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Laurent BLOCH

Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers

INITIATION à la PROGRAMMATION et aux ALGORITHMES > Python < Préface de Jean-François Perrot

2020

Éditions TECHNIP

5 avenue de la République, 75011 PARIS


CHEZ LE MÊME ÉDITEUR • Initiation à la programmation et aux algorithmes avec Scheme L. BLOCH

• Étude de cas en statistique décisionnelle S. TUFFÉRY

• Big Data, Machine Learning et Apprentissage Profond S. TUFFÉRY

• Média Planning J. F. CANGUILHEM, M.P. CUEFF

• Data science par analyse des données symboliques F. AFONSO, E. DIDAY, C. TOQUE

• Data mining et statistique décisionnelle S. TUFFÉRY

• Modélisation prédictive et apprentissage statistique avec R S. TUFFÉRY

• Probabilités, analyse des données et statistique G. SAPORTA

Tous droits de traduction, de reproduction et d’adaptation réservés pour tous pays. Toute représentation, reproduction intégrale ou partielle faite par quelque procédé que ce soit, sans le consentement de l’auteur ou de ses ayants cause, est illicite et constitue une contrefaçon sanctionnée par les articles 425 et suivants du Code pénal. Par ailleurs, la loi du 11 mars 1957 interdit formellement les copies ou les reproductions destinées à une utilisation collective.

© Éditions Technip, Paris, 2020. Site web de l’auteur : https://laurentbloch.net ISBN 978-2-7108-1191-6


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93

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Support externe de mรฉmoire persistante, disque ou SSD, contient les !chiers physiques

Flux de lecture Mรฉmoire

Donnรฉes d'entrรฉe au format SwissProt Donnรฉes de sortie au format Fasta

Flux d'รฉcriture

6B;m`2 8XR , 6Hmt /วถ2Mi`รป2 2i /2 bQ`iB2

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_2+?2`+?2 /B+?QiQKB[m2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X dXRXR S2mi@QM ++รปHรป`2` H `2+?2`+?2 /วถmM รปHรปK2Mi /Mb mM2 HBbi2 \ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X dXRXk H;Q`Bi?K2 /B+?QiQKB[m2 X X X X X X X X X X X X dXRXj JBb2 2M ฦพmp`2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X dXRX9 1M Svi?QM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X *`รป2` /2b i#H2mt /2 MQK#`2b HรปiQB`2b X X X X X X X X h`B T` BMb2`iBQM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X dXjXR Sb2m/Q@+Q/2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X dXjXk h`/mBbQMb 2M Svi?QM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X dXjXj *QKTH2tBiรป X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X h`B T` bรปH2+iBQM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X h`B 7mbBQM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X h`B `TB/2 UZmB+FbQ`iV X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X h`B /Mb H2 ib X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

RRR RRR RRk RRk RRj RRj RR9 RRe RRe RRe RRd RRN Rkk Rk9

_2+?2`+?2 /B+?QiQKB[m2 S2mi@QM ++รปHรป`2` H `2+?2`+?2 /วถmM รปHรปK2Mi /Mb mM2 HBbi2 \

*QKK2Mi +?2`+?2@i@QM mM KQi /Mb mM /B+iBQMMB`2 \ aB H2 KQi +QK@ K2M+2 T` mM2 H2ii`2 /m KBHB2m /2 HวถHT?#2i- QM Qmp`2 H2 /B+iBQMMB`2 p2`b H2 KBHB2mX aB H2 KQi +?2`+?รป 2bi /Mb mM2 /2b /2mt T;2b pBbB#H2b- H `2+?2`+?2 2bi i2`KBMรป2- bวถBH +QKK2M+2 T` mM ;`QmT2 /2 H2ii`2b /2 `M; BM7รป`B2m` ยจ +2mt /2b T;2b pBbB#H2b- QM `2+QKK2M+2 /Mb H2 KQBiBรป Miรป`B2m`2 /m /B+iBQMMB`2bBMQM QM `2+QKK2M+2 /Mb H KQBiBรป mHiรป`B2m`2 /m /B+iBQMMB`2X ยง +?+mM2 /2 +2b รปiT2b- MQmb /BpBbQMb T` 2 H2 MQK#`2 /2 T;2b ยจ 2tTHQ`2` , MQmb /B`QMb [m2 MQi`2 Kรปi?Q/2 /2 `2+?2`+?2 2bi /B+?QiQKB[m2- KQi bpMi TQm` /B`2 ฤฟ +QmT2` 2M /2mt ล€X RRR


*?TBi`2 dX H;Q`Bi?K2b /2 i`B

RRk

*2ii2 Kรปi?Q/2 /2 `2+?2`+?2 bmTTQb2 [m2 H2 /B+iBQMMB`2 bQBi i`Bรป T` Q`/`2 HT?#รปiB[m2- Qm- /2 7รQM THmb ;รปMรป`H2- 2M Q`/`2 H2tB+Q;`T?B[m2 UT`+2 [m2 iQmi2b H2b HM;m2b M2 bวถรป+`Bp2Mi Tb p2+ mM HT?#2iVX LQmb HHQMb รปi2M/`2 +2ii2 Kรปi?Q/2 m T`Q#Hฤ•K2 THmb ;รปMรป`H /2 H `2+?2`+?2 /Mb mM2 HBbi2- TQm` H2[m2H MQmb pQMb KQMi`รป mM2 Kรปi?Q/2 THmb bBKTH2 KBb KQBMb 2{++2 ยจ H b2+iBQM jXj TX 8yX G Kรปi?Q/2 /B+?QiQKB[m2 2bi THmb 2{++2- KBb 2HH2 bmTTQb2 [m2 H HBbi2 Bi รปiรป i`Bรป2 m T`รปH#H2X *วถ2bi TQm`[mQB +2ii2 b2+iBQM TT`ล—i 2M T`รปK#mH2 /m +?TBi`2 +QMb+`รป mt H;Q`Bi?K2 /2 i`B- TQm` T`Q+m`2` mM2 B/รป2 /2 H2m` miBHBiรป 2i /2 H2m` BKTQ`iM+2X

dXRXk H;Q`Bi?K2 /B+?QiQKB[m2 oQB+B HวถH;Q`Bi?K2 /2 `2+?2`+?2 /B+?QiQKB[m2 [m2 MQmb MQmb T`QTQbQMb /วถmiBHBb2` TQm` +?2`+?2` mM2 pH2m` /Mb mM2 HBbi2 T`รปH#H2K2Mi i`Bรป2X H;Q`Bi?K2 , ` 2 + ? 2 ` + ? 2 n / B + ? Q i Q K B [ m 2 .QMMรป2 / วถ 2 M i ` รป 2 , p 2 + i 2 m ` i ` B รป h 2i p  H 2 m ` p _ รป b m H i  i , MmKรป`Q /Mb H  H B b i 2 - Qm 7  m t b B p  # b 2 M i T2iBi 4 y ;`M/ 4 H Q M ; m 2 m ` UhV โˆ’ R i  M i [m2 ;`M/ = T 2 i B i 7  B ` 2 T B p Q i โ† 1 M i B 2 ` U T 2 i B i Y ;`M/ V f k b B p 4 h( T B p Q i )  H Q ` b `2iQm`M2` TBpQi bBMQM b B p I h( TBpQi ) ;`M/ โ† T B p Q i โˆ’R bBMQM T 2 i B i โ† T B p Q iYR 7Bi b B p 4 h( T 2 i B i ) HQ`b `2iQm`M2` T 2 i B i bBMQM `2iQm`M2` 7mt

dXRXj JBb2 2M ฦพmp`2 _2+?2`+?2` Rde /Mb H2 i#H2m bmBpMi,

y R

R Rd

k 9j

j 3N

9 Ryy

8 RRj

e R8e

d Re8

3 Rde

N kjR

Ry k93

RR jyR


*?TBi`2 Rk GM;;2b `รป;mHB2`b

aQKKB`2 RkXR RkXk RkXj RkX9 RkX8

RkXe RkXd RkX3

RkXR

.รป}MBiBQMb 2i `รป7รป`2M+2b X X X X X X X X X X X X X S`2KB2` 2t2KTH2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X mi`2b `ฤ•;H2b X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X S`2KB2`b `2Tฤ•`2b i?รปQ`B[m2b X X X X X X X X X X X RkX9XR PTรป`iBQMb bm` H2b HM;;2b X X X X X X RkX9Xk G2b #b2b /2b 2tT`2bbBQMb `รป;mHBฤ•`2b X X 1t2KTH2b +QKK2Miรปb X X X X X X X X X X X X X X RkX8XR MHvb2` 2i /รป+QKTQb2` mM l_A X X X X RkX8XRXR avMit2 /2b l_A X X X X X X RkX8XRXk G2 T`Q;`KK2 /วถMHvb2 X X RkX8Xk aB;MH2` H2b /Qm#HQMb X X X X X X X X X X รบ[mBpH2M+2 2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2@L6@.6 X X RkXeXR .2 HวถmiQKi2 ยจ Hวถ2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 RkXeXk .2 Hวถ2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 ยจ HวถmiQKi2 m /2Hยจ /2b HM;;2b `รป;mHB2`b X X X X X X X X X TTHB+iBQM , 7QmBHH2 /2 T;2b q2# X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

R3j R39 R38 R3d R3d R33 R3N R3N R3N RNy RNj RN9 RN9 RNe RNN kyy

.รป}MBiBQMb 2i `รป7รป`2M+2b

*2 MQmp2m +?TBi`2 BMi`Q/mBi H2b 2tT`2bbBQMb `รป;mHBฤ•`2b- [mB T2`K2ii2Mi+QKK2 H2b miQKi2b }MBb #Q`/รปb HQ`b /2b +?TBi`2b T`รป+รป/2Mib- /2 /รป}MB` /2b HM;;2bX LQmb KQMi`2`QMb [mวถ2HH2b bQMi รป[mBpH2Mi2b mt miQKi2b }MBb MQM@/รปi2`KBMBbi2b UL6V- /QMi MQmb pQMb KQMi`รป [mวถBHb รปiB2Mi 2mt@KฤK2b รป[mBpH2Mib mt miQKi2b }MBb /รปi2`KBMBbi2b U.6- +7X +?TBi`2 RR TX RedVX *QKK2 H2 /Bi qBFBTรป/B , mM2 2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 Uฤฟ `2;2tT ล€- _1V 2bi mM2 bmBi2 /2 +`+iฤ•`2b ivTQ;`T?B[m2b [mวถQM TT2HH2 THmb bBKTH2K2Mi ฤฟ KQiB7 ล€- ฤฟ Tii2`M ล€ 2M M;HBbX lM2 2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 b2`i ยจ /รป+`B`2ยจ /รปMQi2` mM HM;;2- /Bi HM;;2 `รป;mHB2` c H2b +`+iฤ•`2b /2 Hวถ2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 /รป}MBbb2Mi H2b `ฤ•;H2b /2 +2 HM;;2X *QM7`QMi2` mM i2ti2 ยจ mM2 R3j


*?TBi`2 RkX GM;;2b `รป;mHB2`b

R39

2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 T2`K2i /2 bpQB` bB +2 i2ti2 2bi +QM7Q`K2 mt `ฤ•;H2b /m HM;;2 Qm MQM c bวถBH 2bi +QM7Q`K2- H2 i2ti2 b2` /Bi mM KQi /m HM;;2X lM2 2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 b2` miBHBbรป2 /2 7รQM MHQ;m2 ยจ +2 [m2 MQmb pQMb pm TQm` H2b miQKi2b }MBb , H2 i2ti2 /QMi BH 7mi /รปi2`KBM2` bวถBH T@ T`iB2Mi Qm MQM m HM;;2 +QMbB/รป`รป b2` bQmKBb ยจ HวถMHvb2m` /วถ2tT`2bbBQMb `รป;mHBฤ•`2b UmM HQ;B+B2H- T` 2t2KTH2 H2 T`Q;`KK2 ;`2T- MHvb2m` /วถ2tT`2b@ bBQMb `รป;mHBฤ•`2b +QMi2Mm /Mb iQmi bvbiฤ•K2 lMBt Qm GBMmtV- [mB miBHBb2` Hวถ2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 [mB /รป+`Bi H2 HM;;2 +QKK2 mM2 i#H2 /2 i`MbBiBQMbX G2 i2ti2 b2` /Bi `2+QMMm bB H H2+im`2 /2 b2b +`+iฤ•`2b bm++2bbB7b T2`K2i /2 T`+Qm`B` Hวถ2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2 Dmb[mวถยจ H }MX oQB+B mM b+?รปK [mB KQMi`2 H2 T`Q+2bbmb ,

Le texte analysรฉ : Lโ€™expression rรฉguliรจre qui dรฉnote le langage : 321ABM75 numรฉro parisien [0โˆ’9][0โˆ’9][0โˆ’9][Aโˆ’Z][Aโˆ’Z][Aโˆ’Z][0โˆ’9][0โˆ’9]

Lโ€™analyseur dโ€™expressions rรฉguliรจres :

grep

oui ou non, cโ€™est un oracle

6B;m`2 RkXR , ;`2T MHvb2 mM i2ti2 m KQv2M /วถmM2 2tT`2bbBQM `รป;mHBฤ•`2X

RkXk S`2KB2` 2t2KTH2 lM 2t2KTH2 i`ฤ•b bBKTH2 B/2` ยจ +QKT`2M/`2 , MQmb +?2`+?QMb ยจ /รป+`B`2 H2 HM;;2 /2b MmKรป`Qb /วถBKKi`B+mHiBQM /2b pQBim`2b 2M 6`M+2 UMQmb T`2M/`QMb H2b MmKรป`Qb ฤฟ ยจ HวถM+B2MM2 KQ/2 ล€- KB2mt /Tiรปb ยจ +2 [mวถBH 7mi KQMi`2`VX *2b MmKรป`Qb bQMi UรปiB2Mi \V +QKTQbรปb /2 i`QBb Qm [mi`2 +?Bz`2b- bmBpBb /2 i`QBb H2ii`2b- bmBpBb /2 /2mt Qm i`QBb +?Bz`2bX .Mb mM T`2KB2` i2KTb MQmb MQmb HBKBi2`QMb ยจ i`QBb +?Bz`2b- bmBpBb /2 i`QBb H2ii`2b KDmb+mH2b- bmBpB2b /2 /2mt +?Bz`2bX LQmb THรQMb H2b i2ti2b ยจ MHvb2` /Mb H2 }+?B2` K2b@i2ti2b +B@/2bbQmb , jkR"Jd8 MmKรถ`Q T`BbB2M


AM/2t 

/รปi2`KBMBbi2 X X RedฤœRd9- Re3ReN- R3j MQM /รปi2`KBMBbi2 X X X X X X X ReNRd9ฤœR3k- R3j

#bi`+iBQM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X kd- ey /`2bb;2 T` `รป7รป`2M+2 X X X X X X X X X 83 /`2bb2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 83 z2+iiBQM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X kd- kN- jR ;`รป;i /2 /QMMรป2b X X X X X X X X X X X X X 89 H;Q`Bi?K2 X X 3- R8ฤœR3- Nd- kjj- k98k9e /2 L22/H2KM 2i qmMb+? X X X X X X R9dฤœR8j /2 `2iQm` bm` i`+2 X X X X R8jฤœR8N Biรป`iB7 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X R9j- R99 H;Q`Bi?K2 /2 i`B X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X dk HT?#2i X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X R9- R8- kj9 Hi2`MiBp2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X jj M+`2 /2 /รป#mi X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X RNy /2 }M X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X RNk M/ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X jj TT2H `รป+m`bB7 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 98 TT2M/ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 8d TTHB+iBQM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X k88 `#`2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Ryy /รป}MBiBQM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Rk9 `+?Bi2+im`2 /2 HวถQ`/BMi2m` X X X X k98 `+?Bi2+im`2 /2 pQM L2mKMM X X X X 3 `;mK2Mi X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 9y- 9R 2z2+iB7 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 9R Tbb;2 T` +QTB2 X X X X X X X X X X X 8d Tbb;2 T` `รป7รป`2M+2 X X X X X X X 8d `Bi?KรปiB[m2 #BMB`2 X X X X X X kjdฤœk8R bb2`iBQM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 99 miQKi2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X RedฤœRNN ยจ TBH2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X kyy }MB X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X RNN

"

#+Fi`+FBM; X X pQB` `2iQm` bm` i`+2 "+Fmb- CQ?M X X X X X X X X X X X X X X jR- ReR #b2 /2 MmKรป`iBQM X X X X X X X kjdฤœk8R #B#HBQi?ฤ•[m2 /2 7QM+iBQMb X X X X X X X X 99 "BQTvi?QM X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 9 #Bi X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Ry- R9- R8 #HQ+ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X jj #HQ+ /วถBMbi`m+iBQMb X X X X X X X jj- je- jd "ฦบ?K- *Q``/Q X X X X X X X X X Rd- jy- key "QQH2- H;ฤ•#`2 /2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X k8j "QQH2- :2Q`;2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X k8j #QQHรป2M X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X jj #QQibi`T UbiiBbiB[m2V X X X X X X X X X X kR3 #Qm+H2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X jy- j3 #Qm+H2 BM}MB2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 9k #mb X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X N- N8

*

++?2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X N8ฤœNd +/`2 /2 H2+im`2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X kk8 +`+iฤ•`2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X RR +`+iฤ•`2b X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 89 +`+iฤ•`2b +QKTQbรปb X X X X X X X X X X X X jy +b /2 #b2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 98 +?ล—M2b /2 +`+iฤ•`2b X X X X X X X X X X X X 89 +?KT X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 8N *?QKbFv- LQK X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X kyy *?m`+?- HQMxQ X X X X X X X X X X X kjj- k8d +Hbb2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 8N- ey- RkN +Hbb2 /2 +`+iฤ•`2b X X X X X X X X X X X X RNR

kej


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