+Nichole Gully, +Terry Beech, +Leonie Bennett, +Kerri Thompson, +Annemarie Hyde, +Philippa Nicoll Antipas, +Stuart Kelly, +Dr Wendy Kofoed, +James Anderson, +Dr Michael Harvey, +Sonya Van Schaijik
About the Cover " The wheels on the bus go round and round' The cover is an attempt to capture the essence of #edbook2016 in one image. Iconography is a way of telling a story using pictures. It is interesting that to make an image easier to read that we are weighted towards choosing images that are American centric. We do not have a universally accepted image for education; in fact you will often see in the media that they still use teachers in front of a blackboard - I have been teaching for over twenty years and have never used a blackboard. With this type of encapsulating drawing it can be easy to trivialise or generalise some concepts. My apologies to anyone in advance if you feel that way. Usually, a cover illustrator would read the book prior to the illustration, it will be interesting to reflect, post reading, on what the drawing may have looked like if I had the wisdom imparted by my colleagues contributions. This drawing took me longer to plan than it did to draw. Starting from the front end, because as we know it is the front end that makes the difference. WÄ nanga- is the journey marker as in our destination - it is the journey. Learners as creators - from consumers to creators. Effective schools - schools that meet the needs of their students; effective schools have a future focus. Data driven pedagogy - it had to be the bus driver. Adaptive technologies this is big data where machines personalise our learning. Learner efficacy - Bob the Builder, yes we can! Mindfulness - being present and aware, yes it is more than yoga. Ubiquitous learning - learning anywhere, anytime, showing your learning through multiple means and media, learning that is available 24/7, wifi is an important enabling tool. Cultural responsiveness - inclusion by the use of school in English, Maori, Samoan, and Esperanto, (I did not have room for sign language). Disruptive learning is depicted as both a revolution and a disruption. Enjoy the read
Terry Beech - @beechEdesignz
#EdBookNZ 2016 People and their 1000 Words -Cover for the project @beechEdesignz -wÄ nanga written in Te Reo @nikora75 -mindfulness @vanschaijik -learner efficacy - @leonie_hastings -effective schools @newmarketschool -disruptive learning @AKeenReader -data driven pedagogy @stuartkellynz -adaptive technologies @Doctor_Harves -cultural responsiveness @mrs_hyde -ubiquitous learning @kerriattamatea -learners as creators @__jamesanderson This co-constructed #EdbookNZ project organised by Sonya Van Schaijik and being co-authored by a great set of New Zealand based educators for Connected Educator Month.
Wānanga atu, Wānanga mai! He hua tō te pakirehua i ngā kura arareo Māori? Kua riro māku te kaupapa ‘wānanga’ e whakatewhatewha i tēnei rangitaki, i te horopaki o te ao mātauranga. Nā, ko tētahi o ngā wānanga matua i tēnei wā, ko te hurihanga pakirehua a te kaiako. Ko te ui nui a te kaiako, he ariā makau o te wā te pakirehua, e whakapōrearea ana i te kaiako wherū, he tukanga whai take rānei, he tikanga Māori nō maimai hei āta wetewete mā tātou? I wānangahia tahitia ēnei o ngā kaupapa e te tīma Māori o Tātai Aho Rau - CORE Education. Ko tāku, he tātari, he whakarāpopoto i ō mātou huatau.
He aha tēnei mea te wānanga? He aha tana hāngaitanga ki te pakirehua? Ki tā te rangahau a Bishop rāua ko Berryman i Te Kotahitanga (2003), ko te wānanga he wāhi e ikapahi ai a Māori ki te ako. Hāunga tēnei whakamahukitanga, he whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro te wānanga, e ruku tahi ai ngā kaiuru ki ngā rētōtanga o te huatau. Mā te pāhekoheko o whakaaro, e whānau hou mai ai te mōhiotanga ki te kaupapa. Waihoki, mā te wānanga, e āhei ai te kaiako ki te whakahāngai atu i ana akoranga ki ngā matea ako o te ākonga Māori e eke ai ia hei Māori. Nā, ko tāku i konei, ki te kore te pakirehua, ka kore te wānanga, ā, ki te kore te wānanga, ka kore te pakirehua.
Nā Nichole Gully @nikora75
He aha hoki te Pakirehua? He momo kauwhata whakanahanaha whakaaro te hurihanga pakirehua, ā, he tukanga. Mā te koke i te hurihanga, e āta arohaehae ai te kaiako i te āhua o tana whakaako, e whakapiki ai te āheinga o te tamaiti ki te ako. Hei tā Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, kāore he huarahi ako kotahi e tautoko ai i te ako a ngā tamariki katoa, he huhua kē. Nā reira, kia angitu te whakaako, me āta whakatakoto i te pakirehua kia wānanga ai i ngā ngā āhuatanga ako hou mō ngā matea o tēnā tamaiti, o tēnā tamaiti. ● TKI: Teaching as Inquiry
He aha a Māori i takaroa ai? Kua roa te pakirehua e whāia ana i te ao mātauranga whānui o Aotearoa, heoi, ki tā ngā poutakawaenga o CORE, tokomaha ngā kaiako e horokukū ana te whakamahi i te tukanga. Ki ā rātou titiro, ko ngā kura i tere tahuri ki te whakamātau i te hurihanga pakirehua, he kura reo rua, ā, ka takaroa ake ērā atu o ngā kura arareo Māori. I wānangahia e te tīma ētahi o ngā tauārai: ● Ko rātou i wawe te whakamātau, i whai i ngā momo hurihanga pēnā i te mea i ahu mai i te marautanga reo Pākehā; ● Ka tuki te aronga Pākehā o te pakirehua ki tā te tirohanga Māori; ● Kāore i kitea e te kaiako Māori te pitomata o te pakirehua me ana hua huhua; ● E manauhea ētahi kura ki te kohi raraunga ako i ngā tamariki i te whakaaro he mahi Pākehā kē.
Te hurihanga pakirehua a te kaiako = Teaching as Inquiry cycle Nā Nichole Gully @nikora75
He Māori rānei te Pakirehua? Ki tā Gardiner rāua ko Rewiti-Martin (2015), nō mai rā anō te pakirehua i te ao Māori. Kei tō tātou pītau ira. Aua atu ngā tauira e whakaahuatia ana e ō tātou tūpuna i nga kōrero tuku iho, i ngā wheako, o te mātauranga ake. He āhuatanga te pakirehua, nō te tuakiri pākiki o te Māori tō tātou whakatewhatewha i te taiao o te wā, e whakatau ai i ngā pōrahurahu i ngā wero. E tautoko ana a Te Mihinga Komene o te tīma CORE Tātai Aho Rau. Hei tāna: “[k}i ahau nei, āe, kua taunga noa atu tātou ki tēnei mea, te pakirehua. Ko ngā wā i tino kitea ai ngēnei āhuatanga, ko te wā o te pōharatanga, o te tūkino, o te aupēhitanga, o ngaua wā tino toimaha, ā, ka wānanga kia puta anō ai ki te ao mārama. Ko ngā whīkoi mō te reo Māori me te whenua ngērā, ko te kōhanga reo tērā, ko te kura kaupapa Māori, aha atu, aha atu”. Ki tā te wānanga o te tīma o Tātai Aho Rau, e pūrangiaho nei ngā kura arareo Māori ki te pakirehua, ina ahu mai ngā whakamahukitanga i te tirohanga Māori, ka whāia hoki ngā tauira Māori. Hei tā Te Mihinga: “He pai kē atu ki te whakaatu i ngā hurihanga pakirehua me ngā tini tauira mō Te Kore > Te Pō > Te Ao Mārama, pēnā i ngā tauira a Rosalie Reiri. I āta wānangahia tēnei e mātou ko ngā wāhine o te Poupou Karanga ki Kāwhia Moana 2013, ā, mō Te Kore - ehake i te mea he kore rawa te kore, he pitomata kē, he wawata, he whāinga hoki. Mō Te Pō - ko ngō mahi rangahau, whakangungu, whakawai ngērā kia rapu i ngētehi māramatanga,
Nā Nichole Gully @nikora75
Ko ētahi poutakawaenga ka whakamārama i te aronga Māori o te Pakirehua i te māwehetanga o Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku e ngā tamariki. Koinei pea tētahi o ngā tauira tuatahi o tēnei mea te wānanga me te Pakirehua. E ai ki a Gardiner rāua ko Rewiti-Martin (2015), ki te whāia ngā tauira Māori pēnei, e taea ana e te kaiako te kite ngā hāngaitanga ki ana mahi ako. Me te aha, ka māmā ake te whakawhiti i te ariā pakirehua ki ngā tauira ake o te takiwā i ngā kōrero tuku iho, i ngā mahi a ngā tūpuna rongonui o uki, o nā tata nei hoki. Ki tā Jason Ruakere: Kei te mārama ināianei, ngā kura arareo Māori e hāpaitia e au, ki ngā painga mā rātou me ā rātou tamariki. Ki a au nei, kia rongo ai ngā kura i te pārekareka o te pakirehua, me āta wānanga te kura e tino mārama ai ki ngā tahataha katoa o te pakirehua. Me noho tangata whenua hoki te tukanga o te pakirehua ki ngā mahere rautaki me te Tūtohinga ā-Kura. Mena ka whakaahuatia te pakirehua i ngā kōrero tuku iho o tēnā iwi, o tēnā takiwā, ka whakahāngaihia ki ngā pūtoi ako a te kaiako me ngā matea ako o ngā tamariki, hangahanga noa iho nei te pakirehua. He Rārangi Rauemi Bishop, R., Berryman, M. (2003) The Te Kotahitanga Effective Teaching Profile Gardiner, T. & Rewiti-Martin, M. (2015) Pakirehua: Teacher Inquiry with a Māori world view Virtual Learning Network Group (2015) - Spirals of Inquiry
Nā Nichole Gully @nikora75
Mindfulness Listen with your heart to what your mind is telling you.
Ko tō ngākau ki ngā taonga o ō tïpuna hei tikitiki mō tō māhunga. Turn your heart to the treasures of your ancestors as a crown for your head. I have chosen to undertake understanding mindfulness because at our school our personal focus is on well being. I am also an across school teacher for the Auckland Central Community of Schools and understanding how mindfulness affects learning is one of our underlying concepts to unpack. What is Mindfulness? I believe mindfulness is about training of self to be more aware. It is about focussing and resting the mind so it has time to relax. The benefits of understanding mindfulness as a skill is reduced stress, effective emotional regularity and an improved working memory. Mindfulness nurtures positive mind states like kindness and compassion. Psychology today defines ‘Mindfulness is a state of active, open attention to the present. When you are mindful, you observe your thoughts and feelings from a distance, without judging them good or bad. Instead of letting your life pass you by, mindfulness means living in the moment and awakening to experience.’ However I have recently uncovered this definition from Mindful Schools where children explain what mindfulness means titled ‘Just Breathe.’
Sonya Van Schaijik
As I read about mindfulness I identified components to understand the interplay of mind and body feelings such as: ● Taking care of the soul through outdoor activities such as exercise or just being outdoors enjoying the natural environment; ● Taking care of the body through nutrition, hydration and sleep; ● Taking care of the mind by allowing it to rest, daydream and imagine; In addition there appears to be a ripple effect of steps when experiencing mindfulness. Mindfulness stresses the importance of loving self, loving others and loving the environment. These all have an effect on mind because all are intertwined. I was recently reminded about the importance of mindfulness in indigenous cultures and how closely mindfulness is linked to our place in our environment. From my Samoan side I am reminded of the term Fa’alupega which is a part of Samoan culture and custom. Knowing Fa’alupega allows you to connect individuals to families and to land and origins of their past. I was taught, ‘O ai a’u?’ Who am I? If we, as educators, teach the whole student, then shouldn't we be providing them with the skills to harness their mental, emotional, social, intellectual potential and make links to their place in the community via mindfulness? The opposite of mindfulness is: self destructive behaviour; stress and burnout problems; under-achieving; lack of self-respect; substance abuse and other self harm behaviour. Let me unpack the steps to develop mindfulness for teaching and learning further. In schools we often focus on exercise and activity for our learners. We teach about the importance of nutrition and hydration for well being. We work with families to reduce the appearance of processed food and sugary drinks at our schools. We stress if our learners appear to be tired from lack of sleep. In this day and age we have the added stress of being permanently connected to devices which brings both benefits and challenges. However when do we give our learners time to rest their minds? How do we take this non-judgmental approach to observing our thoughts and feelings during mindfulness into how we exist in the world? How different would the world be if we could observe without judgement?
Sonya Van Schaijik
Looking after self by resting the mind There are three steps to follow that focus on mental stillness and attention to the present moment. All three can be used to rest mind or can be used individually. 1. 2. 3.
Anchoring which is when attention is anchored to a chosen object by staying close to the object despite mental activity. Resting allows the mind to relax by resting gently on breathing. Being which is just sitting and experiencing the present moment.
We can teach our ourselves and our children the importance of having digital detox. We can create comparisons with junk food and media junk and look for the effects of both on our well being. We can take care of our minds by practicing dreaming and imagining and just giving our minds a chance to rest and be still. You can explore Chade-Meng Tanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ideas for settling the mind here. You can have a quiet chuckle here. Deep breathing has been shown to lower blood pressure, reduce stress, and lessen anxiety. Deep, slow and even breaths can be a powerful calm-down tool. Giving service to others Another idea of mindfulness is about kindness, compassion and about looking after others in our community. In our curriculum how can we acknowledged the importance of service to others? That is the giving of self to community so that we can develop the sense of purpose and contribution of our place in the community. Our older children do some of this via leadership activities. They choose an area where they give time such as looking after the library or looking after younger classes during wet lunchtimes. They commit to activities that benefit the school such as taking part in Travelwise or sports. But how can we foster this idea further so they can move this out into the community?
Sonya Van Schaijik
What other opportunities for our community of learners can we develop so that they can make connections with each other? We already do this with camps and productions and school wide activities. But I wonder if we can be doing even more especially now that we are part of a greater community of learners in the Auckland Central Community of Schools? How can we develop further the ideas of nurturing and sharing across our community of learners so that kindness and compassion develops?
Loving the environment As educators we focus predominantly on environmental studies and in the case of my school we pride ourselves on our Green Gold Enviro status and our silver status for Travelwise. Yet how often do we focus on using the environment for us and our well being. We know that breathing fresh clean air and feeling the sun on our skin can be rejuvenating. However exposure to sunlight and fresh air actually offers our body health benefits that can last a lifetime. Exposure to the sun gives vitamin D benefits that fosters bone growth and improves general overall health. Exposure to sunlight at the same time each day reduces a chemical in our bodies called melatonin and this helps us sleep better. Walking through trees exposes us to phytoncides which reduces the stress hormone cortisol. You can read more about the effects of being outdoors here. The benefits of mindfulness How can we be of genuine service to others and create lasting connections within our communities if our mind is a busy whirlpool of fleeting and ruminating thoughts? Being aware of and practising mindfulness with our learners brings several benefits including decreased negative effects of depression and anxiety. Learners become more self regulated and compassionate. They become more focussed and stronger academically. Being aware of and practising mindfulness improves the working memory. Practicing mindfulness is a powerful antidote for stress, distraction and selfishness in the world. Most important of all mindfulness lays a powerful foundation for all other learning skills.
Sonya Van Schaijik
Mindfulness and learning I have listed and described the steps that develop mindfulness and explained how and why mindfulness helps learning and by making my learning visible. I can teach others to explain why mindfulness helps learning. However I have finished with even more questions to explore and a greater sense of calm as I put into practice some of what I have learnt about mindfulness.
Acknowledgements and Sources: I give a shout out to Kim Mackrell who took some time to give me some fabulous feedback and more questions to think about. Alton, L. (2014). Deep breathing skills to lower anxiety and blood pressure. Retrieved October 12, 2016, from http://www.naturalhealth365.com/anxiety-deep-breathing-1135.html/ Hess, E. (2014) Get-U-Fit. Get out and smell the roses. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from https://blogs.uww.edu/warhawkfitness/2014/04/06/get-out-and-smell-the-roses-the-benefits-of-fresh-air/ Mindful Schools. (2015). "Just Breathe" by Julie Bayer Salzman & Josh Salzman (Wavecrest Films). Retrieved October 20, 2016, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVA2N6tX2cg Stosny, P. B., (n.d.). Psychology Today. What is Mindfulness? Retrieved October 2, 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/mindfulness Tan, C. (2016). How to Settle the Mind - Mindful. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from http://www.mindful.org/how-to-settle-the-mind/
Sonya Van Schaijik
Live in the now Learn to deep breath Walk among the trees Get some sun Drink water Make connections Practice community Be kind and smile
Sonya Van Schaijik
Learner Efficacy in a Junior Classroom Thomas the Tank engine says, “Little engines can do big things.”(3) So when a teacher asks, “Can we do it?” The answer is, “Yes we can.” (9) (Bob the Builder). Learner efficacy is, “the extent or strength of one’s belief in one’s own ability to complete tasks and reach goals.” (10) Self (learner) efficacy has been shown to play an important role in classroom engagement and learning. For instance, Washington, (8) reports that one important factor affecting student self-efficacy is, “positive mastery experiences that give students a sense of accomplishment when they have faced a challenge.” Hence incorporating learner efficacy into a Junior, or for that matter any classroom, should help students achieve ‘big things’ with their learning. (8) How, then, can we as teachers, harness this learner efficacy and give it wings to fly? Some people may believe that learner efficacy could not work effectively in a Junior classroom. Well how about in a low decile 1a classroom where some New Entrants, (5 year olds beginning school), have few positive preschool experiences, where a pencil or a book could be a foreign object and where a mobile device might be ‘Mum’s phone?’ These New Entrants either bounce into the classroom on their first day of school full of wonder and excitement or shyly shuffle in with a whanau (family) member in tow.
Leonie Bennett @leonie_hastings
The first building blocks of learner efficacy should be entwined by the teacher around a student’s everyday learning. Two examples that stand out are -Relationships- Whakawhanaungatanga and Respect- Manaakitanga.(5). These can be nurtured through students, students-teacher(s), family and community. Learning buddies, Tuakana-teina (older-younger), work well not only within the classroom but between classrooms too. A senior student, who may not be as successful academically as others in his class, can be an expert and awhi (care/support) a younger student providing ako (learning) and guidance. In class buddies can also provide feedback and questions and help their buddy set goals of ‘where to next’, as well as praise and celebrate learning. This helps promote that self- confidence, self -belief and learner efficacy, not only within their learning buddy but within themselves too. “Can we do it? Yes we can.”(9)
Leonie Bennett @leonie_hastings
Learning Buddies Another way of teachers incorporating learner efficacy in the classroom is Inquiry learning.The pedagogy behind this enables teachers and students to not only work in guided situations, if needed, but also independently. Wonderings eg questions based on Kipling’s seven servants (7) reiterates Gregg Levoy’s idea that, “Nothing shapes our journey through life so much as the questions we ask.”(4). Te Ihi (fire/excitement),in Inquiry promotes a student’s passion and agency. Learners become teachers, inquirers, creators, thinkers and processors not only of knowledge and information but in moulding and enhancing their own learner efficacy. Students are excited to share aspects and results of their inquiries and this helps develop a learner voice. For example, the students in my class often produce a co-constructed keynote near the conclusion of their Inquiry to present at a School Assembly. They are already role models of and leaders in their learning. We also use Structured Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy rubric (1) to record our progress. With SOLO the students are learning how to learn, what they have learnt and ‘where to next?’ SOLO taxonomy has been extended in schools by educationalist Pam Hook (Hook Ed),(1) and endorsed by John Hattie and John Biggs (1) as a model that provides different levels of understanding and is powerful for students in, “changing the way they think about their learning outcomes.”(1). Keynote. Our Inquiry wall includes SOLO taxonomy, Inspiration created multistructural Describe map, wonderings and student’s learning. Leonie Bennett @leonie_hastings
Ways to promote learner efficacy Well, as educators there are many possibilities. Digitally we are a 1 to 1 ipad school. The Juniors use ipads to inquire, explore and reinforce their learning. Apps that promote learning can be used independently or, as some prefer, with buddies. Students can learn to code (eg ScratchJnr) as young as 5 years old and inquire (eg Google-teacher/adult monitored) or just share their learning (eg Book Creator, Comic Life, Write about it, Explain Everything apps).
Book Creator app----------------------------------------------- Explain Everything app Sometimes that ‘sparkle’ is needed. Teachers can still teach but it does not have to be boring. Dave Burgess (Teach like a Pirate) (2), has amazing’ hooks’ for learning. He is as inspiring in person as he is an author, because he practises what he says. Not only does Dave do this in his classroom but in his presentations worldwide. He is engaging, motivating and promotes learner efficacy both within his students and his audiences. He asks the question. “If your students didn’t have to be there, would you be teaching to an empty room?”(p58) (2). Leonie Bennett @leonie_hastings
Dave Burgess uses terms such as passion, immersion, rapport, transformation and enthusiasm. These can all be related to learner efficacy. He uses teaching hooks to promote learner efficacy such as mystery bag, kinaesthetic, student directed hook and many more. He asks another question too. If you are a teacher, “are you a lifeguard or a swimmer?” (p14) (2). He also uses other educators’ quotations such as Thomas J Watson. “Would you like me to give you a formula for success? It’s quite simple, really. Double your rate of failure.” (p154) (2). When I think of learner efficacy I also think of Ken Robinson’s book ‘The Element’ (6). He describes the element as, “the place where the things we love to do and the things we are good at come together.”(xiii)(6). There are two main features- aptitude and passion and its conditions are attitude and opportunity. “The sequence goes something like this. I get it, I love it, I want it, where is it?”(p22)(6). There are many more ideas and educators in the field saying and doing amazing things in education, globally and especially in New Zealand. I believe that we, as teachers and educators, have a responsibility to promote nurture and fire up that wonder and sparkle in students. We need to promote learner efficacy in our students as well as encourage and mentor them to be independent, engaged, motivated and achieving learners and leaders of today and for the future.. Thanks to Educators- ( Proof- readers/Mentors)-1.Weston Mark (Ph.D) @ShiftParadigm- USA -2. Salakas Brett @MRsalakas- Australia
Leonie Bennett @leonie_hastings
References Biggs, J.B., & Collis, K.F. (1982).Solo Taxonomy. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from:__http://www.pamhook.com/Solo-taxonomy__(1) Burgess, Dave. (2012). Teach like a Pirate. California,USA. Dave Burgess Consulting, INC. (2) IMDb. (2000). Thomas and the Magic Railroad. Thomas the Tank Engine-Quotes-IMDb. Retrieved July 14, 2016, from: http://www.imd.com>character>quotes (3) Levoy,G.(2015). Author and Speaker. Retrieved July15, 2016, from:__http://www.gregglevoy.com__ (4) Pearson. (2009). Maori Dictionary.Retrieved July 14, 2016, from: http://www.maoridictionary.co.nz (5) Robinson,Ken.(2009). The Element. How finding your passion changes everything.USA. Penguin Books.(6) Tangient , LLC. (2016). The Thinkersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Toolbox. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from:__https://thinkerstoolbox.wikispaces.com/SevenServants__(7) Washington.(2015). Do It. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from:__http://www.washington-edu/doit/what-factors-affect-student-self-efficacy__(8) Wikipedia. (2015). Bob the Builder. Retrieved July 14, 2016, from:__https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob The_Builder__. (9) Wikipedia.(2016). Self Efficacy. Retrieved from : __https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=learner+efficacy&title=Special:Search&fulltext=1&searchToken= 229r26f35vaa82u5xn1577rnl__ (10)
Leonie Bennett @leonie_hastings
Another year, another connected educators month 2016, another #EdbookNZ challenge to connect with others. Another opportunity to learn – like #edchatNZ MOOC 2016, and FLAT Connections Global Educator project – another opportunity to hack my learning through a blog on effective schools, thank you @vanschaijik. The buzz words of Effective Schools, or highly effective schools, have been around for twenty or so years and it is timely to give these words a prod. After twenty or so years of implementing effectiveness, there has not been a landslide in take-up or in outcomes. And, for some leaders being part of an effective school is engendering a weariness, tedium even victimhood of the politics of it all. It would appear that ultimately the effective schools movement has not changed the learning cultures in our schools, or our mind frames. The Effective Schools movement attempted to define the characteristics of those schools that successfully educated students of all backgrounds, in any community, in any country, by trying to isolate the philosophies, policies and practices that were successful[i]. These characteristics then became models for developing an effective school. These effective school characteristics resulted in school leaders using strategies such as – visioning, strategically planning, goal setting, and inspiring teaching troops to march in the same direction – storming, norming and forming. Dr Wendy Kofoed
Over the years there have been add-ins that have sharpened our thinking on schooling effectiveness. Those working in effective schools are likely to be more intentional, outcomes and data focused, and to better understand the effect of individual teachers. Leadership in these schools would use a distributed leadership model, utilise in-house needs-based professional development, resource schools well, develop safe and effective environments driven by high expectations, and have high levels of family and community engagement. In New Zealand, schools and teachers are given large amounts of individualistic autonomy, in other countries external accountability is stronger. Neither end of this spectrum appears to produce more effective schools than the other, with effectiveness seen at both ends of the spectrum. Globally educators in effective schools work long hours, try their best to collaborate and work well as members of the teaching team. Does this sound like your school, if so how might we enhance the model in 2016? When developing an effective school and learning culture, I wonder if we have underplayed the importance of listening to studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; voices. We know that teachers and students are the absolute experts in their own point of view Dr Russ Quaglia. Michael Fullan[ii] argued that the old model of schooling is broken, with traditional hierarchical forms of school organisation needing a major overhaul. He argues that leadership needs to be in the hands of the learners, both teachers and students. It would appear that it is the messiness of learning, the errors or segues or missteps of students and teachers that cause deep learning. Dr Wendy Kofoed
Our learners, both teachers and students need to take action to work together globally, and to focus on important global issues. If we are going to hack our learning, let’s ensure the inquiry is for good purpose (see Fullan’s model @ npdl.global). One way to update the effective school model for 2016 might be to acknowledge the ways we learn and support each other, particularly through individual expression. We know that if we are to make space for learning in our schools then we want constructive dialogue, and we need dissent to push our thinking. If we are taking risks, making mistakes, and asking hard questions, there will be discomfort and possibly conflict, as it is healthy to disagree. Arbitration of dissent can be in various forms, such as an analysis of student outcomes through student voice, possibly those effect sizes John Hattie so loves[iii], or an apology if in a moment of passion we misspeak. Could we celebrate those that show evidence of impact by giving them more autonomy than those who don’t show much growth at all, or is this not collegial behaviour? Do we celebrate those who are making changes in our in our communities of learning, or do we strive to maintain the status quo. We teachers are good at hanging on to interventions, but less comfortable with dropping or changing those strategies that may have less impact. Does, for example, teaching reading by ability groups, common practise in most New Zealand classrooms, work for all students? If we want people to be valued, and feel like they have a voice in the school community, we should be careful how we talk with and about them. If we are good listeners we will allow time for people to know each other. In this way they can listen to each other and learn to trust each other. We will have negotiated and implemented agreements about how to treat and engage with each other, and are each responsible to adhere to these agreements. The value of listening to others is the opportunities it gives to learn. Dr Wendy Kofoed
In an effective school in 2016 there is a belief that there is something to be learned from all in the community. Listening about learning and learners is hard work if done well, it is hard work as a listener not to rush in with opinions or how-to-do-it advice. In order for schooling effectiveness to keep up and move forward there needs to be an emphasis on equitable participation and shared decision-making, so that we do not see inequitable old structures of learning replicated. Through collective action, shared leadership and sense of purpose between students, teachers, leaders, parents, each in their own way, we can steer a true course. A sense of intentionality is essential for a school to be high functioning. By knocking down the outdated walls of school organisation and old hierarchies, supportive and creative environments can be constructed for all learners. How else do we show students, teachers, and parents how important their actions are to the school climate. All stakeholders have a responsibility to make a school effective, valuing the voices of all and making use of their talents and skills is a good place to start. In New Zealand we have a wondrous set of principles and key competencies in our Curriculum, some educators think these are just for students. The attributes of an effective school 2016 are not new, they are outlined in our Curriculum. Maybe it is time to go deeper and utilise these principles, competencies and pedagogies. If these truly underpin all that we do we will challenge ourselves as learners, and our schools will becomes superbly effective. In these superbly effective schools everybody will be learning, learning is shared, and we all work hard to find new ways to mess-up and hack our old learning. Dr Wendy Kofoed
[i] Lezotte, Lawrence W. (2001). “Revolutionary and Evolutionary: The Effective Schools Movement” (PDF). Effective School Products. [ii] http://michaelfullan.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Global-Dialogue-Thinkpiece.pdf [iii] “High-Impact Leadership” by John Hattie in Educational Leadership, February 2015 (Vol. 72, #5, p. 36-40), http://bit.ly/17HMIk8
Dr Wendy Kofoed
The End is Nigh Like a precarious but game-winning Jenga tower, education is the last major industry standing extant. Critics claim the education system is broken and thus that it is ripe, nay, overdue, for disruption. Here in New Zealand, we talk about our “long tail” of underachievement and the inequalities that urgently need addressing. It is common to point to the fact that classrooms today bear little discernible difference to the classrooms of 50, 100, even 150 years ago…
Photo “The End is Nigh!” by Mikey, CC BY 2.0
We also know what has happened to other industries that have failed to adapt and evolve. Frequently cited examples include: your local video store, Kodak, print newspapers. These have become the cautionary tales of the modern world: warning us of what happens if we arrogantly deem ourselves non-disruptable. We argue that now we live in a world of hyper-change. Moore’s law is regarded as immutable as a law of nature, and consequently our societies are rapidly, exponentially, unfathomably changing – primarily due to technology.
CC BY-SA 3.0 (Wikimedia Commons)
CC-BY-SA-2.0-CA (Wikimedia Commons)
Philippa Nicoll Antipas @AKeenReader
Again, frequently cited examples include: ● Uber ● Airbnb ● Netflix ● Self-driving cars ● Watson ● Pokémon Go (already passé?) If we aren’t careful the robots will have our jobs, we will have created our own unemployment crisis, and the planet will be frying under human-created or -accelerated climate change. (But on the plus side, we will have world-wide WiFi.) The only logical conclusion is that education needs to be disrupted in face of this uncertain, unknowable, unpredictable and technologically-advanced future. Our current students will go into jobs that haven’t yet been created. Right? Woah. Can we just push pause on the mania for disruption and think a little bit first. I know the CPUs will get fasterer even as I type so time is of the essence, but I think a little of ‘slow down to hurry up’ might be in order here. Let’s think about ‘disruption’. And let’s think about how we used to use the word in a non-business or technological sense. For example: were you the ‘disruptive’ child in class? The naughty one who prevented others from getting on with their learning? Has your public transport service ever been ‘disrupted’, but no need for panic because normal service will resume shortly? Inconvenient, but the status quo will re-set. Does your city or town plan road works over night in order to minimise “disruption”? Rather thoughtful of them, isn’t it? How have we come to a place where we believe that if something isn’t working that nothing less than total annihilation – read disruption – is required? Why do we champion disruption? I’ve been wondering about the purpose of those ‘all hail the mighty disruption’ speeches, and can’t help but suspect a motive of whipping up panic and stoking the fires of fear about an uncertain and unknowable future where we must “disrupt or be disrupted”. Nothing less than a completely radical metamorphosis is needed. The alternative is extinction. Oblivion. Philippa Nicoll Antipas @AKeenReader
Linker (2014) Sometimes, I concur, these speakers offer solutions. But I similarly urge suspicion of the silver bullet. Teach all children coding! Follow a STEM (or STEAM) curriculum! Be agile and teach entrepreneurship – real skills for a productive and employable life! Design thinking is where it’s at! If we accept the premise that education is so fundamentally broken that nothing less than complete and utter destruction – sorry disruption – is needed, how will a one-trick pony fix it? So. Let’s pause and think. What’s it like to be the disrupted? How does ‘disruption’ position people? Metaphors I’ve observed include the dinosaur. This is an image that fits well with the rhetoric of disrupt or die. It is the dinosaur’s own fault for not adapting to exponentially different times, so they became extinct. That’ll learn ‘em. ‘Dinosaur’ handily connotes age here too. Who is the dinosaur in your staffroom? The older person who doesn’t / won’t / can’t get on board with an initiative, one often involving technology? Thought so. Digital immigrant? Can’t even get a passport let alone a visa. What about the ‘resistor’? Not the piece of science equipment from the lab, but the people who resist change initiatives, often the ones involving technology. They can be identifiable by their big buts. You know, as in: “I would, but…”; “We tried that five years ago, but…”; “But the parents…” They are the naysayers, the ones with every excuse as to why they can’t, they shouldn’t, and why it wouldn’t work even if they did. Because the resistors actively resist the nifty initiatives dreamed up to prevent them from becoming irrelevant, we give ourselves permission to ride roughshod over their concerns. We feed the hungry, we don’t bother with watering the stones. Philippa Nicoll Antipas @AKeenReader
Very similar to the resistors are the “laggards”. These people languish at the bottom of Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations bell curve:
They are the last to know, the un-networked, the ostriches. Chicken Little, at least, knew the sky was falling. The laggards wouldn’t know about the planned initiative because they can’t log into their emails to read about it. They’re clicking their red pens and surreptitiously marking when the principal stands up to talk about in the Monday afternoon staff meeting. That’s if they didn’t skip out of the meeting entirely, citing a doctor’s appointment. Right? CC BY 2.5, Pnautilus, Wikipedia These are among the labels we use to categorise and stereotype people who don’t believe as we do and won’t blindly endorse our plans. So much easier to complain about them en masse when we lump them into a group like this. The labels become shorthand and in doing so, we lose sight of the individual: their beliefs, their thoughts, their hopes, their fears, and their stories in which they are the hero. And who are we to do this? Nobody starts their day by deciding to be incompetent. It takes a rare individual indeed who wakes up wanting to be disrupted. Do we use the word ‘disruption’ to threaten because cajoling has failed?
Philippa Nicoll Antipas @AKeenReader
So, what if, instead of the dystopian zombie apocalypse stories of ‘disrupt or be disrupted’, we could agree that the future is (truism alert) fundamentally unknowable:volatile, uncertain, complex, ambiguous, and see what human-centred, inclusive frameworks we could employ to help actively shape the future rather than be frightened into passively accepting our robot overlords? Frameworks like: Design Thinking, Timperley, Kaser and Halbert’s Spiral of Inquiry,Snowden’s Cynefin framework with its safe-to-fail experiments. Tools for thinking, not recipes for radical metamorphosis. Human-centred rather than top-down. Honouring the stories and the roles people play as the experts of their own lives. Inclusive: embracing of diversity and genuinely seeking to hear the voices of the unheard. Asking new, different, difficult questions. Seeing the system and exploring how we might influence it in a desired direction. This kind of approach is respectful, empathetic. It does not mean that it is easy nor that it may not result in difficult, evolutionary changes. But it is collaborative and consensual. Empowering. Agentic. It is measured and thoughtful. And it might just create the kind of ethical, creative citizenry I personally want for the world, how about you? Beware disruption and its horsemen. Shall we have a transformative evolution instead? After all, the future is nigh. Acknowledgements and Sources: ● Pete Hall ● Annemarie Hyde ●
Alexander, L. (2016, January 11). Why isn’t it enough to add an important innovation to a space that sorely needs it? The Guardian. Retrieved fromhttps://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jan/11/disruption-silicon-valleys-buzzword Linker, J. (2015, June 23). Disrupt or be disrupted. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/06/23/the-disruption-machine
Philippa Nicoll Antipas @AKeenReader
The Beauty of Data-driven Pedagogy The British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli was once believed to have said: "there are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics." Having said this, one must bear in mind that he was indeed a politician. But what if he was right? As part of #EdBookNZ, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been asked by Sonya van Schaijik to do a guest blog on data-driven pedagogy. As an English teacher, at first, I thought she was joking. However, after a decent period of contemplation, I started to realise just how effective pedagogy-in-play can be when it is data-driven. In reality, I believe we often use data-driven pedagogy more often than not and certainly more often than maybe we realise. In thinking of my practice, I do in reality use data a lot of data to guide the learning in my Year 11 English class, both of the qualitative and quantitative variety. Increasingly, the data I find most beneficial is student-provided, often just-in-time or just-past-time. Increasingly the use of options such as Google Forms and Padlet enables me to get immediate feedback and feedforward from my students when it matters most...now! Furthermore, my students feel that their data, responses put forward are more highly valued when they are recorded as artefacts for future and often further reference. Data now can be created in-class and where need be, change the pedagogy-in-play in the moment to student and teacher benefit. The use of immediate data in this context can also allow for legitimate bonafide and evidenced-based allowances for student agency, collaboration and self-regulation. Stuart Kelly @StuartKellyNZ
In my opinion, today’s best data for classroom purposes is of the formative over the summative kind. Often the production of appropriate summative data involves too much time-lag and often only becomes into existence way beyond the time of need. I know by looking at attendance and student usage of Google Docs etc. immediately how engaged my students truly are and on what. The in-time data also allows me to ensure that where possible, student preference is catered for and resourcing can be directed to where it is most needed. In 2016, we have potential access to more learning data than ever before, thus raising the possibility of “paralysis by analysis”. I prefer to think along the lines of Nike and “just do it.” Teachers can have a tendency to check, check and then recheck data before using it as a stimulus for action. The obvious danger here is that teachers end up doing the right thing for the right students but at the wrong time. The need for evidenced-based action alongside the need for prompt action does raise a significant potential conflict not only between the head and the heart but also between administrators and teachers. A balance point needs to be found between action that quickly responds to students’ learning needs while simultaneously of sound evidential backing. It is essential teachers have the empowerment and confidence to take risks, but they, however, must be risks qualified to some extent by valid data. The rise of analytics in education as a significant off-offshoot of traditional numerical research has not only enabled teachers to be better informed in their thinking and actions but also regarding the access to the sought-after data. A case in my point in my school since we went GAFE is that all student resources and associated statistics are available via the GAFE Admin portal. Stuart Kelly @StuartKellyNZ
In a matter of seconds, I can see what teachers are productively suing our Wi-Fi, the highest users of Youtube (for example) and what possible Wi-Fi access points may need reconfiguration for student and teacher benefit. As much as possible, I share this information with the staff. I know some staff get a little frustrated every time I spot a pic of our 300Mb download speed and equivalent upload ability. Nevertheless, the reason I do this is to ensure that any claims of lack of Wi-Fi access impeding student learning in a certain classroom are fair and valid. Cuban, Kirkpatrick, and Peck (2001) give a wonderful illustration of the above scenario where they found numerous examples of the distinct difference between the tech availability and actual tech use for learning. As Haberman (2001) notes, data-driven pedagogy also enables teachers to be acutely aware of what they can influence regarding teaching and learning and what is beyond their control. Every teacher knows that what happens to students for the two-thirds of the day they are not in school has a huge impact on what is achievable in school time. This data is not about pre-establishing a set of excuses for any aspect of poor or lower academic achievement. What it does mean is that to be forewarned is to be forearmed. If teachers are fully aware of what students are entering the classroom with, they can be highly responsive in terms of individualised learning and academic pathways. It also enables teachers to as much as possible match the student learning with the student life outside of school. Ladson-Billings (1995) concurs adding that sound and sustainable culturally responsive pedagogy is only really possible when we have clear, legitimate and triangulated data for each and every student. Although the edtech transformation of schools has enabled teachers and students to obtain crystal-clear and timely data, the reality is that this information was always accessible in less-tech days. For many years, the best data I have ever received to inform my pedagogy-in-play has come from asking my students three questions: What should we keep doing in this class? What should we stop doing? What should we start doing? Stuart Kelly @StuartKellyNZ
Today I use anonymous Google Forms to obtain this most desired data from the ones that really count in the classroom; my students. Often I do not necessarily like what the data is telling me, but it is however what I need to know. In my experience, the more students are encouraged to provide data about their learning, the more honest and engaged they become. This is even more so when they not only see that they are being heard but that changes in their learning space reflect their expressed educational needs. Fundamentally it is now non-negotiable for teachers to be effective interpreters and applicators of educational data for pedagogical purposes. Without such an existence, teachers run the risk of misusing time, resources and student faith. We do not necessarily need to even generate the data ourselves anymore. It is now, however, a necessary need for us to think, reflect and where applicable, modify the learning via the data for student benefit. If youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re stuck with where to start, ask your students. Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll give you data on the learning and do so rather directly. Just ask. â&#x20AC;&#x2039;References Cuban, Larry, Heather Kirkpatrick, and Craig Peck. "High access and low use of technologies in high school classrooms: Explaining an apparent paradox."American educational research journal 38.4 (2001): 813-834. Haberman, Martin. "The pedagogy of poverty versus good teaching." Phi Delta Kappan 73.4 (1991): 290-294. Ladson-Billings, Gloria. "Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy."American educational research journal 32.3 (1995): 465-491.
Stuart Kelly @StuartKellyNZ
Is it the end for books and pencils? As part of the #EdbookNZ challenge for connected educators month 2016, I have been kindly asked by Sonya Van Schaijik to blog about a topic in education. This year the topic is buzzwords in teaching. So after much thought I have chosen the buzzword of 'adaptive technologies' to see how it really stacks up against my most favourite of words - evidence.
Our world is experiencing an evolution in adaptive technologies. Adaptive technologies are systems that adapt to us as individuals. Such systems are ubiquitous like using the smartphone app Didi Chuxing to hail a cab here in China. So with the spread of adaptive technologies, it is not surprising that they are increasingly found in education. At present, the standard classroom is still like the one below, the teacher standing at the front transmitting the same content to all students at the same time. Dr Michael Harvey @Doctor_Harves
However, there are now new perceived demands for personalized learning. It is argued that such a massive increase in the demand for such education may only be met with technology (National Science Foundation Task Force on Cyber-learning (2008). However, it can also be suggested that personalised learning is just an merely an upgrade of the automation processes prevalent in education since Victorian times.
One of the major hallmarks of adaptive technology is big data. This allows in the view of supporters, a number of opportunities including enabling educators to capture the beneďŹ ts of diverse learning environments and the use of techniques such as data mining and machine learning to expand our understanding of learning as a basis for guiding more effective pedagogy. However, detractors also point out problems. For example, although the data gathered can investigate relationships among variables, they do not usually include context. Additionally, the ownership of and access to data is complicated (OfďŹ ce of Science and Technology Policy, 2012). Finally, the gathering of information on individual students raises privacy concerns (Nissenbaum, 2010; Pitman & McLaughlin, 2000; Glenn, 2008).
Dr Michael Harvey @Doctor_Harves
One of the major hallmarks of adaptive technology is big data. This allows in the view of supporters, a number of opportunities including enabling educators to capture the beneﬁts of diverse learning environments and the use of techniques such as data mining and machine learning to expand our understanding of learning as a basis for guiding more effective pedagogy. However, detractors also point out problems. For example, although the data gathered can investigate relationships among variables, they do not usually include context. Additionally, the ownership of and access to data is complicated (Ofﬁce of Science and Technology Policy, 2012). Finally, the gathering of information on individual students raises privacy concerns (Nissenbaum, 2010; Pitman & McLaughlin, 2000; Glenn, 2008). So with these issues surrounding privacy now in mind, let us now consider the track record of technology implementation in education. The introduction of computers to the classroom has been well-supported and sometimes even successful. Resistance runs deep in our profession and the push to equip students with digital devices has met with resistance. In the context of the traditional classroom, internet-connected devices risk distracting from traditional learning. A recent OECD study found that the students who spent most of their time on computers, performed worse than their peers in standardized testing. The OECD report concluded that: “adding 21st century technologies to 20th century teaching practices (emphasis added) will just dilute the effectiveness of teaching” So it is tempting, as educators, to dismiss the whole trend as the latest fad, destined to upset curricula and enrapture education ministers for a few years until the next fad comes along. But there is one reason why adaptive learning might prove an exception. In at least some contexts, it may work. Take for example, a once-struggling middle school in South Carolina, that credits adaptive technology for boosting test scores, student engagement, and even teacher attendance.
Dr Michael Harvey @Doctor_Harves
However, a few success stories is not yet convincing, especially when considering that the technology may enable a traditional education system that may no longer be fit for purpose. Furthermore, a look back at the history of educational technology shows a path that is littered with failed efforts to automate the teaching process. Adaptive technology isn’t quite there yet with controlled studies of its efficacy yielding at best, conflicting results. As an example, the effectiveness of adaptive algebra software, developed at Carnegie Mellon University has been closely studied, and in some settings it has appeared to substantially boost students’ performance. Yet a 2010 review of the research found “no discernible effects” on high school students’ test scores. Proponents of adaptive technology looks at these results and conclude that properly implementing the technology simply requires an adjustment period on the part of the students, the teachers, or both. Then you’ll be rewarded with significant improvements in learning. As Carnegie Learning co-founder Ken Koedinger puts it: “So far in educational technology, we’re in the Model T stage.” Opponents look at educational technology’s track record as a whole and sees something different: a long history of big promises and underwhelming results. Audrey Watters, a vocal critic of educational technology states: “The research is quite mixed: Some shows there is really no effect when compared to traditional instruction; some shows a small effect. I’m not sure we can really argue it’s an effective way to improve education.”
Dr Michael Harvey @Doctor_Harves
Stephen Laster, McGraw-Hill Education's digital officer is adamant that the teacher is still irreplaceable. “We think education is inherently social, and that students need to learn from well-trained and well-versed teachers. But we also know that that time together, shoulder-to-shoulder, is more and more costly, and more and more precious.” In this view, the role of adaptive technology is to automate more of education allowing the teacher to focus on what humans do best. How much you can automate, depends on what you’re teaching. In maths, the objectives are easily measurable. Students need to be able to correctly solve problems with just one correct answer. If they can do that, they’ve mastered the material.
So an adaptive technology focused on skills, practice, and mastery is a good fit and you can see if it is effective by seeing how many learners have achieved a measurable number of questions right. In this case, adaptive technology does allow students can see right away what they’ve got right and wrong. So far, so good, but what happens when you have a class where the questions are something like, “What would Oscar Wilde think of Instagram?”
Dr Michael Harvey @Doctor_Harves
There are other downsides, too. I had two students who were in the same class, but they couldn’t use the same book because everyone has to have their own login code This last point is symbolic of a deeper problem with personalized learning: It treats learning as a solo endeavour.
Think of two different classrooms. One in New Zealand, where you have students, struggling quietly at their devices solving a physics problem. In the second which I see in China, a group of students are huddled around a textbook, working their way through the same problem. They may well have come into the class with different skill levels. However, because they were all assigned the same page numbers and exercises at the same time, they can learn together, helping and correcting one another as they go. The collaborative process by which they solve a problem involves a different kind of adaptive learning. One in which humans adapt to one another, rather than waiting for software to adapt to them. The speed and apparent efficacy of today’s adaptive technology can mask deeper limitations. MIT digital learning scholar Justin Reich argues in a blog post for Education Week “computers are good at assessing the kinds of things—quantitative things, computational things—that computers are good at doing. Which is to say that they are good at assessing things that we no longer need humans to do anymore.” The inference is that adaptive technology won’t teach learners the underlying skills that they’ll need to tackle complex, real-world problems. More importantly, it won’t prepare them for a future in which rote jobs are increasingly done by computers. Dr Michael Harvey @Doctor_Harves
So, let’s for the sake of argument, say that adaptive technology already works, we can take a classroom of students with different experiences and teach them all a well-defined set of objectives. Let’s state that adaptive technology will excel where the mastery of skills can be assessed through multiple choice or short-answer quizzes. Let’s further assume that the predictive algorithms will continue to evolve, the data will grow more robust, the content will continue to improve, and teachers will get better at integrating it into their classrooms.
Where I grow uneasy is at the point. At a time when schools face cost cutting and intense pressure to boost students’ achievement rates, it’s easy to imagine choosing adaptive technology at the expense of us, the human teachers. This also might drive out those teachers who resist the push to rebuild their classes and teaching styles to suit the technology. To see the possible implications, consider the following research. Students were asked the following question: “There are 125 sheep and five dogs in a flock. How old is the shepherd?” My concern is that adaptive technology might train generations of students to become ever more efficient at applying rote memorisation without ever learning to critique and challenge what is being taught. So perhaps adaptive technology will be a false step on the path to a better learning. But there’s also a risk in marking a step wrong too early. It would be a mistake, in criticizing today’s educational technology, to romanticize the status quo. Ideally, we'll find ways to make use of a promising new technology without turning our students into sheep, which even as a teacher from New Zealand is not a good thing.
Dr Michael Harvey @Doctor_Harves
References: Glenn, D. (2008). Huge databases offer a research goldmine and privacy worries. Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(35), A10. National Science Foundation Task Force on Cyber-learning. (2008). Fostering learning in a networked world: The cyber-learning opportunity and challenge. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. Nissenbaum, H. (2010). Privacy in context: Technology, policy, and the integrity of social life. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. Pitman, J. and McLaughlin, B. (2000). Making cyberspace safe for children. Educational Leadership, 67(6), 67-71.
Dr Michael Harvey @Doctor_Harves
Creative Commons Attribution
Cultural Responsiveness - Not Just A Tick Box “Cultural responsiveness” is one of those terms: if you gathered a whole pile of current Ministry of Education documents and put them through the word cloud mincer, “cultural responsiveness” would stick out of the group like a neon billboard.
I’ve just processed the Education Review Office’s School Evaluation Indicators (July 2016) and naturally, it’s right up there like today’s special. And it needs to be. We only have to look at the news apps to see the conflicts world wide, even in this enlightened age, which are about cultural conflict. Aotearoa New Zealand too. We are still working through issues in New Zealand that began when Captain Cook and his crew landed in New Zealand and a party was slaughtered in a cove in the Marlborough Sounds because their actions were insulting to the host people. The problem is, that our need to identify with a group is, if not innate, then certainly nurtured in our early experiences of life. We look for similarities, and for the most part, we do our best to be accepted by a group of humans who speak, act and think along the same lines. Even the non-conformists are conforming to the group of other non-conformists.
Annemarie Hyde @mrs_hyde
Captain Cook - portrait in public domain
The problem we are finding though, is that the group known as “New Zealand education” has been recognised as being too based in Western European culture. An effect of this is seen to be underachievement in New Zealand’s indigenous Māori people because they don’t recognise their own culture in the content and pedagogy of the classrooms they attend. I’ll mention - but not spend much time on - the issues New Zealand educators also see as having an effect: the effects of poverty. Yes, it is a vicious cycle leading to more disadvantaged Māori; we know that we can’t engage students who are more worried about Maslow’s pyramid than Bloom’s. The deficit thinking that has been blamed for Māori underachievement is documented in archives quoted in a parliamentary paper from the Auditor General’s office (2012). Older Māori have anecdotes of being disciplined for using their own language at school; indeed, a national policy discouraged its use. Even earlier, the missionaries saw the “anglicising” of Māori children and their communities as a way of becoming less like heathens and therefore closer to God. A report from 1862 has a school inspector reflecting the belief at the time that: "a refined education or high mental culture" would be inappropriate for Māori because "they are better calculated by nature to get their living by manual than by mental labour" (Auditor General’s paper). In 1915, it is noted that Māori were discouraged from entering “learned professions” and even as late as 1960, the Hunn Report saw integration into the Western system as the key, leading to a huge reduction in Māori speakers. This attitude to original culture was engaged by all non-English immigrants of the time; as a child of the sixties with a Dutch parent and extended family who emigrated to New Zealand, I know none of my ancestors’ language. It was more important to be accepted by the dominant white New Zealand, English speaking culture.
Annemarie Hyde @mrs_hyde
Only three years later, the Currie Report highlighted Māori underachievement. From that point on, researchers and education initiatives have battled to reverse a well embedded deficit model of education that has hampered many Māori students. So back to 2016. The mistakes of two preceding centuries continue. The attitudes, though we hate to admit to it, continue. I live in Rotorua, a city regarded by many, to be the heartland of Māori culture. Daily I hear the mispronunciation of Māori language, even by educators I work with, who have the best intentions. Take the word “whānau.” I remember a Māori colleague in the late 1980s, at another school in a town not far from here, who stood up and chastised our principal for not only mispronouncing the school’s name, but for saying “far-now” when the word is “far-know”. I cringe when I listen to a principal in a Ministry video talking about the work his school has done to link with their “far-now”. Other people are quite blatant in their determination to use English vowel sounds; I continually have to explain myself and stand up for the Māori vowels, even with members of my own family. And they should know better. My name, originating from European ancestors, has a pronounced “e” in the middle that should result in four syllables but is often given three and a hyphen. I empathise completely with those Māori who think others are either not listening or don’t care enough to remember. Then there is the principal who just wanted to rename me Heidi, as that was easier. How many of our Asian students have changed their names for similar reasons? My name is my identity. I was named after two people: my paternal grandmother and a Swiss caregiver my mother had as a child, who she was very fond of. My name reminds me of my heritage.
Annemarie Hyde @mrs_hyde
Language is identity. That’s why it is so important that Māori learners see and use it. And that schools embrace it. But the danger is in thinking that having a bit of Māori language on the whiteboard is enough. Culture goes deeper. Language is a key but in order to be responsive to culture we need to do a lot more. The second thing is to take heed of the that other key competency, “relating to others.” As Hipkins et al remind us, relating to others is much more than paying lip service to another group, it’s about delving deeply into the understandings, attitudes, values and beliefs, in order that we can walk alongside this group and not judge them according to our own cultural lens. For example, Māori themselves, do not regard themselves as one group called “Māori.” In Rotorua, mistakes were made even recently, by well meaning folk, who dealt with the wrong haukāinga or sub-tribe; there are many such groups even in our city, and their particular stories, links and ties to the land must be acknowledged. The third thing to acknowledge is that it is important to listen to the voice of that haukāinga. Our haukāinga, Te Roro o Te Rangi is having a greater voice and agency, in our school: sitting on the Board of Trustees, and in appointing teachers, in the creation and in the gifting of a school pepeha, our cultural umbilical cord to our place. One of our haukāinga talked about our tamariki (children) as the tamafreakies, who need to know they are connected and that they belong in our school. I love the analogy of that cultural umbilical cord, a strong image in much of our indigenous culture. I’ve talked about the deficit model that has injured Māori student achievement from the mid nineteenth century. Our propensity is to generalise cultural beliefs into a formulaic interpretation of all members of that culture. While we do have a need to identify with a group, we also, as humans, enjoy being identified as individuals.
Annemarie Hyde @mrs_hyde
What I’m questioning are three things: Can we in fact be culturally responsive when our lens is so coloured by our own upbringing? New Zealanders who can’t pronounce vowels correctly and use English pronunciation, and judge manners on their own often English tradition? Are we being responsive to the individual needs of students or paying lip service to what we see as an ethno-cultural generalisation? The third, which I’ll suggest now, is can we be culturally responsive when we haven’t got a mandate to change the educational landscape in New Zealand? The ERO School Evaluation indicators suggest that the path to achievement is for students to be self regulating learners. Many teachers battle with that when National Standards have focused our teaching on a narrow set of skills which have been predetermined for all to mean “achiever” or “non-achiever.”
Michael Fullan reminds us that we must “...ensure that you’re not obsessing with targets and assessment in order to make room for the things that really matter in educational transformation." This post is about how jargonistic the term “cultural responsiveness” is - but let’s be fair. If schools are making an attempt to be culturally responsive, let’s acknowledge that they are making an effort.
Annemarie Hyde @mrs_hyde
The New Zealand Practising Teacher Criteria begin with overarching statements assert the rights of all students to have equitable learning outcomes and the importance of the Treaty of Waitangi. Criteria 3 and 10 point to the importance of our bicultural partnership and criterium 9 highlights the need to respond to our diverse learners (ākonga). The question I leave you is one that was posed to me and my senior leadership team by another principal: What is it about your classroom that makes a Māori child - any child - feel welcome? How have you adapted the contexts and pedagogy of the programme and environment of your learning space to make it theirs?
He iti hoki te mokoroa nāna i kakati te kahikatea. The mokoroa (grub) may be small, but it cuts through the Kahikatea (whitepine). Acknowledgements: Thank you to my critical friends, Ximena Aitken, Philippa Antipas and Sonya Van Shaijik for your thoughtful critique. More opinion on cultural responsiveness: By me - Cleaning Our Cultural Lenses June 2016 Gully, Nicole. (October 2016). Engaging Māori students and whānau in future focused education - review of Janelle Riki Ulearn 16 keynote. Retrieved from http://www.events.core-ed.org/ulearn/blog/engaging-m%C4%81ori-students-and-wh%C4%81nau-future-focusededucation
Annemarie Hyde @mrs_hyde
References: Bishop, R, Berryman, M., Cavanagh, T. & Teddy, L. (2009). Te Kotahitanga: Addressing educational disparities facing Māori students in New Zealand. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(5)734–742. Controller and Auditor General. (August 2012) Education for Māori: context for our proposed audit work until 2017. Retreived from http://www.oag.govt.nz/2012/education-for-maori/part3.htm Education Review Office. (July 2016). School evaluation indicators: effective practice for improvement and learner success. Wellington: Crown. Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2),106-116. Hattie, J. (2008). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge. Hipkins, R., Bolstad, R., Boyd, S., & McDowall, S. (2014). Key competencies for the future. New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) Press. Hunn, J. K. (1961). Report on department of Māori affairs with statistical supplement. RE Owen: Government Printer. Macfarlane, A., Glynn, T., Cavanagh, T., & Bateman, S. (2007). Creating culturally-safe schools for Māori students. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 36, 65-76. Ministry of Education. (2011). Tataiako: cultural competencies for teachers of Maori learner. Wellington: Crown.
Annemarie Hyde @mrs_hyde
Robinson, V, HĹ?hepa, M, and Lloyd, C (2009), School leadership and student outcomes: identifying what works and why â&#x20AC;&#x201C; best evidence synthesis iteration, Wellington, page 16. Retrieved from https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/60180/BES-Leadership-Web-updated-fo reword-2015.pd Shaw, S., White, W. & Deed, B. (2013) (Ed.). Health, wellbeing and environment in Aotearoa New Zealand.South Melbourne, Australia:Oxford University Press. Sweeney, Rebbecca. (October 2016). Michael Fullan Keynote: Early lessons from implementing new pedagogies for deep learning. Review. Retrieved from http://www.events.core-ed.org/ulearn/blog/micheal-fullen-keynote-early-lessons-implementing-new-pedag ogies-deep-learning
Annemarie Hyde @mrs_hyde
Ubiquity definition: Everywhereness Ubiquitous Learning: Learning Everywhere
Kerri Thompson @kerriattamatea
Ubiquitous learning is an everywhere AND anytime kinda thing. The idea of ubiquity is now becoming ubiquitous! New technology has created these new possibilities. Most of us now have the capability of navigating this ‘u-space’ using a variety of device types. As we do this we can build on the knowledge we already have and create our own personalised understanding using the information we find and from the people we learn with. Not only do we have the ability to find and share information but we can now create new things with what we have learnt. During ULearn16 Derek Wenmoth shared this … making the ‘everywhereness’ even more omnipresent!
I liked this idea of ‘snack learning’ … quick short bites into learning when we can grab a moment!
Kerri Thompson @kerriattamatea
I am part of a Ubiquitous Learning Environment (ULE) (Nair, U. 2015). Twitter provides the best professional development anywhere and anytime on anything I am curious about. Google+ is another environment I belong to which provides personalised learning – right there! The Virtual Learning Network (VLN) yet another platform for following and contributing to conversations of interest. Facebook has me learning alongside people and groups I choose to connect with. Voxer has loads of potential and a platform I am beginning to use with my learners as well as other educators. I follow blogs and participate in webinars. Live-streaming from conferences is also a bonus – PD in the comfort of my own living room! Educamps have been a new thing for me over the last two years; nothing like some face to face connecting with like-minded peeps. BUT … I CHOOSE TO BE part of a ULE.
This got me thinking … just because ubiquitous learning is available, it doesn’t mean everyone is taking advantage of the possibilities a ULE brings. What type of an educator gets themselves into this u-space? The word ‘agency’ comes to mind … the ability and the opportunity to act. But even with ability and opportunity there still must be motivation to do so. So what motivates some people to learn ubiquitously while others choose not to? I think it is a desire to be a life long learner. And what is that? Being a lifelong learner is about continual learning. When the capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known.(http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm). Lifelong learning is a desire for new understanding … a motivation to converse, discuss, and clarify wonderings through networking. It is a motivation and curiosity to want to ‘find better ways’; for me, a desire to learn how I can design engaging, relevant, and purposeful experiences for the children I am privileged to be with 40 weeks out of a year. Maybe it is about having a curious mindset? And maybe it is about wanting to do better than what was done for me. You know, you’ve heard it before:
Kerri Thompson @kerriattamatea
“Know-how and know-what is being supplemented with know-where” – the ability to find sources of knowledge is seen as more important than the current knowledge itself is the proposal suggested through connectivism. This notion infers that the role of the ‘teacher’ and the place of ‘classrooms’ as we know them should be starting to look much different to the way they have always been. The ‘teacher’ becomes an observer, coach, mentor, and demonstrator – call it a ‘tour guide of learning possibilities’. While the class ‘room’ becomes just one of manyspaces where learning experiences can take place. The ubiquitous nature of learning has meant educators can learn just as much from their Personal Learning Network (PLN) as we can from traditional professional development. “Professional development should not be regarded as an administrative duty, but rather as a career-long endeavor aimed at disclosing the factors that contribute to the success of all students and teachers. Mandatory professional development offered only when it is convenient to administrators has little to offer to teachers.” Gerstein, J. (2015). Being constantly connected is becoming a way of life. For our learners …it has always been a way of life!
Cartoon: retrieved from: https://lizphillipsteaches.wordpress.com/tag/digital-literacy/
Kerri Thompson @kerriattamatea
Many of us are in classrooms with children who have never known a world without the internet. These children have never known a time without smart phones, blogs, wiki’s, and wifi. The learning which can happen ‘informally’ is becoming a significant aspect of these children’s learning experiences. Ubiquitous learning is about these informal learning experiences as well as the formal experiences … in fact Siemen (2004) suggests that formal learning no longer comprises the majority of learning experiences. Dare I suggest … children are likely learning more from informal learning experiences outside of the classroom than they are in school! The ubiquitous nature of learning requires us to make a paradigm shift. Ubiquitous learning is Education 3.0. (Gerstein, J. 2014).
Sketchnote: https://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/?s=ubiquit ous+learning
Education 3.0 is personalised, self-determined, interest-based learning where problem-solving, innovation, and creativity drive education. Where learners are seen as connectors, creators, and constructivists. Ubiquity is about learners creating their own learning journey ANY WHERE / ANY TIME. Where does YOU-BIK-WI-TEE fit into the lives of the children in our classes? Are our youth making the most of the learning available to them anywhere * anytime * anything
Kerri Thompson @kerriattamatea
I think they are … it just may not be the stuff WE think is important to learn. But ubiquity is all about personalising learning isn’t it? Our children are learning all the time … we have to acknowledge their out-of-school, informal learning experiences as just as valid and important as their formal, in-class experiences. But how do we as educators leverage the ubiquitous nature of learning and encourage our children to continue some of their ‘in-class’ learning requirements ‘out-of-class’? Or should their ‘in-class’ experiences start to reflect more of their ‘out-of-class’ experiences? This would be true student-driven learning. I think what matters most is that children learn to love learning; that they have a curious disposition. We don’t all have to be in the same space at the same time learning the same stuff. What is important to some people will be different for others. Are you making the most of the ubiquitous Credit: ITworld/Phil Johnson nature of learning? Are your learners? Gerstein, J. (2014). Experiences in Self-Determined Learning: Moving from Education 1.0 Through Education 2.0 Towards Education 3.0. Retrieved from: https://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com Gerstein, J. (2015) Educators are doin’ it for themselves: creating their own professional development. Retrieved from: https://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com Nair, U. (2015) Understanding and Practicing Capsule Based learning. Retrieved from http://edtechreview.in/ Siemens, G. (2014). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. https://education-2025.wikispaces.com/Ubiquitous+Learning https://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/tag/networked-learning/page/2/ Kerri Thompson @kerriattamatea
Learners as Creators For the 2016 EdBookNZ project, in collaboration with Connected Educators Month, I was approached by Sonya Van Schaijik to write an education focused blog post. This year I am honoured to be representing the student voice within education, something that I am passionate about and have devoted a lot of my time to with Student Chat NZ. The theme for the 2016 #EdBookNZ project is the current buzz words being used within education. I encourage further discussions via comments as these conversations can always be explored in more depth. New Zealand education is in the midst of huge change and I am personally quite excited to see what is going to happen in the near future. Anything can happen. New methods of learning are emerging in classrooms across the country. Project based learning (PBL) is one of them.
PBL is a popular method used with students who are involved in an inquiry. The combination of a student driven project, collaboration with students, staff and partners and real world learning inspires students to explore new knowledge that might not be available in their physical classroom. Working alongside teachers or external partners for a project, students explore questions and use their project to reach out and find the answers themselves. I have divided this post into four key questions so that I can unpack my understanding of Project Based Learning.
James Anderson @jamesanderson
Why are schools turning to Project Based Learning? Schools see the value in PBL for developing deeper learning experiences for their students. For those experiences that go beyond the basic learning content knowledge, but instead give deeper inquiry learning.
Teaching Active Learning
It gives students the opportunity to apply that learning to a situation and then present that understanding to an external audience. PBL has a structure where it creates a strong relationship between a problem and an answer.
Blog Media from Blog Trello
The process provides the challenge to students in that answer their own questions, not answering questions that have been given. This gives students the chance to dive deep and strengthen their understanding of a specific context with the guidance of teachers to guide them in the right direction. That is active and effective learning.
How does Project Based Learning empower students? If students are given a problem that they must find a solution for then that empowers students; more so than if they are told what the answers would be. Students are given the freedom to use inquiry skills and their own personal knowledge to guide them on their learning journey. Thus empowering students. From personal experience I have witnessed the different levels of engagement in learning when students lead their own learning. If there is a real world situation in conjunction with a project, students actually generate their own knowledge and solutions for that situation. When it comes to the process of sharing their learning journey they tell their OWN story of their OWN learning. That is the power of an empowered student. James Anderson @__jamesanderson
Why should students be learning as creators? Young people need to be creators of knowledge, ideas and solutions for our future as mankind. Everything is changing, nothing (or very, very) little in our world will stay the same forever. We need to create in order to be productive successful members of our communities and our planet. With the world constantly changing, more and more problems in our world will emerge. The people of today need to be able to think on their feet and challenge themselves to make a difference in our world. The more inquiry that happens that create ideas for solutions, the better the world will be. By creating ideas for solutions, more meaning can be found in the learning. The outcome of student learning is confidence, complexity and deep thinking. These skills become lifelong that students can use and refer to in their future.
What are my personal views on Project Based Learning? I am actively involved in PBL and use it every week at Hobsonville Point Secondary School as part of our school curriculum. I think that PBL is a powerful learning framework and I believe more schools should be using it because of the powerful partnerships that are formed between students, staff and external collaborative partners. PBL has the structure where students become the teachers just as much as the regular teaching staff. The positive outcome with students from my school is that they are willing to help and guide each other with their projects while still finding the time to manage their own learning. I find that just awesome. PBL is all about sharing your knowledge with others to produce powerful outcomes and to make a difference. James Anderson @__jamesanderson
REFERENCES: Anderson, J. (2016, July 07). Reflecting on HPSS Projects – The blog of a 21st century … Retrieved October 18, 2016, from https://jamesbruceanderson.wordpress.com/2016/07/07/reflecting-on-hpss-projects/ Project Based Learning – Bayshore Community Academy. (n.d.). Retrieved October 18, 2016, from http://www.bayshorecommunityacademy.net/project-based-learning.html Wakeford, S. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from https://twitter.com/wakeford1975 What is PBL? | Project Based Learning | BIE. (n.d.). Retrieved October 18, 2016, from http://www.bie.org/about/what_pbl
Chat for NZ students @stuchatnz
New Zealand students, there is a brand new platform to share your voice! Student Chat NZ is an education and learning focused chat moderated by students for those wanting to question and challenge perspectives of one another! This chat runs fortnightly on twitter each Wednesday at 8:30pm (New Zealand Daylight Time). Previous chat topics include social media in the classroom, the purpose of learning and project based learning.
James Anderson @__jamesanderson
Sonya Van Schaijik
+Sonya Van Schaijik
Philippa Nicoll Antipas
+Philippa Nicoll Antipas