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Keetley, Utah: The Birth and Death of a Small Town

Keetley store and apartment house. Courtesy o/Alargery Fisher Sinclair.

Keetley, Utah: The Birth and Death of a Small Town


THE RESERVOIR BEHIND JORDANELLE DAM in the Heber Valley has inundated much of the area that was once Keetley, Utah. By 1995 water will cover the last relics of farms and flood the mine tunnels that once brought work and life to this community.

The story of Keetley is not much different from that of other small Utah towns that have boomed and then vanished. The Heber Valley was settled in 1859 by Latter-day Saint pioneers before Wasatch County was officially organized by the Utah Territorial Legislature in 1862 Early ranchers raised sheep and cattle and grew feed crops in the area, but mining provided the incentive that created the town of Keetley.

The discovery of silver on the Ontario claim in 1872 gave birth to Park City and, ultimately, to Keetley. David Fisher was first to prospect the Keetley area His claim, the Columbus, became the Star of Utah mine that was later incorporated with others into the New Park Mine None of the diggings produced much ore before the turn of the century. For years Keetley was just a mining shaft at the mouth of a drain tunnel.

John 'Jack" Keetley, born November 28, 1841, grew up in Marysville, Kansas In his youth, as a pony express rider, he was known for completing the longest ride without stopping, except to change horses. He rode 300 miles in twenty-four hours.1 It was Jack Keetley who engineered the Ontario Drain Tunnels. By 1898 Tunnel No. 2 had been completed to drain the Park City properties of the Daly Mining Company and the Ontario Silver Mining Company.2 In June 1917 the Park Utah Mining Company was incorporated and secured rights to use the five-mile drain tunnel The Park Utah mining operation became a success, but not until the 1920s did it affect the surrounding area.

Miners were not the only ones interested in the site. In 1917 the Fisher brothers, George and Donald Gail, bought a 4,000-acre ranch east of Ontario Drain Tunnel No. 2. They mortgaged their livestock to purchase the property from Henry and Kerzia Cluff. It is not known how old the ranch actually was, but a barn on the property was built with ten-inch square timbers pinned with wooden spikes. In January 1918 Gail and his new bride, Luvernia, moved into a ranch house on the property that had been a home for livestock for many years It faced south on the mine road, just east of a smaller home that was later occupied by a Mexican migrant named Casias and his family. Gail hauled sawdust chips from the mill in Kamas to insulate the walls of the house that first winter. Although Luvernia made the place clean and comfortable, no major improvements were made for four years. 3

While Gail and his family worked the ranch, George was elected to the Utah State Senate in 1922 He and his family continued to live in Heber. Until the depression his family only summered in Keetley. He was not a rancher but became widely known as a newspaper editor, forest ranger, and politician. As a lobbyist he represented the Utah Woolgrowers Association in Washington, D.C.

From the beginning, due to George's varied interests, the ranch was a one-sided partnership. Gail and his sons Neil and Bert worked the ranch, while George and his family pursued a different lifestyle. In later years this caused bitterness between the twofamilies.4 One visible indicator of this inequity was a large sign George painted on the roof of the Keetley Store It read, "George A Fisher and Brothers."

Major improvements in 1922 changed living conditions in Keetley. Water was piped into Gail and Luvernia's house, and electricity and telephone service were installed. That same year Gail built three new rentals and an ice house as well as slaughter and shearing sheds.5

Water to the ranch came from two systems Springs nearby furnished culinary water, and irrigation water was piped down from Drain Tunnel No. 2. The drain water was never adequate since Midway Irrigation claimed most of the rights from the tunnel.6 For this reason, historically, the Fisher ranch was dry farmed and seeded in pasture grass.

Gail Fisher contracted to set the poles from the power plant to the property, bringing electricity to the upper valley. The Utah Power and Light Company, tagged "Utah Pilfer and Loot" by Gail Fisher, provided the power. The main line ran directly through the property.7

The Fisher ranch was connected to the outside world by telephone when the Elkhorn Telephone Company was organized by local ranchers. Along the main line to Heber City Lyman Wooten, Harry Morris, Bob and Bill Davis, the Fishers, and others hooked into the service. Each provided and maintained the line across his property to the next connection The party-line system worked well for many years until Mountain Bell bought out the ranchers.8

From the beginning the success of the ranch depended on the mining interests. When the mines prospered the Fishers sold meat and poultry to the boardinghouses at the mine and the grocers in Park City. This required daily trips to deliver the freshly slaughtered animals. When the Fishers were butchering for the mines they kept 1,500 head of cattle at the ranch. They delivered a beef each day to the Park Utah Mine George and Gail divided the herd equally until George sold his cattle and purchased sheep

With the sheep came additional responsibilities. Annually in April two shearers named Ford and Meecham came up from Wallsburg In the large shearing sheds at the ranch these men clipped the Fisher sheep and those of their neighbors This job took a whole month to complete, and then the shearers moved on to other ranches. The Fisher brothers also raised chickens to sell to the mines. When grown and dressed out they sold five for a dollar.9

Keetley, the town, had its birth in the mining boom of the 1920s. In 1923 Charles Roy Lenzi was hired by the United Park City Mines Company to paint the houses and mine structures at the mouth of the drain tunnels. As the operation grew, new facilities were built for the increasing number of employees.10 Supervisory personnel occupied new homes down the ridge along the road The company also constructed new offices, shops, a commissary, four bunkhouses, and a boardinghouse These facilities accommodated almost 600 men. 11 Lack of transportation and the inclement winters in Keetley forced most of the miners to remain in the camp during the week, returning home only on weekends when weather permitted.

While single miners stayed in the two-story boardinghouses, homes were provided for the families of key personnel. These were located in a small canyon north of the main tunnel, just over the hill from what is now Deer Valley. In 1928 Richard Glazier brought his wife Myrle and three-year-old son Penrod to the Park Utah mining camp This would be their home for the next twenty-four years Their two-story house was old and shoddily built. It did have electricity and a cold water sink but no bathroom. A large coal- and woodburning stove provided heat.12

Myrle Glazier recalled that the family tried to plan something special to do each day. In the summer the choices might include a walk on the train tracks, searching for watercress along the stream banks, gathering chokecherries or elderberries, hunting rabbits, and fishing. Picnics were spontaneous affairs; Joan Glazier remembered pulling the kitchen table into the yard for supper. Or they often filled a big cast-iron skillet with fried potatoes and sliced frankfurters, steak, or fish and carried their meal down to the stream so that the family could eat while they fished in the evenings Another favorite picnic spot was the old mill east of Heber

They enjoyed other activities as well, such as swimming at Luke's Hot Pots and Schneitters Hot Pots in Midway, Utah. There the hot mineral water bubbles up from fissures in the ground, and several areas are dammed to form pleasantly warm, relaxing pools. In the winter entertainment included sledding, skiing, and ice skating on the settling ponds associated with the mines.

The Glaziers, like other mining families, kept a small garden in the summer and bottled fruit and vegetables. In their root cellar they kept apples, potatoes, and carrots. They supplemented store bought meat with fish caught in nearby streams or rabbit and deer. Household commodities were available at the Heber Exchange or in Park City. Weekly shopping visits were often combined with stops at Chick's Cafe, Everett's Ice Cream Parlor, or a movie at Heber's Ideal Theater.13

Although the mining community was composed of several different racial groups and members of different religious sects, it was still extremely homogeneous. Those who lived there still get together to reminisce about old times. Life at the mine camp, though difficult, is remembered fondly by former residents.

During World War II, with gas rationing, the miners phoned in their orders either to the Heber Exchange or O. P. Skaggs in Park City. The Heber Exchange delivered once a week and Park Utah officials picked up the Park City orders when they went in for supplies. In addition to gas there were shortages of rubber tires, sugar, flour, meat, butter, and shoes. Only a limited amount could be purchased with the government-issued ration books.

The war affected the Keetley mining district in several different ways. The demand for minerals increased, allowing the mines to remain open, but conversely, the labor force diminished, affecting production. Social life in the community expanded to include Mothers' Camps. These weekly gatherings of the miners' wives met in individual homes to knit gloves and scarves for U.S. servicemen. After the Glaziers purchased the community's first radio-phonograph console they hosted other families for evenings of music and radio programs such as Little Orphan Annie, Jack Armstrong, All-American Boy, Helen Trent, and the children's favorite, Let's Pretend. The radio was their link to the outside world.

By 1952 the golden days of mining in the Keetley area had faded. The ore no longer earned top dollar on the market, and the coming of the unions brought lengthy strikes. Many miners could not afford to wait the strikes out and sought work elsewhere.

During the early years the mining companies were not the only ones interested in expansion When the Union Pacific Railroad ran a spur to the mine in 1923 it looked as if the time was right for development of the area. In December of that year the Wasatch County Commission approved a townsite at Keetley. The plat, submitted by George A. Fisher and his wife Annie McMillan Fisher, contained forty-one lots. Each lot, approximately 100 feet by 50 feet, included the promise of sewer and water connections.14

The following summer mail service began to the little community with Charles Roy Lenzi as postmaster and Lettie, his wife, as assistant The post office sign arrived with the name spelled incorrectly To correct the mistake the Postmaster General of the United States had to cancel Lenzi's appointment as postmaster of "Keatley" and reinstate him as postmaster of "Keetley." Thirty years later when Lenzi retired the post office closed.15

George Fisher built himself a home east of the highway and surrounded it with six rental units. Across the highway on the west he built a store that furnished meat and produce to the mine and local residents and provided a gathering place in their free time. South of the mine road George erected a row of small cabins and, on the north, a two-story, ten-unit apartment building Each unit contained a small kitchen-dining area, a living room, and one bedroom. Most of these structures housed miners and their families and provided services for them.16

Children at the ranch and the mine attended the Elkhorn School, a small wooden building that housed all twelve grades. In 1924 Mrs. Horton's second grade class was the largest, having four students. That year the school graduated one student, Orville Ross. During the Thanksgiving holiday in 1924 the Elkhorn schoolhouse was jacked off its foundation and dragged across the fields to a new location just south and west of the Keetley store. The one-room school served grades one through eight until a new school was built the next year High school students were bused into Heber.

The new school was an impressive two-story brick building The first three grades met in one room and grades four through eight in the other. Each grade sat in its own row, and there were about twenty-five students per room Victor and Elda Jackson, husband and wife, taught the classes and lived in the former schoolhouse at the rear of the new building. By 1929 the school board found it too expensive to keep the school open and required all students to attend school in Heber.17 By the time the bus reached town it carried almost ninety elementary and high school students. For nighttime activities, such as plays and sporting events, the bus transported both students and their parents.18

In 1927 George and Gail Fisher leased some land west of the ranch buildings to an outfit out of Butte, Montana. These men, remembered only as Big and LittleJoe, built an 80-foot square amusement hall on the property. They painted it blue and named it the Blue Goose. It was outfitted regally with a heavy marble-topped bar and stained-glass barroom doors.19 For a few years this was a favorite entertainment spot for miners and out-of-towners, and it quickly developed a reputation that rivaled the dance halls of Park City. The Blue Goose offered a variety of entertainment, including weekly smokers—boxing and wrestling matches that listed out-of-state as well as local talent on the card.20

On weekends dances were held at the Blue Goose A Salt Lake City socialite, who also ran a string of girls in Park City, furnished dance partners. Later, when it became more lucrative to take the girls to Salt Lake City, the dances were attended by local girls.21

Gambling was popular at the Blue Goose, and card rooms were open nightly. Game stakes could run as high as$1,000 in an evening. There were also pool and craps tables. The biggest draw was panguingue (pan), a fast-moving card game usually played by six. Charlie Thompson was the local champion One evening, the story goes, he won a service station, an oil and gas distributorship, and a diamond ring.22

During prohibition the grounds around the Blue Goose became a popular hiding place for locally produced whiskey. Heber's newspaper, the Wasatch Wave, reported several "Big Whiskey Catches" by Sheriff Fraughton during 1927 and 1928.23 The Fisher ranch had its own problems with bootleggers The Fishers had leased some bottom grazing land to an Idaho hog raiser who sold the Fishers pork to supply to the mines. This worked well for several years until Neil Fisher noticed a strong odor, one not usually associated with pigs. He and his father quickly identified the smell as mash and uncovered a complete bootlegging operation in the pens The sheriff ran the man out of the area. 24

When the depression hit, transportation became a problem and business at the Blue Goose declined. It closed its doors in 1930. Later, Wilson Young and Dick Glazier held Boy Scout activities there, and on Saturday mornings Guy Coleman brought movies from his theater in Midway. He also furnished Wednesday night films at the mine boardinghouse The Blue Goose was finally torn down sometime between 1937 and 1941.25

The depression hit mining hard, and most mines eventually closed or operated with skeleton crews. In the spring of 1929 mine executive Paul Hunt warned George Fisher about the impending crash, telling him to "put his house in order." George immediately sold his sheep at six dollars a head and with the money was able to retain the ranch through the lean years A month later the price of sheep fell to a dollar a head.26

Many of Keetley's citizens went on relief, but they stayed in Keetley where rent was cheap. When vacancies occurred in his rentals, George filled them with needy family members. Times were hard for everyone. The men would drive a sleigh into the mountains and chop wood for fuel. Often diets consisted of only what could be trapped or shot Beans and porcupine held center stage at one savored Thanksgiving meal. Disputes frequently broke out over supplies that mysteriously "disappeared."27

One of the most tragic results of the depression at Keetley was the death of Carl McMillan He had worked at the mines until they closed and then took a job at the Keetley store. One morning when the school bus stopped at the store to pick up students, Wilson Young, the driver, found Carl hanging in the basement. His suicide was traumatic for the small community. He is still remembered as a kind, generous man who donated many items from his shelves to the needy.28

During the depression Gail Fisher let residents charge milk, meat and eggs. Only one man, Stubb Schooler, ever settled his account. He was also the only resident to pick up his supplies; the others expected the Fisher kids to deliver. It surprised no one when, after twenty years, Gail Fisher sold out to his brother George in 1937 and moved his family into Heber.29

During World War II Keetley became the wartime home of 140 Japanese Americans, the largest such group to resettle voluntarily away from the West Coast.30 Fred Wada, a thirty-five-year-old California businessman, organized a nonprofit cooperative enterprise of Japanese Americans to engage in farming, in part to help the war effort by producing foodstuffs and also to avoid being sent to an internment camp He quickly recruited 140 members.31 Ultimately, almost 5,000Japanese Americans would voluntarily relocate.

Wada first visited Duchesne County but found that although they needed farm labor there, it was too remote from transportation lines to make it profitable He then visited Keetley, and George Fisher offered to lease Wada his "farm." Earlier, George had written U.S. attorney Dan B. Shields to see if this transaction was legal. Shields reported that it could be done "without violating the law in any respect."32 Fisher's offer appealed to Wada, and he put down an immediate deposit. Later, he executed a one-year lease with a four-year option. Rent was $7,500 annually for 3,800 acres. 33

The co-op group left Oakland on March 28, 1942,in eighteen cars, eleven trucks, and two house trailers, organized into caravans. The homes and possessions they left behind were never recovered after the war. It took three days to travel the 800 miles to Keetley. When they arrived the weather was bitterly cold, and snow still covered the ground. The water pipes in the housing units had frozen and burst. Masao Tsujimoto recalled that "A few of the cabins were really snow-bound The pick and shovel crew had to get busy making roads to them."34

Although they could do little farming until the snow melted there was much for the newcomers to do. Four boxcar loads of farm equipment, furniture, and personal belongings and two of Japanese foodstuffs arrived at the Keetley Union Pacific spur and needed unloading. The men built an eleven-car garage behind the apartment building and two additional cabins. They also built a structure to house a large Japanese bath.35

Historian Leonard Arrington found that Utahns, while not free of discrimination, generally avoided violent acts against the Japanese Surprisingly, resident Japanese Americans in the state opposed the influx of evacuees for fear it might tarnish the reputation they had built up over several generations.36 The mayor and city council of Park City as well as the Wasatch County sheriff wrote Gov. Herbert B. Maw asking that the Japanese be kept out of the area. They feared their presence would lower the standard of living.37

Although the colony caused much discussion, there were only a few incidents of overt hostility at Keetley. Soon after the group arrived, on the night of April 9 as the miners were getting off shift, someone in a passing car threw a stick of dynamite toward the ranch buildings. No one was injured. There were other blasts during the month, but eventually everything settled back to normal.38

The newcomers had little time to worry about what others thought. As the snow melted they could see what a monumental task lay ahead of them This was not farmland as they had supposed It was hilly, rocky, and covered with sagebrush. "Hell," said Fred Wada, "we had to move 50 tons of rocks to clear 150 acres to farm."39 During those difficult first months, using the farm equipment they had brought with them, they cleared the sagebrush and dug out the rocks by hand. They laid out a large truck garden, planting it mostly in lettuce and strawberries. Another thousand acres went into hay. Land too hilly to plant was subleased to a rancher. The colonists also built a large chicken coop and a pigpen to house the fifty chickens and eight pigs they owned. "The chickens, however, didn't live long, Masao Tsujimoto recalled, "since fried chicken came constantly in our minds whenever we saw them pecking around."40

After the garden was planted there was not enough work to support all those in the colony. Wives and children remained behind to tend the crops while many of the men contracted to work at a sugar beet operation in Spanish Fork and several others at an orchard and produce farm in Orem, returning on weekends to help at Keetley. The energetic newcomers also found time to help neighboring farmers in the Heber Valley.41

The summer harvest was good and required the help of all ages. Children as young as ten and grandparents over seventy-five worked side by side They sold much of their produce to Safeway and sent some to the Topaz internment camp in Millard County. They also sold to locals at a roadside stand. Proud of their achievement, they sent a box of their "finest" beets, lettuce, peas, turnips, and onions to Governor Maw. His thank you letter to Fred Wada, dated July 30, 1942, praised the Japanese colony: "You are proving by your work that you are loyal high-class citizens."

The Mormon cooperative in Heber taught them how to can their surplus for winter consumption, but winter came to this mountain valley all too soon for the haggard farmers The first snow fell on September 9. With the farming season over the Japanese women knitted for the Red Cross and the men found odd jobs. Those who remained at the ranch began raising fingerling trout donated by Sen.Abe Murdock.42

Although work occupied much of their day, the small colony still had time for recreation. The Californians especially enjoyed snow sports and took up ice skating, sledding, tobogganing, and skiing with varying degrees of success. In the summer horseback riding was a favorite activity. The girls had a glee club and the boys a baseball team, the Keetley Green Waves, captained by Kaoru Honda, that had a successful season. The colony's young men also formed a basketball team that participated in games sponsored by the Japanese American Citizens League of Salt Lake City.43

When the war ended the Japanese colony remained to harvest their last crop before returning to the West Coast. About one-third remained in Utah.44 Today only a handful of locals remember the Japanese colony, but in 1988 the survivors of the Keetley camp gathered in Culver City, California, to share memories of that time with their posterity.

With the Japanese colony gone and work at the mine slowing again, Keetley returned to a quiet existence. George Fisher made a final attempt to establish his dream. With monies received when the federal government widened U.S Highway 40 in 1947, he converted the apartments into a motel. There was not much to attract tourists to the area, however, and it was eventually sold.45

When George Fisher died in 1954,his dream died with him Just before his death he divided and sold the ranch. A. L. Buchanan bought the 300 acres south of the mine road. D. S. Brown, a former Utahn then ranching in Mexico, bought the other 1,200 acres of bottom land north of the mine road and the foothill property along the west In turn he sold to Verne Crandall and his sons. 46

For thirty years the Crandalls summered their cattle at the ranch between May and September—"never later than Thanksgiving." They carefully rotated the animals between twenty-two different pastures to prevent depletion of the grasses Four generations of Crandalls lived in the renovated farmhouse.47 With the Jordanelle Dam completed and the reservoir filling, ranchers in the area have been bought out and relocated. The Crandalls now take their cattle to Wyoming. One small remembrance of their activity in the area is that State Parks and Recreation has named one of the sites at the reservoir Crandall Point

For some, uncertainty still hangs over the Keetley area. Clark Wilson, are tired geological engineer and former leader of the mining interests in the area, opposed the construction of the Jordanelle Dam. According to him and other knowledgeable men, the dam is built on land laced with fissures and weak underground formations Moreover, there is a history of seismic activity in the area. 48 The Bureau of Reclamation has repeatedly assured Heber Valley residents that the dam is safe and can withstand an earthquake of 6.5 magnitude on the Richter scale directly below it.49 Wilson and his supporters have their doubts. Perhaps someday this controversy will add another chapter to the history of Keetley. When the reservoir is filled and all the recreational facilities in use, people are not likely to remember Wilson's warning or the small town of Keetley, Utah, far below them in its watery grave.


Mrs White is a history consultant in Beaumont, California.

1 Kate B Carter, comp., "Utah and the Pony Express," Our Pioneer Heritage, 20 vols (Salt Lake City: Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, 1958-77), 3:385-88.

2 William James Mortimer, ed., How Beautiful upon the Mountains (Wasatch County: Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, 1963), p 1108 See also George A Thompson and Fraser Buck, Treasure Mountain Home, Park City Revisited (Salt Lake City: Dream Garden Press, 1981), p 27.

3 Interview with Doris Fisher Gates, Heber City, Utah, April 26, 1988.

4 Interview with Bert Fisher, Salt Lake City, April 4, 1988.

5 Gail Fisher, 1922 Diary, in possession of his daughter Doris Gates, Heber City.

6 Interview with Harry McMillan, Heber City, April 1, 1988.

7 Bert Fisher interview.

8 Ibid.

9 Bert Fisher interview.

10 The new camp was called Keetley and was constructed at the former site of Camp Florence See Thompson and Buck, Treasure Mountain Home, p 157.

11 Mortimer, How Beautiful upon the Mountains, p 1114-15.

12 Interview with Myrle Glazier, Richard Glazier, and Joan Glazier Pitts, Provo, Utah, August 18, 1988.

13 Ibid.

14 Plat of the original townsite of Keetley, entry No 39951, December 6, 1923, Wasatch County Recorder's Office, Heber City.

15 Mortimer, How Beautiful upon the Mountains, p. 1115.

16 Bert Fisher interview There is some discrepancy in dates In a letter to the author from Phyllis Fisher Heath, February 18, 1988, she gives the date as 1922; in a later telephone conversation Neil Fisher said the apartments went up the same year as the new school which was 1925; an undated 1988 letter from Marjorie Fisher Sinclair sets the date in 1933 I am inclined to go with the 1925 date as that was when the mine production was at its peak and the need for such housing at its greatest.

17 McMillan interview; see also Bert Fisher Interview.

18 Interview with Wilson Young, Heber City, April 1, 1988; see also Glazier interview.

19 Interview with Marjorie Fisher Sinclair, Flintridge, Calif., February 1, 1988.

20 Interview with Neil Fisher, Salt Lake City, April 7, 1988.

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid.

23 Wasatch Wave, December 16, 1927; March 9, 1928.

24 Neil Fisher interview.

25 Bert Fisher interview.

26 Ibid.

27 Young interview.

28 Bert Fisher interview; see also Young and Gates interviews.

29 Bert Fisher interview.

30 Sandra Taylor, "Japanese Americans and Keetley Farms: Utah's Relocation Colony," Utah Historical Quarterly 54 (1986): 333.

31 Masao Tsujimoto, "A Letter to Ophelia about Keetley Farms," pp 3-4, MS dated 1943, in the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

32 Dan B Shields to George Fisher, March 13, 1942, in possession of Marjorie Fisher Sinclair.

33 Tsujimoto, "Letter to Ophelia," p. 4. See also 'The Keetley Story," Salt Lake Telegram, June 6, 1942.

34 Tsujimoto, "Letter to Ophelia," p 2.

35 Ibid.

36 Leonard J Arrington, "Utah's Ambiguous Reception: The Relocation ofJapanese Americans," in Roger Daniels, Harry H L Kitano, and Sandra C Taylor, eds., Japanese Americansfrom Relocation to Redress (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986) pp. 95, 97.

37 Park City Record, March 19, 1942.

38 "George A Fisher Given Just Praise—Keetley Story," Deseret News, April 10, 1942; also noted in the Park Record, November 11, 1948.

39 "Fred Isamu Wada: Businessman, Community Leader, and Philanthropist," Oral History in the Oral History Program, Claremont College Graduate School, Claremont, Calif., 1984. See also A Tribute to Fred Isamu Wada, published privately by Omni Bank, Los Angeles, November 14, 1984.

40 Tsujimoto, "Letter to Ophelia," p 12.

41 Ibid.

42 Ibid., p. 18.

43 "Japanese Stake Future on Utah Ranch Work," Salt Lake Telegram, June 6, 1942.

44 The 1950 U.S. Census shows an increase of 1,183 Japanese residents in the state.

45 Sinclair interview.

46 David H Mann, "Keetley Valley Returns to Grass," Utah Farmer, October 18, 1956, p 5.

47 Interview with Lamar Crandall, Springville, Utah, March 28, 1988.

48 Interview with Clark Wilson, Salt Lake City, April 22, 1988.

49 Jordanelle Dam, brochure published by the Central Utah Project, Heber City, undated.