Rollin J. Reeves and the Boundary Between Utah and Colorado
Rollin J. Reeves and the Boundary Between Utah and Colorado
THE LAND SURVEYS OF THE STATES AND TERRITORIES of the United States have been important ever since day one. As states and territories were designated from the original thirteen colonies and from purchased and conquered lands, and as settlers immigrated to claim public lands, federal land surveyors were almost on their heels, sometimes ahead of them. Working according to various federal laws that determined new state and territorial boundaries, surveyors—both government and contract—eventually covered the nation.
Rollin J. Reeves was a contract surveyor, paid by the mile, experienced and, as is apparent from his writings, educated, intelligent, and perceptive. His 1878 boundary survey between Colorado and Utah was induced, in part, by Colorado statehood in 1876 and by the settlement of southeastern Utah. As required by his contract, Reeves made a detailed record of his monumenting and surveying work; in addition he provided a summary of his observations, many of which have historical value, since little is known of the area he was surveying in the late 1870s.
Southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado were in the first period of settlement when Reeves did his boundary survey. There is little in the historic record regarding the life and times of the settlements he visited; no newspapers were extant in the region at that time. In fact, Reeves's report is one of the few documents about southeastern Utah prior to the Hole-in-the-Rock expedition of 1880; his observations are therefore quite valuable.
In his report, Reeves provides information about little-known roads and mail routes of the period, which helps us to understand the settlement of the region. He also provides descriptions of early residents, including Peter Shirts, an early settler of the San Juan; the settlers at La Sal, Utah; Utes and Navajos; and area ranchers near the Big Bend of the Dolores River. In addition, his evaluation of the economic possibilities of the area are cogent and quite interesting. Apparently, the type of document Reeves produced has received little attention from researchers. Yet Reeves's attention to details— given at the government's insistence—indicates a rich resource of little-used material lying in the archives of the General Land Office.
Reeves's handwritten field notes consist of three basic parts: a short introduction detailing his arrival at the starting point, a mile by mile record of his survey, and a detailed summary of his observations along the boundary line and vicinity.
COLORADO-UTAH BOUNDARY LINE FIELD NOTES [OF U.S. SURVEYOR ROLLIN J. REEVES, 1878]
Having been designated by the Honorable Secretary of the Interior on the 11th of July A.D. 1878 to execute the survey of the boundary line between the State of Colorado, and the Territory of Utah, in accordance with the Act of Congress, approved June 20th 1878; and having on the 26th of July 1878, entered into a contract with the Honorable Commissioner of the U.S. General Land Office, I proceeded, without unnecessary delay to Ft. Garland, Col. and Alamosa, Col. the latter being the terminous of the Denver and Rio Grande Rail Road.
At those points I purchased supplies and transportation, employed several additional assistants and finished the outfitting for the proposed survey.
While en route from Washington to Colorado, I had stopped at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and called on Gen. Pope, who informed me that a Military Escort had been ordered to Join us from Ft. Wingate, New Mexico Territory, but on my arrival at Ft. Garland Col. Gen. Hatch, the Commander of the District in which the survey lies proposed to furnish an Escort from the Military Camp on the La Plata river, in S.W. Colorado. Accordingly, after the change was sanctioned by Gen. Pope, our escort, consisting of "D" and "K" Companies, 9th Cavalry, Joined us (D Company did) about the time we commenced the real survey of the boundary line, while we were encamped on San Juan River.
The special instructions, with my copy of the contract and Bond were mailed to me from Washington D.C. on 3 rd August '78, and received by me at Animas, Colorado about the 20th of August '78.
Messrs Tuttle and Gorringe arrived in Fort Garland with me, and we were afterwards joined by Messers Dallas, Toof, Mosely and Sturgus. The remaining members of our party were employed from Colorado.
Having completed our preparations we started on Aug 15 '78 for the South West corner of Colorado. The distance is about 300 miles. On our way we stopped two days at Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico, to purchase pack-animals (burros.) Also several days at Animas, Colorado to replenish our supplies, complete the rigging of our pack-saddles, and get ready for the final start to the Initial Monument, still about 100 miles distant.
After a week of hard marching we arrived on the North bank of the San Juan River, Sept 4, 1878. At Mitchell's Ranch, about 50 miles from the beginning corner, we were joined by Mr. Shirts, an old and experienced mountaineer, who claimed to be familiar with the country and the Indians in this region, and who subsequently, for about two weeks, acted as our guide and interpreter in dealing with the Navajo and the Ute Indians. 10 We arrived about noon on the 4th day of September 1878. During the afternoon and the following morning a rude raft was constructed of dry cottonwood logs and on the same day (5th Sept.) Messrs Sturgus, Shannon, Kelley and myself tried to cross the river by getting on the raft and poleing and paddling it across the river, but the current was too strong (estimated to be 7 miles per hour) and we were carried about two miles below our starting place and landed on the same (North) side of the river.
Finding it impracticable to ford or raft the river, we next sent two of our party some 50 miles above our Camping place, to bring down a skiff said to be owned by a son-in-law of Mr Shirts, at a settlemerit on the river at that place.
After four days travel the men returned without the boat, stating that the owner was useing it so constantly during the present high water, that he could not spare it, though urged strongly to do so by Mr Shirts. He would neither sell, nor hire, nor loan it.
By this time the river had fallen several feet, though still too high for us to ford without too great danger. We now built another, similar raft, larger and more easily handled, constructed of 9 dry cottonwood logs, tied together with "Sling and lash" ropes belonging to the pack train. Raft was about 14 feet long by 8 feet wide. Mssrs. Tuttle, Gorringe, Mosely, Kelley, Shannon, Dallas, Scott, Sturgus and myself crossed on this raft, to an island; then towed the raft around the foot of an island, then all, except Gorringe and Mosely crossed on raft to second island, then towed the raft about 300 yards up stream, and crossed to the South Shore of the river.
All bedding, instruments, clothing [line missing from copy] the raft with Tuttle and myself, and the remaining five men clung to the sides of the raft, wading, swimming and pushing it to the opposite shore, which we reached about 500 yards below, the point from which we had embarked.
The river where we crossed including two islands, was about 1000 yards wide, current strong (probably 6 miles an hour) water muddy and from 3 to 7 feet deep. When we first tried to cross, on 5th September, it was from 10 to 15 feet deep in the middle, and the current stronger.
In the afternoon Mess. Tuttle, Shannon and I walked up Navajo Creek about 4 miles, then separated, and came back to the river along opposite sides of the Mesas bordering Navajo Creek. We found no corner.
During the day several Navajo Indians, who had come from their Reservation on the South Side of the river, to trade with the Ute Indians on the North Side the river, forded the river on their horses about two miles above the Camp where we had rafted. I Afterwards crossed and recrossed on my horse several times at the same ford but the main party recrossed to the north side on the same raft on which they had first crossed the day before.
The next morning Sept 11th '78, a Navajo Indian, directed by Mr Shirts, crossed the river and escorted by Mr Gorringe, proposed to show us the corner for a consideration. A bargain was made. He took us directly to the true corner, which was East, about K of a mile of Navajo Creek and away up on a high mesa, [line missing] a fair state of preservation, and was clearly identified by descriptions furnished us from the General Land Office. [Illegible] Capt Tuttle's drawing.
On same night (Septr. 11th 78) Capt. Tuttle and Mr Gorringe made observations for azimuth of Polaris at its eastern elongation, which occurred about 8 P.M.
They had a favorable night with very satisfactory results. (See Astronomical Report of Captain H.T. Tuttle, pages 11 and 12 bound with this volume) [not included here].
We camped on the river San Juan about X A mile North of the transit, and they came into Camp about 10 P.M. with all hands in good spirits. The result of the observations on Polaris being so satisfactory with a resulting well defined azimuth, it was decided to prolong the line to the North Side of the San Juan river, and get a new Meridian from the opposite side. This was almost absolutely necessary also on account of our great trouble in communicating with the Camp on the North Side, where were most of our blankets, provisions and (except transit) most valuable instruments.
Commenced at the Initial Monument, identified by the discriptions furnished by the U.S. General Land Office.
Barometer reads 25.33 in. It is a compensated aneroid, manufactured by L. Casella, London, England No. 2195. It was a new instrument and had never been used in the field.
[From page 10 through 349 of Reeves's report he describes mile by mile, in excruciating but necessary detail, the land and each monument he set. These notes are not given here].
The instrument used in the execution of this survey were the same used by Capt. H. P. Tuttle. They are fully described by him in his astronomical report, and as that forms a part of this complete report their repeated description is not considered necessary.
They consisted of a new transit made by Wm. Wurdeman, Washington, D.C. I purchased this instrument from Mr. Wurdeman for boundary surveys. The needle of the compass had lost its power, which I did not discover until we had entered upon the survey. For this reason our results for variation are not entirely but only approximately reliable. In all other respects the instrument was in good condition.
A sextant manufactured by Spencer Browning and Cos., London, England. This was the same instrument used by Prof. Denison in his and my survey of the Washington Ter. and Idaho Ter. Boundary line.
An Aneroid Barometer, manufactured by L. Casella, London, England. This was a new and superior instrument and was loaned to us by the Bureau of Engineers, War. Dept. Two superior field glasses were used by the forward and back flagmen, and greatly facilitating their work.
An extra sextant, loaned to us by the Engineer Bureau, was carried constantly with us to use in case our own became impaired.
I also carried a new standard steel tape which was used only in testing and regulating the two steel-wired brazen-linked chains which were used in measuring the boundary line.
A number of steel chisels, hammers, marking irons, axes, hatchets, saws, spades, shovels, picks etc. etc. all of convenient and appropriate construction, were provided and used as occasion required.
The points on the line where the flagmen were stationed, and where the transit subsequently stood, are indicated in the field notes by the abbreviation T.P. meaning Transit Point, or Turning Point. They are frequently, but not invaribly noted. The reason for noting them at all is to define certain points along the line between the mile corners, and to which we could return if necessity required. They were usually marked by a wooden peg driven into the ground by the front or head flagman, at the precise point where the flag pole was first stuck on the line.
The flag poles were the same used in the survey of the Dakota-Wyoming boundary line, but were freshly painted.
Bearings were frequently taken from various points along the line, but it was impossible to take many from the mile corners. Generally no natural objects could be seen, and when seen were often not appropriate objects to use for bearings. Stones were used for mile corners when ever they could be found. They were considered superior, more durable than wood.
The best stone and wood were used which could be obtained from the surrounding country. Where the stones are not of the required dimensions, it is because they could not be found and were not to be had.
The monument commemorating the corner common to the Territories of Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, and the State of Colorado, which was the initial point of this survey, and which was established by Mr. Chandler Robbins, U.S. Surveyor in 1875, is situated on a flat and lofty mesa about one-half a mile South of the San Juan River, and about one-quarter of a mile east of Navijo Creek. Starting from this corner the line very soon descends several hundred feet into the Navajo Creek Valley, thence climbs a spur of the bluffs on the south side of the San Juan River, thence having crossed this spur, descends abruptly to the south edge of said river.
There is a low bottom bordering the San Juan River, on the north side, from one-eighth of a mile to one mile wide and continuing, with occasional breaks where the bluffs come abruptly down the waters edge, for many miles up and down the river.
Cottonwood trees, willows and aspen are found in this valley in great abundance. The grass on the hills immediately north of this bottom is good, which makes this a good stock range all along the river.
Soil in the valley is second rate, but it can be used cultivated by irrigation from the river. 18 The timber is of a fair size, though much of it is dead. The valley on the north side is about one-quarter of a mile on the boundary line, which latter crosses the river three times on the second mile. Near the crossing by the line the valley has evidently been used by the Navajo Indians, in caring for their sheep, Since we saw ruins of numerous corrals, and great quantities of sheep croppings all along the river in the bottoms. These Indians are known to own large and numerous bands of sheep, and we suppose they have used this bottom to protect their stock from bad weather, and to keep their flocks intact, grazing them on the surrounding hills, watering them from the San Juan, and herding them in the bottom, protected by bluffs and timber and brush.
A band of about thirty Ute Indians came down from their northern homes and camped on the San Juan about two (2) miles above where we were encamped. They were well armed and mounted, and had brought ponies with them to trade with the Navajo Indians, who came from their reservation immediately on the south side of the river and who forded the river on horse back, loaded with blankets of their own manufacture, which they traded for the ponies of the Utes. No hostile demonstrations were made by either Indians, Soldiers or Civilians and we had no trouble with them during our stay in the vicinity.
After reaching the high bluffs, on the north bank of the San Juan river, the line traverses a rolling elevated, grass-covered table land, mainly free from brush and timber for about thirty miles, ascending Northward and crossing numerous, rocky ridges hills, valleys and canons, all having for about sixty miles, a general Southwestern slope toward the San Juan River valley, and into which they nearly all empty. Their general trend is from East and north-East to West and Southwest
The surface is badly broken, the walls and bluffs, rocky and steep, and the timber which we gradually enter about the 25th mile, is mainly Pifion, very tough and stunted, and having its bark full of sandgrit, dulling the axes and making our progress slow and difficult.
In the vicinity of McElmo and Montezuma creeks numerous ruins of ancient buildings, in various stages of preservation, were seen and examined. Some of these are fully noted and described at their proper places in the foregoing field notes. The first fifty miles of this boundary line passes through the North-eastern quarter of the ruins region, which latter extends from this northern boundary away down through Arizona, New Mexico and into Mexico and Central America.
From about the sixteenth mile station north of the beginning corner, up to and including the one hundred and thirtieth mile, the drainage is into the Dolores River. From thence North the drainage is into the Grand River.
From about the fiftieth to the ninetieth miles inclusive, the topography is represented on the maps of Dr Haydens surveys as being a broad sage brush plain, free from timber, with rolling surface and generally a fair country over which to prolong the boundary line. We found it to be an almost impassible region, cutup by boss canons, having perpendicular sand stone walls, and one of the most difficult sections to chain or travel over that I have ever seen.
There are no settlements by white men, immediately along the line from the initial monument, the the [sic] one hundred and fiftieth mile corner. The only settlement near the line, for the first ninety miles, is about thirty miles east of and opposite to the thirty or thirty-first miles on the survey. At that point there are several ranch-men living in cabins on the south side of the Dolores River, at what is Known as the big bend of the Dolores River, or at the mouth of East Canon. There are no women nor children, but about a dozen bachelors who have built cabins and own large bands of cattle and horses. The most prominent among them are the May Brothers. Here too is the last Post Office, until we reach the ninety second mile. 25 The only other settlement near the line is on Deer Creek, or what is marked, "Tukuhnikavats Creek" on Dr Hayden's maps. The post office is called La Sal City. The settlement is located about six miles west of the boundary, on Deer Creek opposite the ninety first mile. It consists of some eight or ten families, embracing from thirty to fifty people, among them some very respectable women and well appearing children. There are about a dozen cabins already built and several under construction. The first settlers arrived about two years ago, and all have come from the west, not from Colorado or any point east. They are an industrious, enterprising and peaceful community. There are no Mormons among them, though living in the Pi Ute County, Utah.
Thousands of bushels of vegetables were raised there last summer. Some grain was grown and many tons of native hay was cut from the surrounding prairie. It is located at the Eastern base of the Sierra La Sal, is probably seven thousand feet above sea level, has rich soil, fine grass, Pine and Cedar and Pifion timber, and well located for irrigating from the waters of Deer Creek. Mr. Isaac King is the Post Master and keeps the station. They have a weekly mail from the west and one from the East. This was the last mail and settlement on our way north. On October 17th , we mailed our last letters there in going north. Our next opportunity was at Los Pinos Indian agency, probably 45 miles east of the line, where we mailed letters one month afterwards on November 17th '78
With the exception of the narrow strips of land immediately in the creek bottoms, no good agricultural land of any quantity was discovered along the line. The soil in Deer Creek and Dolores River valleys could be irrigated and be made productive, but the canons of the latter are so deep and the valleys are so narrow that they are almost unavailable to settlers, and are too small to justify improvement. The whole Grand River valley so far as we saw it, seems almost a desert. There is no good grass and the soil is worthless. On the south side of the river, there was nothing but red sandstone cliffs and mesas and canons, bold and picturesque in appearance, but apparently utterly worthless for any useful purposes. On the north side of the river in many places, there is a narrow, bottom covered with cottonwood trees, while about half of the distance along the river up and down the stream, the banks consist of steep, high bluffs, impossible to ascend, and shutting out the view of the river from the wagon-road and trail, which forms the highway between Colorado and Utah, and follows for many miles the north side of the river. Most of the timber along the line is Mountain Cedar, Pine, Pifion, Aspen, Cottonwood (in the valleys) Willows and large sage.
The Pifion is generally of small size, very rough and knotty and the bark is filled with sand grit, quickly taking off the edge of axes used in clearing and marking the line. Two wagon roads were crossed: one on the sixty first mile bearing North west and South East, leading from settlements in Utah to the settlements in Colorado, commencing at Salina, Utah, and extending a south-Easterly direction, around the Southern base of the Sierra La Sal, thence South Easterly into the Mining town of Parrott City, Colorado, via, the Big Bend of the Dolores River, and thence over the Mancos River.
The road is generally in fair condition, but there are several very steep and rocky hills which are so bad that the strongest-built wagons only can travel them with any safety. My own wagon had both axels broken and was left (abandoned) in trying to carry supplies to us on Grand River.
The only other road we encountered was what is known as the old Salt Lake wagon road. This is in better condition, has been considerably traveled and worked. It was first built by U.S. Troops, many years ago, and has been much used since. This road is the main thoroughfare between Colorado and Utah. It begins at the southern terminous of the Utah Central Rail Road and bears in a general east direction, strikes Grand River, about fifteen miles west of the boundary line, thence follows the North bank of Grand River about sixty (60) miles to a point about forty (40) miles east of the line, thence crosses it and takes its course up Gunnison River for some thirty-five miles, after crossing which it continues in the same direction to within twelve miles of the Los Pines Indian Agency, where it branches and leads east and south into the San Juan mines, and then east to the railroads and to Denver, Colorado.
From the sixtieth mile on the line to the one hundred and fiftieth mile the whole surface is exceedingly broken and rough: much worse than one can conceive without having seen it. The one striking feature is the prevalence of "boss Canons," These are canons cut into the solid sandstone rocks by mountain streams and torrents. The walls are generally perpendicular on all sides, making them seem like a huge box. These banks and walls frequently extend for many miles in an east and west direction, and, being too steep to descend even on foot, we were frequently compelled to travel several miles to get down into one of these canons, as just as far again in order to get out. The pack animals were obliged to go even further. In many instances, we walked from two to four miles to make a half mile in distance & S. [stay?] on the line, while our camp at night would be from five to seven miles away, and we would have to walk it after the days work was done in the evening and before commencing work in the morning.
In one instance, between the thirty seventh and forty-second miles, we were obliged to take the pack train some twenty miles around, east of the line, to cross a canon.
Again, about the eighty-seventh mile the surface near the line was utterly impassable and everybody was compelled to travel over forty (40) miles to reach a point one mile north of the quitting point, and on the meridian we were establishing.
This occasioned a three days delay. In both of these places the men at work on the line could not get to the pack train and it could not be brought to them, so they were compelled to remain out all night without blankets, provisions or water. I did not know then and do not understand how this could be avoided in such a country on such a survey, unless every man is willing to carry his own blankets and rations. To do this, and work at the same time, most men are unwilling to undertake. I know of no way of avoiding these hardships in locating a boundary line properly through such a country.
From one hundred and nineteenth to the one hundred and thirty first miles, the surface on the line was simply impassable. The entire party including our Military escort of about thirty men, and all our animals, with their packs, were forced to abandon the line and seek a route to the east of the boundary, in order to cross the Dolores River and get out upon the high, rocky mesa on the north side of the Dolores River. Although the distance on the meridian of the boundary was only eleven (11) miles, we probably traveled from fifty to sixty miles, and were tramping five days, in reaching the prominent white rock cliff on the boundary which we had carefully chosen, before quitting the lines, and the identification of which can not fairly be questioned. The field notes show that on this section of the line the distances were determined by astronomical observations for latitude, made on the meridian at the quitting and beginning (resuming) points, and the distance between them computed and reduced to miles and fractions of a mile. As there was no fit surface over which to measure a base line, no triangulation could be resorted to. Neither Captain Tuttle nor I knew of any other satisfactory way of prolonging the boundary line and yet keeping the distances even more nearly correct than by chaining. I do not consider it feasible to cross the Dolores River from the south to the north side, near the line, and still get up on the line to a point that could surely be identified, nearer (further south) than the natural object chosen by our party. It is utterly impossible to cross to the north side of the river on the boundary line, or even get on the line on the north bank of the river with the animals carrying the blankets, provisions, instruments, etc.
No such point is accessible. Even though a reckless and adventurous mountaineer should climb to the north wall of the river near the line, he could not be placed in line, because the nearest point to which the transit could be carried on the south side of the river, would be where we placed our final monument, viz. at 119 1/2 miles on the line and which is probably three to four miles from the southern edge of the north wall of the Dolores River.
For the first 92 miles no running water was crossed by the boundary line. Water was found in tanks or pockets in the rocks in holes in the beds of dry streams, and by digging in low sandy bottoms.
The scarcity of water, especially at this season of the year (September and October) caused great inconvenienc in having frequently to locate camp several miles from line. Water for cooking purposes, and to be carried in canteens by the party at work on the line, was transported in Kegs, on the backs of pack animals, but the animals themselves had to be watered every day or two. Twenty three miles [mules] and horses were constantly employed by the surveyors, besides about one hundred and fifty that belonged to the government, and were employed by the two companies of cavalry acting as escort.
The warm weather and lack of water caused no little suffering to both men and animals while the time employed in hunting water and in traveling to and from camps, located away off the line, was nearly, if not quite, equal to the time actually spent while immediately at work on the line of survey.
From the 92nd mile north, water was more abundant and several mountain streams were crossed. Among the largest streams were, besides the Grande and Dolores Rivers, Deer (or Tukuhnikavats), Roc and Granite Creeks, and Little Dolores River. Roc Creek, Deer Creek and Little Dolores River were the only running mountain streams. Rock Creek was the largest and most beautiful mountain stream crossed by the line. Dolores River flows through a deeply-cut canon of red sand-stone, probably fifteen hundred feet below the general elevation of the surrounding bluffs. It can be reached from only one break in the walls, on the south side near the line. The route is down an old Indian trail referred to in the foregoing field notes. This seemed to be an abandoned road, and I think we were the first white men to follow it. There was no evidence of its having been used for several years. Had this almost obliterated ponny trail not been discovered, I think we should have been compelled to go from 30 to 50 miles out of our way to find a pass down into the canon, and get out on the line, on the North side of the river. The last six or seven miles of the line, i.e. from the 144th to the 150th mile, crosses an usually broken surface. The breaks of all the South shore of the Grande River are similar to those in the vicinity of the Dolores River. They consist mainly of a series of successive, deep sand stone canons, with intervening rocky ridges and mesas. Their general trend is from East to West, and the drainage is into Grande River. I cannot conceive of any useful purpose to which this country may be adapted.
The grazing was excellent in most places along the line, but the average altitude being great, water usually scarce, and most of it considerably below the general level, the country bordering the line can hardly be considered a first class grazing region. Stock would usually require feeding during a portion of the winter.
There were no practical miners nor geologists among our party and consequently, no mines nor minerals were discovered.
Very little opportunity was afforded our party for hunting and fishing since our time was so closely occupied directly with the survey.
Elk and Deer were frequently seen near the line, in various places, most notably between the 90 th and the 115th mile. In the vicinity of Deer and Roc Creeks, I saw several bands, numbering from five to ten in each. The soldiers killed a few. The Cinnamon Deer [bear?] was the only kind seen and that was on the Dolores River, and a few miles South of Deer Creek. Fish were caught in San Juan, Grande and Dolores Rivers. There is evidence that Grande and Gunnison Rivers are wide, deep and swift streams during high water. Much trouble and danger is feared in our prospective return to the 150th mile point, this spring, on account of these rivers. There are neither bridges, ferries, nor settlements along these rivers for many miles, East and West of the boundary line.
No hostile Indians were encountered, no dangerous sickness endured nor serious material losses sustained during the prosecution of this survey. During the first month we were enroute from Washington to the initial point of survey, it rained nearly every day, that being the rainy season in Colorado. Afterwards we were blest with fair weather almost continually. The work of locating the line was begun on September 12, 1878, and we finished the 150th mile monument, where work was suspended in a snow and rain storm, on the afternoon of Sunday, November 10th , 1878. On the night of October 14th , rained very hard, and the next day, it snowed several hours, falling four or five inches. Much of this snow remained on the ground all winter.
After suspending work, we traveled the old Salt Lake Wagon road up Grande, Gunnison and Uncompahgre Rivers, crossing each, and entering the Lake City tole-road about one hundred and twenty-five miles from our starting place. Thence to Ft. Garland, via Lake City, Antelope Park, Wagonwheel Gap, Delitorte 37 and Alamosa, arriving at Fort Garland November 29, 1878.
I trust it may not be out of place for me to express my appreciation of the great services rendered by Capt. H.P. Tuttle, who acted as the Astronomer of this survey. He has been a faithful, industrious and patient worker and assistant from the very inception of this survey to the final suspension of field work on the Grande River. In his subsequent reductions and reports, he has shown the same worthy traits of character.
Capt. Charles Parker of K Co. 9 th Cavalry, who has had charge of our military escort, has performed his duty in a very praise worthy manner and I am under great personal obligations to him, and to his command, for many voluntary and gratuitous acts of kindness and assistance, rendered my party and myself.
I am grateful to for the evident and hearty interest they have taken in protecting us and facilitating the establishment of the boundary line.
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