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APPENDICES 

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APPENDIX! '5)$%,).%353%$4/%6!,5!4%42!&&)#02/",%-3 4OIMPLEMENTANEFFECTIVESTRATEGYOFPROPERLYMANAGINGTRAFlCINRESIDENTIALAREAS ITIS IMPORTANTTOIDENTIFYCRITERIAWHICHCANBEUSEDTOSYSTEMATICALLYEVALUATETHEPROBLEM 4HEFOLLOWINGARElVECOMMONLYUSEDFACTORS ORMEASURESOFEFFECTIVENESS SELECTEDTO EVALUATETRAFlCPROBLEMSINRESIDENTIALAREASANDAREDISCUSSEDBELOW

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4HEFUNCTIONANDUSEOFASTREETMUST BEIDENTIlEDBEFOREAPPROPRIATECONTROL MEASURESCANBEEFFECTIVE4HECONTROL MEASUREADOPTEDMUSTBEBASEDONITS EFFECTONTHEOVERALLSTREETNETWORK ADJACENTINTERSECTIONSANDSTREETS AND UPONLOCALDEMANDSOFTHEINTERSECTION

4HERELATIVERISKOFARIGHTANGLECOLLISION ATANINTERSECTIONISBASEDPRIMARILYON THEABILITYOFAPPROACHINGVEHICLESONA COLLISIONCOURSETOTAKEEVASIVEACTION 4HECAPABILITYOFTAKINGTHISEVASIVEACTION ISAFUNCTIONOFAVAILABLEINTERSECTIONSIGHT DISTANCE APPROACHSPEED PAVEMENT CONDITIONANDAPPROACHGRADE

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Usbggjd!Wpmvnf!



!STUDYCONDUCTEDBYTHE&EDERAL (IGHWAY!DMINISTRATIONINDICATESTHAT PERCEIVEDTRAFlCPROBLEMSINRESIDENTIAL AREASVARIESDIRECTLYWITHTRAFlCVOLUMES ANDTHATHEAVYTRAFlCNEGATIVELYAFFECTS THERESIDENTSPERCEPTIONOFTHESTREET ANDNEIGHBORHOOD)TWILLBEIMPORTANT TOHAVERECENTINFORMATIONONTRAFlC VOLUMESOFTHENEIGHBORHOODTOUSE ASANAIDEINDISTINGUISHINGBETWEEN REALANDPERCEIVEDTRAFlCPROBLEMSAND INTHESELECTIONOFEFFECTIVETRAFlC CONTROLMEASURES

Bddjefou!Ijtupsz! !KNOWLEDGEOFTHETYPESANDCIRCUMSTANCES OFACCIDENTSOCCURRINGISIMPORTANTINTHE SELECTIONOFCONTROLMEASURES4HENUMBER ANDTYPEOFACCIDENTSCANBEREADILYUSED TOEVALUATEANEXISTINGSITUATION

Tqffe!Qbuufsot! 3TUDIESHAVESHOWNTHATINCREASESIN SPEEDCANREDUCENEIGHBORHOODQUALITY ANDPROPERTYVALUES6EHICLEAPPROACH SPEEDISANIMPORTANTMEANSOFASSESSING WHATCONTROLSAREAPPROPRIATE%XCESSIVE SPEEDCANBEREDUCEDANDMOREEFFECTIVELY CONTROLLEDIFTRAFlCCONTROLMEASURESARE APPROPRIATELYINSTALLED


APPENDIX" 42!&&)#-!.!'%-%.402/'2!-4//,3

 

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Dvsc!Fyufotjpot! Tqffe!Ubcmft /THER-EASURESAND$EVICES

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%DUCATION!WARENESS %NFORCEMENT +EEP+IDS!LIVEn $RIVE3IGN 0ROGRAM



%DUCATION!WARENESS %NFORCEMENT

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2ADAR3PEED$ISPLAY 3IGN0ROGRAM



4HE+EEP+IDS!LIVEn$RIVESIGNPROGRAMWASINTRODUCEDINTOTHE 4OWNASPARTOFTHE.EIGHBORHOOD4RAFlC-ANAGEMENT0ROGRAMIN 4HESIGNSARENOTRECOGNIZEDASANOFlCIALTRAFlCSIGN BUTSERVE ASANAWARENESSDEVICETODRIVERS4HESIGNSAREUSEDONRESIDENTIAL ANDCOLLECTORSTREETSWHERETHEPOSTEDSPEEDLIMITISMPH4HESIGNS AREAREMINDERTODRIVERSTHATTHEYNEEDTORESPECTTHEENVIRONMENT WHENTRAVELINGTHROUGHRESIDENTIALAREAS

2ADARDISPLAYSIGNSAREUSEDINCONJUNCTIONWITHREGULATORYSPEEDLIMIT SIGNSTOAIDINREINFORCINGTHESPEEDLIMIT4HESIGNSCANBEDISPLAYED ONAMOBILETRAILERUNITORPERMANENTLYMOUNTEDONAlXEDPOLEWITHIN ANEIGHBORHOOD4HESEDEVICESWORKWELLFORNEIGHBORHOODSWHERE OTHERTRAFlCCALMINGMEASURESMAYNOTBEAPPROPRIATE

Uzqft! s 4RAILERSTEMPORARY s -OUNTEDPERMANENT



%DUCATION!WARENESS %NFORCEMENT 0OLICE%NFORCEMENT

0OLICEENFORCEMENTUSESTHEPRESENCEOFPOLICEWITHINNEIGHBORHOODS TOMONITORSPEEDSANDISSUECITATIONSFORSPEEDINGANDSTOPSIGNVIOLATIONS 4HISACTIVITYISBESTSUITEDFORNEIGHBORHOODSWITHDOCUMENTEDACCOUNTSOF TRAFlCVIOLATIONPROBLEMSANDINOFNEEDOFIMMEDIATEMITIGATIONMEASURES !REASWITHHIGHERTRAFlCVOLUMESORREPEATEDPATTERNSOFVIOLATIONSAREMORE READILYANDSUCCESSFULLYENFORCED


APPENDIX" Bewboubhft

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Dptu

s -AYREDUCEVEHICLESPEEDS

s 3IGNSARENOTENFORCEABLE

s -AYHEIGHTENDRIVERAWARENESS

s 3IGNSBECOMEPARTOFTHE

s ,OW

LANDSCAPEBACKGROUND OVERTIME

s /VERUSEOFTHESIGNCAN

DECREASEITSEFFECTIVENESS ANDCONTRIBUTETOSIGNBLIGHT

s 2EDUCESVEHICLESPEEDS s 2EINFORCESTHESPEEDLIMIT s %FFECTIVEONBOTHHIGHANDLOW

VOLUMESTREETS

s -AYBECONSIDEREDVISUALLY

s -ODERATETO(IGH

UNATTRACTIVE s 3IGNSCOULDLOSEEFFECTIVENESS

TODRIVERSWITHOVERUSE s (IGHCOSTSFORPERMANENTSIGNS s 5SEOFMOBILETRAILERUNIT

REQUIRESDAILYSTAFlNG s 3HOULDNOTBEUSEDINRURAL

AREASWHEREUNITSMAYBE SUSCEPTIBLETOVANDALISM

s 4ARGETEDENFORCEMENTEFFECTIVE

DURINGPROBLEMATICHOURS s )MMEDIATERESULTSWHENPOLICE

s 4EMPORARYMEASURE s %NFORCEMENTISLIMITED

s -ODERATEn

STAFFTIME

TOPOLICEAVAILABILITY

AREPRESENT




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%DUCATION!WARENESS %NFORCEMENT #OMMUNITY3PEED 7ATCH0ROGRAM



%DUCATION!WARENESS %NFORCEMENT

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3TREET3MARTS0ROGRAM



4HEh6OLUNTEERSIN0OLICEvPROGRAMHELPSPOLICETOENCOURAGETRAFlCSAFETY INNEIGHBORHOODS4HEGOALOFTHEPROGRAMISTOWORKINCOOPERATIONWITH THECOMMUNITYINPROMOTINGVOLUNTARYCOMPLIANCEWITHEXISTINGSPEED LIMITSBYISSUINGCOURTESYLETTERSTODRIVERSOBSERVEDSPEEDINGINRESIDENTIAL AREAS4HEOBSERVATIONSAREMADEBYCERTIlEDVOLUNTEERSWHOSENDALETTER TOTHEDRIVERONBEHALFOFTHE4OWN0OLICE$EPARTMENT

,OCALAGENCIESINTHE3AN2AMON6ALLEYAREARECENTLYJOINEDFORCESTO LAUNCHAREGIONALPUBLICEDUCATIONCAMPAIGNONTRAFlCSAFETYCALLED h3TREET3MARTSv4HEGOALOFTHE3TREET3MARTSCAMPAIGNISTOEDUCATE DRIVERS BICYCLISTSANDPEDESTRIANSONISSUESRELATEDTOTRAFlCSAFETY #OMPONENTSOFTHE3TREET3MARTSCAMPAIGNMATERIALSWILLBEEXPANDED ANDMADEAVAILABLEFORAPPLICATIONINTHE.4-0


APPENDIX" Bewboubhft

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s -AYREDUCEVEHICLESPEEDS

s .OTENFORCEABLEBYCITATION

s -AYHEIGHTENDRIVER

s -AYBECONSIDEREDAN

AWARENESS s 2EQUIRESLIMITEDSTAFFTIME

INVASIONOFPRIVACY s 2EQUIRESSETAMOUNTOFTIME

TOGAINCERTIlCATION

Dptu s -ODERATEn

STAFFTIME COORDINATING VOLUNTEER EFFORTS

s !VAILABILITYBASEDON

VOLUNTEERSWILLINGNESS TOPARTICIPATE

s -AYREDUCEVEHICLESPEEDS

s .OTENFORCEABLEBYCITATION

s -AYHEIGHTENDRIVERAWARENESS

s 2EQUIRESTIMEFORBRAND

RECOGNITIONANDAWARENESS

s -ODERATETO

(IGHn STAFFTIME MARKETINGAND MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT




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3TOP3IGNS





4RAFlC#ONTROL 0AVEMENT-ARKINGS

3PEEDLIMITSIGNSAREREGULATORYDEVICESUSEDTOINFORMMOTORISTSOFA MAXIMUMSPEEDLIMITIMPOSEDANDENFORCEDBYTHEGOVERNINGAGENCY -ULTIPLEPOSTINGSOFSPEEDLIMITSCANBEEFFECTIVEIFPLACEDAPPROPRIATELY WITHINNEIGHBORHOODS

3TOPSIGNSAREUSEDTOASSIGNRIGHTOFWAYATINTERSECTIONS4HEYAREONEOF THEMOSTEFFECTIVETRAFlCCONTROLDEVICESWHENUSEDAPPROPRIATELY(OWEVER WHENSTOPSIGNSAREUSEDTOOFREQUENTLYORATLOCATIONSWHEREASSIGNING VEHICLEORPEDESTRIANRIGHT OF WAYISNOTNECESSARY THESIGNSCANLOSETHEIR EFFECTIVENESSANDTHERESPECTOFDRIVERS4HEUSEOFSTOPSIGNSISALSONOT INTENDEDFORREGULATINGTHECONTROLOFVEHICLESPEEDS3TOPSIGNINSTALLATIONS MUSTMEETASPECIlEDSETOFCRITERIAREFERREDTOAShWARRANTSv 

0AVEMENTMARKINGSINFORMDRIVERSOFROADWAYUSEINTHEFORM OFCENTERLINES BIKELANES SHOULDERSTRIPES ANDLEGENDS 4HEUSEOFCENTERLINESANDSHOULDERSTRIPESONRESIDENTIALSTREETS CREATESANARROWINGEFFECTWHICHCANRESULTINREDUCEDVEHICLE SPEEDS4HEUSEOFPAVEMENTMARKINGSINRESIDENTIALAREASMUST BEAPPROPRIATEFORTHECONDITIONSOFTHESTREETANDCOMPLYWITH STANDARDTRAFlCENGINEERINGPRACTICES

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APPENDIX" Bewboubhft s $ISPLAYSDElNITIONOFTHE

LEGALSPEEDLIMIT s 0ROVIDESENFORCEMENT

JUSTIlCATION

Ejtbewboubhft s /VERUSEOFSIGNSCAN

Dptu s ,OW

CONTRIBUTETOSIGNBLIGHT ANDLOSSOFEFFECTIVENESS TODRIVERSOVERTIME s 3IGNSDONOTENSURE

RESPONSIBLEDRIVING BEHAVIORS s /N GOINGMAINTENANCE

COSTS

s !SSIGNSRIGHTOFWAY

ATINTERSECTIONS s )NCREASESOPPORTUNITY

FORPEDESTRIANCROSSINGS s 0OSSIBLYREDUCES

CUT THROUGHTRAFlC

s #ANINCREASETRAFlCNOISE

s ,OW

ANDPOLLUTION s -AYCREATEAFALSESENSE

OFSECURITYTOPEDESTRIANS s -AYREDISTRIBUTELOCATION

OFSPEEDING s 5NWARRANTEDORNUMEROUS

STOPSIGNSMAYINCREASE STOPVIOLATIONS s !DDED0OLICEENFORCEMENT

RESPONSIBILITIES

s 2E ENFORCESLANEDESIGNATIONS

PARTICULARLYONCURVES s .ARROWINGEFFECTOFSTREET

MAYRESULTINREDUCEDSPEEDS s 0ROVIDESREmECTIVITYFOR

s -AYBECONSIDERED

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AESTHETICALLYDISPLEASING INSOMENEIGHBORHOODS s -AYLIMITON STREETPARKING s 2OUTINEMAINTENANCECOSTS

IMPROVEDNIGHTVISIBILITY s #URBMARKINGS.O0ARKING

:ONES INCREASEVISIBILITYAT THECORNERSOFINTERSECTIONS FORDRIVERSANDPEDESTRIANS




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Uzqft! s 3PEED(UMPSASPHALT s 3PEED,UMPSASPHALTnWHEELRUTSCUTINTHE

CENTERFOREMERGENCYVEHICLES

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s 3PEED#USHIONSRUBBERCOMPOSITEMODULES



3PEED,UMP


APPENDIX" Bewboubhft s 2EDUCESVEHICLESPEEDS s -AYREDUCETRAFlCVOLUMES s 3ELF ENFORCING s -AINTENANCEFREE

Ejtbewboubhft s 0OSSIBLEINCREASEIN

TRAFlCNOISE s 0OSSIBLEINCREASEIN

EMERGENCYRESPONSETIMES s -AYBECONSIDEREDVISUALLY

Dptu s -ODERATEFOR

SPEEDHUMPS ANDSPEEDLUMPS s (IGHFOR

SPEEDCUSHIONS

UNATTRACTIVE s 0OTENTIALLYDIVERTSTRAFlCTO

OTHERNEIGHBORHOODS

3PEED(UMP

3PEED#USHION




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4RAFlC#ALMING $EVICES

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2AISED#ROSSWALKS





4RAFlC#ALMING $EVICES -EDIAN%NTRY)SLANDS

4RAFlC#IRCLESARERAISEDMEDIANSPLACEDINTHECENTEROFANINTERSECTION 4HEPURPOSEOFTRAFlCCIRCLESISTOSLOWANDDIRECTTRAFlCTHROUGHAN INTERSECTION4RAFlCCIRCLESAREOFTENSEENWITHLANDSCAPINGINTHECENTER OFTHEISLAND3TOPSIGNSAREUSUALLYUSEDINCONJUNCTIONWITHTRAFlCCIRCLES ALTHOUGHLARGERTRAFlCCIRCLESONSTREETSWITHHIGHERTRAFlCVOLUMESMAYONLY HAVEYIELDSIGNSANDNOSTOPRESTRICTIONS

2AISEDCROSSWALKSAREmAT TOPPEDSPEEDHUMPSBUILTTOFUNCTIONASA PEDESTRIANCROSSING4HECROSSWALKSAREUSUALLYCONSTRUCTEDUSINGBRICK PAVERSORSPECIALPAVINGTEXTURES BUTMARKEDINTHESAMEMANNERAS CONVENTIONALCROSSWALKS2AISEDCROSSWALKSAREAPPROPRIATEINACTIVE PEDESTRIANAREASSUCHASTRAILCROSSINGSANDSHOPPINGCENTERS

-EDIAN)SLANDSARERAISEDAREASINTHECENTEROFTHEROADWAYTHATSEPARATE OPPOSINGLANESOFTRAFlC%NTRY)SLANDSAREUSEDTOCHANNELVEHICLESAND DESIGNATEROADWAYUSEATINTERSECTIONSLEADINGTORESIDENTIALAREAS-EDIAN AND%NTRY)SLANDSNARROWTHEROADWAYWHICHCANREDUCEVEHICLESPEEDS


APPENDIX" !!Bewboubhft s 2EDUCESVEHICLESPEEDS s 6EHICLENOISEISMINIMAL s #REATESAVISUALBREAKONLONG

STRAIGHTSTREETS s #ANADDTOTHEAESTHETICS

OFANEIGHBORHOODIF LANDSCAPED

!!!!Ejtbewboubhft s #OST

!Dptu s (IGH

s #ANINCREASEBICYCLEAND

PEDESTRIANCONmICTSWITHAUTOS s -AYSLIGHTLYAFFECTEMERGENCY

RESPONSETIMES s 2EQUIRESROUTINEMAINTENANCE

ANDIRRIGATIONIFLANDSCAPED s 0OSTEDSIGNAGEISREQUIRED

TOFACILITATETRAFlCmOW

s )NCREASESTHEVISIBILITY

OFPEDESTRIANS

s 0OSSIBLEINCREASE

INTRAFlCNOISE

s 2EDUCESVEHICLESPEEDS

s -AYAFFECTDRAINAGE

s -INIMALEFFECTONEMERGENCY

s 2EQUIRESSUPPLEMENTAL

RESPONSETIMES s 3PECIALLYTEXTUREDCROSSWALKS

CANPROVIDEEXCELLENT AESTHETICVALUES

s .ARROWTRAVELLANESCAN

REDUCEVEHICLESPEEDS s )NCREASESTRAFlCSAFETY

BYDESIGNATINGPROPER LANEUSAGE

s -ODERATE

TO(IGH

SIGNAGEANDSTRIPING s -AYINCREASEEMERGENCY

RESPONSETIMES s 3IGNIlCANTCOSTS

s -AYRESULTINTHEREMOVAL

OFON STREETPARKING

s -ODERATE

TO(IGH

s -AYINTERRUPTDRIVEWAYACCESS

ANDCREATEh5 TURNvACTIVITY s ,ANDSCAPEDMEDIANSREQUIRE

MAINTENANCEANDARENOT POSSIBLEINMANYAREAS




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Uzqft! s "ULB OUTSATINTERSECTIONS s #HOKERSATMID BLOCKLOCATIONS



4RAFlC#ALMING $EVICES

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3PEED4ABLES





4RAFlC#ALMING $EVICES /THER-EASURES AND$EVICES

3PEED4ABLESARERAISEDSECTIONSOFTHEROADWAYTHATSERVEASASLOW POINTFORVEHICLES3PEED4ABLESARESIMILARTOSPEEDHUMPS ONLYTHEY ARELONGERWITHAmATTOP CREATINGACOMPARATIVELYMILDERFEELTO DRIVERS4HEDEVICEMAYBESUITABLEFORHEAVIERVOLUMESTREETSWHERE STANDARDSPEEDUNDULATIONSWOULDBEINAPPROPRIATE3PEEDTABLES CANBECONSTRUCTEDUSINGBRICKOROTHERTEXTUREDMATERIALS

4HEREAREADDITIONALTRAFlCCALMINGMEASURESANDDEVICESTHATCANHAVE SIGNIlCANTIMPACTSONNEIGHBORHOODTRAFlCCONDITIONS(OWEVER THE MAGNITUDEOFTHESEMEASURESCANBEBOTHCONTROVERSIALANDVERYCOSTLY .EIGHBORHOODSTHATPURSUETHESETRAFlCCALMINGMEASURESMUSTHAVE SIGNIlCANTANDAPPARENTTRAFlCSAFETYCONCERNSWHEREMILDERDEVICES WOULDNOTBEAPPROPRIATEOREFFECTIVE%XTENSIVETRAFlCSTUDIESARE REQUIREDANDCERTAINCRITERIAMUSTBEMETINORDERFORANEIGHBORHOOD TOQUALIFYFORSUCHDEVICES

Uzqft! s /NEWAYSTREETS s 3EMI DIVERTERSPARTIALSTREETCLOSURE s &ULLDIVERTERSFULLSTREETCLOSURE s $IAGONALDIVERTERS


APPENDIX" Bewboubhft s 2EDUCESVEHICLESPEEDS s -AYREDUCETRAFlCVOLUMES s "ULB /UTSREDUCEPEDESTRIAN

CROSSINGDISTANCES s -AYADDVISUAL

ENHANCEMENTSTO THENEIGHBORHOOD

s 2EDUCESVEHICLESPEEDS s -INIMALEFFECTONEMERGENCY

RESPONSETIMES s !DAPTABLETOSTREETSWITH

HIGHERTRAFlCVOLUMES s -AYFUNCTIONASACROSSWALK

INCREASINGPEDESTRIANVISIBILITY

s 2EDUCESON STREET

Dptu s -ODERATETO(IGH

PARKINGSPACES s 2EDUCESTRAVELWAY

FORBICYCLISTS s !DDEDMAINTENANCE

COSTSFORLANDSCAPED AREAS

s 0OSSIBLEINCREASE

s -ODERATETO(IGH

INTRAFlCNOISE s -AYAFFECTDRAINAGE s -AYBECONSIDERED

VISUALLYUNATTRACTIVE s 2EQUIRESSUPPLEMENTAL

SIGNAGEANDSTRIPING s 0OSSIBLELOSSOF

ON STREETPARKING

s ,IMITSORDIVERTS

CUT THROUGHTRAFlC s -AYREDUCEVEHICLESPEEDS s ,ANDSCAPEDAREASMAY

ADDVISUALENHANCEMENTS TOTHENEIGHBORHOOD

s -AYREDUCEON STREET

PARKING s ,IMITSNEIGHBORHOOD

ACCESSIBILITY s !DDEDMAINTENANCECOSTS

FORLANDSCAPEDAREAS s $IVERTSTRAFlCTOOTHER

NEIGHBORHOODSAND STREETS POTENTIALLYCREATING ANEWSETOFPROBLEMSFOR OTHERAREASOFTHETOWN

s (IGH

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s #ANBEUSEDATINTERSECTIONS

Ejtbewboubhft




APPENDIX# %.').%%2).'#/.3)$%2!4)/.3

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Ejwfsufe!Usbggjd!



3OMETIMES SUCCESSFULLYCALMINGTRAFlC ONONESTREETMAYRESULTINTHEDIVERSION OFTRAFlCONTOANADJACENTSTREET 4HEFOLLOWINGGUIDELINESAREFOLLOWED INESTABLISHINGIMPACTLIMITATIONON NON PROJECTLOCALSTREETS !NINCREASEOFMORETHANVEHICLES PERDAYASARESULTOFAN.4-0PROJECT ISNOTACCEPTABLEONANYLOCALSTREET REGARDLESSOFITSPRIORVOLUME !NINCREASEOFMORETHANVEHICLES PERDAYASARESULTOFAN.4-0PROJECT ISNOTACCEPTABLEONANYMAJORSTREET

4HERESULTINGTRAFlCVOLUMEON ANYLOCALSTREETSHOULDNOTEXCEED  VEHICLESPERDAY 4HE4OWNHASESTABLISHEDTHESEGUIDELINES FORTHEFOLLOWINGREASONS s

s

s

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NTMP Guidelines Booklet  

Guidelines booklet for the Neighborhood Traffic Management Program (NTMP)

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