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Tall and Supertall

Thornton Tomasetti – Tall and Supertall

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Thornton Tomasetti – Tall and Supertall

The New York Times Building, New York, N.Y. Jim Kent / Thornton Tomasetti


Contents Introduction

Firm Profile

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Integrated Practices

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How We Work 11

Role in Tall Buildings

Project Examples

Jeddah Tower

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Shanghai Tower

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30 Hudson Yards

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Torre KOI

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Chengdu Greenland Tower

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Kohinoor Square

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Federation of Korean Industries Head Office Building

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Crescent Tower

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King Abdullah Financial District

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Wuhan Greenland Center

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Wilshire Grand Center

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Federation Tower Complex

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Signature Tower

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The New York Times Building

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Ping An International Finance Centre

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International Finance Centre Seoul

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Comcast Center

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VIA 57 WEST

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Hearst Tower

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World Trade Center Towers 1-4

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Haeundae Doosan We’ve the Zenith

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Petronas Towers Kuala Lumpur City Centre

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Taipei 101

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Shanghai Tower, Shanghai, China, by Ermell (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons from Wikimedia Commons

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Thornton Tomasetti – Tall and Supertall


Firm Profile

Thornton Tomasetti is a leader in engineering design, investigation and analysis, serving clients worldwide on projects of every type, size and level of complexity. We are a 1,200-person organization of engineers, architects, sustainability practitioners and support professionals collaborating from offices across the United States and in Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. We address the full life cycles of structures through our 10 integrated practices: Structural Engineering, Weidlinger Protective Design, Façade Engineering, Weidlinger Transportation, Construction Engineering, Sustainability, Weidlinger Applied Science, Forensics, Property Loss Consulting and Renewal. Pioneers in the design of high-rise buildings, we use advanced analysis to optimize structural systems, resolve interdisciplinary conflicts, and guard the safety and comfort of occupants. For structures of unconventional size, shape, structural system or function, we employ performance-based design methodologies when prevailing building codes are inapplicable or inadequate, such as in high-seismic areas. Our deep bench of seasoned professionals combines unequalled experience with sophisticated technological tools to enrich the creative process, promote effective collaboration, improve coordination and enhance visualization and communication throughout planning, design and construction. We strive to realize our clients’ visions within budget and often on fast-track schedules, adapting our approach or inventing new technology to support architectural creativity. Throughout the design process, we work closely with owners, architects, contractors, consultants and user groups to facilitate efficient integration of architecture, structure, building services, infrastructure and sustainability criteria, creating buildings that positively impact their occupants, the community and the environment.

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Integrated Practices

Our firm is organized into 10 integrated practices that are engaged globally in a wide range of market sectors. Structural Engineering We collaborate with architects, owners and builders to design elegant solutions for projects of all types, sizes and levels of complexity. From designing the world’s tallest buildings and longest spans to engineering inventive special structures of every scale and designing modern expansion projects, we continually seek the best balance among the demands of form, function, sustainability, constructability, schedule and budget. Weidlinger Protective Design Our 50 years of experience in providing physical security analysis, advice and design – to architects, owners, developers and public agencies – have made us the premier provider of protective design services. We analyze vulnerability to multiple hazards and provide balanced and economical mitigation for every type of structure. We collaborate with team

Renewal – Chrysler Building, New York, N.Y.

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Thornton Tomasetti – Tall and Supertall

members to achieve solutions that uphold each project’s aesthetic and budgetary goals, crafting designs that provide the required level of protection without compromising architectural integrity. Façade Engineering We provide façade consulting services to architects, owners and developers. We offer a suite of specialty analyses to solve complex design challenges, improve constructability, maximize energy efficiency and increase security. From materials research and specialty analyses, through detailed design, engineering and construction support, to glass and façade failure investigations, our expert staff helps clients execute ambitious architectural visions. Weidlinger Transportation We specialize in providing engineering solutions for a wide variety of transportation infrastructure. We perform analysis, design, construction inspection, evaluation, monitoring and rehabilitation for projects ranging from aviation facilities, bridges, cruise terminals and waterfront facilities to rail and

Property Loss Consulting – Deutsche Bank Building Deconstruction, New York, N.Y.


Thornton Tomasetti

intermodal transit stations, streetscapes and tunnels. Our multidisciplinary expertise – in structural, civil and geotechnical engineering – supports client needs for both new and existing transportation structures. Construction Engineering We work closely with designers, developers, contractors, fabricators and erectors to efficiently move a project from concept to opening day. Our services include integrated design and fabrication modeling, connection design, erection engineering, field engineering and site representation. Our construction support experience enhances our structural engineering services on complex, timesensitive projects, but we also offer these services for projects designed by other engineering firms. Sustainability

Courtesy Perkins Eastman and Ennead Architects

We collaborate with clients and project partners to integrate successful green solutions into the planning, design, construction and operation of buildings, reducing their environmental impact at every stage of their life cycles and supporting energy performance, health and well-being. Our services include sustainable design strategies, energy analysis,

Structural Engineering – Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/CUNY Hunter College, New York, N.Y.

Applied Science – In-house software predicts blast effects in urban canyons. Thornton Tomasetti – Tall and Supertall

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© Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

Integrated Practices, continued

Façade Engineering – Federation of Korean Industries Head Office Building, Seoul, South Korea.

green building certification consulting, sustainability analysis and upgrades for existing structures, along with education and training. Weidlinger Applied Science We apply a unique combination of technologies and expertise – in solid and fluid dynamics, mechanics, materials, acoustics, stochastics, software development and computational simulation – to engineer practical solutions to intractable problems. We undertake research, development and design to manage risks to life and structures in military and civilian buildings, infrastructure, industrial facilities and vehicles. Our 65-year record of success is driven by the sustained focus of our uniquely qualified team of engineers and scientists. Forensics We provide attorneys, property managers, building owners, contractors/manufacturers and design professionals with a wide range of engineering and architectural forensic services. As design professionals, we evaluate for standard of care; as forensic specialists, we seek root causes; as problem solvers, we seek resolution. Our deliverables typically include a report, expert testimony, a set of calculations/drawings, and computer models and simulations.

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Property Loss Consulting Our Property Loss Consulting practice helps insurance companies analyze pre- and post-loss risks, damage and property claims arising from natural or man-made perils. Our professionals represent diverse disciplines, from architecture to experts in structural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing engineering. At the heart of our practice is the investigation of damage to structures, which includes cause and origin analyses, engineering assessments for reinstatement of damaged buildings, building code upgrade analyses, and responding to emerging specialized claims, such as LEED-certified structures, renewable energy claims and requirements for buildings to react to changing environmental conditions. Renewal We provide building owners and managers with a wide range of envelope, structural and MEP solutions for existing structures of all types. We conduct performance investigations, condition assessments, prepurchase due-diligence surveys, feasibility studies and peer reviews. We design repairs, renovations and alterations, and oversee their execution.

Weidlinger Transportation – San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco, Cal.


© Michael Warwick Dreamstime.com

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How We Work

We add value and make lasting contributions by working collaboratively, using the best tools and fostering an environment where innovation can – and does – thrive. Life-Cycle Support Our unique suite of integrated practices, services and resources affords us an unparalleled ability to help our clients plan, design, build, maintain and renew structures of every kind.

Bess Adler / Thornton Tomasetti

We work with owners, architects, contractors and fabricators on design and construction of new buildings and on expansions and renovations of existing structures. We also help building owners, managers, insurers and occupants meet ongoing needs throughout the building’s life cycle.

Building information modeling is an ever-improving tool we use to help clients realize their goals. Having used it for decades, we’ve found that even basic BIM tools can dramatically improve collaboration, coordination, visualization and communication. But we’re also using more advanced methods for digital project design, delivery and fabrication. Computational design – parametric and generative modeling – advances creative exploration by allowing project teams to quickly view and analyze a host of concepts and variations. These tools also increase documentation speed and quality, accelerate geometry-based analysis tasks, and simplify calculation of material quantities. We’re also pushing BIM beyond design and construction. Our forensic information modeling services now harness the power of BIM to improve the way forensic data is stored, analyzed, accessed and used. We Bring the Whole Team

Michele Cyr and Sebastian Mendez set up a test tank experiment on a shake table.

Collaboration Drives Value What is the key to successfully balancing the competing priorities present in every project? Collaboration. At Thornton Tomasetti, we don’t limit our focus to just our scope of work. Instead, we talk to teammates across disciplines to identify the critical areas of intersection. We ask questions and look beyond the obvious, searching for the unique approach best suited to each project. We are committed to proactive collaboration, to open communication and to making the complex understandable to all stakeholders. 10

BIM & Beyond

Thornton Tomasetti – Tall and Supertall

Whether it’s a new building or an existing structure, we have a team to help. Our 10 integrated practices offer a range of services that yield benefits greater than the sum of their parts. Combined expertise in sustainability, façade support and structural engineering, for example, provides a holistic understanding of how these elements affect one another in a building. Coordination among our designers and construction engineering specialists makes for more efficient construction. And lessons learned by our forensics, property loss consulting and renewal staff improve the way we design new buildings – and vice versa.


Thornton Tomasetti The Thornton Tomasetti and Ping An teams meet at the Ping An South Tower construction site in Shenzhen, China.

Courtesy Heerim Architects & Planners

To Us, Global Is Local Design and construction practices vary greatly by location. Different conditions, availability of materials, wind or seismic activity, and legal and regulatory environments all affect “what works” in any given place. We have offices around the world and a breadth of international know-how that few engineering firms can match. We hire local staff with knowledge of regional design and construction cultures. Our international presence – in Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and North America – allows us to speed forensics and property loss consulting experts to any location at any time. Our deep bench supports fast deployment and continued presence on-site until our clients’ needs are met.

Baku Residential Complex, Baku, Azerbaijan.

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Bess Adler / Thornton Tomasetti

Role in Tall Buildings

New Design In recent years, supertall buildings have become more structurally challenging and visually exciting. Lateral accelerations on windy days and differential column shortening (post-construction creep and shrinkage) as height increases pose special challenges. Powerful computer programs now aid in geometric modeling and structural analysis.

Chris Christoforou and Aine Brazil at Hudson Yards, New York, N.Y.

Efe Karanci / Thornton Tomasetti

A broader understanding of wind and seismic loads and new architectural and structural materials, along with improved construction technologies, all facilitate the design process. This knowledge base – buttressed by our understanding of the interaction among structural system framing elements, building skin, and architectural and mechanical systems – is invaluable in providing designs that are safe, comfortable, economical, sustainable and constructable. Feasibility Studies There is no substitute for experience when an early decision is needed on concept feasibility. Evaluation must be based on a combination of extrapolations from completed designs of other high-rise buildings and computer models that condense structural details while preserving attributes essential to answering preliminary design questions. Our design professionals use both historical information and an analytical approach to develop the answers owners and design teams need to select an appropriate design course. Peer Review It takes a firm experienced in supertall building design to know whether a design proposed by another firm is appropriate. Our approach to

10 Hudson Yards, New York, N.Y.

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peer review services applies the lessons learned during our work on both new building designs and existing building investigations. We know how to address conflicting design criteria when it is time to provide suggestions and observations as a peer reviewer. This experience means our comments focus on the realities of supertall buildings rather than hypothetical considerations.

in fewer changes, reductions in field issues and shorter construction schedules. Modeling technology enables all project stakeholders to visualize the entire structure early on, optimizes the interplay between aesthetic and functional considerations, eliminates clashes between systems and facilitates accurate early material procurement.

Design-Build

Design criteria and construction methodology are just two of the key components of supertall buildings that often require expert review and value engineering. Often, local codes and practices, or construction materials and methods that are appropriate for projects of more conventional size, are applied to supertall designs for which they were never intended. We have experience around the world in helping reviewers understand and apply current international standards for these unique projects. We also assist contractors and developers by sharing best practices.

Thornton Tomasetti has more than 20 years of experience in design-build project delivery. Our successful track record includes projects across a wide range of market sectors: commercial, sports, residential, cultural, education, healthcare, aviation, retail and industrial. By combining design and construction into a single contract, all members of the team – architect, engineers, contractors and fabricators – work together from the start to improve coordination and constructability. The enhanced collaboration that is integral to design-build results

319m.

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Value Engineering

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Akhmat Tower

One World Trade Center

Signature Tower

Grozny Russia

New York New York

Jakarta Indonesia

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Images Š Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture


Jeddah Tower Jeddah, Saudi Arabia We are performing structural design for Jeddah Tower, the centerpiece of the new 5.2-million-square-meter Jeddah Economic City development. Upon completion, the tower will be the world’s tallest building and will house luxury condos, a hotel, apartments, office space, and the world’s highest observation deck. A high-performance exterior wall system will minimize energy consumption by reducing thermal loads. In addition, a series of notches along each of the tower’s three sides will serve as outdoor terraces, providing stunning views of Jeddah and the Red Sea and shielding areas of the building from the sun. The structural system design is based on stringent performance criteria for supertall structures, entailing both international performance standards and regional building codes. Key challenges include establishing wind loads appropriate to the building’s height and location, fine-tuning the building’s form to minimize the impact of wind loading while optimizing the structural system, designing the slender spire elements and designing a foundation that can support the heavily loaded structure and mitigate differential settlement.

Owner/Developer Jeddah Economic Company Architects Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture Completion Date 2019 (estimated) Contractor Saudi Binladin Group Total Area 530,000 m² / 5.7 million sf Number of Stories 167 above ground 2 below ground Height 1,000+ m / 3,307 ft

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Shanghai Tower

Developer Shanghai Tower Construction and Development Company

Shanghai, China

Architect Gensler

We provided structural engineering design and façade peer review services for Shanghai Tower, the tallest building in China and the second-tallest in the world. The development features Class-A office space, retail, a luxury hotel and cultural venues.

Completion Date 2015 Total Area 573,400 m² / 6.2 million sf

We engineered a simple, safe and cost-effective structural system that enables a creative architectural form. The tower’s exterior – a twisting triangular surface that tapers as it rises – is wrapped around a concrete core composed of nine stacked cylinders.

Number of Stories 127 above ground 5 below ground Height 632 m / 2,074 ft

An efficient design of super columns with outrigger trusses derives stiffness from the concrete inner building, forming an effective system for resisting wind and seismic loads. We developed a unique support system for the twisting curtain wall that employs hanger rods supported at mechanical levels, horizontal girts, braces and cross-braces at each level.

Awards Best Tall Building Worldwide, CTBUH, 2016 Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia, CTBUH, 2016

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Thornton Tomasetti

Courtesy Howe Keen Foong/Gensler

The design, which incorporates such sustainable technologies as energy-generating wind turbines and solar panels, has received certifications from the China Green Building Committee and the USGBC.


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Courtesy Shanghai Tower Construction and Development


Owner The Related Companies Oxford Properties Client / Architect Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates PC General Contractor Tutor Perini Corporation Tishman Construction Completion Date 2019 Total Area 2.6 million sf Number of Stories 90

New York, New York Thornton Tomasetti is providing structural design services for a 90-story, 2.6-million-square-foot office tower with a 1.3-million-square-foot podium. The structure is part of a 17-million-square-foot mixed-use development consisting of residential, commercial and retail, as well as 14 acres of public open space. The site encompasses six city blocks, totaling 28 acres. The building’s location presents a major challenge, as a significant portion of the building footprint is situated over the LIRR rail yard, which restricts the placement of building foundation and support columns because of track positions and clearances. Multistory transfer trusses at the lower levels distribute column loads to the nearest foundation. In many areas, these transfer systems will extend into the retail podium, requiring the two buildings to be constructed as one structure.

Courtesy The Related Companies

Height 395 m / 1,296 ft

30 Hudson Yards

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Torre KOI

Owner Internacional de Inversiones

Monterrey, Mexico Thornton Tomasetti provided structural design, through design development, for a 69-story tower that, when completed, will be Mexico’s tallest. Stark+Ortiz is serving as the local engineer for the 917-foot-tall building. The mixed-use tower will house offices, nine levels of parking, and luxury apartments, which will offer panoramic views of the Cerro de la Silla, Sierra Madre and Cerro de las Mitras mountains.

Completion Date 2017 Number of Stories 69 Height 279.5 m / 917 ft Sustainability LEED Silver

Christopher Crilly / Thornton Tomasetti

Courtesy Internacional de Inversiones

The structural system consists of post-tensioned concrete flat slabs supported by concrete columns and a concrete shear-wall core with post-tensioned concrete waffle slabs at the garage levels. The core’s high aspect ratio posed a significant challenge for meeting wind acceleration limits. Full-story concrete belt walls at Levels 21 and 61 link the tower columns to the shear-wall core to resist lateral loads and enhance stiffness, minimizing perceptible accelerations due to wind loads.

Architect VFO Arquitectos

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Owner Greenland Group Chengdu Shu Feng Real Estate Development Co., Ltd.

Chengdu Greenland Tower

Design Architect Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

Inspired by the neighboring landscape, the architectural design for this mixed-use tower entails a highly complicated geometry with facets sloping in all directions to resemble snow-covered mountains. Surrounding the main tower are two smaller towers and a six-story podium.

Architect of Record East China Architecture Design & Research Institute Completion Date 2018 Construction Cost $2 billion Total Area 455,530 m² / 4.9 million sf Number of Stories 101

Thornton Tomasetti is providing structural engineering services for the project’s schematic design and design development phases, and structural peer review services for the construction documents phase. This tower is located in an active seismic zone. Its primary lateral force-resisting system is a reinforced-concrete core wall with 16 reinforced-concrete columns, which zigzag along the height of the tower. The secondary system includes a high-performance braced-frame system made of reinforced-concrete columns with an outer periphery of steel beams and braces, which serve as both structural members and architectural components. The main tower features a core wall with sloping walls – the first use of this system in a high-rise in China.

Courtesy Greenland Group

Height 468 m / 1,535 ft

Chengdu, China

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Kohinoor Square Mumbai, India We provided structural engineering design and façade consulting services for a pair of commercial towers at Kohinoor Square. The larger of the two, at 48 stories, will be among India’s tallest office buildings. “Kohinoor” means “mountain of light” and is also the name of one of the world’s largest diamonds. While the gleaming, slope-sided towers were designed to evoke the facets of cut diamonds, the specific shape and structure of the towers were based on extensive wind-load studies. The structure comprises a concrete core and post-tensioned concrete slab and spandrel beams. The façades consist of faceted unitized aluminum curtain walls with provisions for double façades on portions of each tower. The towers are linked by a podium with a façade of custom point-supported glazing on specialty steel trusses.

Owner Kohinoor CTNL Infrastructure Corporation Architect gkkworks / SSA Contractor Larsen & Toubro Limited Completion Date 2016 Number of Stories 48 Height 203 m / 666 ft

Images courtesy gkkworks

Kohinoor Square is one of the first skyscrapers in India to receive a LEED Gold rating from the Indian Green Building Council.

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Owner Federation of Korean industries Architect Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture Contractor Hyundai Construction Completion Date 2013 Total Area Tower: 170,000 m² / 1.8 million sf Conference Center: 6,000 m² / 64,583 sf

Seoul, South Korea We performed schematic structural design for this 245meter commercial tower. Our team designed a structural system consisting of a reinforced-concrete core and composite columns, augmented by steel outrigger trusses and perimeter steel belt trusses. Revit and Tekla modeling applications were used to document the design. The tower’s furrowed exterior wall provides optimal placement for spandrel-mounted photovoltaic panels and plays a key role in disrupting the formation of wind vortices. An adjacent three-level conference center occupies an ornamental egg-shaped structure. Our façade experts designed and detailed its glazing system using Gehry Technologies’ Digital Project.

Courtesy Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

Height 245 m / 804 ft

Federation of Korean Industries Head Office Building

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Crescent Tower Baku, Azerbaijan

Architect Heerim Architects & Planners Completion Date 2012 Total Area Tower 1: 56,522 m² / 608,340 sf Tower 2: 45,464 m² / 489,370 sf Number of Stories Tower 1: 46 Tower 2: 37

Courtesy Heerim Architects & Planners

We provided structural and parametric façade design services through design development for these iconic residential towers on a hillside overlooking the Caspian Sea. To resist extreme winds (“Baku” means “windy city”) and severe seismic forces, we designed a dual system: a special reinforced-concrete shear wall and a special RC moment frame. The structural floor system combines a twoway 200-millimeter slab and RC beams. The curved towers have special requirements for façade panelization that allows the use of flat quadrangle unitized façade systems. Parametric modeling allowed us to determine the optimal façade unit geometry, thereby reducing fabrication and erection costs.

Owner Crescent

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Images courtesy Henning Larsen Architects

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King Abdullah Financial District Riyadh, Saudi Arabia We provided structural and façade design to Henning Larsen Architects for several tower projects in the new King Abdullah Financial District. Crystal Towers will serve as the district’s main financial center. The complex is split into two towers of 135 meters and 95 meters, linked by a 70-meter elevated podium bridge that forms a gateway to the development. The Gem Building consists of two mid-rise reinforcedconcrete office and residential towers that link to two “gem” structures composed of a two-story steel frame structure and a concrete shell forming a single crystalline roof over a double-height retail space. Villas in the Sky is a 33-story tower with 12 levels of residential units above 13 floors of office space. The building is topped by a “sky gym,” spa and roof terrace. Our engineers used BIM on these projects to speed analysis of complex building geometries, increase design flexibility, improve coordination among design team members and simplify clash detection and resolution.

Owner The Public Pensions Agency Developer Rayadah Investment Company Architect Henning Larsen Architects General Contractor Saudi Binladin Group Completion Date 2017 (estimated) Total Area Crystal Towers: 93,000 m² / 1 million sf The Gem Building: 33,500 m² / 360,591 sf Villas in the Sky: 41,000 m² / 441,320 sf Awards Crystal Towers: Be Inspired Award for Innovation in Building, Bentley Systems, 2010

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Owner Greenland Group Architect Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture Completion Date 2018 Construction Cost $4.5 billion U.S. Total Area 396,088 m² / 4.3 million sf Number of Stories 125 above ground 6 below ground Height 636 m / 2,087 ft

Wuhan Greenland Center Wuhan, China We are providing structural design and façade services for this 125-story tower, to consist of office space, apartments, a hotel and a penthouse-level private club. Because the 636meter structure exceeds the China building code’s height limits, engineers used performance-based design to satisfy seismic requirements set by an expert review panel. The building’s structure uses a composite-concrete core, floor system and columns. Concrete with embedded steel provides superior strength and ductility and improves costeffectiveness, since in East Asia, concrete is much less expensive than steel. The tower’s tripod plan and rounded form reduce wind resistance and the formation of vortices that cause uncomfortable building motions. The tapered structure reduces forces at the top of the building. The aerodynamic performance of this configuration minimizes the required amount of structural material, reducing costs and environmental impacts. Façade services included parametric modeling, analysis and reconstruction to develop practical curtain-wall solutions for the warped geometries.

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Images Š Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture


Architect AC Martin Partners General Contractor Turner Construction Company Completion Date 2017 (estimated) Construction Cost $1 billion Total Area 204,386 m² / 2.2 million sf Hotel: 900 rooms Office: 400,000 sf Retail: 45,100 sf Total Height 1,100 ft Number of Stories 73 above ground 5 below ground Sustainability Pursuing LEED Silver Awards Design Concept Award, Los Angeles Architectural Awards, 2013

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Wilshire Grand Center Los Angeles, California The new Wilshire Grand Center will redefine the Los Angeles skyline. Reaching 73 stories and topped by an LEDilluminated “sail,” the tower will be the tallest building in the western United States. It will house a four-star hotel, Class-A offices, five levels of subterranean parking, and an upscale rooftop “sky lobby” with sweeping views of Los Angeles. A five-story podium will include retail and dining options. Thornton Tomasetti provided structural engineering and performance-based design services. The tower’s superstructure lateral system is a nearly rectangular four-cell cast-in-place reinforced concrete shear wall system. The gravity system consists of concrete-filled metal deck floor slabs supported by composite steel wide-flange framing. We applied PBD principles to validate the tower’s seismic performance and successfully presented the design to the building department’s peer review panel. We also established a parametric façade panelization strategy for the geometrically complex all-glass façade.

Len Joseph / Thornton Tomasetti

Owner Korean Air


Federation Tower Complex Moscow, Russia Rising 373 meters, the Federation Tower complex provides accommodation for Class-A offices, a five-star hotel and luxury apartments. It will become the centerpiece of the new Moscow International Business Center. Adjacent to the 101-story Tower Vostok (east) is its 64-story partner, Tower Zapad (west). The complex is the first project in Russia to use super high-strength concrete technology. Three levels of steel outrigger-truss systems distribute gravity and wind loads between the core and perimeter framing. The project design incorporates modern requirements for occupant safety in supertall structures.

Architect NPS Tchoban Voss Completion Date 2016 Total Area 325,160 m² / 3.5 million sf Number of Stories Tower Vostok (east): 101 Tower Zapad (west): 64 Height 373 m / 1,224 ft Awards Prix d’Excellence, Office Category Winner, International Real Estate Federation (FIABCI), 2009

Images courtesy Mirax Group

In addition to structural engineering services, Thornton Tomasetti provided façade consulting and specialty glass and steel design. We used computational geometry and building information modeling to develop innovative and efficient designs for the tower caps, integrating the structure with architectural elements, maintenance requirements and mechanical functions.

Owner Mirax Group, Moscow

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Owner PT Grahamas Adisentosa Architect Smallwood, Reynolds, Stewart, Stewart & Associates, Inc. MEP Engineer Beca Engineering Completion Date 2021 Total Area 593,000 m² / 6.4 million sf Height 638 m / 2,093 ft Number of Stories 111

Signature Tower Jakarta, Indonesia Thornton Tomasetti is providing structural engineering services for a 111-story, 638-meter mixed-use tower located on Lots 6 and 7 of the Sudirman Central Business District in Jakarta, Indonesia. The structure has an observatory at the top level, 25 floors of hotel space, 70 levels of office space, and a 10-story retail podium with a conference center, ballroom and restaurants, and six levels of basement parking. The building is located in one of the most active seismic zones in the world. Classified as Seismic Design Category D, Signature Tower presents enormous challenges to engineers because of high seismic reactions and extremely soft soil conditions. The primary lateral system includes a composite core wall, composite super columns, steel outrigger trusses and steel belt trusses. The exterior megaframe includes nine steel belt trusses, six steel floor trusses and composite super columns. We used performance-based design to evaluate the building’s behavior under different levels of seismic hazard in order to ensure an efficient and safe structure.

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Images courtesy Smallwood, Reynolds, Stewart, Stewart & Associates, Inc.


Owner The New York Times Company Architect Renzo Piano Building Workshop FXFowle Architects Developer Forest City Ratner Co. General Contractor - Core and Shell AMEC Construction Mgmt. Inc. General Contractor - Interiors Turner Construction Completion Date 2007 Construction Cost $650 million Total Area 157,935 m² / 1.7 million sf Number of Stories 52 Height 319 m / 1,046 ft Awards Award of Excellence, AIA New York State Institute Honors, 2009 Best Building Award – Americas, CTBUH, 2008 Diamond Award ­– Structural Systems, ACEC New York, 2008 Project of the Year, New York Construction, 2007

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The New York Times Building New York, New York The New York Times Building is a 52-story office tower topped by a 300-foot mast that tapers off and seems to disappear into the sky. The tower’s design emphasizes lightness and transparency, with an elegant structural steel exoskeleton integrated into the architectural design and a glass-and-ceramic curtain wall that admits abundant natural light into all the building’s floors. The exposed structural steel presented a number of challenges for our design team, including compliance with the city’s fire and building codes, detailing the steel to achieve aesthetic elegance, and designing for forces and movements caused by temperature differentials. Adding appeal to the building’s façade are thin, horizontal ceramic rods placed on a steel framework 18 inches in front of the low-emissivity glass. The first of its kind in the United States, this curtain wall acts as a sunscreen, helping reduce heating and cooling requirements while the rods reflect the changing colors of the sky.


Images Š David Sundberg/Esto

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Owner Ping An Life Insurance Company of China

Ping An International Finance Centre

Architect Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates

Shenzhen, China

Completion Date 2016 Construction Cost $678 million U.S. Height 600 m / 1,969 ft

C.T. Tam / Thornton Tomasetti

Total Area 462,000 m² / 5 million sf

Our engineering team used performance-based design methodologies to design this new office tower, set to be the tallest in China. Because supertall structures behave differently than the shorter buildings that are the basis for standard building codes, PBD allows engineers to design structures based on how they react to various conditions. The structural system is a concrete core with steel outriggers connecting to eight super columns. The project also includes a 90,000-square-meter parking basement and an 11-story steel-framed podium with a conference center, shopping mall, restaurants and rooftop cafés.

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International Finance Centre Seoul

Owner American International Group Seoul Metropolitan Government

Seoul, South Korea IFC Seoul is a mixed-use development with three Class-A office buildings, a five-star hotel and below-grade retail and parking. The LEED Silver-certified complex incorporates such sustainable features as rainwater harvesting systems and photovoltaic panels. Its three steelframed commercial towers have reinforced-concrete core walls with outrigger trusses at mechanical levels. This structural system accommodates large column-free tenant spaces. The 38-story hotel, framed in reinforced concrete, houses 446 guest rooms, a fitness center, conference facilities, a ballroom, and dining and retail venues. Solar panels on the rooftop and on the south-facing façade will provide electricity for hot water and lighting.

Architect Arquitectonica Construction GS Construction, POSCO Construction Completion Date 2012 Construction Cost $1.6 billion U.S. Total Area 509,524 m² / 5.5 million sf Height Tower One: 186 m / 610 ft Tower Two: 176 m / 577 ft Tower Three: 279 m / 915 ft

Courtesy GS Construction

Courtesy Arquitectonica

The development sits atop a seven-level basement consisting of reinforced concrete bound by a slurry wall. The belowgrade area houses four levels of parking and a three-story luxury mall with a glass pavilion extending above ground to let in natural light.

Developer/Project Manager AIG Global Real Estate

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Images by Stephan Eisenreich / Thornton Tomasetti


Comcast Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The LEED CS Gold-certified Comcast Center is the tallest building between New York and Chicago. Its design incorporates lessons learned by Thornton Tomasetti while leading the assessment of the 9/11 collapse of the World Trade Center towers. The center’s elevators, sprinklers, communications systems and stairwells are encased in a massive concrete core stretching the full height of the building. Stairwells are 10 inches wider than code to facilitate evacuation. And because the building footprint is small and the core relatively slim, exterior walls are thicker than usual to minimize flexing due to wind stress. The building has expansive open spaces designed without columns. A nine-story glass winter garden leads to a three-story lobby and 90-foot-wide column-free atrium. A tuned liquid-column mass damper – a 300,000-gallon water reservoir – near the top of the structure limits wind-induced building movement.

Owner Liberty Property Trust Architect Robert A.M. Stern Architects Environmental Consultants Atelier Ten Completion Date 2008 Construction Cost $352 million Total Area 125,400 m² / 1.35 million sf Number of Stories 58 Height 297 m / 975 ft Awards Diamond Award for Engineering Excellence, ACEC New York, 2010 Best in the Nation, Office Building Category, McGrawHill Construction’s Best of the Best Awards, 2008 Best Commercial Project, General Building Contractors Association’s Construction Excellence Awards, 2008 Best of 2008 Overall Project of the Year, Mid-Atlantic Construction, 2008 Award of Excellence, The Americas, Urban Land Institute, 2009

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Owner The Durst Organization Architect of Record SLCE Architects Design Architect BIG – Bjarke Ingels Group Construction Manager Hunter Roberts Construction Group Completion Date 2016 Total Area 90,116 m² / 970,000 sf Total Height 137 m / 450 ft Awards Best Tall Building Award – Americas, CTBUH, 2016 Residential/Hospitality Best Project, ENR New York, 2016 Citation, Progressive Architecture Awards, Architect Magazine, 2015

New York, New York Formed by a ruled surface that reaches 450 feet at its peak, VIA 57 West represents a melding of the European courtyard block with the American skyscraper. The so-called “courtscraper” features a tetrahedonal shape that optimizes the number of units with views of the Hudson River while preserving the adjacent tower’s line of sight. Thornton Tomasetti provided structural engineering services for the unique 44-story residential complex. The building, which boasts a 22,000-square-foot central courtyard, presented many structural challenges, inspiring engineers to simplify its complex geometry into typical construction methodologies. Its efficient structural system comprises flat-plate concrete below the 34th floor, with transfer girders embedded in the slab to accommodate the façade setbacks at each level. A steel structure supports the upper 10 floors of the building. The park and courtyard are integrated into the building space. We designed the structural-support and earthretaining features of the landscape, which was designed to “float” within the structural slab below. The building’s western portion, which is within the 100-year flood plain, includes integral flood walls.

Bess Adler / Thornton Tomasetti

Award of Merit with Special Recognition – Architectural Design, Concrete Industry Board, 2015

VIA 57 West

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Hearst Tower

Owner Hearst Corporation; Tishman Speyer Properties

New York, New York The first New York City skyscraper to break ground after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, and the first office high-rise in the city to earn LEED Gold certification, Hearst Tower is set apart by its unusual triangular (diagrid) frame pattern. Constructed atop the historic International Magazine Building commissioned by William Randolph Hearst, the super-efficient structure required about 20 percent less structural steel than a conventional steel frame. Thornton Tomasetti provided protective design services for the tower, working with the owner, construction manager, architect and design team to establish and implement security criteria.

Architect of Record Adamson Associates Architect of Record Foster + Partners Completion Date 2006 Total Area 79,524 m² / 855,989 sf Number of Stories 46 Total Height 182 m / 597 ft

Ramon Ferreira / Weidlinger Associates

Awards 10 Year Award, CTBUH, 2016

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Owner WTC 1: Port Authority of New York & New Jersey WTC 2-4: Silverstein Properties, Inc. Project Team WTC 1: SOM WTC 2: Foster + Partners / BIG WTC 3: Richard Rogers WTC 4: Maki and Associates

New York, New York Our Weidlinger Protective Design practice provided blastresistant design services for World Trade Center Towers 1 (also known as the Freedom Tower) through 4. We worked closely with the developer, security consultant, project design team and state and city officials to establish the appropriate level of protection for these buildings and determine the associated operational security measures. We performed high-fidelity finite-element analyses of the primary structural elements of each building to determine their responses to extreme blast loading. Our team used the results to determine the most cost-effective combination of blast-hardening upgrades that satisfied the design criteria. We also performed similar finiteelement analyses of the façades to determine curtain-wall design requirements.

Lorenzo Sanjuan / Thornton Tomasetti

Completion Date 2012

World Trade Center Towers 1-4

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Haeundae Doosan We’ve the Zenith Busan, South Korea The tallest residential tower in Asia topped out in early 2011, rising above the waterfront of South Korea’s secondlargest city, Busan. At 80 stories and 984 feet (300 meters), the tallest of the three towers in We’ve the Zenith forms the centerpiece of a 4.1-million-square-foot development, which also includes a retail podium and six below-grade levels for retail, parking and mechanical facilities.

Architect DeStefano + Partners Contractor Doosan Engineering and Construction Completion Date 2011 Total Area 378,500 m² / 4.1 million sf Number of Stories 70 and 80 Height 300 m / 984 ft

© Halohoon

Exposure to typhoons was the biggest engineering challenge in the design of We’ve the Zenith. The team designed these structures to withstand sustained winds of 90 mph and gusts to 105 mph. The towers present a smooth, rounded face to the wind, which makes them more aerodynamic and reduces wind loads. Also helping improve stability and comfort for occupants is the very wide stance, with an aspect ratio of nearly 1:7. The efficient design of the core wall, which is butterfly-shaped in cross section, maximizes building stiffness while minimizing the amount of material used in construction.

Owner/Developer Daewon Plus Construction

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Owner KLCC (Holdings) Sdn. Bhd. Architect Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects with Adamson Associates Completion Date 1998 Construction Cost $1 billion U.S. Total Area 306,580 m² / 3.3 million sf Number of Stories 88 Height 452 m / 1,483 ft Awards The Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 2004

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Petronas Towers Kuala Lumpur City Centre Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia We provided structural design for two slender towers, the world’s tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004, that soar 452 meters above Kuala Lumpur. Their dramatic design is enhanced by a sky bridge at floors 41 and 42 that connects the towers and creates a visual gateway to a major public park. The sky bridge was designed with slender structural members rather than heavy trusses to be compatible with the building’s architecture and was constructed more than 150 meters above street level. It accommodates independent movement of the towers as they sway with wind loads. The KLCC complex also includes a 5,143-car underground garage, a seven-story retail facility and an acoustically isolated 864-seat concert hall that spans over the entryway to the towers and retail areas.


Images courtesy Michael Goodman

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Owner Taipei Financial Center Corporation Architect C. Y. Lee and Partners General Contractor KTRT Joint Venture Completion Date 2004 Construction Cost $1.7 billion U.S. Total Area 204,388 m² / 2.2 million sf Number of Stories 101 Height 508 m / 1,667 ft Awards Diamond Award for Engineering Excellence, ACEC New York, 2006 Outstanding Project Award, National Council of Structural Engineers Associations, Excellence in Structural Engineering Awards, 2005 Performance Award, CTBUH, 2016

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Taipei 101 Taipei, Taiwan Taipei 101 features a 508-meter tower with a unique profile, a five-level basement and a surrounding six-story retail structure. The building opens upward, evoking a blossoming flower, which, in Chinese culture, signifies financial richness and everlasting vitality. It is divided into eight-floor segments, the number “eight” representing prosperity and good fortune. The building’s architecture relies on inwardly slanting segments, which, in conjunction with energy-conserving transparent glass and innovative lighting design, give the tower its elegant, crystal-clear appearance. The building ranked as the world’s tallest from 2004 through 2009. The tapering walls result in most of the building’s floor plans ranging from 2,000 to 2,500 square meters (21,500 to 27,000 square feet), with some as small as 47 square meters (506 square feet) above the main roof. The tower was designed to withstand typhoon winds and seismic activity. The structure includes a tuned mass damper suspended in the upper floors to offset movement caused by wind gusts. The tower’s ultrafast elevators take only 39 seconds to reach the 89th-floor observatory. C. Y. Lee and Partners engaged our services to provide concept and preliminary designs and review the final structural design by the local engineer of record. We also responded to questions from the architect and advised the architect and owners during construction.


Images courtesy C.Y. Lee and Partners

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Offices Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Albuquerque, New Mexico Austin, Texas Beijing, China Boston, Massachusetts Bristol, England Chicago, Illinois Christchurch, New Zealand Cupertino, California Dallas, Texas Denver, Colorado Dubai, United Arab Emirates Edinburgh, Scotland Fort Lauderdale, Florida Glasgow, Scotland Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Hong Kong, China Irvine, California Kansas City, Missouri London, England – Farringdon London, England – Lloyd’s Avenue Los Angeles, California Miami, Florida Moscow, Russia Mumbai, India New York, New York – Madison Avenue New York, New York – Wall Street Newark, New Jersey Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Portland, Maine San Diego, California San Francisco, California São Paulo, Brazil Seattle, Washington Shanghai, China Toronto, Canada Washington, D.C. West Hartford, Connecticut

www.ThorntonTomasetti.com

Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan. Courtesy C.Y. Lee and Partners


provides engineering design, investigation and analysis services to clients worldwide on projects of every size and level of complexity. Our engineers, architects and sustainability practitioners collaborate from offices worldwide. Our unique suite of integrated services affords us an unparalleled ability to help our clients plan, design, build, maintain and renew structures of every kind, throughout their life cycles.

Our Practices Structural Engineering Weidlinger Protective Design Façade Engineering Weidlinger Transportation Construction Engineering Sustainability Weidlinger Applied Science Forensics Property Loss Consulting Renewal

www.ThorntonTomasetti.com

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Thornton Tomasetti – Tall and Supertall Cover images: Jeddah Tower, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia © Jeddah Economic Company / Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

Tall and Supertall  

Pioneers in the design of high-rise buildings, we use advanced analysis to optimize structural systems, resolve interdisciplinary conflicts,...

Tall and Supertall  

Pioneers in the design of high-rise buildings, we use advanced analysis to optimize structural systems, resolve interdisciplinary conflicts,...