S PUZZLE • A I • TRIV N FACTS • FU November 28, 2019
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PEARL HARBOR by Kathy Wolfe
With the 78th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor approaching, Tidbits takes the time to honor this Oahu location. • Inhabited by Polynesians for centuries, Pearl Harbor was once rich with an abundant supply of pearls. Westerners first visited the island in 1778, when British Captain James Cook sailed past the island of Oahu. Unable to enter Pearl Harbor because of coral at its shallow entrance, Cook landed on Kauai two days later. He named the group of islands the Sandwich Islands to honor one of his patrons, John Montague, the Earl of Sandwich.
• Pearl Harbor was acquired by the United States from the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1875. www.elitecarpetsgf.com The Kingdom signed a treaty with the U.S., Carpet Cleaning • Carpet relinquishing control of the harbor in exCleaning SPECIAL! change for being allowed to export raw sugar Upholstery $129 •Cleaning to the U.S. duty free. In 1898, five years after 3 Rooms & the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown, HaHallway • Water Not valid with any other offer. Extraction Expires 12-31-19 waii became a territory of the United States. Residential & Commercial
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• In 1902, the coral was blasted away, and large vessels could then navigate into the harbor. It was further enlarged and dredged in 1908 in preparation for the establishment of the Pearl Harbor U.S. Naval Shipyard. Turn the page for more!
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4. Which U.S. president invented the swivel chair? 5. What is the name of the male 1. Name the artist wo donated mascot in the Monopoly board $64,000 from a 1961 concert game? toward construction of the USS 6. Which Revolutionary War figArizona memorial. ure led the Boston Tea Party? 2. What battleship was the site of 7. Name the capital of Vermont. the surrender of the Empire of 8. In the Bible, what was Abel’s Japan? occuaption, compared to 3. Which 1980s movie featured Cain’s? the song “Up Where We BeTRIVIA long”? SPONSORED BY:
PEARL HARBOR (continued):
• In the late 1930s, relations between the U.S. and Japan were strained, due to Japan’s increased aggression toward China. Japan’s economic problems led to efforts to expand into China and take over that country’s import market. In 1937, Japan initiated the Nanjing massacre, murdering tens of thousands of Chinese civilians. In 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the U.S. Pacific Fleet to move from San Diego to Pearl Harbor, as well as increasing military personnel in the Philippines, hoping to inhibit Japanese aggression. • FDR also ordered a termination of oil exports to Japan in July, 1941, after Japan had seized French Indochina. Japan then made plans to overpower the Dutch East Indies, because of their rich oil supplies. When Japan was warned by the U.S. to withdraw from China and cease attacking neighboring countries, the Japanese initiated tactics to prevent the U.S. Pacific Fleet from getting in the way of their military conquests.
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• The plan to attack Pearl Harbor was devised by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, who commanded the Imperial Japanese Navy combined fleets. Yamamoto had studied at Harvard University from 1919 to 1921, and had served as a naval attaché in Washington, D.C. Between his duties there and a large amount of travel throughout the U.S., Yamomoto learned English, as well as obtaining a firm grasp on American customs and business. His plan was to destroy the U.S. Pacific Fleet, thus preventing the Americans from fighting back as the Japanese military spread out over the South Pacific.
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• Although American code-breakers had figured out that the Japanese were planning some type of attack, they had not determined the target. The Philippines seemed likely to them. ...continued
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PEARL HARBOR (continued):
• On a quiet Sunday morning, just before 8:00, under the command of Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, the first wave of 183 fighter planes launched from six aircraft carriers began a surprise attack on the American airfields, completely destroying 188 U.S. aircraft and damaging another 159. The second wave of 170 bombers set their sights on the U.S. Navy battleships. • Eight battleships were moored in Battleship Row. The U.S.S. Arizona was struck with an armor-piercing bomb that entered the forward ammunition compartment, tearing the ship in half and sinking it within minutes. There were 1,512 crewmen on board, of whom 1,177 were killed. • Two ships, the USS California and the USS West Virginia were torpedoed and came to rest on the Harbor’s bottom, but due to the shallow waters, which saved them from sinking to the bottom of the Pacific, the main decks were above water. The bottoms of the battleships were just feet away from the seabed, which meant that none of the ships disappeared below the surface. However, 206 lives were lost on these two ships. The ships were repaired and made seaworthy again by 1944, as were several others. • The USS Oklahoma was hit by five torpedoes and capsized, killing 429. The ship was later brought up, but was too damaged to repair. It was decided to tow the hulk to San Francisco to be sold for scrap. While en route in 1947, a storm stuck and the Oklahoma sank to the bottom of the Pacific.
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• In addition to the Imperial Japanese aircraft attack, five Japanese midget submarines were submerged near the entrance to the Harbor, having been launched the night before the attack. Each of the 78-foot-long submarines carried two men and two torpedoes with an explosive charge of twice that of the bombs carried by aircraft. They could maneuver in the shallow waters of the Harbor ...continued where conventional subs could not.
*Answer located further back in this issue.
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2105 Central Ave. NW • East Grand Forks, MN • 701.746.1378 4. How many fights did former heavyweight boxing champion Joe Frazier have 1. The U.S. women’s soccer after losing to Muhammad team set a Women’s World Ali in the Philippines in Cup group stage scoring 1975? record in 2019 with 18 5. Which Minnesota Vikings goals in three games. quarterback holds the What Country had held record for most passing the record with 17 goals? yards in a single game? 2. What was the nickname of the Minnesota Vikings 6. What year did the MN defensive line from the late North Stars move to Dallas? 7. What name did NBA 1960s to the late 1970s? 3. Which NBA team had the player Ron Artest change highest PPG avg. last season? his name to in 2011?
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PEARL HARBOR (continued):
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• Ten days after the attack, Admiral Husband Kimmel, naval commander at Pearl Harbor, and Lt. General Walter Short, U.S. Army commander, were relieved of their duties, and entered into several investigations and finally early retirement. In 1999, both were exonerated after their deaths by the U.S. Senate. • It was the goal of the Japanese to decimate the Pacific Fleet. But because all of the Fleet’s aircraft carriers were safely away from the base that day, the U.S. was able to rebound from the attack. The Japanese also failed to destroy the base’s oil storage depots, power station, dry dock, torpedo storage facility, repair facilities, shipyard, submarine docks, and headquarters building. • The USS Arizona memorial receives more than two million visitors annually. The sunken battleship is submerged in less than 40 feet of water, but none of the wreckage is above water, because its guns, turrets, and superstructures were removed.
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• One of the midget sub’s periscopes was spotted by an American destroyer, which opened fire, putting an end to the first sub. Another sub was able to enter the Harbor, but was sunk by another destroyer. Yet another drifted to the coast of Oahu and was captured the next day, giving the U.S. their first Japanese POW. Four of the midgets have been found, one as recently as 2002. Two are on exhibit – one in Texas and one in Japan – two remain on the seabed, and one has never been found.
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• The death toll from the Pearl Harbor attack was 2,403 American citizens, including 2,335 military personnel and 68 civilians. The Japanese loss was 64 Navy members and 29 out of their 353 attacking aircraft. Twenty-three sets of brothers aboard the USS Arizona perished.
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STICK IT TO CANCER EVENT
December 7, 2019 2:00 PM Puck Drop Eagles Arena The 3rd annual Stick it to Cancer game hosted by the GF KnightRiders hockey team is set for December 7, 2019 at Eagles Arena. ComeForks out to support the GF KnightRiders as Grand they take on the Minot Majettes! All Proceeds from the game’s KnightRiders events benefit the Gap Foundation, Altru Health System and Stick It To Cancer Event their efforts to purchase a new 3D Mammogram Machine. December 7th, 2019
H T-Shirt sales all afternoon H 1pm-3:30pm bid on on Silent Auction items H 50/50 raffle during game H High School Band playing during intermission H Taco in a bag (Free Will Donation) 2:00pm puck drop Eagles Arena
The 3rd annual Stick It To Cancer game hosted by the GF KnightRiders hockey team is set for December 7th, 2019, at Eagles Arena. Come out to support the GF KnightRiders as they take on the Minot Majettes! All proceeds from the event benefit the Filling the Gap Foundation, and Altru Health System, and their efforts to purchase a new 3D Mammogram Machine.
*Answer located further back in this issue.
★ T-shirt sales all afternoon ★ ★ 1pm-3:30pm bid on silent auction items ★ ★50/50 raffle during game ★ ★ High School Band playing during intermission ★ ★Taco in a bag (free will donation)★
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Give online at www.altru.org/donate and note your gift is for Stick it to Cancer
Give Online at www.altru.org/donate and note your gift is for Stick it to Cancer
by Samantha Weaver
• It was 19th-century German poet Johann Peter Eckermann who made the following sage observation: "Invention requires an excited mind; execution, a calm one." • Those who study such things say that if you want to know if someone is likely to keep your secrets, you should look at their birth order in the family. First-born children tend to be better at keeping secrets than kids born later. • According to biologists, young giraffes have been known to grow up to half an inch per hour. • You might be surprised to learn that in addition to being the father of our country, George Washington was quite a successful purveyor of alcohol. According to the U.S. Distilled Spirits Council, he operated one of the largest whiskey distilleries in early America, producing 11,000 gallons in 1799.
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• You may be familiar with the famous scene from Shakespeare's "Hamlet," in which the title character picks up the skull of an erstwhile acquaintance and declares, "Alas, poor Yorick!" It's an icon of the stage -- and the screen, with more than 50 known film versions of the play. Of course, it's also been published too many times to count, and in too many different formats. One in particular stands out, though; in 2009, Czech bookbinders and artists Jan and Jarmila Soboda created their own unique edition. It's a tiny script tucked inside a plastic skull housed in a small metal casket with a hinged lid. • If you're planning a holiday in Paris this year, keep in mind that in that city it's against the law to spin a top on a sidewalk.
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• Steve received a python for this sixth birthday, the same year he caught his first venomous snake. By age nine, he was assisting his father in wrestling and catching problem crocodiles who made their way to boat ramps. Steve jumped on the crocs in the water, put his legs around the neck, and wrestled the reptile into the boat. Steve described it as “like being tossed around in a washing machine.” He determined at that young age that catching crocodiles was the life he wanted. • Steve spent his young adulthood capturing problem crocodiles, saving them from poachers’ bullets, and moving them to his family’s facility. When his parents retired in the 1990s, Steve took over the management and renamed the facility the Australia Zoo. • Twenty-seven-year-old Oregon resident Terri Raines was vacationing in Australia in 1991 when she visited the Irwin family wildlife park. There she met Steve, and by June of the following year, they were married. They spent their “honeymoon” filming a documentary that would become part of “The Crocodile Hunter.” Four years after the series debuted in Australia, it was picked up by America’s cable channel, Animal Planet.
• Irwin came under fire in 2004 when he was filmed feeding a chicken carcass to a 12.5-ft crocodile while holding his one-month-old son. Irwin rebutted the accusations of child abuse by stating that he had been dealing with crocs since he was a young boy, and knew that there was no danger to his baby. • In addition to his rescue efforts, Irwin and his father also discovered a new species of snapping turtle in the early 1990s. The freshwater turtle was named Elseya irwini after its discoverers. • Irwin branched out in film with 2002’s “The Crocodile Hunter: Collision Course,” which was awarded the “Best Family Feature Film” at the Young Artist Awards. He also made an appearance in Eddie Murphy’s “Doctor Doolittle” that same year. Irwin also provided the voice for an elephant seal named Trev in the animated “Happy Feet.” Sadly, he died while the film was in postproduction. • Although occasionally criticized for what some considered irresponsible, thrill-seeking, and clowning around antics on the small screen, Irwin was committed to wildlife education and conservation. He operated an organization that rescued and protected crocodiles, and supported several other animal conservation charities. • In September, 2006, while filming a segment on stingrays, and snorkeling in shallow waters, Irwin swam over a ray, and was pierced in the chest by the ray’s tail. His heart was pierced, and this father of two passed away within a few minutes at age 44.
• Steve Irwin came into the world of wildlife naturally since his parents owned a wildlife park. Although his father was a plumber by trade and his mother was a nurse, the pair both loved wildlife, and when Steve was a young child, they opened the Beerwah Reptile Park in Queensland, Australia.
This month we celebrate Steve Irwin Day, set aside to commemorate the life of the famous Australian animal enthusiast and host of “Crocodile Hunter.”
• Crocodiles weren’t the only thing that Irwin rescued. In 2003, while filming a documentary about sea lions off the coast of Baja California, reports came over his boat’s radio that two scuba divers were missing nearby. Irwin and his crew joined the rescue team and located one survivor on a rock ledge on the side of a cliff and ushered him to the safety of Irwin’s boat. Unfortunately, the other diver perished.
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(Answers located further back)
November 18, 2019
• Frozen grapes make great ice cubes for white wine and punch. They are tasty straight out of the freezer, too. • Want to keep certain rooms off limits to wandering little ones? If you slip a baby sock over a doorknob, then secure it with a heavy-duty rubber band, it will keep toddlers out! — E.R. in Ohio • You might be tempted to reserve your silver flatware for special occasion use, but it can be used daily. If you do so, it will be less likely to tarnish and require special cleaning and polishing. Hand wash gently -– never put silver in the dishwasher — and store in drawers lined with a tarnish proof cloth for best results. • Substitute cottage cheese for sour cream in dips by running it through a blender until smooth. It’s lower in calories and higher in protein than sour cream. • “If you eat one meal out in a restaurant each day, let it be lunch. The prices are typically lower, and the portions are not really smaller. It’ll keep you going all day, and you can have a light meal or snack in the evening.” — S.L. in Nevada • Self-care tip: It’s a great idea to set aside a bit of time before bed to think about your goals for the future or to review the successes and lessons learned of the day — or just to not think at all. Double down on the me-time by taking the time to hydrate your skin with some lotion. Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, 628 Virginia Drive, Orlando, FL 32803.
In The Park • On Dec. 4, 1783, George Washington, commanding general of the Continental Army, informs his officers that he will be resigning his commission and returning to civilian life. In 1789, he was coaxed out of retirement and elected as the first president of the United States. • On Dec. 7, 1805, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, having made a difficult trip across the rugged Rockies, set up winter camp near the mouth of the Columbia River. They named it Fort Clatsop, after the local Indian tribe. • On Dec. 6, 1865, the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, officially ending the institution of slavery, is ratified when Georgia votes to ratify. Mississippi, however, would not submit documentation to abolish slavery until 2013. • On Dec. 5, 1945, five U.S. Navy Avenger torpedo-bombers take off from Florida on a routine three-hour training mission near the Bahamas. Two hours later, the planes disappeared. Mariner aircraft, sent to locate the planes, also disappeared. No trace of the men or aircraft were ever found. • On Dec. 2, 1954, the U.S. Senate votes 65 to 22 to condemn Senator Joseph R. McCarthy for conduct unbecoming a senator. The censure was related to McCarthy's controversial investigation of suspected communists in the U.S. government, military and civilian society. • On Dec. 3, 1979, 11 people are killed when a crowd of general admission ticket-holders to a Who concert surge forward in an attempt to enter Cincinnati's Riverfront Coliseum and secure prime unreserved seats. The glass entrance doors shattered as the 8,000-strong crowd pushed forward. • On Dec. 8, 1980, John Lennon, a former member of the Beatles, is shot and killed by Mark David Chapman, an obsessed fan, in New York City. Chapman was sentenced to 20 years to life, and he remains behind bars at Attica Prison in New York. © 2019 Hearst Communications, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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This week, Tidbits delves into the background of the world’s most famous mummy, discovered 97 years ago this week. • Although much is known about the tomb of King Tut, not a great deal is known about him as a person. His tomb has revealed more about him than historical records. It’s believed that he was born in Egypt around 1341 B.C., the son of the powerful Pharaoh Akhenaten. Tut’s full birth name was Tutankhaten, which means “living image of Aten.” Tut’s father had forbidden the country’s worship of many gods, proclaiming that the people would now worship one god, Aten, the sun disk. While a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten, but when he ascended the throne, it was changed to Tutankhamun. • Tut became Pharaoh in 1333 BC, at age nine or ten. He married his half-sister, and the couple had two daughters, neither of whom survived. The second daughter had several birth defects, including spina bifida and scoliosis, perhaps caused by the family’s inbreeding. DNA testing showed that his parents were brother and sister. • Although a tall person, his remains suggest that he was physically frail, suffering from a bone disease that crippled his left foot. Artwork depicts him as seated while participating in physical activities such as archery. DNA samples uncovered evidence of several malaria infections. It’s possible that Tut died from a gangrene infection following a broken leg. • His tomb was relatively small in size, which leads historians to believe that Tut’s death at age 19 was sudden and unexpected. Following the Egyptian religious tradition, Tut’s organs were removed and wrapped in resin-soaked bandages. A 24-lb. solid gold mask was placed over his head and shoulders, and the body was then placed in eight nested containers, including golden coffins, a granite sarcophagus and gilded wooden shrines.
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KING TUT (continued):
• The relatively-unknown Tut rested in his tomb for more than 3,200 years, until November, 1922, when British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered the four-room tomb, unsealed the burial chamber in February, 1923, and turned Tut into the world’s most famous pharaoh. • Carter had been excavating in Egypt since 1891. After World War I, his search was concentrated in the Valley of the Kings, where Tut was entombed.
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• The antechambers contained 5,398 artifacts, which took Howard Carter 17 years to excavate, classify, and record. Although it seems the tomb had been robbed twice of a few items, the robberies clearly took place less than a year after Tut’s death. Items discovered included weapons, chariots, thrones, jewelry, clothes, oils and perfumes, wine, trumpets, childhood toys, gold and ebony statues, and 130 of the crippled king’s canes – anything that he might possibly need in the afterlife. Carter even found fresh linen underwear! • Tut’s tomb relics have been displayed throughout the world. The most well-known tour began in 1972 at London’s British Museum. Over a six-month period, more than 1.6 million visitors attended the exhibition, standing in line for up to eight hours. The Metropolitan Museum of Art hosted the U.S. exhibition from 1976 to 1979. Upwards of 8 million people viewed the display over the 2 ½-year period. • Today, Tut’s mummy still rests in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. On the 85th anniversary of the discovery, in order to reduce further decomposition, the mummy was transferred from its golden sarcophagus to a climate-controlled glass box, where it remains on display to visitors. Information in the Tidbits® Paper is gathered from sources considered to be reliable but the accuracy of all information cannot be guaranteed.
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