Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks
November 15, 2012
IGH TS RES 12 ERVED ©20
Issue # 794
Little Paper Ever Read®
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DEATH VALLEY by Janet Spencer
Death Valley is the driest spot in the U.S. It’s also the lowest spot in the Western Hemisphere. And it is one of the hottest spots on Earth. Join Tidbits as we tour one of America’s most unusual national parks. • It’s BIG! Death Valley National Park is the largest national park outside Alaska. The valley is about 130-140 miles long, and the valley floor averages 5 miles wide. The national park contains nearly 3.4 million acres. The state of Rhode Island could fit inside Death Valley National Park more then three times over. It’s twice the size of Delaware, and nearly the same size as Connecticut. • It’s LOW! A parking lot at a place called Badwater is 279 feet below sea level. Several miles away in a desolate salt pan, there are a few dips that are 282 feet below sea level. Death Valley is the lowest spot in the Western Hemisphere, but the Dead Sea (between Jordan and Israel) is 1,360 feet below sea level. • Only six places on earth are deeper than Death Valley, and they are all desert valleys. If these valleys received more rain, erosion would eventually fill them with sediments and they would no longer be below sea level. Also, they’d be lakes instead of valleys. turn the page for more!
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DEATH VALLEY (continued):
• It’s HOT! The heat is partly caused by the low elevation. With every thousand feet you lose in elevation, the temperature rises by about 5 - Another Satisifed Medicap Patient degrees F. Death Valley’s topography—a deep valley sandwiched between two steep mounHOURS HOURS tain ranges—also magnifies the heat. Hot air M-F 9-7 M-F 9-7 rising from the valley floor gets trapped beSat. 9-1:30 Sat. 9-1:30 tween mountain ranges. The hot air re-circuJeff Theige R.Ph. Park Mall • 1395 S.S. Columbia Road • •746-1800 Theige, R.Ph. Med Med Park Mall • 1395 Columbia RoadRoad 746-1800 JeffJeff Theige, R.Ph. Med Park Mall • 1395 S. Columbia • 746-1800 lates and gets hotter. The dryness also contributes to the heat. Death Valley has no clouds for Complete hearing aid care shade, no rain for cooling, and little vegetation • Advanced Digital Technology • FREE Hearing Evaluation to stop rocks from absorbing heat all day. In • 60 Day Hearing Aid Trial turn, the heat reinforces the dryness, evaporat• Service Most Makes ing rain before it reaches the ground. “I love the drive-thru window. No walking through “I lovestore the drive-thru window. walking through a large just to pick up myNomedicine.” a large store just to pick up my medicine.” - Another Satisifed Medicap Patient
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Quiz Bits 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. What was the name of Mallory’s not-so-bright boyfriend on TV’s “Family Ties”? Death Valley is just a part of a 6. In the “X-Files” TV drama series, larger desert. Name it. what was the phrase on the UFO How many people die of the heat poster in Fox Mulder’s office. in Death Valley each year on average? 7. Where is the Centers for Disease At two percent humidity, how Control and Prevention located? long does it take laundry to dry 8. How old was Abraham Lincoln when he was assassinated? Who on a clothesline? became president after Lincoln? How deep was the ancient lake that filled Death Valley during the TRIVIA Ice Age 100,000 years ago?
• When it comes to average highs, Death Valley beats the Sahara. In 2001, Death Valley hit 100°F or higher on 154 days in a row. It’s hit 100°F or higher in every month except November, December, January, and February. It’s hit 110°F on (coincidentally) 110 days in a row, in 1996. And it hit 120°F on 43 days in a row, in 1917. • July is the hottest month on average, with a daily high of 115°F. August is second, with an average daily high of 113°F. June is third, at 109°F. • In July, when the average daily high is 115°F, the daily average LOW temperature is 88°F.
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• The hottest temperature ever recorded in Death Valley was 134°F on July 13, 1913. By comparison, the hottest temperature ever recorded on Earth was 136°F, recorded in the Sahara Desert in Libya in 1922.
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• Things cool off in winter. In November the average daily high is 76°F. In February it’s 72°F, and in January and December it’s 65°F.
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www.WheelersPoint.com 5. What is the NCAA Division I record for most consecutive games, by a player, with at least one 3-point shot made— 36, 52, 70 or 88? 6. Who was the last defenseman before Erik Karlsson in 2011-12 to finish in the top 10 in scoring for an NHL regular season? 7. When was the last time before 2012 that Dale Earnhardt Jr. led the NASCAR Cup points standings during a season?
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• It’s DRY! Why is Death Valley so hot and dry? Don Lago describes the science behind it in his book, Death Valley Trivia. The main factor is called the “rain shadow” effect. When storms come out of the Pacific Ocean and head inland, they have to cross a series of mountain ranges, which force clouds to rise, condense, and drop their moisture. With every mountain range they cross, the clouds have less moisture left for the next one. The Sierras can get 34 feet of snow per year, but then the clouds have little moisture left for the Owens Valley just west of the Sierras; the Owens Valley gets less than 6 inches of rain per year. Clouds that make it past the Sierras then hit the Panamint Mountains and lose most of their remaining moisture. This leaves little rain for Death Valley, or for the Amargosa Range on the east side of Death Valley. While the Panamints get 15 inches of annual precipitation, the Amargosa Range gets only 3-5 inches. • The average annual rainfall in Death Valley is only 1.94 inches. By comparison, New York City receives an average of 49.64 inches of rain per year. In some years, Death Valley has recorded no rainfall at all, such as 1929 and 1953.
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• Death Valley’s official temperature is recorded at a weather station five feet above the ground. But the ground gets hotter than the air. The hottest ground temperature ever recoded in Death Valley was 201°F in 1972. • The record low temperature in Death Valley is 15°F, set in 1913, which was the same year that set the record high of 134°F. Death Valley’s all-time low is about the same as the all-time lows of Phoenix or Houston.
DEATH VALLEY (continued):
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DEATH VALLEY (continued):
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• With so little rainfall and so much evaporation, the humidity level in Death Valley sometimes falls to 2 percent. With humidity this low, even when the temperature is a pleasant 70 F, people can become seriously dehydrated.
Call Jenny 787-7831 or Kathy 787-7932 valleymemorial.org
• Even in the summer heat, people in Death Valley may not get sweaty. The human skin often remains dry. But this doesn’t mean you aren’t perspiring: it means that perspiration is evaporating instantly. For people from humid climates, who are accustomed to skin and clothes drenched with sweat, this can trick them into seriously underestimating how much water they are losing.
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National Adoption Day
Finding Water • There is no place in Death Valley more than 15 miles away from a spring. Natives knew all the water sources in Death Valley, but prospectors and tourists have died of thirst even when springs were nearby because they didn’t know where they were.
Every day in America, children who enter the Foster Care System become available for adoption. Give a gift to a child in foster care who is waiting for their
National Adoption Day Celebration
WHERE: Grand Forks County Court House 124 South 4th Street DATE: Saturday, November 17th 2012 TIME: 9am – Noon Adoption Finalization Hearings 9am – 11am Program to begin at approximately 11am
Community wide Open House including breakfast, toy drive and children’s activities begin at 9:00am. Gifts will be used throughout the year as birthday, Christmas and adoptive placement gifts. For more information call 701-775-4196 or go to www.aasknd.org.
*If you are unable to attend the National Adoption Day Celebration, toy drive donations can be dropped off at Catholic Charities North Dakota , 311 South 4th Street, Suite 105, Grand Forks, ND.
• Death Valley has over 350 seeps and springs. Some are barely large enough to keep the ground damp, but the largest, Travertine Spring, can pour out up to 2,000 gallons per minute. If Death Valley wasn’t so dry, its springs would start building a lake on the valley floor. • The water that pours from these springs comes from the mountains of central Nevada. Snowmelt flows underground for hundreds of miles until water reaches the surface. This water can take thousands of years to arrive in Death Valley. This means that the tap water you are drinking in Death Valley may have fallen as rain when the Egyptian pyramids were being built.
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JOSEPH STRAUSS • Joseph Strauss was born in Cincinnati in 1870. He was short, but he nevertheless tried out for the school football team. As a result, he spent several weeks recovering in the infirmary, where the window in his room offered a view of the Cincinnati-Covington Bridge, which was America’s first long-span suspension bridge. Strauss subsequently developed a fascination with bridges. When he graduated from college with degrees in business and economics, his commencement address presented a proposal to construct a railroad bridge across the Bering Strait, linking Alaska and Russia. • Strauss got a job working for a foundry where he learned the ropes of steel and iron manufacturing, and then went to work for a bridge building company. Later, he went to work for
an engineering firm, and then started his own engineering firm in 1904. His specialty was drawbridges, and he constructed around 400 of them. However, he dreamed of something more challenging, so when officials from San Francisco approached him in 1919 about spanning the Golden Gate Strait, he jumped at the chance, even though he had never constructed a single suspension bridge. He didn’t even have a degree in engineering. It took more than a decade for Strauss and city officials to convince the public that a bridge should be built. In the midst of the Great Depression, a city bond raised the funds needed, and work on the Golden Gate Bridge began in 1933. • 100% CYAN
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• There were many challenges to overcome: deep water, turbulent currents, corrosive fogs, high winds, and heavy sea traffic. Strauss asked for help from engineering visionaries Charles Ellis and Leon Moissieff, whose contributions were essential in refining the design and overcoming the engineering challenges. He then downplayed their involvement so that he would get more of the limelight. To his credit, his insistence on rigid safety measures prevented many deaths and proved that large projects could be completed safely when worker’s health and well-being was given a priority, which was not typically the case at the time. He wanted people using his bridge while admiring the workers who built it; he was horrified by the thought that wives and children and parents might one day be crossing the bridge while remembering the husbands and fathers and sons who died during its construction. He also instituted the policy of hiring men for the duration of the entire project in a day and age when construction workers were more typically hired on a daily basis. He wanted continuity among workers and did not want to be constantly training newly hired men, because the work was so dangerous. • His health began to fail during the construction, which lasted four years. He was once gone from the site for a six-month stretch, leading to rumors he’d had a nervous breakdown. Yet, he managed to see the project through to the end, and proudly walked across the completed bridge on the day it was opened to the public. Strauss died of a heart attack a year later, at the age of 68. He is buried in Forest Lawn Cemetery, with a basrelief of the bridge etched in brass mounted upon his tombstone.
: i There are more pets in Japan than children. i A goldfish will turn gray if kept in the dark for a long time.
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• Researchers once did an interesting experiment with bees. They brought two groups of bees from their home hive to Carnegie Lake in Princeton, New Jersey. One group of bees was taken to a bunch of pollen-laden flowers in a rowboat that was anchored close to shore; the other group was taken to a bunch of flowers in a rowboat way out in the middle of the lake. After sampling the flowers, the bees flew home to their hive and both groups did a waggling dance indicating a source of pollen had been found. The bees at home evidently refused to believe that there could be flowers in the middle of the lake, because whereas lots of bees returned to harvest pollen from the flowers close to shore, almost none came to the boat in the middle of the lake.
2 October 2011
2 October 2011
• When bees find food, they communicate its location by doing a dance that signifies direction and distance to their fellow bees. One bee researcher set up two food sources near a hive. One was close to it; the other was farther away. Then he watched the dancing movements of the bees that fed at the different stations. The bees that fed at the nearby station did wagging dances; those that fed at the more distant place did circling dances. When he moved the food sources, the dances changed accordingly. He found that a bee returning from a spot 100 yards away would make 10 turns in 15 seconds, but those returning from 2 miles away would make only 3 turns in 15 seconds. If the food was in the direction of the sun, the bee danced with its head up. If it was away from the sun, the head was down. If it was at a 45-degree angle to the sun, the bee danced in a corresponding angle to the hive.
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Find at least 6 differences in details between panels
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• Professor tested some bees by DEERE.James JOHNGould DEERE. (continued): placing a bowl of sugar water near a beehive. • It was while living in Illinois that John noAfter it had been discovered by the bees, he ticed the problems that farmers faced when started moving it. Every few minutes he moved attempting to till soil. Because the area had theformerly dish, butbeen eachwoodland, move wasthe four times soil waslonger rich than the previous move. Thus, he moved it with hummus, which clumped and clung one to inch, then four inches, 16 inches and so the blades of the plowsthen farmers were accuson.tomed Soontohe wasWhile moving the dish more cirthan using. repairing a broken 100 feet in a single jump. The bees caught cular saw, Deere stumbled upon an idea. Heon and were waiting for skills him when he arrived. employed his smith to fashion the steel blade into the Bee shapeFacts of a plow. He affixed two wooden spokes, then hitched the device • Number of flowers a bee must visit to make to a horse. It plowed the heavy Illinois soil one pound of honey: 2 million like a charm. In fact, a farmer who happened • Number of miles the flown hive of bees to be observing test by run aimmediately putin order makefor1 his pound honey: 55,000 in antoorder ownofJohn Deere plow. • •Amount honeyDeere madegave by aup worker honey bee In shortoforder, his blacksmith and focused on making plows. The inshop a lifetime: 1/12 teaspoon companyannual grew steadily and added many em-of • Average per capita consumption ployees. In the late 1840s, John relocated the honey: 1.1 lbs. entire operation to Moline, Illinois. Ashamed • Average speedlack of aofhoney bee: 15 mphsent his of his own education, John childrennumber to the state’s finest schools. One of a • Average of flowers visited during his proudest days occurred when son Charles single collection trip: 50-100 earned the equivalent of an MBA from Bell’s • Average lifespan of a worker bee: 28-35 days Commercial College in Chicago. • •Average of a queen bee:the 2 years With hislifespan son Charles managing company, John found to pursue in• Percent of the time average humanphilanthropic diet derived from terests. He co-founded insect-pollinated plants: both 33%the First National Bank First Congregational Church. • Percent ofand thatthe pollination performed by honey He was elected the mayor of Moline in 1873, bees: 80% where one of his first actions – the replace• Percent of the the city’s time bees 0 ment of openspend drainssleeping: with a sewer pipe system – saved countless by reduc• Number of bees in a hive: up tolives 60,000 ing the spread of disease. • Percent of body weight an average bee can car•ryThe John Deere in itsoriginal nectar load: 50% logo, registered in 1876, depicted a deer that was native to Afri• Number of eggsyears an average laysreper ca. Thirty-six later, inqueen 1912,bee it was day: 3,000 placed with the image of a North American white-tailed deer. In thetodecades fol• Amount of food she needs eat dailythat to do so: lowed, the now-familiar “outline” logo took 80 times her weight over as the symbol of the John Deere brand.
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Hours: M-Sat: 9-6
1375 S. Columbia Rd., GF • 701-757-0451 (Located in the strip mall next to Scheels)
1. Mojave Desert 2. Two people 3. About 2 minutes 4. 600 ft. deep 5. Nick Moore
6. “I Want to Believe” 7. Atlanta, GA 8. 56 years old; Andrew Johnson
OF GRAND FORKS
NOW HIRING Both FULL-Time and PART-Time Positions Apply Online at:
www.sears.com/apply or stop into Sears located at Columbia Mall Sears is an EEO/AA Employer
Sports Answers 5. 88 games by 1. Tony Gwynn Cory Bradford with 319 SB of Illinois (‘98-01) 2. Yankees (1921-23) 3. 1985 (Jets scored 6. Paul Coffey of Detroit (‘94-95) 62 vs. Tampa Bay) 4. Derrick Thomas 7. 2004 of KC (7 in 1990)
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"Death Valley," Joseph Strauss" and "B is for Bees"