on this special Y occasion . But why does Playboy bother with all ;he chatter between the skin shots? Is all ;his talk (and it goes on long enough to appear every now and then between 10 ^oages of colour pinups) merely filler? Vat entirely. Nancy’s life story has a nor al. First, Nancy is no dud. She doesn’t sit . lome and knit. She’s highly ‘active in sports, has held a variety of not-purelyeoutine jobs, as well as being secretary of ler junior and senior classes in school, hum majorette and, in her own words, ‘principal’s pet and all the rest”. She nay even be intelligent. But Nancy isn’t exactly what you’d call a strong in_ lividual. She makes it pretty clear that she takes a back seat to her boy friend ?aul. She’s really impressed with Paul md credits him with introducing her to nany of the exciting things that she jays have happened to her since she met .iim : “Since then ,I’ve done things I lever thought I’d be doing, met people I lever thought I’d meet, had experiences t never thought I’d have.” And it’s lretty clear that Paul is boss. He is, in ‘act, her boss. She left her job as a dental assistant to work for Paul, who is a rock The nature of their :oncert producer. *elationship is further revealed by a Gcture of Nancy (fully-clothed even) eaning on the front of Paul’s car, which ust happens to be a Rolls Royce. Nancy explains : “The Rolls has to be kept uned constantly. Paul doesn’t let me .ivork on it to.0 often, but I gladly do Nhat he lets me.” Maybe for a special rest he’ll let her clean the windshield? Vat one to quarrel, Nancy perches demurely on the front of the car looking, It a book while‘ Paul manfully tinkers Nith his Rolls in the background. The saga of a typical day in the life of \Tancy drones on. Now she moves to the srn, changes to a tight black gym suit and is seen leaning chest-downward over ;he uneven parallel bars. She says: “I’ve

friday,

\h, “playmates” I ’ next door, * my whole life, as have 1:)een a gymnast my parents and their parents before them. We’re all Slovak and it would be hard to find a people crazier about gymnasticsthan the Slovaks. Since my mother is an instructor and my sisters still compete, I guess we can match any family as gymnast fanatics.” The day winds up with Nancy and Paul sitting around a campfire with a group of groovy young people like themselves in a scene reminiscent of the type of beer commercials that used to come on during football games. So a day that began with a chest shot of Nancy in the shower, moved to the Rolls Royce scene, then the gym, then Nancy on assignment as a demonstrator for a cosmetics firm, ends up with she and Paul relaxing with the gang. A day‘ in the life of a typical couple? Hardly. But it’s a day that most Playboy readers would give their tightest turtlenecks for.

So the running commentary beside the pictures has been more than a spacefiller. It’s given Playboy a chance to construct the image of a way of life filled with money, leisure ,and a big-breasted woman who looks up to her man. This has been Playboy’s “contribution” to the pornography business. Sex magazines have always offered men an opportunity to gawk at women’s bodies, but it was Hefner who first turned the sex magazine into a package deal-a ready-made fantasy that not only provided a man with visual sexual ‘stimuli but also allowed him to imagine himself in a world of luxury, sophistication and ever-willing women. Playboy is reported to refuse advertising for acne medication-how can a Playboy reader really immerse himself in the fantasy of being; a smooth operator with a host of pliant women at his call if, at the same time, he’s being reminded that he’s really a pimple-faced loser?

Hefner claims that Playboy’s greatest innovation in the pornography world was the creation of the -girl-next-door pinup. This is probably true only to the extent that perhaps men can more easily imagine themselves sexually involved with a centrefold who is supposed to resemble the girl next door (regardless of whether or not she actually does) than with a famous movie star. Nonetheless, famous movie stars have traditionally ‘found their way onto Playboy’s pages with little protest. from the readership. Paul Gebhard, director. of the Institute for Sex Research in the US, probably hit closer to the truth when he attributed Playboy’s success to its technique of linking sex with upward mobility. Hefner seems to like this idea and says he set out to create a magazine “free of guilt about sex and the benefits of materialism”. In fact, he seems to see

little distinction between the two. It can all be consumed, be it cars, golf clubs or women. But available sex and the benefits of materialism are only part of the Playboy formula. There’s a far more crucial, but difficult-to-pin-down element. Nancy again offers the clues. As we ‘have seen, ’ she is active and energetic, but not exactly a forceful person. There must be nothing more gratifying to the male ego ‘ than reading ,about a girl like Nancy. Voluptuous, cheerful, unassuming, and most impressed with her boyfriend. (One wonders/whether an account written about-,. Paul would contain as many references to Nancy as hers does to him.) Reading about a girl like Nancy is almost enough in itself to let a man (or boy, as the case often is) forget that he’s living in a world where he’s not always the boss. Despite the ‘fact that men dominate the political and economic sphere, the average male is constantly

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confronted in his private life with women who aren’t necessarily weak-willed. Most males have to deal daily with mothers, sisters, female teachers and classmates who exert strong influences on them. These kinds of women naturally pose a threat to any man whose ego demands. that he not be ruled by, or even compete with, women. The Playmate allows him to escape from all this into a world where women are beautiful and uncompetitive. Hefner admits that he likes this kind of woman: “I tend to be attracted to the sort of woman who isn’t competitive and doesn’t feel frustrated or resentful because she isn’t in charge. . . I don’t go looking for any sort of challenge in a romance. . ‘. A romantic relationship for me is an escape from the challenges and problems I face in my work”. The Playmate certainly isn’t going to challenge him, just make sure he’s having a good time. Fantasies, of course, are much easier to believe in if they fall within the realm of possibility. Hefner conveniently offers himself as evidence that the Playboy world does exist; his life is the fantasy come true. Surrounded by all the luxuries of sheer extravagance and a never-ending line of willing women, Hefner appears to lead a life that is just one titillation after another. As he so profoundly put it in the interview: “I feel like a king in the world’s biggest candy store.” The moral is: if a man as unattractive as Hugh Hefner can make it, then it really is true that all a guy needs is a $200 million financial empire and he can have just about asmany insipid women as he wants. Hefner spends much of the interview talking about his life at the two Playboy mansions, giving just enough detail to stir up the imagination of his readership without destroying the mystery’, which, of course, further reinforces the cult. The interviewer, Larry Dubois, helps him along and together they drop hints about how exciting things really are there at the mansion. Hefner: “After the meetings, dictation and editing are done I’m ready to relax and play- whether it’s in my rotating bed or in the game room with the gang.” Dubois: “Or in the rotating bed with the gang?” Hefner: “You’ve been peeping”. Hefner not only presents the image of a man who is immersed in a never-ending world of pleasure, but also a man who has control over his own life. In Hefner’s world he is in charge. To the average male, who often feels powerless in his job or personal life, Hefner offers the image of a man who orders a vast financial empire from his revolving bed. Hefner plays on this theme himself, implying that he stands apart from the crowd while others submit to the dictates of society. He says that he started out working as a copy writer in the promotion department of Esquire, until his boss refused to give him a $5 raise. “I not only didn’t get the raise, the head of the promotion department spent almost an hour trying to convince me that I wasn’t a good ‘Company man’. . . he was right.” The implication is. that Hefner was too much of an individualist to make a good company man. Company men are “yes” men, right? and Hefner’s no “yes” man, right? He says: “One of the greatest sources of frustration in contemporary society is that people feel so powerless, not only in relation to what happens in the world around them, but in influencing what happens in their own lives. Well, I don’t feel that *frustration, because I’ve taken control of my life.” Hefner seems to be attributing his ability to set his own terms to his forceful personality (he’s no Bunny, you know). Of the- man who commutes to work he says: “He’s living his life according to some preconceived notioncertainly not his own-of what a daily routine ought to be. I’ve eliminated that problem by having my office, personal staff and a conference room right here on the premises .”


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What Hefner fails to point out is that the reason he’s master of his environment is that he can afford to be. Most people with financial empires in the $200 million range do manage to skip the daily subway ride. Hefner even attributes his rejection of women’s liberation to his individuality: “I’m not going to pattern my life after some fashionable notion of an emancipated relationship in which both partners are equal. If that works for others, OK, but it wouldn’t work for me. I admit to being a rather strong-willed individual. I make most of the decisions in my life, and I like it that way.” So, while the Bunny offers the image of the pretty pliable woman for the Playboy reader to fantasize about, Hefner offers him the model of the strong, independent man, for him to emulate-the kind of man who’s on his way up in the world, like the guy in the Playboy cartoon who, while preparing to insert his penis into a secretary before the eyes of a prospective employer, glibly announces, “I believe your firm can use a man like me, sir. I’m young, aggressive, and I won’t take no for an answer .” Insipid women, aggressive men-preconceived notions, anyone? The Playboy fantasy, then, is just an elaborate version of the old cliche-that men are strong, independent individuals who naturally dominate women, who are weak-willed. As Hefner well knows, the easiest way to make men feel that they do, in fact, dominate women is to portray women as weak. But some women don’t like to be thought of as weak, which accounts for the fact that Playboy has stirred up considerable opposition from women over the years. This upsets Hefner, who likes to think of himself as the friend of womenbesides, it’s much more difficult to come across looking like achampion of sexual sex is liberation if the opposite screaming exploitation. Hefner tries to get around this by supporting certain goals of the women’s movement that don’t threaten the Playboy world-

6 notably freer abortion laws, greater access to birth control and legal rights for women. Beyond this, Hefner has little sympathy for the women’s movementunderstandably -it isn’t in the interests of -a beef farmer to -‘promote Hefner ,reveals in the vegitarianism. interview that he finds the easiest way to deal with his opposition is to distort it. He claims, for instance, that he supports women’s liberation except when it tries to make men and women the same, which is, of course, not at all what it’s trying to do. When it comes to what the movement actually is trying to donamely to destroy people’s “precon of male dominationceived notions” , Hefner’s words echo loud and clear: “I’m not going to fashion my life after some fashionable notion of an emancipated relationship in which both partners are equal.” Playboy’s real enemy isn’t puritanism, as Hefner likes to think it is, but rather women who don’t like to be squeezed in between wine and song on the list of life’s great pleasures . But Hefner prefers to see puritanism as his arch enemy, the force of oppression that is keeping the world safe for virgins. It’s a much easier opposition to fight-mainly because it’s been almost totally discredited, to the point of being laughed at by the majority of the population. (Besides, it’s always easier to fight peoplewhoare trying to impose. something on you than people who claim you’re imposing something on them.) So Hefner fights on, despite the lack of real opposition, daring to defy every nun and librarian in the crowd, tossing out the slogan “puritan hang-up” as if sex before marriage were still a rare phenomenon. Hefner sees the forces of virginity closing in onhim from all sides. In true paranoic style, he declares: “because there is an enemy out there. This country-indeed, the whole world y consists of two opposing forces; us, and those who would force their values and beliefs upon us.” It must be getting more and more

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difficult for Hefner. When Playboy a woman to appear naked in the pages of began 20 years ago, there was much a men’s magazine, they’re really obmore of an enemy out there. Many jecting to the sexual connotation of the people did object to Playboy on the pictures, and that’s just the same .old grounds that it was too explicitly sexual. repressive puritanism under a different But people have changed: Playboy has label.” Satisfied also, Dubois moves on become an accepted institution. It’s the to the next question. Hefner pays’ even type of magazine that a “respectable” less attention to it. Dubois says: “As young lawyer could be seen browsing you know, some feminists think through without raising an eyebrow. It’s that. . . the Bunny costume is demeaning sold in “respectable” drug stores, to the wearer.” Instead of even atalongside Esquire, Time and Newsweek. tempting to counter this, Hefner As Playboy’s enemy has dwindled, _ outlines the history of the Bunny however, Hefner has been unwilling to costume and concludes, somewhat away give up the fight and acknowledge that from the point, “The word Bunny has he’s no longer taking on the whole even entered the language as a synonym establisbment. (Just because he for a pretty girl”. -wouldn’t be welcome at the Vatican Mostly, however, Hefner tries to doesn’t mean he hasn’t made it.) dismiss his opposition by pointing to the Hefner reveals himself to be much less good causes Playboy has supported and adept at handling, any other form of the sexual freedom it has championed for opposition, which perhaps explains why women. This is true, to a certain extent: he attempts to portray all opposition as the most notable example being its rampant puritanism in disguise. (He crusade against anti-abortion laws. Yet, maniges to get away with this in the in the long run, Playboy has done more anniversary interview chiefly because to harm women than to help them, for Dubois, the interviewer, lets him). the toughest battles women face are not Dubois makes the observation that‘ legal but conceptual and Playboy, more “many women find the image of a pin-up than any other single force, has connude dehumanizing”. No, says Hefner, tributed to the image of .women as claiming that Playboy has, on the merely sexual playthings. By creating contrary, humanized the pin-up concept the Bunny, Playboy has held up as by making the subjects more realistic. J desirable a type of woman whose chief “The entire girl-next-door concept that function is to satisfy and flatter the we created for our centrefold was inmale. tended to make the Playmates more a While more sexual freedom for women . part of real life for our readers,” says can be achieved through liberalizing Hefner, as if the fact that the girl in the abortion laws, real sexual liberation isn’t picture resembles Susan Smith down the just the opportunity to have more sex street or your best friend or even you but rather to have better sex. And as suddenly changes the nature of the act of long as Playboy contributes to the image reducing yourself to the level of a sexual of women as just another threat at the toy. By the same logic, a black man mansion, the chances of men and women would prefer to see a fellow black perbeing able to relate to each other form a degrading task, rather than see a sexually in an open, equal way will be white man do the same one, because at slim. Hefner closes with this final tribute least he could identify with the black! to himself: “Well, if we hadn’t had the Satisfied that he has adequately Wright brothers, there would still be handled the point, Hefner tries to steer airplanes. If there hadn’t been an the argument back onto familiar’ground Edison, there would still be electric and once again sees the spectre of lights. And if there hadn’t been a Hefner puritanism closing in on him: “If some we’d still have sex. But we wouldn’t be people still consider it dehumanizing for enjoying it as much.”

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‘circus?

this technique is ’ effected Gordon Macdougall, assisted by a large cast of students, made an properly, the impact is electric. attempt to put on the last of With the dichotomy betweenacknowBrecht’s plays, The Caucasian actor and playgoer ledged, the limits of the medium Chalk Circle in the Humanities week. Unare extended. Consequently Theatre last Brecht can have ’ his characters fortunately, they used methods which did not seem to portray set up props within the context of Brechtian philosophy of theatre. the play; address the audience at The plays of Bertold Brecht whim; or project the appearance are precisely that-plays. They of transience by walking on a large rotating platform. All of are seldom evocative of the these devices are used in The immediate, physical, “real” to day /Caucasian Chalk Circle, and world of our day acquaintance. Brecht believed rendered with varying degrees of that the distance between the success in the campus producaudience and the stage should be tion. ’ Most of Brecht’s plays were emphasized rather than glossed over, and he made full use of the written to be presented with dramatic device that such a simplicity, requiring a minimum realization afforded him. An of sets and technical requirements. This production audience knows that it is simply an intricate coma group of people assembled in a involved bination of music, lighting, and theatre to watch some actors pretend to be other than they set design including the installation of a revolving stage normally are, and there is no which turned out to be a trite point in attempting to try and dangerous. fool it into thinking that. such is noisy and somewhat In Brechtian All things being considered, not the case. theatre, the world on the stage is the ‘presentation still had the a detached, microcosmic one - potential -of being a first rate whose value system has been play, had more time been spent in It would seem a moulded carefully about a its preparation. bit too optimistic to expect such particular theme, reduced to an involved complex project to be manageable proportions. The completed in a mere ,four weeks. ideals are usually clear cut. When

The Campus Centre tB.oard would like Students, Staff, and Faculty to Submit designs for eight panels to b.e placed inthe Campus Centre Great Hall. \ Four of the p\anels are 20 ft long and four are 17.5 feet long, all are 2 ft 9 in high. The final work can be painted panels, painted canvas mounted on framing, sculptured panel or any other appropriate medium. .When submissions (on drawing paper or art board not more than twenty inches by thirty)‘are received a winner will be selected by the Works of Art Committee and the Campus Centre Board The winner will have his-her choice of accepting $100.00 and _letting the board find someone to carry. out the design or they can elect to build the panels themselves for a fee of $800.00. Drawings are to b,e submitted anonymously. Details are available from Marlene Miles, secretary of the works of art committee, at ext. 2488. Contest deadline is April 3Qth, 1974.

april

5, 1974

Just as Rome was not built in a day, this play should not have been put on in a month. The acting was less than good. Many did not Iknow their lines well. That could have been the negligence of the actors or their nervousness of being caught in the deadly vehicle on which they were riding. Judy Prouse, who played the leading role, showed a certain amount of acting ability, but like many in the production had some difficulty in projecting in the midst of so much confusion, that existed on the stage. ” The most impressive part of this play was its large cast. In some scenes it seemed that the characters would never stop coming on the stage. The actors in the play were obviously enjoying themselves and this feeling of fun carried through to the audience. This feeling was ,good for a person who knew nothing about Brecht or theatre for that matter interested only in an evening of entertainment. The play gave the impression of a three ring circus in which it is easy for someone to sit back and be entertained overlooking any of the performer’s weaknesses. It also meant that some fine satiric points were occasionally lost, or deemphasized, by having been made in the midst of concurrent activities. Scenes such as the overcrowding of the peasant cabin would have benefitted from better timing and more careful emphasis of dialogue and action which sometimes got lost in the hubbub. That is a minor criticism however, in light of the complexity of the production. -paulinda milkberry

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‘1Strawbs -heavenly Hero and Heroine by Strawbs is an album that demands a number of listening sessions, for it encompasses a variety of moods and reflections. The title track is reminiscent of ’ the mythological lore which David Cousins, the leader of the group, has used so effectively on earlier albums, especially From The Witchwood. The lyrics of this song, combined with the harshness and cynicism of Cousins’ voice reflect a tone. of embitterment and fatality. Cousins offers an almost mystical interpretation of man’s weakness and irresoluteness, his solitary need for the confrontation of his own futility in -life and an almost Buddhist maxim of fulfillment that comprised much of Strawbs’ Grave New World album. While storm clouds gathered high above The Heroine he grew to love Turned slowly to a snow white dove And spread her< wings to fly Crushed and broken in the end Hero watched his soul ascend Knowing that he ,was condemned To sail alone to die. . From the self critical cynicism of lines like, “He knew his life was incomplete, For he had yet to suffer”, we are immediately transported into peaceful uplifting verses of golden lining under a midnight sun shining. “Out In The Cold” follows this with a soft melodic discovery of sensual But then pleasure and experience. Cousins forces us to look back at our inconsistencies and the futility of our actions in “Round and Round.” This composition, however, has not the biting v visciousness of “Hero And Heroine.” It is smooth, and flows like rippling water, yet it confronts us with the earlier nihilism that Cousins seems to thrive on. I drew the blade across my wrist To see how it would feel Looked into the future There was nothing to reveal \1 For we were just the product Of the ever spinning wheel Round and Round we go. Side one, however, is less demanding lyrically but more satisfying musically. The initial track‘lentitled “Autumn” (a musical trilogy) begins with a haunting instrumental typical of Strawbs. The use of the synthesizer, mellotron and electric

lift

piano bring the falling of leaves and the whispers of birds to our ears. Cou<ms’ voice turns soft and soothing wit$ a simplicity and tenderness. that he is certainly capable of. “The Winter Long,” part three of Autumn lifts you into a space of heaven, similar to Benedictus from Grave New World. An upsurging harmony acever companiment with Cousins mellowing voice and the, lofty precision of John Hawkens’ piano -and Dave Lambert’s electric guitar combine to ease you gracefully into a land of dream and tranquility . > ’ “Sad Young Man,” written by Rod Coombes, who handles the percussion on this album is a scintillating lyrical description of a lonely man’s search for understanding and the unity of existence. The guitar solos on this one track are worth the-price of the album alone. The next track entitled “Just written by Dave Lambert is Love,” probably the least representative of the Strawbs style and for that reason seems unnecessary or at least out of place on this side. Ho,wever if we view it as an experimental cut it is somewhat integrated. Regardless of what you feel about this number Cousins ensures the flow and vitality of the side with “Shine on Silver Sun,” an almost spiritual attempt to burst the clouds and shower the world with compassion. The members of this latest Strawbs album are all new with the exception of Dave Lambert and’- of course ‘David Cousins. Yet the album is so typically Strawbs that one cannot help but accept. the fact that David Cousins is and has always been Strawbs. When I first heard this album I was rather wary of the new members, probably because I had enjoyed,the former group so much. ‘But upon successive listenings I am convinced of the musical excellence of all the people involved in, the. creation of this new album and moreso of David Cousins’ versatility and exceptional talent. Hero And Heroine was recorded at Rosenberg Studios in Copenhagen during November of 1973. The art work was done by Michael Doud. If youhiked the old Strawbs then by all means pick up and enjoy Hero And Heroine. vince chetcuti

Recording artists Karen and David. are appearing until Sqturday night. Photo by randy hdnnigan.

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Friday night should be a night worth remembering in the Campus Centre.

A fest of filmsMovie goers will be treated to a special this Friday when the Campus Center Board runs four comedies in the Great Hall starting at midnight-. Adding to the flicks will. be Kit Carson, a local band, which starts, at 830 in the Great Hall and String Band which will be playing in the pub. The movies showing are two Marx Brothers flicks~ and two W .’ C. Fields specials. Coconuts, the first Marx Bros. film made, is a ’ hilarious situation comedy. The film revolves around a hotel in Florida which Groucho is managing. Thrown’ into the plot is a romance (or two), a jewel search, and a chase between a plane and a car. A highlight of the movie is the time given to Harpo and Chico to exhibit their musical abilities. Duck Soup is another of the *most farnbus Marx Brothers vendettas. Called one of the most valid anti-war movies ever made, it contains a collection of the ; Brothers most famous sequences such as the lemonade stand, the mirror. scene and the famous final battle epigode. International House contains some interesting glimpses at the past. Perhaps the most dated scene in the movie is one in which Rose Marie sings a torch song found “immoral” in its time. Cab Calloway provides an interesting sidelight with That Reefer Man. W. C. Fields blends in well with Gracie Allen and George .Burns etc. A film worth seeing. W. C. Fields and Mae West appear in “My Little Chickadee”. All that can be said about this pairing is evident in the following dialogue. Fields (kissing West’s hand) “What symmetrical digits! ” and West remarking, after their first meeting, “I was in a tight spot but I managed to wiggle out of it.”

Channel 19 (Grand River Cable 9) has initiated a 14 week movie series which started March 30. The films run in trilogies. The first trilogy is entitled Three Films in Search of God and consists of Through A Glass Darkly, Winter Light and The Silence. The last two movies will be showing-;4pril 6 and April 13, respectively from 9: 00 - 11: 30 pm. These Bergman films, along with the rest of the series will be accompanied by a one hour discussionafter each showing. The second trilogy showing is called Saturday Night I at the Movies on Saturday Night. April 20th from 8 to 12 midnight will feature Babes in Toyland with Laurel-and Hardy, You Can’t Cheat an Honest Man, starring W. C. Fields and Edgar Bergen, and Chapter 1 of the serial The Mysterious Dr. Satan. Chapters 2 to 7 of the serial will be shown on April 27 from 8 to 10:30. The series will conclude on May 4 when chapters 8 to 15 will be played from 8 to lo:30 pm. Old time horror fans will take delight in the third trilogy which runs May 11, 18 and 25th. All shows (King Kong, The Bride of Frankenstein, and Dr. Cyclops) will be on from 8 to 10:30. Most will discuss whether the flicks really show the dark side of man. The trilogy is entitled “Great Beasts of the Imagination”. The fourth group of films, “They Took the Law into Their OwnHands” sounds like a parallel to our current run of “super-cop” movies. The theme is “The cult of the movie hero capsuled, who creates his own code of justice outside the law of the land”. Running June 1,8, and 15 from 8 to 10:30pm are The Oxbow Incident, The Four Just Men and Abandon Ship (starring Tyrone Power). In Pursuit of Utopia ends the film series. As expected Lost Horizon is the first film shown (on June 22, 8 to 10: 30) and you can take it from there. “Meet John Doe” starring Gary Cooper and Barbara Stanwyck will end the whole series June 29th from 8 to 10: 30.

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Problems of &sign “The history of textile arts and I the problems, of design for textile media will be explored, combining lectures and studio projects in both two and three dimensional exTraditional - textile pressive forms. materials and methods will be applied-. to the creation of conexpressive and temporary autonomous forms. Stu-dents will supply their own materials. ” The above is a quotation from the University calendar. Its dryness cannot be compared to the actual experience of 228A. Approximately 25 to 30 women enrolled in -Fine Arts 228A. It was surprising to walk into a class of women but, unfortunately, there were no men on campus interested enough in textiles to enrol. The course was produced and directed by Nancy Lou Patterson and will not be offered again. However, the women that par-ticipated in it are now able to spin, wash and dye their own wool and knit, crochet, or knot it into a variety of objects ranging from 3dimensional sculptures to a pair of socks. Slides formed an important part of the course. Students viewed, on two separate occasions, two to three

hours. of slides covering everything from the Bayeaux Tapestry to William Morris’ wallpaper designs. Form, design and pattern were ~ emphasized in the slides and the little-extra goodies that Nancy Lou would bring in each week. What became increasingly evident as the course went on was the prevalence of similar patterns and techniques in textiles in all, ages and areas of the \ world. An example of this is . “wrapped weave” which is now popular with artists. It was woven in Peru long before the Norman conquest of England! . The course text, The Textile Arts, by Verla Birrell is one of the most comprehensive and inexpensive texts on the subject that is available. As the int\roduction states it is “a handbook %/of Weaving, Braiding, printing ano other textile techniques”. The “other” textile techniques include meshwork, looping, knot work, lace, passementerie, embroidery>, and dying. There are many recipes for ‘different methods of dying. Paste dying is one of these and one of the _ recipes is as follows: “Use, l/2 to 1 oz. powdered tragacanth gum (sold at drugstores), 1 quart cold water, and .one of the


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fridav.

amil

the chevrbn:

5. 1974

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following: 1 teaspoon formaldehyde for vegetable fibers; 10’drops acetic acid, or 4 tablespoons white vinegar for! wool or silk. Add the formaldehyde or acid, whichever is needed, to the prepared tragacanth already described. To this thickened solution add the dye, which has previously been dissolved in about l/2 cup of boiling water and strained through several layers of cheesecloth; a fine plastic sieve is better than cheesecloth, but it is not always available. Use soft water for water containing metallic dyeing; ’ elements will precipitate the dye. Add enough water to the ingredients to make a paste the consistency of a thick cream. Cool and strain.” The tragacanth gum is prepared by soaking 2 l/4 oz. of gum in 4 l/4 cups of distilled cold w,ater for, a day (stir occasionally). Beat it with an , egg beater and heat it in a double boiler until it is clear and transparent (up to six hours). Cool, strain and bottle. . From The Textile Arts you can, if you’re serious, make all your cloth and clothes (along with drapes etc.) right from the basic sheep, dog, cotton boll or whatever. However, this is not what the book is intended to do. It is a very valuable tool, but like a children’s tool set, it can also be a toy from which much can be enjoyed and learned. Each section is comprehensive enough to provide the reader with enough information to knit or dye for the first time. Historical contexts for most textile forms are given. Textiles are traced through the history of different

civilizations and it is shown how different techniques were copied from different civilizations (each using their own variations, of course). The section on weaving is especially good. In it the simplest to most complex looms are shown and described. Non-loom weaving is also shown to give the reader a good chance at starting out without the problem of -having to obtain or make.a loom. The Jacquard loom is described and illustrated along ‘with the Wilton and Brussels weaves. These weaves are used to produce Jacquard carpets. The section on the Jacquard loom effectively serves as a transition between basic weaving and rug mtiking (which is the next topic). Embroidery is’ currently enjoying a revival and it is adequately provided for in both the text and course. Over 7 pages of print are devoted to descriptions of different stitches including numerous pictures of stitches and completed works. During the course a sheet containing embroidery stitches was given out and students were required to stitch a sampler of a credible number of Many beautiful and institches. novative, samplers were displayed at the end of the course when the 3-D projects were due. There are times when a group of people enjoy a truly learning experience. The high quality of work and the joie de vivre ,exhibited ‘by the students both in class and out indicated that Fine Arts 228A was . one of these experiences.

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april

,: More \ pizza sneezes -

Grant Foster’s letter in the Feedback column of the March 22 Chevron has failed to either deny or explain my original claims, these being; a. my observations of, pizzas being sneezed upon. b. The improper manufacturing. of pizzas due to the unavailability of proper size dough on busy evenings. c. instructions to be “easy on the extras” when these were in great demand and short supply. Contrary to Mr. Foster’s, et. al., suggestions, I submit that ‘one need neither be of three years experience, nor familiar with business operations in order to observe the above mentioned incidents. Having observed these in merely two evenings, I question; what transpires the remainder of the year? Astonishment at what I observed was the only’motivation for writing my letter to the chevron. I have in fact not claimed any other pizza outlet or fast food chain to be superior to Pizza Palace. Only a ‘professional-consumers-advocate’ in cognito could find the time t,o discover _ that such practices are widespread in the food industry. Oversight and disregard are common phenomenon frequently inflicting those employed in routine tasks for long periods of time. Leo Burosch.

’ Reporter explains -

the chevron

5, 1974

I direct this letter, not to the one particular disappointed reader who commented last week on chevron coverage of varsity sports, but to\ all unhappy sports enthusiasts who, week by week, loyally turn to the sports pages of the chevron. As a chevron sports reporter, I regret ’ that readers feel frustrated with the sports coverage, but I feel that a few facts should be cleared up and hopefully readers will understand the situation the chevron and its reporters are in. ’ As the basketball reporter, I wrote eleven articles, and only once was an

article edited. This particular article was shortened so. as to fit the space available ’ at the time. At all other times, space‘%was appropriated according to the size of article I wished to write. I therefore conclude that the chevron does not make it a policy to edit, hack up, and “spew out” articles to fit space. Unfortunately, the chevron did not cover the OUAA basketball championship, and thus many enthusiasts were not able to read how the Warriors had won the tournament. It should be noted that chevron reporters are fulltime students who volunteer to write in their spare time. They do not receive an income, and as students, they carry a sufficient academic workload. During the OUAA championship week-end, the chevron was not able to obtain a student reporter who was willing to spend three days in Ottawa; a trip which had to be paid out of the reporter’s pocket. I think the readers are expecting too much when they feel a student reporter should take three days of his time and countless dollars to cover a basketball’ game some distance away; especially when the reporter is already spending quite a bit of his time writing. Readers should be aware of the fact that student reporters have only so much time. They are being unfair and unreasonable if they expect the part-time reporter to give excellent coverage on every varsity game. Readers, this year, were very fortunate in finding any form of basketball coverage. Possibly a good point is raised when readers feel that the chevron should spend more time and space covering more ca,mpus oriented issues. But- to give adequate coverage to these issues, the chevron needs writers. The paper is not going to obtain articles through osmosis; these articles have to be written by students who are willing to devote their spare time to:. writing for the chevron. May I make a positive suggestion to the :readers, that if they wish to see the chevron become an excellent newspaper, which covers all sorts of issues, they ;should urge those who know how to write, to volunteer time‘ and energy to writing for. the university paper. Only through dir@ student aid will the chevron be able to produce, an adequate newspaper. This paper provides an exquisite opportunity for one to develop his or ,her literary ability. It is unfortunate that there are so many students on this campus, who have the ability to write, -but have not taken the initiative to develop this gift through the chevron. mihail murgoci

.A0 big

, success The International Night on March was a big success. Some of the formances received great responses the audience. Of these, the Chinese group ‘The Fews’ was one. We would like also, to say a unbiased words about the group and Chinese Spectator.

23 perfrom rock few Mr.

First of all, the ISA (International Student Association) is a non-profit organization. Secondly, it was very unjust to classify“the .Fews’ as night-club performers. They are students, who performed for their own interests, not for money. It is true that there are a handful of Chinese students who can play beautiful Chinese pieces, but they were not willing to come forth to perform. As for the general feelings of this particular performance, the spectating majority was expecting something like a ‘Ribbon Dance’ -this is also not truly representative of China. In fact, Chinese is sub-divided into five different groups, each having their own traditions and culture. Inevitably, they too have changed with the times. One can not pin point a ‘true’ Chinese. Culture is not merely dances and songs. We agree that this particular performance was not representative of Chinese Culture, nor w.ere they pretending ‘to be. As indicated by the .MC Mr. Lynn; this is an ‘oriental rock group’, The medley of songs merely showed an intermingling of Western and Chinese vibrations. One last comment: one does not have to wear Chinese outfits to be classified as a ‘typical Chinese’. We are, in fact, 100, percent sure that Mr. Chinese Spectator spends 99 percent of his ‘clothed’ hours in his ‘western’ apparel. Would you not also classify yourself as a fake Chinese. C. Lee SamMark and other spectators

Les films /- francais x\ .

La socih? fiaqyaise at ceux ont vu les films franqais p&sent4 par le dkpartement de fiancais voudraient remkrcier Dr. Pierre Dub& et Dr. Don Wilson pour avoir arrangk et p&sent& ces films depuis le mois e Septembre. Ils ktaient tr& interessants et apprecihs par tout le monde.. Martin L. Hungerford

, Student answered I have been disenfranchised and am not the slightest bit happy about it. Regarding the voting on the various arena proposals, I received an envelope yesterday which should have contained a ballot but it was empty. Another coop student on work term here in Coburg, Jerry Goettl, Systems Design, suffered the identical rip-off. As I have definite opinions on the arena proposal I strongly resent what <I hope is merely an oversight. Of even greater concern is that maybe more than two envelopes were sent out empty. Rainer Malcharek i Chemical engineering

3 1

Dear Mr. Malcharek: I’m very sorry that you and Mr. Goettl received empty envelopes in the first mailing regarding the ice rink opinion poll. The entire opinion ~~011 has been remailed because of a mistake in the first mailing list. and you will have received your second ballot by now. We share your concern about the possibility of missing material. Every effort is made to ensure that each envelop’e leaving our office has been correctly stuffed and while omissions are infrequent, they do happen, especially in large mailing when material can stick together and be overlooked. We are aware of this problem and are trying to overcome it. We regret this inconvenience. Yours very truly University

Pat Carter Secretariat

Food m6re expensive The price of bread is going up again! On March 4th, in the House of Commons, the Bakery Council of Canada announced a 4 cent a loaf increase in the price of white bread. This increase is what the Council claimed was necessary to keep the ‘bakeries running, but they did agree to hold back a penny of it until after a meeting of the Federal Food Prices Reveiw Board with the Bakery Council on March 20th. The announcement of the 2-3 cent a loaf increase in bread prices-comes on the heels . of a report by the Food Prices Review Board that increasing costs might necessitate a 2-3 cent per loaf increase. On March 12th, David Archer, President of the Ontario Federation of Labour, commented that this new price hike on bread was totally unjustified considering that the bakeries . had recently imposed a 6 cent a loaf’increase to meet alleged cost increases in September. He also said that the bread companies were making windfall profits. For example: Maple Leaf Mills’ 1973 profits of $7,859,000.00 which is 149 per cent more than in 1972. Meanwhile, the Minister for Consumer and Corporate Affairs, Herb Gray, said on March 6th, that the government was going to sit back and wait until after the March 20th meeting between the Bakery Council and the Prices Review Board before making any efforts to influence bread prices. But, he did indicate that the government would be prepared to take appropriate action to hold back prices, if these steps were necessary. At the meeting on March 20th, the Bakery Council revealed its plans to raise the price of bread another cent by mid-April, whether the Food Prices Review Board gives its approval. Todate, the government has made no moves to keep prices down. The Federal Food Prices Review Board was originally set up to watch and make sure that excessive profits weren’t continued on page 33


32

friday,

the chevron

UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO I EARLY CHILDHOOD I EDUCATION CENTRE

The University of Waterloo Early Childhood Education Centre is now accepting applicatioi?s for a summer preschool for 4 and 5 year olds. The program will operate 5 mornings a week during each of 2 3-week sessions and will be held in the centre located ;in the Psychology Building.

TRY OUR

Dates

of the

program:

July 8 to 26; July 29 tP August

16.

Fees are $25.00 per 3 week session. A non-refundable r.egistration fee of $10.00 is required upon acceptance. Applications for registration can be obtained by writing to the University of Waterloo Early Childhood Education Centre, Psychology Building, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario; or by phoriing 885-1211, c extension 3167. -

CHEESEBUSTER

MOVLNG?? LEAVING TOWN? -

Appointment !NOW!

* -2 $ if it’s your I birthday 3 today, happy -birthday from the chevron staff.

\

with Ma -Bell

MONDAY to FRIDAY 5- to 7 Pm ’ CALL 744-0205 CALL. 744-0596

.

‘intelligences

is our

\

The board of external relations invites applications - % for the followi-hg board positions: . &domestic and community commiss.ioner So c Lint&national 3-information

5, 1974

.

AVOID THE HASSLE! at Term End c Book-an

april c

\

,

affairs ’ \

I affairs commis.sioner and services commissioner

<&secondary schools commissioner / 5-external, relations vice-chai-rperson i z Deadline for all applications is Ap*ril. 12, 1974, and please send them o johnof the - morris, chairperson board. of external relations, federation of Istudents.

i E * f f E


friday,

april

continued

the chevron

5, 1974 from

page

31

being gouged from the people by big corporations. But when the board comes out with a report like this one, it makes us wonder just whose interest it is working to protect. Is it working to help the consumer when it tells the bakery council that it should charge more money for bread, a basic, item in everyone’s diet, especially at this time when profits are at record highs? Is it working to help the farmer who only gets 3 cents for the wheat in a 37 cent loaf of bread? No! The only people being helped by this new higher bread price are the ones who own the major bakeriesWeston, Dominion, Steinbergs, and A & P. Early in March, the Consumers Affairs Minister Herb Gray suggested that should boS;cott the ._the consumers products of Weston Bakeries if that company couldn’t hold its bread prices down to justifiable limits. Carl Zinkan, Vice-President for Zehrs Markets, claimed that although all bread companies, not just Weston, are increasing their prices, we still have the choice not to buy Weston bread, but to buy Zehrs brand bread instead, because it’s cheaper. What the Zehrs Vice-President didn’t think worthy of mentioning is that Zehrs is a subsidiary of the Weston chain of stores. The Weston Company is not limited to bakeries. It has its corporate fingers in pies of every sort. In Ontario, Weston owns 3 major supermarket chainsLoblaws, Busy-B and Power, plus the wholesale outlet, National Grocers. It also owns Weston, Marven and McCormick bakeries; Neilson’s chocolates; Donlands and Devon dairy pro%lucts; E. B. Eddy matches and paper products; and Somerville Industries for packages and packing equipment. In addition to these business, the Weston Empire manufactures its own house brands, operates its own refrigerated transport, meat packing, fishing and fish packing; and cold storage tiarehouses. The Weston Empire stretches onwards. It is involved in retail drugs, food catering, farming, restaurant supplies, and even has extensive holdings in financial firms.

*THE BOOK BARN - 12 KING ST- N -

WATER.LOO, ONT= 578-4950 , ’

IF YOU LIKE TO READ, LIKE BOOKS, OR JUST HAVE AN HOUR TO KILL, WHY NOT VISIT THE BOOK BARN? We offer an interesting selection of NEW BOOKS, USED BOOKS, RECORDS, ART BOOKS and of course BARGAINS. We stock a varied inventory of over 70,000 volumes. Wild, wonderful and a little wacky, as well as the more conventional. POLITICS, ART, SCIENCE FICTION, MYSTERIES, ETC. We’ve been hidden away in downtown Waterloo’for years, why not drop in and have a “look see”. THE BOOK BARN is stuffed with fine reading, a little junk, a lot of nice art, and all-with a differ&e, our Qrices are Clay down to earth. No fancy address here, no super chrome shopping mall, bnly 21 lot of books. We don’t bother our customers either, we’d rather you had a good time, we are! Come up and see our neat bunch of sleezy remnants of the literary world. Who knows,’ maybe something will catch your eye. We’re at 12 King Street North (vpstairs), . directly next to the Wdterloo Theatre. Phone 578-4950.

Mon -Wed Thurs - Fri \ sat

lOa& 6:30pm 1Oam- 1Opm . . lOam-6pm . .

We must let our M.P.s in Ottawa know that we, working people, people on fixed incomes, and unemployed people, demand that government action be taken to roll back the exorbitant prices being charged by big monopoly corporations for our daily bread! yours verf truly, Evelina Pan

$-.

-33

Chevron humour is weird,

After becoming aware of the rather “weird” sense of humour that is possessed by the chevron staff, I can see why they-printed the 2 part cartoon of “Paul the Rebel, in‘ the Poor Revolutionist”. This was meant to be funny I assume, but it rather disturbed . me in that I have met these type of people- who write this sort. of garbage, and really believe it. This cartoon was ’ obviously the product of one of these feeble-minded, jqychotically oriented, fundamentalists, who has no precept of reality at all. This piece of garbage, is nothing more than an attempt to drag people who are desperate, down and out, into the illusion of “the hands of everlasting life”. This is nothing more than an escape from dealing with life as it exists. This approach does nothing about trying tp deal with the problems of the world realistically, and bringing out the potentiality there is in life. In this cartoon Paul made a point when he said “Religion (of this sort any way) is the opiate of the masses”. ,’ Rob Simpson Integrated Studies

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34the

friday,

chevron

april

5, 1974

i

.

Laying the world to waste-- *

!

Profit, production,,

and the accelerated

In the first, article of this series Ter& Moore attempted to de-mystify ‘the energy crisis’ by delineating the economic and social forces behind i$s fabrication. The role of Canada as a resource exporter and market for the finished products within the American Empire was pursued in the second installment, which appeared last Frid_ay. In this, the third and final article of the series, Moore comments on one dimension that has been conspicuously absent from most discussions regarding the past, present and future energy .problems facing capitalist nation-states-a critical examination of consumption and the ‘consumer society’. I do love having new clothes. . . but old clothes are beastly. . . We always throw away old clothes. Ending is better than mending. . . ending is better than mending. . . ending is better than mending. . . (Soft voice of sleep teacher indoctrinating the young while they sleep in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World.) Press coverage of the ‘energy crisis’ in Canada has been, by and large, devoid of any real attempt to’ examine its fundamental causes. Virtually no one operating within the commercial media has even taken the time to question, even superficially, an econo&c system whose goal is incessant growth and ever-escalating production t-hrough the forced- consumptidh of waste and/or otherwise useless commodities. As well, it would appear that some of the most outspoken environmentalists have fallen for the energy corporations’ well-financed publicity program to place the blame for the current malaise on the shoulders of the individual consumers. Indeed there exists a wellestablished myth, within capitalist countries, that ‘the people’ determine their own needs while business interests simply facilitate their gratification. In the rarefied world of mainstream eiconomics this is known as ‘the theory of consumer sovereignty’. To be sure, not all human ‘wants’ are entirely ‘sys: thetic’, created by private interests aided by the advertising industry. However, to argue that all human wants flow from man’s basic biological urges, or from some eternally immutable ‘human nature’, would be equally absurd. Paul Baran, writing in his The Political Economy of Growth, provides an excellent basis upon which to begin looking at this question of ‘real’ as opposed to ‘synthetic’ needs:. . . . &nts of people are complex historical phenomena reflecting the dialectic interaction of their physiological requirements on the one hand, and the prevailing social and economic order, on the other. , Given that basic physiological ‘needs’ remain relatively constant, the make-up of human wants can be thought of as being ‘synthetic’ to the degree that the prevailing social and econdmic system plays a predominant role in the determination of the peoples’ values, volitions, and preferences. This has been true in the past and is equally accurate now regardless of whether the social system in question is feudal, capitali&, or socialist. -. What makes the capitalist social and economic order so destructive, so retarding to individual and collective development and happiness, is not that it moulds or synthesizes the attitudes of individuals under its sway, but rather the kind of moulding and synthesizing that it engages in. The cancerous malaise of monopoly capitalism, as Baran succinctly described it, owes its very existence and continued viability to the squandering of resources, both material and human, in the prodtiction of a stunning variety of products, many of which are adulterated, _ dangerous or useless. There can be no question that the population is manipulated by sophisticated forms of liminal and subliminal advertising designed to create or enhance desires to purchase. The resulting social landscape, with its moronizing entertainment, commercialized religion ?,

consumer.A

’ and debased consumer ‘culture’, poses a formidable obstacle to human advancement. . Paul Mazur, a Wall Street investment dealer, wrote an interesting article entitled The Standards We Raise during the 1950’s, in which he argued that the cyclical recessions endemic to the capitalist econdmy had their roots in the failul’e of business to make sure that consumption kept pace with production. At one point in the article he assetis: The giant of mass prodtiction can be maintained at the peak of its strength only when its voracious appetite can be fully and continuously satisfied. . . It is absolutely -necessary - that the products roll from the assembly lines of mass- production be consumed at an equally rapid rate and not be accumulated in inventories. The task of ‘activating’ latent consumer ‘needs’, in order to prevent the stagnation of the economy, has fallen, of course, into the willing arms of the advertising’ industry. Victor Lebow, a marketing consultant and author of two articles in The Journal of Retailing offered this analysis of the internal ‘logic’ of* the system, in a remarkably candid passage: Our enormous productive economy. . . demands that we make consumption our way of life, that we convert the buying and use of goods into rituals, that we seek our spiritual satisfaction, our ego satisfactibns in consumption. . . We need things consumed, burned up, worn out, and discarded at an ever increasing rate.

media-induced consumer orchestrating BY to the needs of the existing mode of ‘preferences’ production, the private economy has so far succeeded in manipulating the people to ever-increasing levels of consumption. Nine separate techniques which have been utilized by industry to accomplish this task have been delineated by Vance Packard in his book The Waste Makers. The list includes: the disposable product, planned obsolesqence (i.e. obsolescence of function, obsolescence of quality, and obsolescence of desirability), planned ‘sales’ hysteria, the extension of easy credit, the marketing of hedonistic lifestyles etc. Yet even in, the face of overwhelming evidence of intentional and pervasive consumer manipulation, many people who shovld know better (environmentalist and other social-activists) continue to place the blame for our, destructive culture squarely on the shoulders of :‘the people’. The/ point is well illustrated by an environmentalist pamphlet I recently came across entitled A Shoppers Guide to Overpackaging. After painstakingly detailing the relationship between sales, packaging, and the pcoliferation of waste, the author urges us to ‘shop with your environment in mind’, and concludes with the following sentence typed in bold capital letters: “Look at yourself-you’re the one whose habits and lifestyle have made this supermarket the environmental disaster area it is”. It is painfully obvious from the appal;ent wide-spread acceptance of such attitudes that the last decade of social struggle in Canada and around the world has not succeeded in making clear the connections between major social problems and the economic and social institutions which create and perpetuate them. “To fail or refuse to examine the values which galvanize energies and allocate resources in the capitalist economic systemthe pursuit of money, the enrichment of self, the exploitation of man and nature to generate still more moneyis to obstruct knowledge and stand in the way of solution. . Murray Bookchin, who has been involved in the ecological and entiironmental movements for more than twenty years, has recently written ‘An Open Letter’ to the movement, on the occasion of the energy shortage. Arguing that ‘the real energy crisis at this time lies not in the realm of consumption but in the realm of


friday,

april

5, 1974

production’, Bookchin condemns those within the movement who self-righteously blame the ‘wastefulness’ of the abstract ‘consumer’ for the intentionally-contrived shortage of supply. + Noting Fhat the energy industry; in order to increase its profits, has fought for its right to “rape the Arctic region, to promote offshore drilling operations, to construct deep water ports and nuclear reactors, and in no small measure to devour independent producers and retailers”. Bookchin warns that by echoing the message of ‘scarcity” in terms that leave unquestioned the social and productive apparatus that has engineered a scarcity in consumption, all the more to acquire a free hand in ex-panding hazardous areas of production, is to enter into complicity with the real sources of the environmental crisisthe industrial and financial bandits who run this country. It can be tempting to join the corporate chorus that shouts about ‘scarcity’ while quietly harvesting windfall profits. However, conservation of finite resources and the institution of an ecologically rational means of producing the goods and services necessary to meet ‘real’ human needs is contradictory to a system based on ruthless exploitation of natural resources and the creation of synthetic needs-all for the purpose of generating private profit. The environmental movement, or what was left of it after it took on the defensive posture of consumer protection, has remained reformist on both the analytic and strategic fronts.’ It has taken the prevailing productive apparatus for granted, the corporate system and market economy as a given, and by placing its major critical emphasis on public consumption, has left itself vulnerable to the charge that sound ecological practices involve either a ‘loss of jobs’ within the productive sector, or harsh austerity within the consumptive sector. The socialist alternative to the existing system is often portrayed as simply the substitution of a ‘commissar’ who determines the kinds of goods the consumer will receive, in place of a system in which the consumer, however manipulated by advertising, is still left free to spend his income in any way he pleases. Clearly, this conceptual framework leaves room for only two equally pernicious alternatives. It is also indicative of the lethal fragmentation of the human personality under capitalism-an example of which is the artifical distinction made between consumers and producers. Liberal economists and politicians, whose reactions to the destructive tendencies of the capitalist system are similar in some respects to those of socialists or com*munists, see a third alternative within the existing To them, the choice is not whether parameters. sovereignty should be exercised by consumers or by a central planner, but whether and how the producer’s power to ignore some consumers and influence the preferences of others should be curbed, modified, or shared in some ways. This model implies the existence of an autonomous state which can preside over society in a benevolent manner, creating the necessary regulatory agencies / required to control corporate behaviour. In a society dominated by those who- possess money, this naive concept of state institutions unaffected by prevailing relations of production, and impervious to the dominant interests, merely contributes to the maintenance of the status quo. The -relationship between President Nixon and the domestic oil industry described in the first article of this series, and the example of the National Energy Board of Canada as a non-regulating regulatory agency, outlined in the second, illustrates the fallaciousness of the concept of an independent state bureaucracy. Our conclusion must be, then, that an economic system founded on the principle of private profit must necessarily be incompatible with the fulfilment of real human needs. The profit motive demands everincreasing consumption, and- the tools to structure the patterns of consumption exist in the entertainment and information media, in advertising, and in the educational system. These tools are used, under capitalism; to expand consumption omnidirectionally, and without regard to the ultimate disastrous consequences to which this expansion must inevitably lead. Only a system built upon a rationally planned economy, designed to exploit resources at minimal nvironmental cost, and simultaneously to bring control *er the mechanisms of production and consumption ~$0 the hands of those who produce and consume, is Lapable of salvaging this society from its increasingly impossible situation: Clearly this can only be accomplished by refusing the continued satisfaction of the mania for private wealth, and by -massive alterations in ‘le. privatized lifestyles to which we have become acAstorned to the detriment of no one but ourselves. Changes of this order are clearly beyond the scope of uch reformist agencies as the. NDP,, as the history of ocial democratic governments world-wide will readily &test. Such governments have tried, often with the best ” intentions, to minister to the most grievous wounds

inflicted upon society by the capitalist system, but have X never succeeded in - and, indeed, have rarely attempted-changing the basic nature of,the system itself. In this light, it seems highly improbable that a meaningful restructuring of society will ever take place by electoral means. Those who are committed to the creation of a society based on ecological principles and organized to meet rational human needs must somehow demonstrate that alternativesare possible. Presently, most people are locked into highconsumption energy systems which reflect the needs of private wealth. Privatized single-family units, as opposed to co-operative housing systems; chaotic urban sprawl as opposed to well-planned decentralized urban communities; and the development of private automobile transportation at the expense of mass transit systems, all force people to be prolific commodity and energy consumers. The search for, as well as research and development of alternative sources of energy supply will all take place according to the exigencies of the vertically integrated energy corporations and large energy consumers. Accordingly, the vast preponderance of research capital will be spent developing highly centralized sources of energy generation such as nuclear, geothermal, shale oil, and coal gasification techniques. All of these alternatives fit well into the corporate frame of reference. Coal and uranium companies, as well as their reserves, are being integrated into oil companies as they diversify to maintain long term profitability. The rights to develop areas are suitable for the exploitation of shale oil and geothermal resources have already been leased, in the US to these same corporations. Potential sources of decentralized energy generation such as solar and wind power, or methane gas generation from human, animal;and vegetable waste, receive very little official attention and research grants. The nature of the alternative sources that are’being encouraged by governments assume the continued existence of an economy organized for private profit, and therefore the escalating levels of energy consumption that are necessarily associated with consumer societies. Within a socialist economic framework, the necessity for centralized sources of energy supply would still ‘although the rate of conventional reserve remain, depletion could. be slowed with the removal of the necessity for the production of waste, in the form of useless or unnecessarily duplicated commodities. The development of co-operative living arrangements with shared cooking and cleaning facilities and other with the decentralization of household amenities, _population into smaller communities, would also reduce the consumption of energy resources presently wasted in over-production and operation of such consumer items as refrigerators, stoves and vacuum cleaners, which are readily susceptible to cooperative utilisation. Smaller communities, with enough productive and service industries to support the population, serviced by ‘mass-transit systems linking the .people to other urban centres, would also reduce or eliminate the necessity for individualized modes of transport-such as cars-and slow the rate of energy consumption. Finally, the previously mentioned use of solar, wind and methane gas generation systems within each household or co-operative living unit, would eliminate the ‘peak-load’ and average-load demands on existing systems such as oil and hydro. With the reduction of household demands for electricity, during the early evening hours, the maximum capacities of hydro-electric and nuclear power plants could be lowered considerably thereby freeing capital for investment in other socially desirable areas, and restricting damage to the environment . Despite the refusal of the state and private corporations to seriously consider alternative sources of substantial amounts of research are being energy, 4 carried out . Needless to say, however, the volume of this research is still grossly inadequate if alternative energy systems are ever to play a significant role in our lives.’ As it stands, we are offered two choices. One lies in passively accepting the environmentally and psychologically destructive centralized systems now in existence; the other lies in the complete individualization of energy. production involved in the ‘back to the land’ movement. Neither of these extremes is realistic. While the former will result in the increasingly accelerated environmental havoc observable today, the latter, if pursued universally, would have environmental consequences of equally serious proportions; apart from the fact that such mass dissociation from our present society does not offer a satisfactory alternative to most people. Unless and until energy policy priorities in this and other countries are redirected, and even reversed, the subjugation of the people to the will of private profit, and the destruction of our habitat necessary for this subjugation, cannot be halted. u


36

friday,

the chevron

The chevron put together the following questionnaire in the hopes that you would take some time, think about the issues, and then fill in your answers. We would greatly appreciate any feedback you can provide us with about your opinion of the chevron and of any way you think it could be improved. Once you have completed the questionnaire, put it into the campus mail or, if you can manage the time, come over to see us in the campus centre. If you wish, all your answers can be confidential, we do not ask you to identify yourself.

april

5, 1974

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1973-74_v14,n35_Chevron