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03 SPRING 2018 ISSN 2515–8686 (PRINT)

STANDING TALL FOR TIMBER How the SFI is protecting forests for the future / 10 TOPPING UP TIMBER


An introduction to the benefits of modified wood / 16

ecobuild2018 takes its lead from global environmental targets / 26




Owatrol’s powerful, yet eco-friendly varnish, paint and stain removers can always be relied on to bring old timber back to life. Try Prepdeck for your decking or Dilunett gel on your external, vertical wood surfaces - you’ll be amazed at the results.

Has your wood silvered down through exposure to the climate? Then restore its beauty by using Net-trol Wood Cleaner & Colour Restorer for outstanding results. Need to protect your newly laid timber from warping and splitting? Then Seasonite is your answer.

Our high quality finishes not only look great but protect your wood for the long term. The range includes penetrating oils to enhance the natural beauty of soft and hardwood, semi-transparent coloured finishes and opaque paints in a wide range of colours.




The latest news from the timber and wider construction sector including new appointments


Why the SFI is more than just a forest management standard



Cross-laminated timber is continuing to push boundaries. We take a look at some of the high-rise projects that are showcasing this versatile material


How modified wood is changing the way that we work with timber


The UK’s 1,000th Passivhaus building is set to be certified this year but with less than 1% of homes built to the Passivhaus Standard there is still


some way to go before it makes it into the mainstream



The timber treatment sector responds to the challenges raised by the Grenfell fire tragedy


ecobuild 2018 is under new ownership and visitors have been promised a fresh new format, including a new ‘district’ focusing on timber




A closer look at some cladding and decking projects including a unique charred timber cladding product and the decking that is increasing safety at a major visitor attraction


Engineered oak wood flooring is helping to create a comfortable country house feel at a York hotel

EDITOR Michelle Gordon 

SALES DIRECTOR Terry Hanlon   01925 270093

DESIGN Pete Awad 

Registered address: 73 Cross Lane, Newton-Le-Willows, Merseyside WA12 9QA Registered in England and Wales. Company Number 10839173. VAT registration number 271 5498 81


JJI-Joists have an answer for everything built-in. No matter how demanding your job, JJI-Joists are in a class of their own. Solid timber flanges and OSB web make them light but very strong and easy to work with (creating service holes couldn’t be simpler). Our environmental credentials are also second to none. Add to that our technical brains on hand to answer questions - and our design software that gives smart cost-effective answers, and your choice has to be intelligent JJI-Joists. Well, you’d be daft not to. EMAIL: jji-joists @





SALES VOLUMES INCREASE DESPITE BREXIT UNCERTAINTY Investment in product improvement and customer

constraint on output over the next year by 37% of

reality which is that our members have been selling

research is growing despite rising raw material

respondents. Labour availability and capacity came

products and adapting to the higher costs that have

costs and slowing sales growth according to the

next, with 24% and 20% of respondents feeling that

now unfortunately become the new norm.

British Woodworking Federation’s Joinery State of

they were most likely to constrain output.

Trade Survey for Q4 2017.

“More than two-thirds of respondents noted

Just under a third (32%) of respondents on

that Brexit-related uncertainty has already affected

A third of respondents reported an increase

balance reported increasing their labour force in the

their business, with two-thirds of those identifying

in sales volumes over the last quarter, with 41%

previous year, with 44% of respondents anticipating

the impact as being increased raw material costs. If

reporting an increase over the last year.

an increased labour force over the next year.

we look to the longer term however, manufacturers

Brexit-related uncertainty had affected the

Raw material costs were noted as a major

are unsure as to what the effects of Brexit might be.

business of 68% of respondents with 67% of those

inflationary factor for unit costs for 95% of

noting an impact on the cost of raw materials.

respondents on balance, with wage/salary

to see joinery manufacturers taking a proactive

increases pushing up unit costs for 67% of

approach to growing their market. Investment in

respondents on balance.

e-business is set to increase by half and customer

A balance of 32% felt that Brexit negotiations would have a negative impact on their business in the next 12 months.

Over the previous year a balance of 59%

“On the plus side, it’s hugely encouraging

research is anticipated to double. More than

When asked about the impact of Brexit

of respondents had invested in improving

two-thirds of members will be investing more in

over five years, respondents were split between

their products with 45% investing in their

product improvement.

whether it would be positive or negative (25%

manufacturing equipment.

for each) with 40% unsure of the implications and 10% expecting no impact. Manufacturers felt that sales volumes would improve in the next quarter, with a balance of 34% predicting an increase for Q1 2018, and a balance of 30% predicting an increase over the next year.

Investment in product improvement was set for

“With the innovation and initiative of our members reflected in the survey results, there are

the highest capital investment over the next year,

plenty of reasons why wood should be the material

with a balance of 67% planning to invest and with

of choice for 2018 and beyond. The irreparable

48% set to invest in equipment.

damage of plastic pollution is never far from the

“Sales are still growing at a reasonable rate and

news, with programmes such as Blue Planet 2

there are no indications of a sudden decline for the

capturing the public imagination and the Wood

British woodworking industry despite the pessimism

Window Alliance’s Fake Facts campaign shining a

order book of future work extending beyond three

around construction from some quarters,” said

spotlight on the PVC-u industry’s ‘plastic promises’.

months – down 7% from the previous quarter ­–

BWF policy and communications executive Matt

We will be building on existing resources to support

with 53% saying that their order book extended to

Mahony. “Slightly fewer order books extending

members of all sizes in showcasing their products

between one and three months.

beyond three months and consecutive quarters

as beautiful and sustainable and illustrating the

of lowered sales growth expectations conceal the

benefits to specifiers of building it with wood.”

Just 19% of companies reported a current

Demand was listed as the most likely

ACCOYA WOOD RECOGNISED FOR ECO CREDENTIALS Accoya Wood, the high-performance wood

the Red List thereby meeting the LEED v4

manufactured by Accsys Technologies has

Material Ingredient credit, Option 1 reporting

been awarded a Declare label from the


International Living Future Institute (ILFI). The ingredients label for building products is a transparency tool to help architects and other

>99.5% from FSC certified, rapidly renewable

specifiers make informed choices regarding

Radiata Pine; has a life span of more than 50

sustainable and healthy material use in green

years; and proves no limitations for end of life as


it is recyclable and biodegradable/compostable.

Accoya wood has achieved the declaration


In addition to a Red List Free status, the Accoya wood Declare label shows it is made

The Declare label was created to support

status of “Red List Free,” deeming its product

the sustainable material requirements of the

ingredients are 100% disclosed to 100

Living Building Challenge, an international green

ppm and do not contain any chemicals on

building philosophy.




TIMBER FRAME FACTORY TO MOVE TO NEW LOCATION Accord has announced that it is to move its LoCaL Homes offsite

spoke factory concept, setting up other factories

manufacturing closed-panel timber frame factory to a new location.

in partnership with others by offering a turnkey

The housing and social care organisation will move from Beechdale to a new 56,000 sqft manufacturing facility located in Aldridge, Walsall, as part of its ambition to change the homebuilding delivery model.

solution. “This is a very important move for both Accord and the Black Country. Our investment

“Building on our six years successful experience of offsite manufacturing,

has been enhanced by grant funding provided

Accord’s vision is to increase production of our timber framed homes through

by the Black Country LEP and the Homes and

our very successful LoCaL Homes business,” said Alan Yates, executive

Community Agency, and the whole project is

commercial director at Accord.

supported by Walsall Council – demonstrating

“We have ambitious plans for our new factory which is now under construction and which will enable us to increase annual production to over

great partnership working.” Mark Farmer, author of Modernise or Die, an

1,000 homes per year. We are experiencing real growth in the business by

independent review of the UK’s construction labour

working in partnership with other housing associations and local authorities

model, said: “Accord, through LoCaL Homes, has clearly

across the country.

shown itself to be a progressive housing association, successfully

“Accord is investing over £1 million in developing the new factory including high-value manufacturing equipment, and we will be able to both meet future orders and create more jobs for local people too.”

embracing the opportunity presented by modern methods of construction. “This announcement of a new factory with the ability to step change production capacity as well as supporting a ‘hub and spoke’ regional network is

The LoCaL Homes factory in Aldridge will go into production in Spring 2018

a great reflection of their progress and puts them at the forefront of the general

and in addition to manufacturing more homes, it will manufacture additional

shift in industry delivery models that is starting to happen. It is also interesting

products and components.

to see LoCaLHomes increasing the premanufactured value of its current process

Dr Chris Handy, chief executive of Accord, added: “With this amazing new

through more use of consolidated and integrated components such as kitchens

factory facility, we will be able to commence manufacture of our own windows

and bathrooms, further de-risking on site delivery. I am pleased to see Accord

and our new “H-pod” which is an integrated kitchen and bathroom unit that will

taking up the modernisation challenge in such as tangible way and I wish them

sit within the panelised structure. We will also be able to further develop our

every success for the future.”



Suzanne Britter has been appointed as HR director of independent timber and builders’ merchants The Ridgeon Group. She joins the business following six years at Ladbroke Coral Group in senior HR roles. Britter will develop Ridgeons’ brand reputation as an attractive employer, promoting its longstanding reputation for providing a supportive, trusted and enterprising working environment for employees.


She will be identifying areas for development in the company’s employee engagement strategy to ensure staff continue to be inspired and motivated, and to make Ridgeons a first-choice employer in the industry, as outlined in the business’s 2020 Vision. Britter will build on the company’s technical training programme and the development of Ridgeons’ apprenticeship scheme is a priority.



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softwoods (+6%). A near 1% increase was recorded for plywood imports but hardwood imports were lower in 2016 by around 2%. The level of UK timber and panel products exports remains quite low, achieving a volume of 0.5 million m3. “In terms of the value of wood products consumed in the UK, the year 2016 was the best since before the recession and indeed was better than the pre-recessionary year of 2007,” said David Hopkins, TTF managing director. “Although little changed materially in 2016, a high degree of uncertainty for the future was

UK consumption of timber and panel products

supply for timber and panel products imported to

is on the rise despite uncertainty over Brexit

the UK, by both volume and value.

according to the latest statistical review from the Timber Trade Federation (TTF). Growth in the consumption of wood products resumed in 2016 following a small drop in volume the previous year rising to over 16 million m3 for the first time since before the recession of 2008. Europe remains the single largest source of

Mainland European and UK produced timber

created by the EU Referendum result. “Different and new challenges are and will be presented, yet the timber industry has a long and

and panel products continue to dominate the

mostly successful history of dealing with change.

supply chain in the UK accounting for around 91%

For our part, the TTF will keep on supporting

of all supply.

member companies and new partners, putting

The statistics revealed a 4.4% growth in

programmes in place for the benefit of the whole

UK imports on the previous year, generated by

supply chain, and continue looking forward to

growth in particleboards (+12%), MDF (+9%) and

facing the future together.”



Norwegian wood manufacturer and supplier Kebony has been listed in the prestigious 2018 Global Cleantech 100. It is the 7th time it has appeared in the Global Cleantech 100 list of the companies best positioned to solve tomorrow’s clean technology challenges. Norbord Europe Ltd took the title of Best Overall Supplier 2017 at Jewson

It highlights those most likely to have a big commercial impact within a five to 10-year timeframe and this year a record number of nominations were received from 12,300 companies in 61 countries.

Live, the UK’s biggest builders’ merchant show. Norbord faced stiff competition from around 600 Jewson suppliers to win the award which was given “for ensuring the availability of its products

The list is collated by combining Cleantech Group research data with judgments of hundreds of nominations and input from a global panel of 86 experts including leading financial investors, representatives

across all our branches, despite difficult market conditions”. It is the third time in five years that Supplier of the Year has been awarded to Norbord.

of multi-national corporations and industrials active in technology and innovation scouting across Asia, Europe, and North America. To qualify for the list, companies must be independent, for-profit, cleantech companies that are not listed on any major stock exchange. In addition to unveiling the list Cleantech group presented a series


of awards across 11 categories at an awards dinner held in San Francisco

Waugh Thistleton Architects has been granted planning permission for a

on the opening night to the 16th Cleantech Forum. Kebony took the

new social housing scheme designed for Lewisham Homes.

title of Europe and Israel Company of the Year.

The 25-home Kenton Court scheme will be built with engineered timber

Christian Jebsen, Kebony’s CEO, said: “2018 is a pivotal time for Kebony with the expected completion of our second production facility in Belgium. On behalf of Kebony’s team of dedicated employees, we will strive to continue creating a positive impact around the world.”

and constructed offsite using cutting-edge manufacturing technology and will be the first modular CLT building developed by Lewisham Homes. The scheme is part of the local authority and Lewisham Homes’ borough-wide New Homes, Better Places programme, which will see the development of 500 homes for social rent.






check that subcontractors’ work is done to a high standard,” said TRADA’s Rupert Scott. “The timber frame market is enjoying spectacular growth, providing a golden opportunity for those operating in this sector. And with the Chancellor recently committing £44 billion for the largest house-building drive for decades, this growth shows no sign of abating.” Andrew Carpenter, chief executive of the STA added: “Quality management should be an end-to end process – from the sourcing of raw timber and offsite manufacture in well-managed factories – to the final onsite installation. The Site Check pocket book will be a valuable asset to site managers and although concise, the information will play an

TRADA and the Structural Timber Association (STA) have joined forces to publish a definitive

single-source guide to onsite construction. Site check: The timber frame pocket book is

important role in refining onsite quality controls.” From timber frame delivery and storage to

guide to best practice in timber frame

written as an illustrated guide that can be easily

installing a breather membrane, insulating and


consulted by onsite management.

damp-proofing to masonry cladding and roof

It combines the expert knowledge of the

“Site check: The timber frame pocket book

framing, site check: The timber frame pocket book

two timber associations to update and merge

equips site managers and other construction

is packed with guidance and diagrams, as well as

individual timber frame publications to produce a

professionals with a handy aid to supervise and

handy check-lists for onsite inspection.


diminished, creating an opportunity for us,” said Jonathan Fellingham,

appointed Malcolm Vaughton as general

managing director of DTE. “The initial plan is to establish relationships

manager of its newly formed glulam business.

with key feature glulam beam producers in Europe, so we can source material competitively for project tenders we’ve won and designed

DTE currently supplies a small volume of cut

using external engineers.

to size glulam beams, and some glulam structures, but it is now setting

“Longer term, it is our intention to design, detail and carry out

its sights on becoming the UK’s market leader in the design and supply

elements of the secondary production processing in-house. Malcolm

of secondary processed glulam. Vaughton, the former UK MD of the

has incredible industry knowledge and will be a crucial asset to us as

Danish glulam producer, Lilleheden, joined DTE in November.

we take this new path. It’s a very exciting venture for us and we’re

“In recent years, the number of suppliers for glulam projects has

looking forward to seeing it take shape.”


technical sales experts in the south of England,

two of its sales team to regional roles as part of

while continuing to manage his existing

its plans to grow the business.

customer relationships.

Jason Ward and Scott Jones have been

Ward joined TwoTwenty in 2007 as a

appointed as regional sales managers for the

technical sales expert covering Cumbria and

North and South of England respectively.

Lancashire. He was instrumental in building

They will continue to manage their own areas

a thriving customer base for TwoTwenty in

to continue delivering exceptional customer

and customer relationships but will now also

North Wales, and recently spent 16 months

service as the business expands further,” said

oversee the technical sales experts in their

developing new business in the south of

Scott Peden, managing director of TwoTwenty.



Jason Ward and Scott Jones

“Both Scott and Jason have a wealth of

Jones joined TwoTwenty in 2013 as part

“We have grown TwoTwenty significantly

of the external sales team. In his new role as

in recent months, and we decided that having

and will be working to increase turnover while

regional sales manager, he will oversee five

two regional sales managers would help us

maintaining TwoTwenty’s core values.”



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The world’s first biological house, built by Een til Een, has opened its doors to visitors in Middelfart, Denmark, setting a new standard for eco-friendly buildings. The property is the first construction to open as part of the BIOTOPE, a unique new exhibition park and knowledge centre for sustainable construction and Denmark’s largest permanent construction exhibition. A ‘biological house’ is typically built with upcycled agricultural industry residual products such as grass, straw and seaweed, which would normally be considered waste and burned for energy. Instead the materials are processed into valuable natural building materials, avoiding the environmental impact that burning them would cause. The innovative property in Middelfart is made from upcycled materials including Kebony Character cladding which was selected by architects due to its environmental credentials, as well as the silver-grey

Bringing you FSC® 100%

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from Guyana • Tatabu • Kabukalli • And more…

patina it forms over time. Design and construction has been a rigorous process, with innovative techniques being tested and developed along the way. Instead of a traditional concrete foundation, which is carbon intensive and doesn’t allow the same recyclability, the building sits upon screw piles, typically used for building deep foundations with minimal noise and vibration. The project is fully supported by the Danish Ministry of the Environment Fund for Ecological Construction, with all materials used in the build thoroughly tested and approved and available commercially. It sets a precedent for sustainable construction, as the property can be easily adapted for each customer, using the latest digital production technology to ensure the build is both quick and accurate. Once constructed, the house can easily be removed at any point without leaving a trace and without causing any damage to the surrounding area; it can then be rebuilt in the same or different context elsewhere. From conception to completion, more than 40 major partners have been involved in the construction of the biological house including Novofibre, Horn Group, Thermocell, Derbigum, Rheinzink and Kebony.



8/17/17 3:14 PM SPRING 2018





SUPPORTING THE SFI COMMUNITY MEANS STANDING TALL FOR FUTURE FORESTS SFI is more than a forest management standard, it’s a community By Jason Metnick



Across this vast landscape, SFI and its many partners work together to

owners, brand owners, builders, architects, and consumers a way to

balance environmental, economic and social objectives such as conservation

stand tall for future forests. That’s because SFI is more than a forest

of wildlife habitat and biodiversity, harvesting forest products, protecting water

management standard, it’s a community. Together, this community

quality, providing forest industry jobs and developing recreational opportunities.

shares a belief that we all have a fundamental relationship with forests.

The SFI Forest Management Standard is also the only standard that requires

Forests clean the air we breathe and the water we drink and provide life

participants to support forestry research. SFI Inc. also encourages advances in

sustaining values.

forest research through its grant programme.

The SFI community welcomes any individual or organisation that shares our commitment to well managed forests. Our work with conservation, community and youth education groups speaks to the breadth and depth of the SFI community. It’s a community that also supports small landowners, recognises

SFI CONSERVATION AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS GRANT PROGRAMME SFI Inc. directly invests in conservation and research partnerships

and respects indigenous values, and helps to preserve the important social and

through the Conservation and Community Partnerships Grant Programme.

cultural heritage of African American land ownership.

Since the programme began in 2010, SFI has awarded 53 conservation and

By choosing products that carry the SFI label, you can support the SFI

49 community partnership grants totalling more than $3.4 million to foster

community and help spread the values linked to sustainable forestry. People can

conservation and community-building projects. When leveraged with project

also experience the natural beauty of well managed forests directly. Every year

partner contributions, that total investment exceeds $13.2 million.

millions of hikers, birdwatchers, campers and other outdoor enthusiasts enjoy

In 2018, SFI grants are helping to support eight community grants and

access to the almost 125 million hectares of forestlands that are certified to the

eight conservation grants. And for the first time this year, 10 SFI grant projects

SFI Standard — that’s bigger than Texas and California combined.

are being supported through a special SFI Community Engagement Fund. These funds are intended to support involvement of the SFI Implementation Committees. There are 34 provincial, state and regional SFI Implementation

LOOK FOR PRODUCTS WITH THE SFI LOGO The SFI logo helps make it easy to identify SFI-00001

How to Count You ProduCts for a r Certified Leed Point

it easy for architects and builders identify that the to wood or paper is certified to the SFI standard to be eligible to earn a LEED point.

Sustainable Forestry

private landowners, independent loggers, forestry professionals, indigenous

Standard and that it embodies the values of the SFI

people, local government agencies, academics, scientists and conservationists.

community. Architects and builders also look for

On April 5, 2016, the U.S. Green Building Council What is an aCP? (USGBC) released a pilot Alternative An Alternative Compliance Path Compliance Path allows LEED projects (ACP) for wood to achieve an existing green and paper products building credit, in its Leadership alternative approach using an in Energy and to what is specified Environmental rating tool. in the existing Design (LEED) 2009 and LEED v4 rating systems which enables all certified An ACP pilot is used to test eligible for LEED products to be and work out credit. Builders the new pathway. any kinks with and architects use wood and If the ACP pilot can now paper products credit is adopted, become part of certified to the it will Forestry Initiative the LEED rating Sustainable (SFI), American system. Tree Farm System Canadian Standards (ATFS), In Association (CSA) order to count and Programme the Endorseme towards a LEED nt of Forest Certificatio for point, the user know that: must first n (PEFC) standards to achieve a point in the “certified • 100% of wood” ACP under the forest products 2009 and achieve LEED a point in the are from legal controversial) “sourcing of raw (nonACP under LEED sources, and materials” v4. • 70% from responsible sources, and • The remainder must be certified sources Label your products by a chain of as evidenced custody certification with the SFI logo (CoC). make to help SFI Fiber Sourcing certification counts as legal and responsible, while forest products delivered through CoC certification a counts as legal, responsible and sources. certified

Committees. This unique grassroots network of close to 1,000 people includes

that the wood or paper is certified to the SFI

SFI, the Nature Conservancy of Canada, and the World Wildlife Fund will

the label because it signals that the forest product is

use the SFI Community Engagement Fund to help conserve forested waterways

certified to SFI and is eligible to earn LEED points.

in Atlantic Canada. An SFI Community Grant will support teachers across

Learn more:

California gain valuable forest science knowledge. And an SFI Conservation Grant will help woodland caribou in Canada by enhancing caribou habitat

Initiative How to Count


Your Certified

Products for

a LEED Point

| 1



COVER STORY: SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY INITIATIVE through sustainable forest management. These are just three examples from the

HELPING FORESTS HELPS US ALL As part of a global community committed to sustaining our forests, SFI is

26 SFI grants that will be funded starting in 2018.

committed to ensuring that well-managed forests achieve their full potential to

PROJECT LEARNING TREE: ENGAGING AND SUPPORTING YOUTH TO BECOME FUTURE FOREST LEADERS Fostering an appreciation and understanding of the natural world is critical to healthy mental and physical development in youth. But today’s American and

lift people up and improve our shared quality of life. Our supply chain starts in North America’s well-managed forests and stretches around the world. Products certified to SFI Standards are sold in nearly 130 countries. So, when you choose SFI you are helping the SFI community stand tall for future forests.

Canadian kids spend more time indoors than previous generations. That’s why a key component of SFI’s community engagement is educating youth, to ensure

Jason Metnick is senior vice president of customer affairs at the Sustainable

they can be effective future leaders and have a strong understanding of the

Forestry Initiative, Inc.

value of responsibly managed forests. In 2017, SFI took its existing youth programming to a new level when Project Learning Tree (PLT) became an SFI program. PLT is an award-winning environmental education program that uses trees and forests as windows on


the world to increase youth understanding of the environment and actions they

Initiative (SFI) is a sustainability

can take to conserve it. PLT’s integration into SFI provides an opportunity for

leader that stands for future

the programme to expand its reach and impact. And SFI’s role as a sustainability

forests. SFI is an independent,

leader will be bolstered by PLT’s expertise in education, an increasing focus in

non-profit organisation

SFI’s community engagement work.

that provides supply chain

The future of well managed forests depends on developing the next

assurances, produces

generation of forest stewards. Through PLT, SFI is working to ensure today’s

conservation outcomes,

youth become effective future leaders, with a strong understanding of the value

and supports education and

of responsibly managed forests and the importance of sustaining our natural

community engagement. SFI works with the forest sector, brand owners,


conservation groups, resource professionals, landowners, educators,

By providing environmental and sustainability education with opportunities

local communities, indigenous peoples, governments, and universities.

for teachers and students to become engaged in real-world issues transcending

SFI standards and on-product labels help consumers make responsible

classroom walls, PLT and SFI are developing the skills kids will need to be

purchasing decisions.

creative problem-solvers for complex environmental issues. PLT and SFI also

SFI also oversees the SFI Forest Partners Programme, which aims

work together to engage youth in a wide range of broad-based conservation

to increase supply of certified forest products, the SFI Conservation and

activities, environmental service learning projects, and outdoor education.

Community Partnerships Grant Programme, which funds research and

In addition to helping implement PLT across the US and internationally,

community building, and Project Learning Tree, which educates teachers

SFI supports other educational initiatives through the SFI Conservation and

and youth about forests and the environment. SFI Inc is governed

Community Partnerships Grant Programme, SFI Implementation Committees’

by an independent three-chamber board of directors representing

support for local teacher tours and summer youth camps, and partnerships with

environmental, social, and economic sectors equally. SFI believes caring

a variety of youth outreach organisations including Boy Scouts of America, Girl

for forests improves everyone’s quality of life. Learn more:

Guides, and Earth Rangers.

SFI CONNECTS TO INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES Indigenous peoples in Canada and the US have long relied on forests for cultural, spiritual and material needs and SFI recognises


forest operations may have an impact on these communities. SFI

Americans had amassed

actively pursues outreach and partnership opportunities with

6 million hectares of land

indigenous communities. Today, 28 indigenous and tribal groups

in the US South between

manage more than 3.1 million hectares of forestland certified to SFI

1865 and 1919, today


97% of those lands have

SFI supports indigenous peoples’ interests in multiple ways

been lost, according to

including in elements of our standard, our grants programme and

the Land Trust Alliance.

through partnerships. SFI is proud to partner with leaders like

The Black Family Land Trust is using forestry as a key tool to keep land in

the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business in support of its

the hands of African American families.

Progressive Aboriginal Relations programme. Indigenous leaders also serve on the SFI board of directors.

An SFI grant helps support, A Tree, Is A Tree, Is A Tree 101, led by the Black Family Land Trust. It’s engaging African Americans in Southside

SFI has a memorandum of understanding with the Canadian

Virginia to turn family forest assets into performing assets for today,

Council for Aboriginal Business to assist in growing our relationship,

tomorrow and for generations to come. Managed forestry can help

engagement and outreach with the indigenous community by

landowners prosper in retirement and through multiple generations. It

encouraging SFI programme oarticipants to seek certification under

can also be a powerful tool to help resolve heirs’ property issues and

the council’s Progressive Aboriginal Relations programme and

ownership questions and offers a means to help preserve the important

support a dual logo process.

social and cultural heritage of African American land ownership.






 The Cube, a 10-storey development in Hackney

Although CLT has been around as a building material for over two decades, it is still a relative newcomer when compared to steel and concrete. Michelle Gordon talks to Gavin White, structural engineering director at Ramboll, who has long been a pioneer of CLT, about pushing boundaries and bringing it into the mainstream


imber as a building material is nothing new,

projects in its portfolio include Open Academy

in fact it is one of oldest known to man,

in Norwich – the largest cross-laminated timber

but in modern day construction it has all

panel structure in the country on completion –

any timber design and then when I joined Ramboll

too often been cast aside in favour of steel

and William Perkin High School in London – a

I did a couple of years of doing steel and concrete

and concrete, with a widespread lack of

four-storey complex, containing 3,800 cubic

and then moved into the timber side,” explained

metres of timber.

White. “I really learnt the timber design aspect

understanding over what can be achieved. However, attitudes have started to change

It is currently working on a building in East

his learning on the job. “When I did my university degree I didn’t do

on the job from colleagues and other people and

in recent years and mass timber products such as

Ham which is going to be similar in size to Dalston

cross-laminated timber (CLT) have been used in

Works and is engineering volumetric CLT modules

the construction of several high-profile buildings,

for Swan Housing Group, which are being used in

in universities and we need to be teaching people

showcasing its versatility.

two-storey and low-rise housing.

more about it, so they can at least come out of

Murray Grove, a nine-storey tower block in

Structural engineering director Gavin White

courses. “We don’t teach enough timber engineering

university with an appreciation of it.

Hackney, London, designed by Waugh Thistleton

leads a team of 35 structural and mechanical and

Architects, was the first tall urban housing project

electrical engineers at the company’s Cambridge

with timber. It is a natural material and is more

to be constructed entirely from pre-fabricated

office, where 30-40% of the projects are timber

interesting than some of the other materials

solid timber, back in 2009.

related and mainly CLT.

to learn about, so it’s a shame that we don’t do

Last year Dalston Works, a 10-storey, 121-

He has long been a pioneer of timber having

unit building, also in Hackney became the world’s

worked with the material since the early days of

largest CLT building (see box out).

his career and has worked with CLT for some time.

The landmark project was designed by

It was his interest in sustainability which led

“Most engineers are quite happy to work

more but that is something that we can hopefully change over time and get more done.” While CLT has got some way to go before we are seeing its use on every street corner, progress

engineering consultancy Ramboll and Waugh

him to learn more about the material at a time

is being made in the battle for hearts and minds

Thistleton Architects on behalf of developer Regal

when Ramboll was just starting work on some

and schemes such as Dalston Works are getting


pioneering projects but with timber not being

people talking and highlighting what can be

covered during his time at university he did all of


Ramboll has a history of building with CLT and




FEATURE: CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER “The key thing is trying to have good example

“If we can educate everyone about the

While CLT has been around for 20 years or

projects of where CLT is being used to provide

benefits of it and then at least people can make an

so it is still relatively new in terms of research and

solutions for the client in a cost effective and

informed choice. That is key for me,” said White.

developments are constantly being made.

programme effective manner,” said White.

“Some projects CLT is just not suitable for and

The benefits of building with CLT are plentiful

“We are still learning every day in terms

that is fine but as long as people are exploring it

of how we can push the material, how we

including a site that is cleaner and safer for

and testing the viability of it then we will get more

understand the material’s properties better, what

those working on it, as well as quieter for nearby

projects built from it and people will see it and it

we can do with it, how we can engineer it, how we

residents. There is also less waste on site and

will add to the number of projects that are being

can be more efficient, how we can create longer

minimal disruption to residents due to fewer

built in CLT.”

spans etc,” explained White

deliveries. During the construction of Dalston

There are challenges, of course, when building

People’s preconceptions about timber around

Lane there were just 90 truck deliveries to site,

with CLT, mainly centred around a lack of research

areas such as acoustics, fire and durability are also

whereas a comparable building in concrete would

and guidance but these should also be viewed as

a challenge.

have required 800 deliveries.

opportunities said White.

Buildings are much more airtight, therefore

“Challenges happen in nearly every project,

“There are different challenges every day and

but it is something we need to work through and

using less heat and CLT is lightweight, with

there isn’t as much guidance and research done

the more we can engage with the industry and

buildings tending to weigh 30% less than they

on CLT, so if you are designing in steel most of

the wider industry and clients, developers and

would if constructed from concrete.

the things that you will do every day have been

contractors and educate them on the benefit of

Speed of build is another huge advantage and

done before and then there is a design guide or

CLT construction then the better,” said White.

typically, CLT projects are around 10-15% quicker

something that tells you how to do it and it is a

programme-wise than steel or concrete, reducing

case of working through that,” he explained.

time on site, therefore bringing down costs.

“With CLT you have generally got a basic

There has been growing interest in CLT from architects, clients and development colleagues in recent months he said, and the material is

There are benefits to residents too with CLT

design, anything beyond that, you tend to have to

becoming more prevalent in the market although

buildings being much more airtight and therefore

have more lateral thinking and do a bit of research

there is some way to go before it can be classed as

not requiring as much heat.

and testing.”


CASE STUDY: DALSTON WORKS (PREVIOUSLY KNOWN AS DALSTON LANE) Client: Regal London Architect: Waugh Thistleton Architects Structural Engineers: Ramboll (CLT), PJCE (Concrete) M+E: XCO2 Contractor: Regal London Developer: Regal London Timber supplier: B&K Structures Designed by engineering consultancy Ramboll and Waugh Thistleton Architects on behalf of developer Regal London, Dalston Works is a 10-storey building in Hackney, London. It comprises 121 apartments for rent alongside two ground level courtyards flanked by 1500m2 of retail and restaurant space. Its sustainability credentials are impressive with a reduction of approximately 50% in the embodied carbon of the structure compared to a traditional concrete frame building. The timber also acts as carbon storage with over 2,600 tonnes of C02 locked into the material, effectively making it carbon negative for the first years of usage.

“Dalston Works reveals the future of low carbon construction,” said Andrew Waugh, of Waugh Thistleton Architects. Our building offers an exemplar solution to a demand which will only increase: the construction of high density, affordable and environmentally sustainable homes. Dalston Works demonstrates the possibilities of engineered, cross-laminated timber as a cost efficient, and desperately necessary, viable alternative to the polluting technologies of concrete and steel. The collaborative effort

enables you to demonstrate the benefits of offsite construction methods. “It has been exciting to work with a team who are as passionate about

between our progressive client and passionately innovative design team has

the benefits of offsite construction as we are, and we look forward to seeing

resulted in something truly special: Dalston Works sets a seminal precedent

many more such schemes emerge across the UK. The height and size of

for the continuous innovation of engineered timber construction.”

Dalston Works, and its excellent performance in terms of sustainability and

Using offsite construction shortened the construction programme allowing the frame to be completed in 374 days; while 80% fewer site

efficiency, demonstrate what can be achieved with this dynamic material.” The building was subject to weight restrictions due to an exclusion

deliveries reduced disruption, lowering the impact of the development on

zone for a planned Crossrail route underneath the site. Using timber

residents and the environment.

for the external walls, party walls, floors, ceilings, stairs and lift cores,

“Dalston Works is a real landmark project, and a testament to the

meant that Dalston Works weighs a fifth of a comparable concrete

versatility of CLT,” said Gavin White structural engineering director at

structure. It also allowed the construction of a further 15 units without

Ramboll. “It showcases what can be achieved when a forward-thinking client

breaching the restrictions.






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CASE STUDY: THE CUBE Client/Contractor: Regal Homes Structural engineer: Pringuer James Consulting Engineers Architect: Hawkins/Brown Architects Timber engineer: Engenuiti Timber supplier: B&K Structures The Cube is a 10-storey mixed use development in

apartments,” explained Hawkins\Brown architect Andrew

Hackney comprising 50 residential flats built above three


commercial/retail units.

“Flats benefit from dual or triple aspects, which as a

The original brief for the development was to

result provides excellent natural daylight and ventilation

maximise the value of the site and gain planning

into all habitable rooms. By twisting the form from floor

permission by creating something a “little bit different”.

to floor we have been able to create generous terraces

The uniquely shaped building is a hybrid construction

with oblique views along Wenlock Basin and across

with the basement and ground floor built in concrete and

Shepherdess Walk Park. The unusual form also helps

a first-floor concrete deck. The main superstructure is

reduce residents’ awareness of their neighbours and gives

formed of a central reinforced concrete core with a hybrid

the building a more dynamic appearance from the street.

CLT superstructure wrapped around. Steel elements were

The “Cross” is protected by a dark brick grid, providing a

introduced to help overcome large CLT spans and provide

sense of defensible space to residents inside and giving

the most efficient structural solution.

much-needed definition to Wenlock Road.

“The residential flats are arranged in a cruciform

“The design of the CLT hybrid frame further allows

plan surrounding a highly efficient central core. This

future flexibility within apartment layouts by limiting

plan geometry creates four courtyards with direct visual

internal structural walls and columns which tend to ‘fix’

connections to the city and dual or even triple aspect

or hamper alternative layouts.

CASE STUDY: ALFRISTON SWIMMING POOL Client: Alfriston School Architect: Duggan Morris Architects Contractor: Feltham Construction Structural engineer: Elliot Wood Partnership Environmental engineer: Skelly and Couch Cost consultants & CDM coordinator: Appleyard and Trew Approved building control inspector: Butler & Young Timber prefabricated structure: Cowley Timberwork Timber cladding: Pratley carpentry the building, separates the roof from the rest of the base, protecting the privacy of pool users while preserving the panoramic view. The prefabricated roof was manufactured

which was not only necessary to connect the offsite assembled primary glulam frame of

truss modules, which were delivered with a

the individual panels but also to connect the

weather tight membrane ready for roof dressing

interfacing panels as they were assembled to

and the interior face is factory finished.

each other on site. The sequence of build was an important consideration as was limited

weeks with no need for temporary internal or

tolerance. Trial assemblies were a luxury that

external scaffolding.

space could not afford and so the architects

A standing seam roof system with integrated cladding clips supports the roof

were reliant on the accuracy of their 3D modelling and the CNC 5 axis router machine.

Duggan Morris Architects was commissioned in

timber allowing the entire roof to be clad in

January 2008 to replace a redundant swimming

the same material, with precise spacing and

to attend to the fully installed panels was

pool structure at Alfriston School with an up-to-


another important consideration and so close

date facility. The pool, which faces directly onto

The challenge was to provide a clear

Reducing the amount of time required

liaison with M & E service engineers to provide

spanning structural solution that allowed

concealed but accessible service routes was

greenbelt land, was designed to be a

maximum offsite pre-fabrication without the

vital as was pre-finishing the timber surfaces

contemporary expression of the local pitched

aesthetic compromise of appearing that it had

with a three-part coating system before

roof vernacular.

been simply bolted together. The solution was

the panels arrived on site to provide both

to pre-fabricate 12 roof, 12 wall and two gable

temporary and permanent protection. Mock

three repeated fold roof segments, creates a

stressed skin panels constructed with primary

up sections were manufactured to assist in the

dramatic internal landscape and serves as an

glulam framing members and secondary glulam

process. The result is an efficient, elegant and

acoustic baffle, preventing a high reverberation

infill members working compositely with a

functional example of an off-site prefabricated,

of sound – a crucial aspect of the brief.

cross-laminated timber skin as an efficient

highly engineered stressed skin panel solution

engineered solution that could be achieved

to create an open space.

The raised timber structure, articulated by

A 1m narrow glass strip around the edge of


A major ambition was to conceal all traces of the galvanised metalwork and bolting

offsite by Cowley Timber in 12 triangulated

The entire assembly took place over four

Photo © Jack Hobhouse

under factory controlled conditions.





As the construction sector’s demand for timber increases could modified wood be the answer to boosting supply?


ood modification enhances the natural properties of timber.

MEDITE SMARTPLY’s Peter Clifton, product manager for MEDITE TRICOYA

The process involves taking non-durable and poorer performing

EXTREME (MTX), an MDF manufactured from Acetylated wood elements.

timber after harvesting and putting it through a cellular change to make it more durable and stable.

“Most modified woods derive from fast growing, non-durable plantation crops which can, of course, be planted and regrown in shorter periods.”

There are various processes but what they all have in

Wood modification gives poor performing timber species all of the

common is that they are changing the nature of the wood itself, explained

benefits of the best performing hardwoods with the aesthetics to match, giving

Justin Peckham, head of sales for UK & Ireland at Accsys Group, which

architects, specifiers and developers a real alternative to non-wood materials

manufactures Accoya, a high performance modified timber.

such as plastic, compact laminates and fibre cement boards, for example.

“That can be a chemical change, a physical change or a combination of

The sustainable, durable and stable products are less likely to shrink, swell

both, but the important point is that the improved performance results come

or rot than natural timbers and have a much longer shelf life, coming with

directly from the wood, it is not dependent on a chemical in the wood like a

guarantees of up to 50 years.

biocide, it is how the wood is treated. So, it is a permanent improvement in the performance of the wood,” he said.

“Natural timbers have a certain amount of variability and it is often difficult to predict, when ordering wood whether it is going be at the higher

The three main processes for modifying wood are:

end of performance for that species or the lower end and there can be quite

 Heat treatment – Depending on the wood species, the heat-treating

a range. When you modify wood generally you have some quality control

process warms the wood from 185O to 212O Centigrade. Also known

over that process, so you end up with a product that has a more consistent

as thermal modification, the process makes common woods resistant to

performance,” explained Peckham.

decay and heightens the natural colour to a richer hue that develops all the way through the board’s thickness.

The technology used in the modification process allows wood to be taken into previously unchartered territory said Adrian Pye international

 Acetylation – Substances known as free hydroxyls are present in all woods, naturally releasing and absorbing water in response to changes in

sales director at Kebony. “Increasing the lifespan of timbers normally requires a preservative, but

the weather. The process of acetylation changes the free hydroxyls into

wood modification technology does much more than that. It impregnates

acetyl groups. In this new form, acetyl groups alter the original properties

wood with other welcome changes such as, dimensional stability and

of the wood, making it more durable and dimensionally stable.

maximum hardness,” he explained. “This gives pine, spruce and other

 Polymer grafting – Polymers are formed when a single molecule called a monomer joins with at least two other monomers, a process known as polymerization. When this process is used on wood, it provides a locked-

softwood timbers the super-strength powers of traditional hardwoods like oak and maple and exotic hardwoods like teak and ipe.” Another advantage of modified woods is that coatings such as paint tend

in structure to the wood’s cell walls, with benefits including durability,

to last a lot longer as it provides a much more stable substrate for the paint as

strength, dimensional stability and resistance to the destructive effects of

the wood underneath isn’t shrinking or swelling as much as natural timber, so

insects and microorganisms.

the paint is under less strain and therefore lasts longer. So much so, that some

The main benefit of modified wood that it is as durable as hardwood

paint manufacturers give extended warranties when their products are used

timber species but can be made from poor performing but faster growing timber, making it much more sustainable.

on modified woods. Modified wood is bringing wood back into focus for architects and

“Wood is a valuable resource, but durable hardwood species take a long time

specifiers said Clifton and there has been an increase in its use in recent years

to grow and reach maturity – 400 to 500 years for a teak or an oak tree to grow

as more products come onto the market and the wider construction sector

and that makes them not particularly environmentally sustainable,” explained

becomes more aware of its benefits and what can be achieved.





ACCOYA WHO MANUFACTURES IT? Accoya is manufactured by Accsys Group, which also, in conjunction with MEDITE SMARTPLY manufactures MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME (MTX). The international company has a huge focus on research and product development work. Accoya is produced from Radiata pine at the company’s facility in Arnhem in the Netherlands, which is currently being expanded to meet demand.

HOW IS IT PRODUCED? Accoya is produced using a process called acetylation. This converts natural molecules in the wood called hydroxyl groups – responsible for drawing moisture into the

wood from the air – into another chemical group that already exists in the wood called an acetyl group, which doesn’t draw water in from the atmosphere. “The process makes it very difficult for water to get into the cell walls of the wood which is where it does most of its damage,” explained Justin Peckham head of sales for UK & Ireland at Accsys Group. “It is wrong to say that you make the wood impermeable to moisture because water can still get into the capillaries between the cells, but the point is that water in the capillaries doesn’t cause rot in the wood or changes in the volume of the wood, it is water in the cell walls that does that and that is what we stop.”

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS Internationally Accoya’s biggest market is external joinery – windows and doors. Cladding and decking are also big markets and other uses of Accoya have included garden furniture and civil engineering projects in fresh water.

GUARANTEES It has a 50-year guarantee above ground and 25 years in ground or freshwater, which covers rot and excessive movement. Some coatings manufacturers also give longer warranties for their products on Accoya, compared to any other timber.

KEBONY WHO MANUFACTURES IT? Kebony is a Norwegian company operating on a global scale, with distributors in Europe, Scandinavia, Middle East, Asia-Pacific and North America. Kebony modified wood is produced from fast growing sustainable pines at the company’s production facility in Skien, south of Oslo. Due to continued capacity, construction is underway on Kebony’s second European factory in Flanders.

HOW IS IT PRODUCED? Kebony modifies sustainably sourced

softwoods by heating the wood with furfuryl alcohol – an agricultural by-product. By polymerising the wood’s cell wall, the softwoods permanently take on the attributes of tropical hardwood including high durability, hardness and dimensional stability. The process gives the wood a deep rich brown colour similar to that of a tropical hardwood which over time develops a natural silver-grey patina.

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS Kebony has been used internationally in commercial, public, residential and marine

projects including the site of Youth Winter Olympic Games in Norway, Rochester Marina in New York and the redevelopment of Cinque Ports Street, Rye. It is suitable for a range of project types including exterior surfaces, terraces, furniture, roofing and windows.

GUARANTEES Kebony has a 30-year guarantee and requires no maintenance beyond normal cleaning. Swelling and shrinkage are reduced by 40% to 60% when compared to the parent wood.

MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME (MTX) WHO MANUFACTURES IT? MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME (MTX) is manufactured by MEDITE SMARTPLY, a manufacturer of sustainable construction panels and part of the wider Coillte Group, the state-owned Irish forestry company. The company has two manufacturing sites in Ireland and has recently invested €59m in upgrading its OSB production facility. All products are manufactured using FSC and PEFC sourced raw materials from the 445,000 hectares of land owned by Coillte, which is one of the few fully integrated forest companies in Europe. MTX is produced at the

MEDITE factory in Clonmel from acetylated plantation softwood, which is normally a nondurable species

HOW IS IT PRODUCED? MTX is made by MEDITE SMARTPLY using Tricoya technology which is owned by the Accsys Group. It is an MDF panel, made from elements modified using the same method as for Accoya wood – acetylation.

POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS Due to the size and thickness availability of MTX panels, potential applications are quite

varied and include external doors, cladding, facades, signage and landscape applications such as planters and fence screens. It has also been used in interior kitchens, garden buildings and beach huts.

GUARANTEES Due to the enhanced performance characteristics MTX comes with a warranty of up to 50 years when it is used in exposed applications above ground and 25 years in the ground or freshwater. Some paint manufacturers provide extended warranties when their products are used on MTX.

“The last decade has seen a significant increase in the demand for modified

“I think there is more noise about modified wood, more people are coming

wood. Increased interest comes from the desire to increase the decay resistance

up with modified wood options,” he said. “I think we will see more come to the

and longevity of timbers from Scots pine, beech, southern yellow pine, ash,

market in future because the availability of good quality, naturally grown timber

birch, alder, radiata and many others,” said Pye.

is on the decline and the construction industry needs more and more of it.”

Companies in the modified wood sector are putting significant effort

“There will always be a place for natural timbers but to have high

into marketing and promoting their products said Peckham who reported a

performance timbers in sustainable form in the quantities that is needed I think

marked increase in knowledge of the products among architects etc.

modification is an absolute must, it is a need.”





CASE STUDY: AVONDALE PARK PRIMARY SCHOOL Kebony was chosen for the cladding at Avondale Park Primary School, North Kensington, London, which was recently

extended and refurbished by ECD Architects. Owing to a close affiliation with St Anne’s

photovoltaic panels on the roof; efficient

Nursery School, the extension aimed to

windows, reducing the demand for heating;

enable the nursery division of Avondale Park

and good levels of natural daylight, designed

to merge with St Anne’s on a single site, and

with light coloured blinds to protect from

comprises four new classrooms, a community

glare. Kebony was selected for the façade

hall, staff and pupil facilities, and a dedicated

of the extension due to its environmentally

entrance lobby.

friendly nature and strong performance

The joint location has enabled the two schools to retain their identity, whilst sharing

Photo © Marcus Harvey

were incorporated into the design including

characteristics. Loreana Padron, head of sustainability at

resources and ultimately working together to

ECD Architects said: “Kebony was the ideal

reduce running costs.

choice for cladding, it was easy to use and

Beyond its commitment to providing a

provided the same strength and durability to

caring and friendly environment, sustainability

that of tropical hardwood. We look forward

was a primary focus and inherent to the

to making use of Kebony to add to the

project brief. Several sustainable initiatives

sustainable nature of our future projects.”

CASE STUDY: THE ARCHIVE HOUSE Located in the Innovation Park (Ipark) at Ullandhaug, Stavanger, the

cladding to create an eye-catching geometric ‘folded’ façade inspired by

Archive House was designed by Lund+Slaatto Architects to provide a


14,000 sqm cultural research centre, including a café, library, meeting room and exhibition area.

“From start to finish, the construction of The Archive House presented a number of challenges that required careful consideration.

The building contains the most important historical sources from the

Kebony’s character and durability enabled us to achieve the desired

Rogaland County, the city of Stavanger

origami effect,” said Pål Biørnstad,

and the Norwegian Mission Society,

partner at Lund+Slaatto Architects.

with more than 70km of underground

Innovation was a primary facet

archives spanning half the site.

of the design and the combination

The building, initiated by Smedvig

of unusual angles, sloping lines, and

Property and Ipark and built by Kruse

integrated window openings enables

Smith Entreprenør, has four floors above

the aesthetic of the building to adapt

ground level and three below with a

based on the time of day, weather and

central atrium exhibiting a glass roof

the season.

to create a bright, open area for public functions. Kebony was selected for the exterior

Sustainability was also a focus for Photo © Sindre Ellingsen

the building which is on track to achieve BREEAM Excellent status.

CASE STUDY: TINTRA FOOTBRIDGE Accoya, distributed by Woodlink, was the material of choice for the vertical cladding on the Tintra pedestrian footbridge designed by Rintala Eggertsson Architects and constructed by IKM Steel & Façade. Maintenance was an integral issue in the construction of the bridge, over the River Vosso in Vossenvangen, Norway and Accoya’s strength, durability and minimal maintenance made it a natural fit. The project was awarded the Architizer A+ Award in the Transportation and Infrastructure category last year. The largest of their kind, they champion the very best in architectural projects from around the globe and are judged by over 400 luminaries and thought leaders, including prominent members of the architecture community and experts from the technology, art, fashion, and design industries.




Cladding. deCking. Joinery. Discover the first range of thermally modified British grown hardwoods at: For product advice and sales, contact Vastern Timber:Â 01793 853 281

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SCOTFRAME VAL-U-THERM PLUS® FOR PASSIVHAUS PROBABLY THE BEST U-VALUE WALL IN THE WORLD From the first PassivHaus in UK for rent (Green Apple Award winner) to examples that exceed the PassivHaus standard, Scotframe Timber Engineering have been in the vanguard of building to PassivHaus standards for many years. The environmental and sustainability credentials of building materials are of increasing interest in the client community. The Val-U-Therm PLUS® building system uses FSC & PEFC chain of custody timber and its insulation has zero ozone depletion potential (ODP); is CFC-free, HFC-free & HCFC-free and has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of less than 5. This means it has a BRE Green Guide A/A+ Rating (as straw bales/sheep’s wool) and is recyclable. Building to PassivHaus standards is not necessarily more expensive or time consuming if an integrated building system like Scotframe Val-U-Therm PLUS® is used. Scotframe timber frame kit used by Cairnrowan Custom Homes - Denwell Cottage

One study by Edinburgh Napier University compared the cost per square metre of

Well known as a UK market leader in full timber

(compared to a PassivHaus requirement of

superstructure using 10 different building

frame packages for new housing and commercial

120 kWh/m2a) using the Fabric First thermal

systems for 27 homes. Scotframe Val-U-

projects, Scotframe now exclusively offers the

detailing offered by Scotframe.

Therm cost £1092 when built to PassivHaus

Val-U-Therm PLUS® building system. Val-U-

This approach is suitable for commercial

standards whilst the other 9 systems ranged

Therm PLUS® state-of-the-art wall U-values of

as well as domestic buildings. The Scotframe

from £711 to £ 1138 when built only to

0.08 W/m2K are probably the best in the world.

approach achieved an air tightness of 0.475

existing Building Regulations. Similarly,

A key factor in achieving this remarkable

ACH when constructing the Rocking Horse

the Scotframe approach took 65 days to

performance is that the insulation is injected in

Nursery at the University of Aberdeen which

PassivHaus standards whereas the other 26

off-site factory quality-controlled conditions.

caters for 78 pre-school children.

homes ranged from 49 to 126 days, again

The foam expands into every “nook & cranny”

This Fabric First approach is transported to

only being built to Building Regulations.

providing a best-in-class BR443 U-value

site in flat-pack configuration and provides a “fit &

correction factor of zero.

forget”, low maintenance thermal solution unlike

system was originally launched in 2011 and

many other low energy consumption technologies.

is well proven being involved in building

One of the more important aspects of PassivHaus is that it requires that the whole

But where the expertise of Scotframe

The Scotframe Val-U-Therm® building

over 8,000 homes. The approach has been

building envelope works in unison to provide

really scores is that it can offer buildings of

independently accredited by the British Board

optimum performance. This is where an

beautiful design whilst matching these technical

of Agrément - this includes verification of

integrated building system like Scotframe

requirements. Not just boring rectangular boxes,

structural performance, behaviour in relation to

Val-U-Therm PLUS® comes into its own. It

but homes and buildings to match you and your

fire, thermal performance, condensation risk,

offers wall, floor and roof panels that have been

clients’ requirements, lifestyle and aspirations.

sound insulation and durability. The Systems

thermally engineered to perform as an optimum

This provides homes and buildings that are

Certificate notes that the panels will have a 60-

combination. As well as excellent thermal

warm and draught-proof in winter; cool and

year minimum service life – twice the mortgage

insulation performance, details are available to

well ventilated in summer; healthy for all the

cycle. It is accepted by financial institutions,

minimise thermal bridging and give excellent

family; and with remarkably low energy bills.

NHBC, Premier Guarantee, etc. Scotframe Val-

airtight fabric levels.

Independent research has shown that Scotframe

U-Therm PLUS® has its own BBA Certificate

Val-U-Therm PLUS® allows the construction of

17/5421. Scotframe Timber Engineering and

and the Trossachs National Park delivered a

typical family homes that cost less than £95 a

Val-U-Therm are proud to be part of the Saint

total primary energy demand of 69 kWh/m2a

year to heat.

Gobain Group of Companies.

The Maryville PassivHaus in Loch Lomond






As the 1,000th Passivhaus unit in the UK awaits certification Timber Construction explores what it means to build to the standard


he Passivhaus Standard was developed in Germany over 25 years ago – the brainchild of

 The Deerings, a new-build certified passivhaus in Harpenden, Hertfordshire. Pic credit – Quinlin Lake ©

professors Bo Adamson and Wolfgang Feist. Physicist Feist had been researching low

energy buildings and was perplexed as to why

they weren’t performing as well as predicted. He went on to build the world’s first Passivhaus

Passivhaus homes in Norwich. All 68 of the timber frame homes at the Saffron

less than 1% of domestic dwellings. There is a perception that Passivhaus buildings

Acres development are Passivhaus certified – a

are “too expensive, high risk and very challenging”

condition imposed by Leicester City Council when it

said a spokesperson for the Passivhaus Trust, an

home in Darmstadt, Germany, which was completed

sold the land to Saffron Lane Neighbourhood Council

independent, non-profit organisation that provides

in 1991.

for £1.

leadership in the UK for the adoption of the

Since then over 65,000 buildings (both residential

Commercial buildings constructed to the

Passivhaus Standard and methodology.

and commercial) worldwide have been designed,

standard include the University of Leicester’s £42

built and tested to the international energy standard,

million Centre for Medicine, which is the largest non-

Germany, it was formed in 2010. It says that builders

undergoing a rigorous quality assurance process.

domestic Passivhaus building in the UK, and one of

and private clients have been quicker to adopt

There is no set formula to building to the

the largest in Europe, the Enterprise Centre which is

Passivhaus because of the benefits to occupants and

Passivhaus Standard which does not define a

part of the Norwich Research Park and Herefordshire

lower whole life costs but these don’t always align

particular construction method or material, but a

Archive and Records Centre.

with the priorities of volume builders.

key objective is to drastically reduce a building’s operational energy while prioritising the comfort of

But there are just 30 commercial Passivhaus buildings in the UK and Passivhaus homes account for

The UK affiliate of the Passivhaus Institute in

However, there has been an increase in the number of developers and mainstream contractors

occupants. Buildings must achieve minimal thermal bridges and have an airtight building fabric to minimise heat loss. Passivhaus buildings offer a stable and comfortable environment all year round, regardless of the weather, with heat loss reduced by up to 90% meaning that they require very little heating, while the constant purified air reduces condensation and mould. Y Foel Passivhaus in Powys, Wales, became

WHAT FEATURES DO PROPERTIES HAVE TO HAVE TO MEET THE PASSIVHAUS STANDARD? To achieve the Passivhaus Standard in the UK, typically involves:

the first property in the UK to be certified to the

 Very high levels of insulation

Passivhaus Standard in August 2009.

 High performance openable windows

Since then over 800 units have been certified and there have been several large-scale Passivhaus developments including a 51-home affordable residential scheme in Rainham, Essex,

with insulated frames  Airtight building fabric to minimise heat loss via leaks  Construction free of thermal bridges

which can contribute to heat loss  A mechanical ventilation system with highly efficient heat recovery  Calculation of heat gains from occupants and the sun, to achieve comfortable temperatures  Accurate design using the Passivhaus Planning Package (PHPP)

and Carrowbreck Meadow, a development of 14 Source: The Passivhaus Institute




FEATURE: PASSIVHAUS interested in adopting Passivhaus as a unique selling point. “This is encouraging as it means the value and


quality of the standard is finally being recognised,”

The Passivhaus Trust is an independent, non-profit organisation that provides leadership in

said the spokesman, adding that people’s

the UK for the adoption of the Passivhaus standard and methodology. It is the official UK

perceptions about Passivhaus will change as more

affiliate of the Passivhaus Institute based in Germany.

homes are built and experiences and knowledge are shared.

The aims of the Passivhaus Trust are to preserve the integrity of the Passivhaus Standard and methodology; promote Passivhaus principles to the industry and

“We need to continually provide education

government and undertake research and development on Passivhaus standards in the UK.

in demystifying Passivhaus for the mainstream construction industry and are lucky that the UK and international Passivhaus community are very happy

significantly in the UK over the last few years due to

Norwich which are trailblazing the adoption of the

to share knowledge and information.”

better awareness of the standard, increased demand,

standards and many localised plans are beginning to

and an ever-improving supply chain and as more

ask for higher levels of energy efficiency for buildings.

There can be an additional capital cost for Passivhaus homes, says the Trust if you keep

homes are built to the standard it will become even

everything else (design standards) the same but

more cost effective to meet.

if you are willing to adjust the design to be more

“We need to nurture more Passivhaus

There are also many examples from around the world that the UK can learn from. For example, in the Brussels region Passivhaus is mandated for

efficient for Passivhaus then it can be possible to

designers and tradespersons to effectively

all new construction and major retrofits, while new

achieve the standard at no extra cost.

implement the required skills to build to this level,”

buildings in Vancouver are to have zero operational

said the Passivhaus Trust spokesman. “We can all

greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.

It is also worth taking into account the fact that a Passivhaus building offers far superior build quality,

help by asking for more. Homeowners to renters

energy performance and internal comfort than a

should all be enquiring where and when they can live

commitment to meeting global environmental

similar scheme built to typical building regulations.,

in one, which helps to influence the market.”

targets would be a huge start from the UK

not to mention the lower whole life costs of the building. Additional capital costs have decreased

While there is still some way to go before

The Passivhaus Trust believes that a secure

Government along with upgrading Building

Passivhaus becomes part of the mainstream there

Regulations to Passivhaus levels of criteria for energy

are some areas within the UK, such as Exeter and

efficiency & stating a kWh/m2/yr target.

CASE STUDY: THE DEERINGS Client: Private individual Architect: Gresford Architects Main contractor: MBC Timber Frame Structural engineer: Tanner Structural Design Ltd M&E consultant: Crofton Design Ltd Project manager: Trunk Low Energy Building Ltd Ventilation design: Green Building Store

Kebony was chosen for the cladding at Avondale

boiler was supplied it was never turned on, as even

Park Primary School, North Kensington, London,

on the coldest days, without the heating, the house

which was recently extended and refurbished by

maintained its ambient temperature of around 21

ECD Architects.


The five-bedroom home is a sympathetic

The Deerings, which was completed in October

response to its urban setting and sits comfortably

2017, was a joint project by Nicolas Tye Architects, who

alongside its more traditional neighbouring properties.

prepared initial plans and secured planning consent for

It was built from a super-insulated timber frame,

the project, and Passivhaus experts Gresford Architects,

which was constructed offsite by MBC Timber Frame

who developed the design through the detailed design

and was erected on a passive slab from MBC, which

and construction phases.

also supplied insulation and airtight membrane. The frame was built in three weeks, significantly


speeding up the overall programme, and minimising wastage and disturbance to neighbours. Recycled paper insulation and external timber cladding were chosen to reduce the carbon footprint of the building, minimising the use of concrete and steel to less than 10% of the total volume. A heat exchange system provides constant background ventilation, removing stale air and drawing in fresh air, so the house always has a

      

fresh, ventilated feel, while maintaining its warmth. A specialist Passivhaus certified woodburner was

Heating demand kWh/(m²a): 12.0 (maximum for PH Certification 15.0) Frequency of overheating (> 25 °C): 2% Pressurisation test result n5 1/h: 0.5 (maximum for PH Certification 0.6) Non-renewable Primary Energy Demand (PE) kWh/(m²a): 45 (maximum for PH Certification 120) Primary Energy Renewable Demand (PER) kWh/(m²a): 37 Generation of renewable energy (in relation to projected building footprint area) kWh/ (m²a): 25 Predicted annual energy use (regulated and unregulated)/CO2 consumption (including contribution from low carbon and renewable technology): 9.9 KgCO2/m2/y Contribution of renewable technology: 82.2 %

occasionally used and although a back-up gas





FOCUS ON: SWANN EDWARDS Swann Edwards Architecture has an impressive portfolio of Passivhaus buildings under its belt including the practice’s own purpose-built office “We ensured our proposal amalgamated the sustainable design strategies of our five-stage approach and the Passivhaus Standard,” explained Burton. “Yet we also incorporated a contemporary interpretation of a barn development, which is derived from Government and Local Policy, the site, its agricultural location and neighbouring properties.” The offices have a total floor plan of 206.6m2 with the ground floor and first floor totalling 103.3m2 each. The first floor comprises two studios and balconies, while the ground floor houses a spacious meeting room, reception area and staff facilities including a staff room and kitchen. “We became a passivhaus certified practice in 2014 but we really wanted to demonstrate the value of the architecture to clients. That’s why, when we were looking to move locations, it was natural for us to design and construct our own passivhaus offices,” said Burton. “The results have been brilliant. One of the easiest ways for us to

Swann Edwards’ office in Wisbech

demonstrate how effectively the Passivhaus building conserves energy is by showing the difference in temperatures indoors and outdoors. In

Innovation is at the core of Swann Edwards Architecture, certified

November 2017, for example, the first real cold spell of winter saw the

Passivhaus designers with extensive experience in delivering ultra-low

temperature outside drop to -1°c. Without any heating on, the temperature

energy buildings.

indoors was still a comfortable 21°c.”

The team is led by director James Burton who has always been

Windows installed according to Passivhaus guidelines ensure

passionate about environmentally responsible architecture and became a

condensation does not form inside the building and the offices reap the

certified Passivhaus designer in 2014.

benefits during the summer months with the inside temperature remaining

The company has designed the first Passivhaus dwelling in Fenland which is currently under construction and due to be featured in Building the Dream on Channel 5.

at 25°c in June 2017 when outdoor temperatures reached 35°c. “Last year’s summer showed the dramatic difference a Passivhaus construction can have at any time of year. The temperature inside remained

The property was approved under paragraph 55 of the NPPF which means that a dwelling must be of truly outstanding architectural quality or truly innovative in nature to be granted planning permission. As the district’s first Passivhaus it met that criteria.

stable, even without the building’s louvres, night vent or mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) being used.” The MVHR system delivers high rates of air changes throughout the building all year round which means fresh air is continuously provided and

Other ongoing Passivhaus projects include a home in Lincolnshire that will use recycled shipping containers and a timber frame dwelling with straw insulation, near Ely in Cambridgeshire.

filtering out pollens and contaminates from the air. “Our office is bordered by a very busy trunk road to the north and agricultural fields to the south, so we have both high pollen count and

Burton is also building his own home to meet the standard and the

high exhaust fume emissions and our filters when we take them out are

principles were used to design and construct Swann Edwards’ office

extremely dirty, showing that the MVHR is doing a great job to improve air

building which has recently been signed off as meeting the Passivhaus

quality in the office,” explained Burton.

Standard. The property based on Fen Road, Guyhirn in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, uses the latest in design to conserve resources, be kind to the environment and ensure minimal energy is used whilst always offering maximum occupant comfort. Positioned to maximise solar gain, to further contribute towards the stable, comfortable internal temperatures, the offices make intelligent use of materials to ensure the construction meets passivhaus requirements. The building’s walls and roof are constructed utilising 350mm JJI joists, fully filled with Warmcell recycled paper insulation, with Pavatex woodfibre insulation board over. Fixed to this a timber batten system and charred larch cladding supplied by Shou Sugi Ban. Internally the office is finished with charred timber cladding and birch faced plywood. The appearance of the building was also specifically designed to be in keeping with the Fenland village it is located in.


The interior of Swann Edwards’ office



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TIMBER TREATMENT SECTOR RESPONDS TO CHALLENGES RAISED BY GRENFELL TRAGEDY The Wood Protection Association (WPA) explains why it is reacting pro-actively to the challenges raised by the Grenfell Tower tragedy


hilst wood-based materials were not directly involved in the Grenfell

on flame retardant formulations by an independent panel of experts. The WPA

Tower disaster, the shock waves flowing through all parts of the

Benchmark FR scheme includes an independent audit and quality check on

construction industry as a result will have a profound effect on

companies applying these formulations.

how all building materials are specified and used in future. It was vital therefore that the timber sector reacted proactively to the

challenges raised and the wood protection industry has taken up that challenge in

Full details on all aspects of flame retardant treatment can be found on the WPA website

earnest, through the Wood Protection Association (WPA).

BUILDING REGULATIONS REVIEW The Hackitt Review of Building Regulations aims to make recommendations to ensure a sufficiently robust regulatory system for the future and to provide further assurance to residents that the buildings they live in are safe and will remain so. The WPA submission to the enquiry focused on competency throughout the supply chain and a lack of effective enforcement, both of which have been major concerns for the sector for years. Interestingly, the interim report from the review has found that ‘the current regulatory system for ensuring fire safety in high-rise and complex buildings is not fit for purpose... and is a problem connected both to the culture of the construction industry and the effectiveness of the regulators’. Grenfell Tower © Robin Sones

CTI INITIATIVE WPA joined the Confederation of Timber Industries (CTI) last year and is now fully engaged with the development of what may be called the ‘national timber fire specification’, a substantial and important project under the CTI umbrella which aims to draw all the key data and product knowledge relating to the performance, design and use of timber-based materials in situations where fire is a risk. Both fire resistance and reaction to fire testing and performance criteria for wood-based products will be covered by the CTI project.


01296 481220 |

LOCAL AUTHORITY BUILDING CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS PROJECT WPA has been invited by LABC to form a working partnership to promote and underpin understanding of how best to specify and use flame retardant enhanced wood-based products. This national educational programme would be aimed primarily at Building Control managers and officers (BCOs) on the ground and specifiers plus, in some instances, contractors and householders. LABC operates a wide range of learning platforms with content geared to the target audience and is keen for quality input, the core of which will be an interactive, online CPD style training resource for BCOs. The WPA team has put together a detailed project communications plan and associated budget, drawing together a project sponsor group to move forward on this valuable opportunity together over the next six to nine months.

FLAME RETARDANT PRODUCT AND PROCESS QUALITY ASSURANCE The WPA operates two complementary, independent quality schemes to verify that flame retardant treated wood has been manufactured appropriately for its end use. These are: 1 A flame-retardant formulation Product Approval Scheme 2 A treatment process quality assurance scheme called WPA Benchmark FR.

DECKING-OIL: Highest quality colour and protection for wood


The product approval scheme involves an in-depth review of fire test data















Visitors to ecobuild 2018 have been promised a “very different” event and a fresh format, including a ‘district’ focusing on timber, by the show’s new owners. Michelle Gordon takes a look at what is on offer


cobuild is returning to the ExCeL in London


in March 2018, under the ownership of Futurebuild Events Ltd, and the new organisers have promised that “things are set

Global events and exhibition company GES has

to be very different”.

been appointed as full-service event partner for

The 2018 event is being designed and built


around the industry having been shaped through

A key factor to its selection by organiser’s

comprehensive feedback from the sector with direct

Futurebuild Events Ltd was GES’ continued

input from members of the ecobuild Steering Group,

commitment to health, safety and sustainability.

including Jane Duncan, Lynne Sullivan, Bill Dunster

Earlier this year, the company received the

OBE, Robin Nicholson and Peter Murray.

industry recognised ISO20121 sustainability

This year’s conference takes its lead from global

accreditation for the fifth year running and

environmental targets, with sessions reflecting the

is one of few live events partners to be

concerns of the built environment industry and

awarded the OHSAS 18001 health and safety

formulating practical recommendations for action

accreditation by the British Safety Council.

(see box out on page 28).

Martin Hurn, managing director of

Surrounding the conference arena will be the

ecobuild, said: “It is vital for ecobuild to have

towards sustainability. The organisers

ecobuild sustainability showcases, home to some of

a partner which can help us deliver the most

can see that we share the same drive and

the most innovative solutions to the issues facing

environmentally friendly ecobuild yet. GES’

determination when it comes to health, safety

the built environment (see boxout on page 28).

credentials speak for themselves. They know

and sustainability in our industry. We are

the event inside and out and they share our

honoured to continue this exciting partnership

showcases are surrounded by a series of futurebuild

passion for truly sustainable events. We are

in 2018.”

districts – each focusing on a distinct, critical

excited GES is by our side as strategic partners

segment of the built environment – which have

as we take ecobuild in a new, exciting direction.”

The conference arena and sustainability

been developed to feed into the main conference

GES has worked on ecobuild since 2011


GES is a full-service partner for live events, producing exhibitions, conferences, congresses, corporate events, exhibits and entertainment

and will provide its suite of market leading and

experiences. The company provides a wide

eco-friendly event services including feature

range of services, including official show

and inspiring brands, companies and speakers to

build, graphics, logistics, AV and space only

services, audio visual, cutting-edge creative and

discuss the issues facing the built environment and

stand packages.

design, marketing and measurement services,

They will bring together innovative, exciting

to create an action plan for change. The focus of this

Jason Stead, UK managing director of

and event accommodations, with operations

plan will be helping to deliver the UN Sustainable

GES said: “ecobuild is a pioneering event that

around the world including Europe, North

Development Goals by 2030.

continues to change the industry’s behaviour

America, and the Middle East.

Research from last year’s event showed that





06-08 March 2018 / ExCeL, London

The future of the built environment is here

Timber Presenting Timber: part of the futurebuild districts. The Timber district will showcase the latest innovations in timber use, including timber framing, structures, cladding, glulam and much more.


Visit the Timber Talks Seminar theatre, in association with the Structural Timber Association, and gain knowledge in the daily CPD-accredited


masterclasses with case studies from industry experts, presenting the latest in offsite timber technology and lean manufacturing systems.


Get your FREE ticket #ecobuild







PREVIEW: ECOBUILD 2018 timber was one of the building materials that visitors were most interested in and, in response, an area specifically dedicated to timber has been introduced for 2018. Supported by the Structural Timber Association, Wood for Good, Timber Trade Federation, British Woodworking Federation and TRADA it will include a series of ‘Timber Talks’ focused on key topics, including social housing, self-build and SIPS, as well as a new timber pavilion called the Launch Pad, where SMEs and start-up companies can get support with their new product launches. There will also be the opportunity visit the TRADA bookshop, where members of the TRADA team will discuss its latest publications. Following its success last year, the Offsite district will return in partnership with Explore Offsite. The exhibition will feature ground-breaking offsite construction solutions and masterclasses, including


a session focused on the use of structural timber as

The showcases include the Natural Building Products Café, where experts will be on hand

a volumetric modular unit and what it can offer the

to provide demonstrations and information about natural building materials and techniques.

offsite industry.

There will also be the Sustainable Product Showcase, where The Passivhaus Trust and the

Other futurebuild districts include Building

Alliance for Sustainable Building Products will present top products and materials.

Performance, District Energy, Infrastructure, Concrete, Offsite, Green & Blue Infrastructure and Energy & HVAC. “We want ecobuild to be as relevant and valuable as possible to our exhibitors, visitors and partners, and this is why we’ve created the

futurebuild districts,” explained Martin Hurn,

years. By giving them the prominence they deserve

managing director of Futurebuild Events.

at ecobuild now, we’re certain we can help to

“All of these areas will play a central role in the evolution of the built environment in the next few

stimulate the conversations and knowledge sharing that will lead to better outcomes in the future.”

ANOTHER LEVEL The conference line up for 2018 has been

led by Peter Murray, chairman of New London

Martin Hurn, managing director of

shaped around delivering the UN’s Sustainable

Architecture; the possibilities of achieving zero

Futurebuild Events, said: “The calibre of

Development Goals (SDGs), New Urban Agenda

carbon, chaired by Victoria Kate Burrows, project

speakers joining us at ecobuild 2018 is

and Paris Agreement and will feature a 70-plus-

manager, Advancing Net Zero, World Green

fantastic. We are committed to working with

strong list of industry-leading expert speakers.

Building Council and the opportunities of tech for

recognised leading industry innovators to bring

the built environment.

some thoughtful, achievable and effective ideas

These will include Paula Caballero, global director climate programme at the World

to the event. The line-up of topics and speakers

past president RIBA and chair of the RIBA Fire

UN SDG); Lord Jack McConnell, co-chair of the

Safety Advisory Group, will chair a session

APPG on the UN SDGs; Joan Walley, chair of the

on construction quality post-Grenfell. Other

has been developed and shaped directly based

Aldersgate Group and former chair of Parliament’s

discussions include the economics of housing;

on industry feedback – ecobuild 2018 is the

Environmental Audit Committee; and Bill Dunster

construction leadership with ideas from young

industry’s event, and we want to ensure that

OBE, principal at ZEDfactory.

professionals and chaired by Oliver Wainwright;

every aspect of it is curated and approved by

behaviour change with Tony Juniper and Lord

industry itself.”

Other topics to be covered include housing, behaviour change, the urgency of tackling

Debden and whether it’s possible to make

resources, and compiling a sustainability report

London carbon neutral by 2050.

for the UK. Discussions from all 16 conference sessions


On day two, Jane Duncan, immediate

Resources Institute and the driver behind the

On day three, Julie Hirigoyen, chief executive

is testament to that. “Most importantly, each and every topic

Sue Riddlestone, OBE, chief executive of Bioregional and member of the ecobuild Steering Group, added: “After being so closely involved in

of UK Green Building Council, will chair a

helping to create the Sustainable Development

at the three-day event will be concluded in a

discussion evaluating the sustainability efforts of

Goals that were agreed in 2015, I was very

document as a legacy takeaway.

the UK built environment industry; Rowan Moore

pleased that the conference steering group

Day one will address the UN Sustainable

will chair a discussion on professional ethics and,

agreed unanimously that delivering the goals

Development Goals, New Urban Agenda and

wrapping up the final day, Sue Riddlestone OBE,

should provide the conference focus. The range of

Paris Agreement with speakers including Paula

will chair a discussion on how the UK can make

topics that the conference is tackling will provide

Caballero and John Elkington of Volans. There

its commitment to sustainable construction and

positive inspiration for the industry to contribute

will also be discussions on London’s air pollution,

deliver the UN SDGs at home.

to achieving the task in hand.”














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Thursday 8th March

Wednesday 7th March

Tuesday 6th March

A series of Timber Talks will be held in the timber futurebuild district in association with the Structural Timber Association. The schedule is as follows: Time



10.30am – 11.45am

Social housing

• John Fisher, MD, CHIC • Stephen Wightman, MD, SIG Offsite

12noon – 1.15pm

Retail & leisure

• Frank Werling, head of TED, Metsa Wood

1.30pm – 2.45pm


• Mark Moppett, MD, Booth King • Will Mawson, director, Mawson Kerr Architects

3pm – 4pm


• John Spittle, UK representative, Wiehag • Giancarlo Torpiano, structural engineer, Arup




10.30am – 11.45am

Private housing

• Wayne Yeomans, head of sales & marketing, B&K Structures • Katie van de Schaar, associate director, David Miller Architects • Ian Killick, director, ShedKM

12noon – 1.15pm


• Patrick Michell, partner, Platform 5 Architects • Andrew Porter, partner, Ashton Porter Architects

1.30pm – 2.45pm


• Paul Younger, associate, Hewitt Studios • Peter Blunt, MD, Innovare Systems

3pm – 4.15pm


• Kelly Harrison, Heyne Tillett Steel

4.30pm – 5.45pm

Low energy

• Neil Gethring, director, Net Zero Buildings




10.30am – 11.30am


• Chair – Rupert Scott, membership & marketing manager, TRADA • Speaker – Andrew Cook, business development manager, Innovare Systems

11.45am – 12.45pm

Timber frame

• Robin Lancashire, Exova BM TRADA

12.45pm – 1.45pm

Solid wood

• Anthony Thistleton, director, Waugh Thistleton Architects • Simon Smith, Smith and Wallwork


Futurebuild Events said: “We’re determined

explained Paddy Doyle managing director

by property development company, Brooke

to make ecobuild the go-to event for forward

at Brooke Homes. “At a time when the

Homes, will form an integral part of ecobuild’s

thinkers in the built environment. Incorporating

need for new, affordable homes is reaching

offsite district.

full-scale builds such as this proves that we

critical levels, this key growth area within

understand the actions the industry is taking

the construction industry offers tremendous

completely constructed in just five weeks.

now to tackle issues in the built environment.

benefits to builders, homebuyers and the

Modular structural insulated panels (SIPs) for

ecobuild isn’t about discussing concepts, it’s

environment. This type of construction also

the home are pre-assembled in a factory in

about showcasing tangible solutions.

greatly benefits the tradespeople involved

The three-bedroom property can be

Kent, complete with windows, doors, finishing

“We are delighted that Brooke Homes

in the build. The SIPs are constructed in a

joinery and an undercoat of paint. They can

is bringing this structure to ecobuild

weather-controlled environment, which

then be transported to site and lifted into

2018. Offsite has been described as being

means lower levels of illness and absence

position by a crane. This method is not only

representative of the future direction of

among workers.

time and cost efficient, it also has significant

construction technology and this build will help

environmental benefits. These homes have

bring this sector to life at ecobuild.”

increased energy efficiency and greater sound

Visitors at ecobuild 2018 will be able to go

“ecobuild offers the ideal opportunity to showcase this full-scale build. The event is leading the way in not only examining the

insulation, which means homeowners benefit

inside the Brooke Homes property and view

issues affecting the built environment, but in

from lower bills and greater peace and quiet in

rooms on each of the three storeys.

showcasing real solutions to those problems.

their properties. Martin Hurn, managing director of


“By using offsite modular construction, we can save up to 70% on build times,”


This forward-thinking approach fits perfectly with our ethos.”


What we fix is firm.




What we fix is firm

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wood-concrete – solutions that hold firm.

Visit us at the Austrian Pavilion B.110

Schmid Schrauben Hainfeld – at the Ecobuild 2018 - London Established in 1842 – Schmid Schrauben Hainfeld is the biggest producer of screws in Austria. The core competencies of Schmid Schrauben are timber construction screws as well as customization. With the main brands RAPID® and StarDrive GPR® Schmid Schrauben Hainfeld is setting standards in terms of quality as well as reliability. Due to the own local production shipment and availability combined with high social and environmental standards Schmid Schrauben Hainfeld serves many satisfied customers across Europe. Also in terms of innovation and new products Schmid Schrauben offers interesting solutions for today’s construction requirements as well as for new challenges. Two new products will start selling in 2018: The RAPID® Hardwood screw will serve a new segment in the market – glue-laminated timber made of hardwood is making its way to the market allowing slimmer and more elegant constructions with less wood but same static values. The requirements for screws are changing but Schmid Schrauben offers a solution without predrilling - ETA approved! On the other hand, Schmid Schrauben is serving the ever growing demand of stainless steel screws with a new product. The StarDrive GPR Stainless Steel is available in a diameter of 8mm and length between 80 – 300 mm. Due to the high requirements outdoors specially at the seaside – Schmid Schrauben will offer this product in A4 quality. 31


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Schmid Schrauben Hainfeld GmbH | Landstal 10 | 3170 Hainfeld T +43 (0)2764 2652 | F +43 (0)2764 7712 | E





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© Simonin - Wood Solutions / Cyrille Dubreuil

Like the french pavillion at the EXPO2015 in milan




FINISHING TOUCH FOR RETIREMENT VILLAGE Cladding offers an attractive and sustainable solution for retirement village


owarth Timber and Building Supplies has

is virtually knot-free, while the non-

put the finishing touch on the Richmond

chemical treatment makes the cladding

Witney Retirement Village, with the

resistant to moisture and means that

installation of ArborClad Clear Pine

it won’t warp or swell and will weather


evenly to a clean silver-grey colour.

The £32 million project was designed by PRC

“As well as offering sustainability

Architecture and built by BAM and the design

benefits, timber cladding looks very

called for a village atmosphere, with architectural

effective, and thermally modified Clear

features that reflect the local vernacular.

Pine offers a low-maintenance, long-lived

ArborClad Clear Pine cladding, which was

solution,” said Phil Barman, cladding

specified because of its attractive appearance

specialist at Howarth Timber and

and sustainability benefits, is incorporated across

Building Supplies.

entire elevations on selected buildings and as a unifying factor on others. As well as supplying the Clear Pine cladding,

“Our Clear Pine product is able to withstand moisture and – unlike some untreated soft-woods – it won’t warp

Howarth Timber machined to profile and finished

or swell, while the lack of harsh chemicals further

the corner moulds and fascias, providing a

limits its environmental impact. Properly fitted,

village care centre, 47 care suites with associated

streamlined service.

Clear Pine will last for a very long time which

accommodation and 79 close care apartments, as

makes it an ideal choice for this project.”

well as a wellness spa and restaurant.

The thermally modified timber cladding

The retirement village comprises a 60-bed

UNIQUE CLADDING TURNS UP THE HEAT AT NEW RESTAURANT A unique charred timber cladding product has been used to create a striking finish for the interior walls of a new restaurant enhance the panel qualities making it more resistant to fire, rot and pests. “With a refreshed interest in brutalist techniques in the architecture world, we are seeing a steep increase in interest for our charred timber cladding ranges, which are now being featured in award-winning houses,” said Karl Harrison, director of projects at Exterior Solutions Ltd, owners of the Shou Sugi Ban UK. “In order to support this demand, we need to use base products that we can rely upon when we apply our charring techniques. We selected MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME for our Kitai treatment due to its reaction to those processes. The material burns effectively to give a real aesthetic impact while maintaining its durability after the charring process. “To create our finished Kitai product, MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME is treated with an oil specifically developed in conjunction with MEDITE SMARTPLY to protect the wood and ensure it remains weatherproof. The process maintains the


ranslating as ‘burnt cedar plate’, Shou Sugi Ban is a Japanese term for the ancient art of charring timber to both preserve the wood and give

product’s 50-year external and 75-year internal use guarantee.” The manufacturing process used to create MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME,

it a unique burnt finish. Sharing its name with the charring techniques

which involves a proprietary non-toxic and environmentally friendly

it practices, Shou Sugi Ban by Exterior Solutions Ltd has used MEDITE

modification process, helps ensure that the burning technique used to create

TRICOYA EXTREME to produce Kitai, a unique and striking variant

Kitai produces no harmful gases.

of wall cladding that is being used for the interior design of new Leeds-based restaurant Sticky Sisters.

Peter Clifton, product manager for MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME, said: “Shou Sugi Ban’s products give a really distinct look and feel to design projects and it’s

Producing a range of charred timber cladding products for a wide variety

been fantastic working so closely with them on the development of their Kitai wall

of specifications, Shou Sugi Ban create beautiful wooden wall panelling and

cladding. It’s particularly encouraging to see that MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME

cladding with natural timber boards that show an enhanced grain. The charring

has provided such a fitting material that’s able to withstand the impact of the

process forms a carbon layer on the exterior of the boards, which not only gives

charring process and maintain its high-performance value. It just goes to show the

an enriched finish to design projects, but also protects the timber inside and can

true diversity of one of the most innovative wood panels on the market today.”





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We offer one of the largest and most varied ranges of joinery quality hardwoods and softwoods available in the UK.

With eight nationwide timber depots, we carry more than 20 species of certified and legally verified timber from Europe, Africa, South America, North America, the Far East and Scandinavia as well as modified wood and our own engineered product, WoodExd, all available directly from stock. Whatever your budget or project requirements, why not allow our extensive range of timber to provide the inspiration.

Find out more‌.


Call 0116 257 3415 email or visit





NEW PRODUCT HELPS EDEN PROJECT TO AVOID SLIP UPS A new product from Gripsure and MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME is increasing safety at a major visitor attraction


xtreme weather conditions can lead

panel with our long lasting, abrasion-resistant

to hazardous conditions for decking,

aggregate, results in an end product of the highest

the perfect solution for such specialists in

especially in public places where there is

standard and one that performs exceptionally

their field and we hope it continues to provide

a high footfall but Gripsure and MEDITE

well in terms of underfoot safety,” said managing

a reliable and sturdy anti-slip solution for

TRICOYA EXTREME have come up with

director of Gripsure, Mike Nicholson.

projects in the future.”

a solution to increase safety. Their latest product innovation Gripsure

“We’ve had fantastic feedback from our clients so far. Paul Stone, garden development

Xtreme, which lines one of the walkways at the

manager at the Eden Project, has been particularly

Eden Project, Cornwall, is an extremely robust

complimentary about the integrity of the product,

and durable non-slip solution that is suitable

mentioning that the non-slip inserts had remained

for a wide range of applications

100% in place since installation last winter despite

Non-slip timber decking manufacturer Gripsure, chose MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME

the tough damp humid conditions. “MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME’s wide variety

for the new non-slip coated panels due to its

of dimensions and thicknesses as well as its

exceptional durability and easy workability.

impressive ability to be cut and fashioned in to

The modified timber, which possesses

shapes and sizes of all varieties makes it suited to

fungal decay resistance qualities, as well as an

a great deal of different applications. Its enhanced

expected 50 years of in-service life, is coated

performance capacities help produce an extreme

with a highly abrasion-resistant aggregate

non-slip solution that we’re very proud of.”

which produces an extremely good grip. As well as its use at the Eden Project, where

Peter Clifton, product manager for MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME, added: “It’s been a privilege

it needs to withstand a tropical, humid and damp

to provide our innovative wood panelling to

environment, Grispure Xtreme has been used for

Gripsure who are the market leaders in non-slip

an outdoor bridge at Magdalen College School

timber decking.

in Oxford, where as well as being exposed to the

“The Eden Project application was particularly

elements, it bears the footfall of students crossing

challenging, and a standard wood panel would

the bridge wearing studded sport boots.

simply not be able to cope with the wet and

“It’s been fantastic to work so closely with

humid conditions. The fact that it has remained in

MEDITE SMARTPLY in the development of

the exact condition as it was when installed, and

Grispure Xtreme. Combining the durability of

where other high quality treated timbers have

MEDITE’s innovative high-performance wood

failed, truly shows its worth.


“It’s great to see our product providing




FLOORING BRINGS COUNTRY FEEL TO CITY HOTEL Engineered oak wood flooring from Havwoods is helping to create a comfortable country house feel at a newly refurbished hotel in York


he Grade-II-listed Principal York Hotel

for guests arriving by coach or car and a rather

house, featuring over-scaled furniture, such as

was originally one of Britain’s greatest

secondary entrance on the other side for guests

large wing chairs, to ensure an instant feeling of

Victorian railway hotels. Built in yellow

arriving by rail. One of the key elements of

welcome, combined with a light and soothing

Scarborough brick and designed by

Goddard Littlefair’s new plan was to ensure

colour palette, featuring a gentle and fairly

architect William Peachey it opened its

both entrances were of equal importance so

neutral base with softer highlights in shades

that all guests had a real sense of arrival, with

such as eau de nil and lavender. Similarly, the

both routes quickly joining one of two main

furniture is in colours such as tan, buff and

Capital, Goddard Littlefair was commissioned to

public space circulation axes – the Promenade

charcoal, with small amounts of texture and

redesign its public spaces, including the lobby,

or the Colonnade. The ‘business’ of arrival is

pattern for added interest.

reception, Garden Room, entrances and corridor

now contained within a relocated reception

spaces, as well as all 159 bedrooms and suites.

area, located off the Promenade, so the overall

of two wonderful, large and light-filled open

The full design team on the project included

public space feels less transient and suitcases

spaces, punctuated by handsome original

Michaelis Boyd, who redesigned the bar and

can disappear quickly into this dedicated and

columns with ornate capitals, all of which have

restaurant and architects 3D Reid, who oversaw

spacious contained room.

been refurbished. These are the Lobby Lounge,

doors in 1878. After the hotel was acquired by Starwood

the structural works on the project. “Our overall ambition was to breathe life

Opening up views throughout was

The heart of the new scheme is made up

which contains the hotel’s wonderful, dramatic

important and two brand new entrances were

staircase and the Garden Room beyond, which

back into every artery of the hotel’s interior,

cut into the Garden Room, alongside three

looks out, as its name suggests, onto the

giving a nod to tradition and heritage, but

more into the relocated reception area, so

hotel’s extensive gardens. There are clear views

also creating a tremendously warm, light and

that the ground floor is flooded with light and

through from one to the other, to ensure they

welcoming contemporary environment for

there are tempting glimpses of spaces beyond,

interact, via the existing central and the two

guests,” Goddard Littlefair director and co-

whichever way guests traverse the building.

new entrances. Both spaces – as well as the

founder Jo Littlefair explained. “We were briefed

The new public and lounge spaces are bright

reception room – feature oiled oak flooring

to reinstate the hotel’s essential character and

and generously-proportioned and offer food

from Havwoods with a special ‘sawn’ surface

to pay respect to its original architecture, whilst

and beverages throughout the day, from teas

and laid in a herringbone pattern. The timber

at the same time ensuring a feeling of comfort,

and coffees to afternoon tea or an evening

was deliberately chosen for its informal, not

restfulness, so that The Principal York was once

menu, maximising revenue possibilities from the

overly-polished look.

again a true destination hotel.”

fabulously light and welcoming space. Havwoods Product: Venture Plank – Heath

SPACE-PLANNING AND STRUCTURE The hotel originally had two entrances, with the first on the garden side of the hotel


INTERIOR DESIGN CONCEPT The central design concept was to create a modern and softer interpretation of a country


HW908 Engineered Oak/Henley Oak Fossil Engineered (special order) BPF21/4004/180


Latest innovations in Heat Air Moisture control to feature at Ecobuild The latest innovations in managing the balance between heat, air and moisture movement within the building envelope will be on display at this year’s Ecobuild. The A. Proctor Group, recognised worldwide for its extensive portfolio of technically advanced thermal, acoustic and membrane products for the construction industry, continues to lead the way in the research, design and manufacture of solutions which are at the forefront of the drive to achieve the optimum balance between these three core elements.

STUNNING HANDCRAFTED PLANTERS DESIGNED TO LAST WITH MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME Owing to the durable MEDITE TRICOYA EXTREME (MTX) panels from which they’re made, Oxford Planters handcrafted planters are both long-lasting and flawless in their finish. “Our planters are a longstanding investment not a changeable accessory,” says Sarah, Director and Owner of Oxford Planters Ltd. One of the first companies in the UK to start using MTX over five years ago, Oxford Planters Ltd. has built a reputation for creating a range of high end, exquisitely designed and crafted hardwood planters. That reputation is built on the quality of the materials used to create their products – among them, MTX.

One of the latest innovations on display will be Fireshield®, a vapour permeable walling underlay with a fire proof surface. Fireshield is suitable for all walling applications including those in multiple storey buildings. Its unique coating doesn’t just resist fire but eliminates fire spread. Addressing the need for maximising thermal performance in space critical applications, the A. Proctor Group has developed Spacetherm®, a range of solutions to provide architects, builders and installers great flexibility and ease of use, combined with exceptional thermal performance qualities, which can be retained for up to 50 years. Wraptite® is a unique patented external airtight and vapour permeable, self-adhered membrane which solves the problem of reliably achieving airtightness in buildings. Applying Wraptite to the outside of the building will mean there are fewer penetrations for services, therefore, the likelihood of expensive remedial work is greatly reduced. Setting the industry standard for high-quality performance and design in roofing, Roofshield is a unique, three-layer, nonwoven, spunbonded, polypropylene air & vapour permeable membrane with a patented melt-blown core. Its characteristics allow even very complex pitched roofs to breathe, without the need for air gaps or additional ventilation. Roofshield eliminates the incidence of interstitial condensation in pitched roofs.

MTX is used for painted products in their range, which also includes tables, chairs, benches, garden gates, pergolas and obelisks. Its selection by the highly skilled joiners and craftsmen at Oxford Planters comes down to two key attributes of the material: its durability and flat finish. For more information visit

Carrefour International du Bois The event not to be missed for the trade, the leading timber tradeshow in Europe, grouping over 3 days and 5 halls, 550 exhibitors and over 10 000 visitors coming from 80 countries; the largest timber offer under a single roof: sawn timber, panels, parquets, claddings, timber construction products, timber for interior and exterior design...

Organised every 2 years in Nantes, France, by Atlanbois* and the Grand Port Maritime de Nantes St Nazaire.

The latest solutions from the A. Proctor Group will be on display at Ecobuild stand number E60 at ExCel London from 6-8 March 2018.

Register now and obtain your free access badge on and prepare your visit: exhibitor list, program, business meeting service, practical information...

View more Case Studies on our website:

*Association for the promotion of timber in the Pays de Loire Region

Makita’s new 36v BL Slide Compound Mitre Saw has full mains machine performance

CaberShieldPlus, flooring that keeps you building even with the roof off

• 36v Brushless motor powers 260mm blade to 4,400rpm • Weighs just 27.3kg for total mobility • 60° mitre and 48° bevel ranges The new Makita twin 18v (36v) Brushless Slide Compound Mitre Saw has the same premium attributes as the new mains-powered LS1019 coupled with the total manoeuvrability provided by the high-performance 36v Brushless motor, which generates similar power to the mains machine. The rail-forward slide design allows the rear of the machine to be placed close to a wall whilst the twin slide rails are robustly mounted in the machine body ensuring smooth operation for a superior cut finish. A new compact 18v Brushless LXT Mitre Saw has also been launched.

CaberShieldPlus is the ideal flooring solution when building in Britain’s unpredictable climate. Based on Norbord’s popular moistureresistant CaberFloor P5 tongue-and-groove particleboard flooring panel, CaberShieldPlus is specially designed to withstand exposure to wet conditions. Yet, unlike Norbord’s other protected flooring product CaberDek, which features a peelable film on the top surface, CaberShieldPlus has protection on both sides, not just the exposed upper surface. The top surface features a permanent non-slip coating that not only prevents damage to the board but also ensures a safe working platform. The underside is protected with the smooth coating that not only protects against damage but also makes the board easy to slide into position. For added durability, the coating applied to CaberShieldPlus is not designed to be peeled off after completion but is bonded permanently on both sides of the panel and waterproof.

For more news and product information about Makita UK please visit

For further information, call 01786 812 921 or visit

BeA sets sights on new standard in fuel cell reliability

Elite Systems to reveal eco-classroom and housing concepts at Ecobuild

BeA Fastening Systems is helping to set new standards in gas powered nailer reliability. The business, which ranks as one of Europe’s largest manufacturer of fastening technology, tools and consumables for construction and industrialfocused applications, has revamped and relaunched its existing range of fuel cells for first and second fix tools.

Offering exceptional levels of compatibility and suitable for use in gas powered nail guns from most well-known manufacturers, the new BeA fuel cells employ a unique propane and butane mix alongside an enhanced cell design.

Bespoke modular construction specialist Elite Systems is bringing its bespoke modular buildings to ecobuild, held at ExCeL London from 6th to 8th March. The off-site construction specialist is giving visitors to its stand, F43, the opportunity to learn more about its fully modular eco-classroom concept, and will reveal the first details of the company’s bespoke modular housing prototype. Designed in response to increasing demand for building solutions with a lower carbon footprint, Elite’s eco-classroom features a built-in rainwater harvesting system, and solar PV panels. Elite has also specified more low VOC materials than typically used in modular or traditional construction, improving the overall health of the concept building.

More information on BeA and its extensive product range can be found at

For more information on Elite Systems visit or call 01274 873 232

Södra Wood joins Builders Merchants Federation

Can build timber skyscraper taller than 150 metres

Paul Shepherd, national sales manager at BeA, explains: “Modern construction businesses and contractors demand gas powered nailers that work as hard as they do. Frequently, gas fuel cells can be a weak link in an otherwise robust chain and our new products aim to overcome that. We have gone to great lengths to develop cells that users can count on for optimum reliability, time after time after time.”

Södra Wood, one of the UK’s market-leading supply partners of structural timber and engineered wood products, has become a member of the Builders Merchant Federation. The Builders Merchant Federation (BMF) is the authoritative voice for the building materials distribution sector. It represents 640 merchant and supplier companies, offering valuable business support and ensuring any industry issues are dealt with quickly and effectively. Södra sales director, Nigel Buckley-Ryan, comments: “We’re delighted to have joined the BMF. We care deeply about our industry and more than ever, with timber being so vital to the future of construction, it’s important that we position ourselves right at the heart of it.” Södra is Sweden’s largest co-operative of privately owned forest owners, and prides itself in delivering a sustainable and reliable supply of timber to merchants around the UK. For more information please go to Phone: +44 (0)1285 646000 | E-mail:


“With a wider building, it will be possible to build a timber building taller than 100 metres. 150 metres should also be possible. Possibly even taller.” These are the words of Director Rune Abrahamsen of Moelven Limtre AS. The man behind “Mjøstårnet,” among other things, which when completed in March 2019 will be the world’s tallest timber building. The building that many people in the international construction industry consider to be world-class engineering. He’s supported by Director Sverre Tiltnes at government-appointed Bygg21. “The project is an important contribution to make the international building industry more environmentally friendly. When one proves and documents that one can build a taller timber building that what one previously thought was possible, there’s no doubt that this is world-class engineering,” Tiltnes says. For further information visit





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Egger Protect. 60 days protection, whatever the weather.

It’s a fact – house building and renovation projects are often delayed, leaving sites under threat of weather damage. EGGER Protect is the only structural flooring board that can be exposed to the elements for up to 60 days. The dual sided surface protection is unique and offers a robust, non-slip floor, even when it’s wet. And, as part of the EGGER Advanced Structural Flooring System, it comes with a Lifetime Guarantee. For more information call 0845 602 4444 or email

Timber Construction Magazine Issue 3 Spring 2018  
Timber Construction Magazine Issue 3 Spring 2018