RESILIENT LYNN ARCH 3 STUDIO: SITE WORK
FALL 2016 SEMESTER
BOSTON, REVERE, SAUGUS
G.E. BRIDGE, 1A WILLIS FISHING PIER
LYNN SHORE DRIVE, SWAMPSCOTT
WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
GARELICK FARMS LYNN
LYNN FERRY NATIONAL GRID
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION
“Our greatest responsibility is to be good ancestors.” Jonas Salk, Medical Researcher
RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 01
RM 503, BOSTON ARCHITECTURAL COLLEGE
This studio was developed to address the concept of resiliency as it relates to design at multiple scales (macro to micro) and from various points of view (social, economic, environmental).
SECTION 01: Research / Vision Plan
The studio considered the city of Lynn, Massachusetts as a case study, focusing on applying resilient strategies to the redevelopment of the city’s underutilized waterfront - an area threatened dramatically by sea level rise. After researching and analyzing the social, economic, and environmental vulnerabilities of the region, students tested the potential for resilient design by focusing on the development of a resilient vision plan.
• • • •
Site Research Precedent Analysis Resilient Strategies Vision Plan
SECTION 02: (Weeks 7-16) Programming / Concept / Design Development • • • •
Program Research Site Design Concept Design Design Development
TEAM STUDENTS: Estalin Cambisaca
INSTRUCTORS: Tyler Hinckley, Perkins+Will Arlen Stawasz, Perkins+Will
Nicole Gaenzler, BAC
Glen LeRoy, President
Jim Cowdell, Lynn EDIC
Karen Nelson, Dean of Architecture
Chris Coscia, Perkins+Will
Kyle Sturgeon, Director of Advanced Studios
MEDIA + MARKETING:
Joe Mulligan, Mass Development
Thor Jourgensen, Lynn Item
Drew Russo, Lynn Museum / Lynn Arts
Jason Thornton, Perkins+Will (marketing)
Brooke Trivas, Perkins+Will
Ramsey Bakhoum, Perkins+Will (photography)
Yanel de Angel, Perkins+Will Stephen Messinger, Perkins+Will Alex Marchinski, STOSS Kyle Sturgeon, BAC Nicole Gaenzler, BAC RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 03
LYNN OVERVIEW LYNN, MA
Lynn, Lynn, the city of sin, after the water comes, can it be in?
Currently, the Lynn Harbor is underutilized as a waterfront location, but serves the needs of the industrial facilities and accommodates regional traffic with a mix of automobile orientated businesses, big box retail, and light industries. As a result of its historical use and the continuation of many industrial uses, the land has environmental issues that need to be addressed during future development. Since Lynn has been through many iterations of industry, the city is in search of an inspirational icon that motivates society.
Shoe Making Factory, Lynn, MA - stock photo taken from Google
Historically, Lynn has seen significant change - from its reputation as the American center for established shoe manufacturing industries, to its relationship with neighboring towns along the North Shore. At one point Lynn competed with Italian leather shoe making and consisted of the towns of Saugus, Swampscott, Reading, Lynnfield, and Nahant. As the nation experienced a significant change in its light to heavy industrial capital, most manufacturing industries left the region of New England.
Lynn Harbor Waterfront, Lynn, MA - stock photo taken from Google
Adding to Lynn’s economic and environmental decline are social and cultural issues that need to be addressed. Gangs and violence are prevalent and there is a lack of higher education within Lynn’s population. According to Lynn’s demographics, only 5.17% of Lynn residents have attended college.
communities that will be affected by sea level rise and storm surge events. This studio will collaborate directly with the Economic Development and Industrial Corporation of Lynn and students will have the opportunity to interview the director of this program.
In addition to the already troubled city, there is now a real threat of sea level rise with devastating effects on the city and infrastructure. Sea level
rise is a geographical phenomenon that is affecting many coastal cities around the globe, and this class used Lynn as a case study to design for the worst case predictions and scenarios. The city of Lynn presents an opportunity for testing various strategies of resilient design. Students have re-evaluated the 2007 Lynn Master Plan through the lens of resiliency. Students will study Lynn’s historical development, investigate the realms of social responsibility, and plan ahead for vulnerable
Lynnway Route 1A, Lynn, MA - stock photo taken from Google
REVERE LYNN HARBOR
Aerial Map of Lynn Waterfront, August, 2016 - Google Earth
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SITE OVERVIEW LYNN WATERFRONT MASTER PLAN REPORT 2007 In 2007, the city of Lynn engaged with Sasaki, GEI, and ZHA for the development of the Lynn Waterfront Master Plan. The focus of the plan was to develop a synthesized community aspiration and vision framework for a mixed-use density and open space development focused on three main components: A. Master Plan Vision B. Waterfront Zoning Strategy C. Lynn Harbor Plan During that time period, climate resilience was not a main focus of the conversation in planning. Unfortunately, due to the economic downturn, the city of Lynn has not seen much progress on the master planning implementation efforts since 2008.
LYNN COASTAL RESILIENCY ASSESSMENT However, given the predictions and impacts of climate change, the city has assessed itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vulnerabilities in 2015. Over the past year, the Lynn EDIC conducted a communitybased process to assess the vulnerabilities and consider adaptation strategies to the future climatic conditions along the Lynn shoreline and Saugus River areas. The overall goal of this project was to improve coastal resilience. The study report included: Section 1 - Overview of Climate Change Effects Section 2 - Study Scenarios and Approach Section 3 - Lynn Vulnerability Assessment Section 4 - Adaptation Strategies
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RESILIENCE STUDIO DEFINITION
KEY TERMS ACUTE SHOCK: Sudden event with immediate impacts. CHRONIC STRESSOR: Repeated event with impact felt over time.
1. the ability of a substance or object to spring back into shape; elasticity. 2. the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness. Resilience is defined as the ability of something to spring back into shape, or redefine its elasticity after a major transformation or event. How can the idea of resilience apply to the built environment? How can planning and design decisions impact the way a community responds to a natural disaster or sea level rise? How can design play an important role in addressing acute shocks and chronic stressors? How can buildings contribute to a more resilient society?
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Charlestown, MA - Perkins + Will
ABSORB: Strategy focused on the ability to absorb both chronic stressors and acute shocks. ADAPT: Strategy focused on creating systems that can engage with changes. PROTECT: Strategy designed to withstand expected stressors and shocks. SOCIAL: Focus on effects felt by communities and their inhabitants. ECONOMIC: Focus on effects shocks and stressors have on business. ENVIRONMENTAL: Focus on how changes due to acute shocks and chronic stressors impact the environment.
WE SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY
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“The empires of the future are empires of the mind.” Winston Churchill, Prime Minister, UK
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SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHICS AND INCOME
Lynn is a city that celebrates a wide ethnic diversity including Hispanic/Latino, African American and Asians. Although Lynn is much larger than its neighboring cities of Saugus and Swampscott, it has a significantly lower percentage of whites. Both Saugus and Swampscott are over 85% white, while Lynn barely exceeds the 50% mark. While there is a noticeable correlation between this diversity and the median household income, Lynnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strength is rooted in its cultural and ethnic diversity. This vibrant cultural diversity is visible in the fabric of the city which boasts numerous restaurant establishments and a burgeoning arts scene. Lynnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s comparative strength in cultural and ethnic diversity noticeably correlates with the median household incomes of the three cities, with Lynn falling significantly behind both of its neighbors. Employment in Lynn varies between professional work (doctors, engineers etc.) and labor.
ASIAN - 2% BLACK - 2% HISPANIC - 4% WHITE 91%
ASIAN - 6% BLACK - 12% HISPANIC - 24% WHITE 57%
ASIAN - 1% BLACK - 1% HISPANIC - 2% WHITE 94%
LYNN POPULATION 98,000
LYNN SAUGUS $96,905 $59,441 $87,159 $89,000
SWAMPSCOTT $71,447 $54,171
AVERAGE INCOME BY LOCATION
MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME SAUGUS
As shown in the above map, the average income is significantly higher towards the northern part of Lynn. This may be the result of the area toward the waterfront being under -developed. But, when compared to Swampscott, which shows the opposite trend, it is clearly an indication of missed opportunity.
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SOCIAL EDUCATIONAL VULNERABILITIES
Lynn is the 5th largest school district in Massachusetts with 28 schools (K-12) and 14,871 students. The total number of teachers is 985, producing a favorable ratio of about 15 students per teacher.
DROP OUT GRAD. SCHOOLS
BOS TON MASS.
Despite Lynn’s favorable student-teacher ratio, the district is facing a major problem of student overcrowding. Due to the rapid increase of the city’s population, its schools have begun to suffer from a disproportionate balance between students and active learning spaces. The city has responded by building new schools, but the supply continues to be overwhelmed by the demand. Currently, the overcrowding can be seen dispersed throughout the city’s 21 elementary schools and peaking in the 3 middle schools of the
district. While the high schools are not currently overcrowded, this trend will inevitably follow through as the city’s sizable youth population comes of age.
CAPT WILLIAM G SHOEMAKER EL.
+25 LYNN WOODS EL.
+155 EDWARD A SISSON EL.
+100 PICKERING MS. +50 HOOD EL.
LYNN +60 SEWALL-
+350 BREED MS.
+50 LYNN CLASSICAL HS.
+175 +90 INGALLS EL. ROBERT L. FORD EL.
+130 TRACY EL. +150 COBBETT EL.
+110 A DREWICZ EL.
+50 ABORN EL.
+110 WILLIAM P
+140 WASHINGTON EL.
+60 BRICKETT EL. +150 E J HARRINGTON EL.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL MIDDLE SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL
TOTAL AVERAGE RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 15
ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE VULNERABILITIES In addition to Lynn’s demographics of income and educatonal diversity, a significant portion of Lynn’s economy is based on its infrastructure. The city houses key regional infrastructure that plays a role not only in its own economic welfare, but that of its neighboring regions as well. Notably, much of this key infrastructure is situated along the city’s unprotected waterfront, making it vulnerable to accelerating climatic disturbances. These vulnerable infrastructures are the major regional artery, Route 1A, the Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, and the National Grid power station, are all located within the projected 100 year flood zone. Damage to any one or all of these facilities would have significant and devastating impacts on both Lynn and the surrounding North Shore region.
IMPACTED POPULATION 129,600 PEOPLE 110,000,000 gallons, wet day 25,000,000 gallons, dry day
325 MW OF ELECTRICITY
80% of people in Lynn and surrounding cities commute via Route 1A
LYNN WAY (Route 1A)
Image and rendering of Camden Street intersection before and after a 100 year storm - Coastal Resiliency Assessment
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ENVIRONMENTAL CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITIES
INCREASES IN NUMBER, DURATION, AND INTENSITY OF STORMS
CHANGES IN PRECIPITATION PATTERNS 10% increase (approximately 5 inches) in precipitation between 1895 and 2011. 70% increase in the amount of precipitation falling in very heave events between 1958 and 2012.
Greater recent increase in extreme precipitation than any other region in the U.S. Increase in winter precipitation from snow to rain.
INCREASES IN SEASONAL TEMPERATURE, WITH LONGER PERIODS OF DROUGHT
Climate change has the potential to increase the frequency of hot days during the summer and may increase heat-related deaths in Boston by 50% by 2050. (NCA 2014). If climate change continues, the Boston area may become more similar to that in Charlotte, NC, or Atlanta, GA. (NEAQ).
Mean Higher Water
Sea level rise is expected to be 6 feet beyond current level by 2066. 10FT SLR
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ENVIRONMENTAL COASTAL VULNERABILITY
1 2 3
1 2 3 EXISTING EDGE CONDITIONS The existing coastal edge of the site is a combination of hard and soft waterfront conditions, consisting of solid sea wall on the eastern front to a completely eroded edge along the central portion of the site, and bulkhead deterioration on the western side. The majority of the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge conditions depict significant vulnerability, and as a direct result, provides little to no protection from encroaching water and future sea level rise. In order to protect future development, the edge conditions must take on a new identity in the Lynn Harbor. There is a need for greater stabilization, which will require adaptation on many fronts.
According to our research, fighting the water is a losing battle, and new innovative approaches of building natural barrier systems are proving to be most resilient, while making a significant impact towards the uphill battle of climate change. This will require a new shift in thinking. Embracing the water with manipulation of the landscape. Future development of resilient building systems, such as elevated buildings and flood-able zones are undeniably proposed solutions that are making an impact in coastal regions across the globe.
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“We can not solve our problems with the same level of thinking that we created them.” Albert Einstein, Theoretical Physicist
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ENGAGING THE WATERFRONT DESIGN CONCEPT 1. Hard to Soft Edges 2. Connection to City Fabric 3. Allow Water to Flood 4. Pedestrian Friendly 5. Protect Site from Storm Surge
6. Vehicular Access 7. Mixed Use Development
2 2 3
1 SOFT EDGE
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VISION PLAN depressed Lynnway intersections (separation of local and thru-traffic)
bridges over canals
water filtration/ remediation pools
urban water-retention zone
residential canal/swale (swell-flood mitigation)
pedestrian & bi
elevated rolling topography (occupiable protective berm)
raised boardwalk over marshlands
sea wall with water access
primary canal system (public water access)
waterfront recreation zone/skate park
g public recreation/sporting
off-shore break waters & wind farm
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RESILIENT DEVELOPMENT DENSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE Residential Zone Mixed Use Zone Open Park Zone Controlled Flooding Zone Response Center Zone Infrastructure Zone School Zone
Resiliency is not any single solution, concept or perspective. Resiliency is a multifaceted lens which balances proactivity and reactivity to inform solutions to disruptions. Resilient Design is taking that lens and using it to rethink the built environment. • Design and construct (or renovate) buildings to handle severe storms, flooding, wildfire, and other impacts that are expected to result from a warming climate. • Locate critical systems to withstand flooding and extreme weather events. • Create community facilities (resilience hubs) that can serve as gathering places during emergencies and interruptions in services, and outfit such facilities with access to key services, including water, electricity for charging cell phones, etc. Such capabilities could be integrated into schools and other existing community facilities. • Consider potential extreme weather events and climate change in determining locations of critical facilities and systems. • Foster strong community education programs that will build greater understanding of energy, water, and other natural resource systems as well as the functioning of buildings and community infrastructure. Build such capacity into public education systems.
Resilient Design Institute, Resilient Design Strategies
PROPOSED EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER PROPOSED WATER RESOURCES INFRASTRUCTURE PROPOSED HIGH SCHOOL
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DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK RESILIENT DESIGN STRATEGIES
CUT CHOREOGRAPHED FLOODING • Vegetation to retain water • Terracing hillsides to slow flow
• Social Hub • Stores, disperses, and directs water • Provides storm water drainage
WATER RETENTION PARK
• Retention and retention park basin • Will typically act as residential backyard
CUT + FILL
• Cuts for road and canal = Fill for nearby embankments
PEDESTRIAN + BICYCLE PATH • Fishing Pier • Water access
SAND MOTORS + BREAKWATER BARRIERS • Wave breaks • Advantageous for species • Reduction in coastal flood risk
SEA WALL + BULKHEADS
• Parallel to the shoreline • Allow for a stable shoreline • Resist forces of storm waves and flooding
MARSH LAND = + SAND DUNE • Bank stabilization • Natural, protective sandy buffer • Reinforced with vegetation, geotextile tubes, or a rocky core
• Drainage system designed and dedicated to handle flood surges.
SLOPED STREET Canal
S D PERFORATED PAVEMENT
BIOSWALES ALONG STREET
WATER RETENTION PARK
TENCA BURIED POWER LINES
RESTRUCTURING OF LYNN WAY In order to create a pedestrian friendly zone we needed redesign the layout of the Lynn Way (1A), to do this we decided to drop down the Lynn Way at key areas. These areas will be developed with mixed buildings to encourage walk-ability
REDEVELOPMENT AROUND MAIN CANALS Similar to the restructuring of Lynn way in this areas we wanted to encourage walk-ability. Therefore these main streets will have no two way vehicular traffic instead, theses areas will have abundance of spaces to perform outdoors activities such as, Kayaking, running, walking, etc.
REDEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL BACKYARDS Residential backyards will be design such that the neighbors from the houses near one’s will have a common path that directs them to their homes. This backyards will be sheared backyards where people will be encouraged to interact with the neighbors and create a sense of community.
BREAKWATER BUILD UP
VEGETATED SAND MOTOR
CONCRETE PIER SUPPORT SAND FILLED TUBE CORE
FORCE OF STORM WATER
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â&#x20AC;&#x153;The majority see the obstacles; the few see the objectives Alfred Armand Montapert, Author
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LYNNWAY LEARNING LAB
TEAM: Noah Geupel Cyrille Futcha Ashlee Madigral Hosam Mahjob
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THE FUTURE OF EDUCATION LYNNWAY LEARNING LABORATORY EDUCATION COMMUNITY: •Pre K - K •Elementary School •Middle School (Pickering) •Highschool •Shared Public Spaces
LEGEND: 1. Lawn 2. Parking 3. Car Drop-Off 4. Bus Drop-Off
5. Public Plaza 6. Community Athletic Facilities 7. Berm
38 |PROPOSAL 1 - EDUCATION
PROBLEM: • Lynn’s school system is overcrowded • The majority of Lynn’s high-school graduates do not go on to pursue higher education in a college environment • reason: schools in Lynn fail to inspire the will and passion in students to pursue higher learning after graduation SOLUTION: • Create a new resilient High School of the Future capable of withstanding the effects of climate change, envisioning and adapting the latest educational practices and technologies, and engaging and inspiring the greater community of Lynn.
athletic & commercial complex
new high school Lynnway Learning Lab expanded canal system
athletic track & field new preschool (by Perkins+Will)
Lynn’s new interconnected educational community will help students and individuals by inspiring them and providing an extensive support network that spans throughout their early educational years with the goal of building a solid foundation on which to pursue higher education. RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 39
SCHOOL FORM SPATIAL CONCEPT EVOLUTION DIAGRAM
1. Box Form
• establish parameter/ constraints
2. Elevate Form • adapt strategy
3. Stretch Form • engage berm
4. Slice Form
• curate views • introduce light • separate program
0. Establish Grid
Green roofs plots help provide thermal mass for building as well as acting as outdoor labs and sourcing food for cafeterias
Faceted green ground surfaces help direct water runoff to infiltration and retention strategies, and as public green space
6. Apply Strategies
40 |PROPOSAL 1 - EDUCATION
Building slices decrease mass form, distribute light, and provide channels for water runoff into swales
ATRIU M ENVE LOPE S WIND O SLIC W ES (for l ight)
Model Form Iterations
COLU M BEAM N & SYST EM
5. Reinforce Language & Add Detail • propagate structure • control light
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PLAN AND PROGRAM A COMMUNAL APPROACH TO LEARNING The Lynnway Learning Lab is designed as a school for the future. Rejecting antiquated educational methods and curricula, the school fosters a unique educational experience by dismantling the physical barriers of traditional classroom-style learning and creating a multitude of active learning environments that engage students throughout the day. Simply derived, the program is divided by the slices, first into the primary Arts, Academic, and Athletic spaces, and further into the more precisely defined uses like labs, classrooms, library, etc.
ENTRANCE SPACE AND CIRCULATION
INTERIOR ATRIUM VIEW AT ENTRANCE 42 |PROPOSAL 1 - EDUCATION
LEGEND: 9. BASKETBALL COURT 10.SQUASH COURTS 11.WRESTLING RING 12.CLIMBING ROOM 13.WEIGHT/CARDIO ROOM 14.LOCKER ROOMS 15.MEDICAL/TRAINER
1.AUDIOTURIM 2.CAFETERIA 3.LIBRARY 4.CLASSROOMS 5.LABS 6.MEDIA CENTER 7.GREEN ROOF PLOTS 8.OFFICES
ARTS ACADEMICS ATHLETICS
LEVEL 4 (75’)
3 8 4
5 LEVEL 3 (60’)
10 LEVEL 2 (45’)
LEVEL 1 (25’) RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 43
ACTIVE LEARNING SPACES CLASSROOMS + ATHLETICS Shared Space
THE INNOVATIVE CLASSROOM 44 |PROPOSAL 1 - EDUCATION
The Barred Owl Wellness Center home of the Lynnway Eight Hooters dance/yoga studios basketball courts cafeteria wrestling room weight room atrium
activated exterior space (on berm)
SECTION PERSPECTIVE THROUGH INTERSECTION OF WELLNESS CENTER AND BERM Lynnway Learning Lab boasts a shared athletic facility that is available for public use. The Barred Owl Wellness Center is nestled into the berm that runs along Lynn’s waterfront. This location groups the active public spaces near one another and acts as a buffer to the LLL’s academic program. The Wellness Center is a focal point of the new educational community helping to spur public interest and investment in the community and providing a necessary facility for the students and surrounding residents.
“Hoot Hoot! Hoot Hoot!”
“Here we go OWLS, here we go! Hoot Hoot”
“Hoot Hoot! Hoot Hoot!”
“ Triple L’s Triple L’s”
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RESILIENT SYSTEMS WATER, LIGHT, GREENERY
perforated metal panel fiber-cement rain screen panels
Mixed-Use Commercial & Residential
46 |PROPOSAL 1 - EDUCATION
green roof plots as active learning labs for science and culinary curricula & integrated with water management system and heating/cooling systems
HVAC Duct work & dropped GWB ceiling steel truss floor joist Gutters direct water to slices channeling into LID system
steel pan poured concrete floor
blic Space + Canals
Operable interior windows provide natural ventilation through perforated metal-screen panels Hat channel supports fiber cement panel rain screen and perforated metal window screens from interior metal stud walls
Lynnway Learning Lab utilizes Low-Impact-Design (LID) as its primary water management strategy. Runoff is channeled from the roof of the structure along the “window slices” and directed to engineered swales running along the edges of the building at grade level. The water is then allowed to infiltrate in several ways, restoring the water table, being held in retention tanks, or channeled back into the site’s canal system when the water level is too high High school (LLL)
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LYNNWAY LEARNING LAB main entrance
SCHOOL OF THE FUTURE
gymnasium preschool (by P+W)
48 |PROPOSAL 1 - EDUCATION
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EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER
TEAM: Karen Sutin Kimberly Cullen Autumn Waldron
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EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE: An effort to mitigate the impact of an incident on the public and the environment.
DAY-TO-DAY USE COAST GUARD
RESPONSE + RESCUE
FIRE STATION + EMS
RESPONSE + RESCUE
RED CROSS TRAINING CENTER The ERC is a hub of intertwined community, disaster relief, and day to day emergency relief focused program. Breaking the physical barriers that conventionally delineate the people from their response teams creates a new type of building, one that provokes conversation on resiliency and educates the public eye on the dangers of both the chronic and acute stressors of climate change.
HELIPAD INTERGENERATIONAL DAYCARE
52 |PROPOSAL 2 - EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER
EQUIPT FOR MEDICAL RESPONSE ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION HOUSING SPACE
CAFE MEETING ROOMS GYMNASIUM MEDIA LAB FERRY STATION
TEAM: Karen Sutin Autumn Waldron Kimberly Cullen
DISTRIBUTION CENTER SLEEPING SPACE GYMNASIUM COMMUNICATION OUTPOST ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION
3. PEDESTRIAN ZONE
5. BUILDING FOOTPRINT RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 53
ACTIVATING THE WATERFRONT PARK
The site is an industrial area with a National Grid natural gas reservoir and associated protection wall. It is also where the protective sea wall begins and the location of the ferry terminal. The vision plan proposed a boardwalk running through the site. Nodding to the industrial origins of the site, the gas reservoir will remain but be emptied and transformed into a rock climbing wall. Parts of the protection wall are also retained, with paths weaving over and through for pedestrian access. The site incorporates different activity zones. In general, the closer to the building, the more active the zone is, moving from a quite terraced area on the canal front to an outdoor seating area adjacent to the arcade and cafe. A public plaza is created under the cantilever that also connects to the café. It is sunken to absorb flooding. It also creates a large flat area where training activities can be held. The waterfront edge is a sea wall with a boardwalk with docking for the ferry, coast guard, fire boats, and the public.
TERRACED LANDSCAPE ROCK CLIMBING WALL Repurposed gas tank
SOFTSCAPE PROTECTION Natural berming provides protection BOARDWALK HUB
1” = 50’ - 0”
10’ Storm Surge
PEDESTRIAN BOARDWALK BIKE PATHS FIRE TRUCK ROUTE
54 |PROPOSAL 2 - EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER
CANAL SYSTEM Allows for controlled and choreographed flooding
1 HARDSCAPE PROTECTION Bulkhead and seawalls line the ERC to the north PEDESTRIAN ARCADE
2 Earth Connection
COAST GUARD AND FIRE BOAT MARINA
PUBLIC PLAZA underneath cantilever. exible Programming. Floodable CANTILEVER Statement against sea level rise
n stria Pede ment e v Mo
Useable SQ FT
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SEA LEVEL RISE
2100: 10’ SEA LEVEL RISE
2066: 6’ SEA LEVEL RISE
56 |PROPOSAL 2 - EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER
2066 RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 57
A NEW TYPE OF PROGRAM CITY OF BOSTON
COMMUNITY VULNERABILITY RESPONSE AND RESCUE
LYNN & NORTH SHORE
STATE OF THE ART DISPATCH COMMUNITY HEALTH EDUCATION RESPONSE AND RESCUE AGING POP. + INTERGENERATIONAL COMM. MEETINGS, EVENTS, VOTING ADULT EDUCATION, ESL COMMERCIAL + SOUP KITCHEN COMMUNITY + LOCAL BUSINESS COMM.PROGRAMING + ACTIVITY PUBLIC ACCESS INTERNET COMMUTING
LEVEL 1 FIRE APPARATUS BAY
LEVEL 2 FERRY TERMINAL
FIRE/EMS LIVING QUARTERS CAFE MEDIA LAB
CAFE/LOBBY INTERGENERATIONAL DAY CARE
58 |PROPOSAL 2 - EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER
LEVEL 3 EVENT SPACE
PHYSICAL THERAPY RED CROSS LEARNING CENTER GYMNASIUM
COAST GUARD REPAIR BAYS + SUPPORT MARITIME GALLERY
A RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 59
RESILIENT SYSTEMS The facade system utilizes louvers as a shading devise to protect from glare and thermal heat gain. It also supports a complete photovoltaic system that will be used as an energy resource.
Underneath the plaza exists a water retention tank, which will collect water drained through perforated pavement. The tank filters water before being released back in Lynn Sound, in order protect the plant or animal life on the coast, unlike usual runoff. It will also help with future flood control and can supply water security in case of emergency.
DOUBLE SKIN GLAZING
Since protection against sea level rise is imperative, a reinforced sea wall will run parallel to the shoreline. The wall will resist forces of storm waves and coastal flooding, keeping people and development beyond safe. A: PV FACADE SYSTEM
60 |PROPOSAL 2 - EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER
B: REINFORCED SEA WALL
C: FLOOD-ABLE PLAZA
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RESILIENT SYSTEMS The entirety of the site and the building are designed for future natural disasters and flood control. Should mechanical systems fail during an emergency; building users will still be able to occupy the space through natural ventilation and lighting. The green roof runs over the building and incorporates sustainable drainage and also help with runoff control, running down to the water tank underground. The green roof improves building performance through the reduction of heat radiated by the building. In addition, it supports biodiversity by providing a habitat for small animal and plant species. Rain water management is also incorporated underneath the fire house. The tank acts as a heat sink and streamlines the heating system, requiring less energy for the water to be heated or cooled for ideal thermal comfort.
D: GREEN ROOF/THERMAL INSULATION
62 |PROPOSAL 2 - EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER
AERIAL VIEW OF SITE
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WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER
TEAM: Heather M. Cunningham Peter Fletcher Estalin Cambisaca
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WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER INFRASTRUCTURE AS AN AMENITY
3 4 5
66 |PROPOSAL 3 - WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER
10 9 8
Lynn Wastewater Renewal Center 1 Pond #2 2 Large Group Pavilion 3 Small Observation Deck 4 Marsh 5 Bird Watching Observatory 6 Ecological Development 7 Pond #1 8 Primary Wastewater Treatment 9 Biofuel Generator 10 Canal
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WATER RENEWAL PROCESS WATER CYCLE AND RESOURCE RENEWAL GRIT & SCREEN
An aerated grit chamber allows inorganic sand & gravel to settle to bottom & is then removed
Lighter organics are skimmed from the surface heavy organics are skimmed from the bottom.
Wet Day 110 Mil/Gal
The Lynn Reservoir System is only at 45% capacity and the Lynn Wastewater Treatment Plant is dumping water cleaner than the ocean into the harbor.
Some of the water is diverted and treated in this system for education & environmental renewal.
Majority of the water is treated in this system.
Screens are used to remove large inorganic objects.
Dry Day 25 Mil/Gal
GREY WATER FROM SAUGUS 26,100 RESIDENTS
TR IN EAT TO ED HA W RB ATE OR R D I
GREY WATER FROM NAHANT 3,600 RESIDENTS
68 |PROPOSAL 3 - WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER
GREY WATER FROM LYNN 89,100 RESIDENTS
Sustainable drinking water and energy production form byproducts of the waste water treatment process.
GREY WATER FROM SWAMPSCOTT 14,400 RESIDENTS
Collected Bio Solids
ELIMINATED MICRO ORGANISMS
Aerated aerobic environments allows these microorganisms to break down remaining matter.
Microorganisms are added to the digesterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.
POND #1 AERATION & MIXING
microorganisms settle to bottom & removed
POND #2 OXIDATION POND
Wastewater is released into the pond where microorganisms are able to grow.
Natural UV Rays allow microorganisms to break down organic matter, which is later scraped off the bottom.
Naturally remove microorganisms.
99.9% Pure Water
Solids back to Dryer
Water cleaner than the ocean is discharged into the canals to establish an ecosystem.
Chlorine is added to kill any remaining bacteria then sulfur dioxide is added to remove the chlorine.
Dryer Dried Fuel Wet Bio Solids
Dry Bio Solids
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WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER INFRASTRUCTURE AS AN AMENITY
Isolated & Barrier
70 |PROPOSAL 3 - WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER
New Building Type
Ecological Sanctuary Development
Visible & Iconic
Accessible & Welcoming
Softer Edges Transitional Interception
Built (Hard) to Natural (Soft)
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RESILIENT STRATEGIES SOLUTION TO SEA LEVEL RISE Site Absorption Map
ADAPT Operable Smart Louver Facade - Provide Impact protection during storm surge and flooding. - Provide natural light and shading to maximize sun exposure. - Permanently fixed on the windows and donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t require any extra storage space. - Can easily be made storm ready by one person. - Create an architectural Identity for the wastewater renewal center.
Built up Ponds - Keep wastewater separate from marsh land - Prevent sea level rise or rainwater from mixing - Establishes safe new ecosystems for growth - Protection against overflow during periods of heavy rainfall
72 |PROPOSAL 3 - WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER
Wetlands and Marsh - Helps absorb rainwater, and storm surges. - Establishes ecosystems for local wildlife. - Reduces erosion along coastal banks. - Slows runoff water, minimizing the frequency in which streams and rivers reach flood levels. - Wetlands store nutrients and pollutants in the soil.
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ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES INNOVATIVE INTERVENTIONS
Smart Facade: - Uses operable louver system to protect curtain wall from impact during sea level rise and storm surges. - Provides light and shade to help regulate the interior environment
10’ Sea Level Storm Surge
5’ Sea Level Rise
74 |PROPOSAL 3 - WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTE4
A Combination of Solar Power and a Green Roof Provide:
- Higher Water Retention - High Evaporation and Cooling - Minimum Surface Discharge
1 Vegetation 2 Soil & Aggregate 3 Microfab 4 Sopradrain 5 Cap Sheet Membrane 6 Pre Cast Concrete Curb 7 Primer
8 Gravel or Paver 9 Quad Deck Concrete Floor 10 Supporting I-Joist 11 Drain 12 Base Sheet Membrane 13 Quad Deck Panel
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INTERIOR EXPERIENCE FLOOR PLANS AND VIEWS
SECOND FLOOR Administration Open Gallery Classrooms Auditorium Restrooms Second floor deck + Connecting bridge
FIRST FLOOR Bio-Genarator + Entrance Lobby Employee Room Machinery + Employee circulation Parking Bar Separation Grit Separation Screening Micro Organism Aerated tanks Walkways
76 |PROPOSAL 3 - WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER
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Photo by Ramsey Bakhoum www.cubephoto.co
“The best thing about the future... is that it comes one day at a time.” Abraham Lincoln, President, USA
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LESSONS LEARNED REVIEW COMMENTS Overall the student presentations were well received. Starting from the vision plan and then into the design proposals, there was a fruitful converstion on the future possibilities of the Lynn Harbor waterfront with respect to the predicted impacts of climate change. The feedback was insightful, conservative, and sometimes fluxated between conceptual to realistic. Below is a summary of key comments reflecting the overall vision plan: Some of the comments discussed the need for a greater emphasis on project phasing - how can we actually get something like this built or accomplished? What are the first steps, and what are the economics? How can this be broken into something more tangible or realistic? Having a clearer response to phasing would have strengthened the credibility of the idea concept. Other comments focused on the environmental concerns: considering the site has significant existing hazardous soil conditions, is there a way to have the soil remediated that is innovative with the design process. A greater analysis of freshwater and saltwater ecological systems would build on the idea of giving space back to nature, and understanding natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pure systems. There were other comments about the water locks and control systems proposed in front of the canals. Perhaps greater precedent analysis of how these locks actually work would have benefited the design process of the vision plan. A major challenge about the studio is that these conversations do not typically occur in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s planning strategies for cities and towns along the North Shore. It is also difficult to take into account a design that is limited to a schedule of only (6) weeks. The goal of the studio was to stimulate this conversation with folks from the city of Lynn, as well as provide the fundamentals to climate resilient design education. We believe this was achieved. The studio offered a level of engagement from the reviewers to imagine if there was a collective consciousness to engage community stakeholders thoughtfully to address climate change risks and vulnerabilities. This is an opportunity for change, and a shift in thinking.
80 |CONCLUSION - LESSONS LEARNED
LYNNWAY LEARNING LAB At first we were skeptical about working in groups for the whole semester especially since the BAC is set up for students to work full time during the day. As time progressed and we worked together, we found that all of us shared the same problems and grew to really enjoy working with them. This semester taught us to pick up on each otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strengths and to learn from them. We have more of an open eye now and a greater understanding of design by learning from our peers. The critique of our school project during the final review felt harsh at times. It was very poignant and all of the comments were valid and indicative of areas where our design and process may have been improved. It might have been beneficial to give a thorough explanation of the background and scope on which our design was based to the reviewers, in order to focus their questions and feedback in specific areas. Nonetheless, the comments were stimulating and have made us think about how we might have improved our design and our process. Having a broader range of precedents to support our design decisions would be helpful as well as finding a way to document and represent them. Form and function (school program) need to work simultaneously together and if we would have followed that approach, we would have had a stronger argument or explanation for our final design. We would like to be involved in more projects of this scope in the future. We learned a tremendous amount about how to design at this level in terms of scale and programmatic scope.
EMERGENCY DISASTER RESPONSE CENTER
WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER
Researching the city of Lynnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social, economic, and environmental issues was critical in the development of our project. We questioned if we could positively impact the overall way of life in the city of Lynn through strategically placing certain program, arteries and community resources within our building; while maintaining the overall idea of intermingling the community among emergency response teams.
While group work at the BAC can be hard to coordinate, the commitment of three working students, of different ages, skill level, and educational backgrounds resulted in a very strong and successful final project. Although the semester was a constant battle between coordinating both schedules, and ideas, a group project forces a studio culture that is often absent from a BAC education.
We focused on the serious acute shockers and chronic stressors of climate change due to global warming and environmental neglect. Through precedent research and analyzing present day climate scenarios, like hurricane sandy along the east coast and local historic snow levels of 2014, we realized the importance of building for and educating about the impending consequences of climate change.
The most significant feedback we received was in regards to losing our original natural form in response to the site. Our initial idea was that the building become an extension of the berm and morph in and onto the building, creating a more irregular shape. Through the review process our form eventually took on a more programmatically driven and rigid form. If given additional time our project would have,
Not only did these topics make us question the role of the architect in society and nature, but we also considered how a designer can productively intervene through the built environment to make positive social changes in a community.
- Returned to a more natural shape in response to the berm - Alternative Entryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in regards to visibility and program - Clear circulation diagrams with experience callouts - Additional sustainable strategies
Through our final presentation, we learned the impact a group of 10 architecture students in a studio can make. How a small group of designers with big ideas can reach out to local officials and be heard. Small interventions, such as this studio, are ones that get the ball rolling, the conversation started, and raise awareness on these environmental issues.
As designers no longer believe resilient design should be an option. It is our reasonability as good ancestors to help minimize our footprint and contribute to a more resilient and sustainable future. We should not wait for the general population to believe what we already know to be true, but instead redirect our efforts into providing architecture that serves to educate through example.
Our vision plan and emergency response center are the type of innovative projects that we should strive to build in order to safeguard our homes and communities. With the increased rate of global natural disasters, an emergency response center is needed now more than ever. Our is the type of structure of the future, emphasizing the 2 most vital elements needed for resilience- Response and Community.
We hope our project can serve as a precedent in the local community for future design developments. The most compelling feedback we received in our review was when our guests said we made them excited about wastewater! Wastewater is not a typically exciting building or process, but with modern technology, education, and science, we can you use the power of design to help reverse the effects of climate change to make a difference.
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DESIGN PROCESS ITERATIVE DESIGN THROUGH MODEL MAKING
82 |PROPOSAL 1 - EDUCATION | DESIGN PROCESS
DESIGN THINKING From the beginning of the semester, we researched various approaches to schooling around the globe to comprehend their strengths and weaknesses and determine how they translate into architectural design. At every step of our process, we strove to integrate all of our opinions into a collective and cohesive design. This process felt challenging at times, as we struggled to consolidate our ideas harmoniously. Our design progressed with input and advice from our instructors, as we learned to think as a unit and to focus our ideas in the same direction. In the end, this helped us achieve a richness in our final design that none of us had anticipated. One of the key elements that we used to explore our ideas was model making. Showing our thoughts clearly in our models helped provide grounds for feedback and drive our design forward. We compounded these efforts and sought clarity in our design through another of our strengths: computer technologies. Using various design and representation software at different stages, we achieved a high quality in our graphic representations. One of the biggest takeaways was the realization that, despite the difficulties, harmonious teamwork can lead to exceptional quality and execution in the design process. Ultimately, the Lynn Resiliency Studio has made us better designers both as individuals and as a team. RESILIENT LYNN STUDIO | 83
DESIGN PROCESS ITERATIVE DESIGN THROUGH MODEL MAKING For the emergency response center, we explored different types of resilient systems and analyzed how we could use the theme ‘protect, absorb, adapt’ in our building in order to solve for environmental and community vulnerabilities. The form was shaped around three key programmatic considerations. They include the location of the firehouse apparatus bay adjacent to a major intersection, a cafe that serves as the buildings main point of entry, as well as a “knuckle” that unifies the community and emergency response teams; and lastly, the coast guard’s adjacency to the water for boat maintenance.
EXPLORING THE CANTILEVER CONCEPT
Due to landscape manipulation that supports the sites resilience constraints, we determined a cantilever should hoist the coast guard over the water, which then led to an innovative boat-lift system. The cantilever also provided an opportunity for a floodable public plaza underneath, providing the direct access to the water. Not only will this serve as public access to the water, but it will also serve as an educational moment. Model making also helped to inform the decision of how high the building should cantilever and how it felt in scale to the plaza. The rising up of the cantilever and the sinking down of the plaza inspired thinking about inverse relationships. The cantilever over the water is a representation of adapting the building, while on the opposite end, the building dives down into the earth creating an anchor and a representation of protecting the building. These two invert at the bend in the movement which is also where the pedestrian arcade slices through creating a moment of threshold.
EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIPS/ADJACENCIES BETWEEN COMMUNITY AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
INFORMED DECISION TO RAISE CANTILEVER
84 |PROPOSAL 2 - EMERGENCY RESPONSE CENTER | DESIGN PROCESS
COMMERCIAL ST. VIEW CORRIDOR TO WATERFRONT
RE-PURPOSED TANK USED AS ROCK CLIMBING WALL
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DESIGN PROCESS ITERATIVE DESIGN THROUGH MODEL MAKING
86 |PROPOSAL 3 - WASTEWATER RENEWAL CENTER | DESIGN PROCESS
DESIGN THINKING The Lynn Wastewater Renewal Center is a new building type combining traditional wastewater treatment, a natural marsh, pond systems, and a biofuel generator to produce clean drinking water and steam powered electricity. The building acts as transitional interception connecting the hard edge of the mixed use urban context on one end and the natural more irregular form of the berm and ocean on the other. By nesting the building on the opposing side of the berm we have created a cove which nurtures an ecological development within the site. The building responds to environmental change by adapting during storm surges by using operable smart louvers that can close to protect the glass from impact during flooding. The ponds are protected by using built up berms to prevent wastewater from leaking onto the site, and the land absorbs rainwater and seawater during storm surges through the soft marsh land. Our goal is to create a visible and iconic building which will act as a symbol of renewable resources within the community. We hope to create a welcoming and inviting site to encourage people to move across the site educating themselves on sea level rise, the ecological struggles of Lynn, and sustainable wastewater treatment alternatives. The goal is that by providing renewable energy and resources to the city the Lynn Wastewater Renewal Center will eventually became a community asset.
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WORKS-CITED BIBLIOGRAPHY Baker, Lawrence A. The water environment of cities. New York: Springer, 2009.
Mitsch, William J. Wetland ecosystems. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2009.
Bhatia, Neeraj. -arium: weather and architecture. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2010.
Prominski, Martin. River, space, design: planning strategies, methods and projects for urban rivers. Basel: Birkhauser, 2012.
Bisker, Josh, Amy Chester, and Tara Eisenberg. Rebuild by design. New York: Rebuild By Design, 2015. Foley, Joanne S. Lynn. Dover, NH: Arcadia, 1995. Gethering, William, and Katie Puckett. Design for Climate Change. London: RIBA, 2012. Givoni, Baruch. Climate considerations in building and urban design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1998. Hong, Sŏn-gi. Landscape ecological applications in man-influenced areas: linking man and nature systems. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer, 2007. Hönger, Christian, Christian Hönger, Roman Brunner, UrsPeter Menti, Christoph Wieser, Roger Boltshauser, Gion Caminada, Philippe Rahm, Sascha Roesler, Benjamin Liebelt, and Tina Unruh. Climate as a design factor: architecture and energy. Luzern: Quart Publishers, 2013. Hyde, Richard. Climate responsive design: a study of buildings in moderate and hot humid climates. London: E & FN Spon, 2000. Journal Staff. “Lynn Receives $73,000 Grant to Assess Waterfront Resiliency.” Lynn Journal, August 28, 2015. http://www.lynnjournal.com/2015/08/28/lynn-receives73000-grant-to-assess-waterfront-resiliency/. Klinenberg, Eric. Climate change and the future of cities: mitigation, adaptation, and social change on an urban planet. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2016. Lenzholzer, Sanda. Weather in the city: how design shapes the urban climate. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Nai010 publishers, 2015. LU, Pei-Wen. Spatial planning and urban resilience in the context of flood risk: acomparative study of Kaohsiung, Tainan and Rotterdam. S.l.: S.n., 2014. Massachusetts Metropolitan District Commission beaches: beach erosion control report on cooperative study. Boston: U.S. Army Engineer Division, New England, 1949. Meulder, Bruno De, and Kelly Shannon. Water urbanisms: east. Zurich: Park Books, 2013.
88 |CONCLUSION - WORK CITED
Rebuild by Design New Approaches to Climate Change. Nai Uitgevers Pub, 2017. Roaf, Susan, David Crichton, and Fergus Nicol. Adapting buildings and cities for climate change: a 21st century survival guide. Amsterdam: Architectural Press, 2005. Rockström, Johan, Malin Falkenmark, Carl Folke, Mats Lannerstad, Jennie Barron, Elin Enfors, Line Gordon, Jens Heinke, Holger Hoff, and Claudia Pahl-Wostl. Water resilience for human prosperity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Roettger, Betsy. Building after Katrina: visions for the Gulf Coast. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia School of Architecture, 2007. Shephard, Diane. Lynn, Massachusetts. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 1998. Shephard, Diane. Lynn in the Victorian era. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2002. Silliman, Brian R., Edwin Grosholz, and Mark D. Bertness. Human impacts on salt marshes: a global perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009. Vitali, Richard L. History of Lynn Harbor: Lynn, Massachusetts. Lynn (Mass.): Lynn Area Chamber of Commerce, 1973. Walker, Brian, and David Salt. Resilience Practice: Building Capacity to Absorb Disturbance and Maintain Function. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012. Watson, Donald, and Michele Adams. Design for flooding: architecture, landscape, and urban design for resilience to flooding and climate change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. White, Iain. Water and the city: risk, resilience and planning for a sustainable future. New York: Routledge, 2010. Wright, Michael. Rainwater park: stormwater management and utilisation in landscape design. Mulgrave: Images Publishing, 2015. Chicago/Turabian formatting by BibMe.org.
Master Plans and Studies Lynn Waterfront Master Plan Lynn Municipal Harbor Plan City of Lynn’s Downtown / Market Street Vision Plan Lynn Commons, Lynn, MA / master plan Downtown Parking Study - Lynn, Massachusetts City of Lynn Open Space and Recreation Plan (2005) Lynn Reconnaissance Report: Essex County Landscape Inventory, Massachusetts Heritage Landscape Inventory Program City of Lynn: Zone Ordinance Washington Street Gateway District Plan “Lynn: Economic Development and Outlook Study” by Salem University Lynn Downtown Workshop Feasibility Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement/Report Rising Sea Levels Interactive Map of Sea Level Rise Analysis Boston Sea Level Trend Sea Level Rise: Understanding and Applying Trends and Future Scenarios for Analysis and Planning Metropolitan Area Planning Council - Long Range Planning for Sea Level Rise Assessing Vulnerability of Coastal Areas and Properties Preparing for the rising tide Risk & Resilience in Coastal Regions Climate of Progress: City of Boston Climate Action Plan Update 2011 A Revised Late Holocene Sea-Level Record for Northern Massachusetts, USA Designing a Way to Live in Boston’s Watery Future Enhancing Resilience in Boston: A Guide for Large Buildings and Institutions After Sandy: advancing strategies for long-term resilience and adaptability 2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan Vol. 1 2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan Vol. 2 Climate Change and Coastal Flooding in Metro Boston: Impacts and Adaptation Strategies Climate of Progress: City of Boston Climate Action Plan Update 2011
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PRECEDENTS RESILIENT DESIGN ACROSS THE GLOBE The Governors Island Park and Public Space Master Plan proposes a dramatic transformation of this onceabandoned island and accentuates the qualities of this unique place, transforming Governors Island into both a destination and landmark. The re-imagining of the Island landscape also goes hand-in-hand with its rediscovery by the people of New York City. Thousands of whom contributed ideas about what they would like to see in the park and public spaces. As such, the planning principles and design strategies are rooted in a deep understanding of the Island’s inherent attributes and its potential as a resource for the entire region.
Governors Island, New York Harbor, USA - West 8
Living Breakwaters was conceived to connect physical, social, and ecological resilience. The proposal is a “necklace” of offshore breakwaters that will reduce risk, revive ecologies, and connect residents and educators to Staten Island’s southeast shoreline. The structure will provide habitat to the Raritan Bay’s rich ecosystem of marine life, and an on-land Water Hub will be constructed with space for visiting groups, recreational activities, and educational programs. The team’s work with the Harbor School and the Billion Oyster Project will bring educational opportunities for local school groups, teaching the next generation of ecological stewards about protecting Staten Island’s fragile coastline. Living Breakwaters, Staten Island, NY, USA - Rebuild by Design
HafenCity, a district of Hamburg, Germany is designed for flood resilience. By elevating the buildings on plinths made of mounds of compacted fill (“Warften” in German), it has been possible to connect HafenCity with the existing city area and develop it step by step from west to east, and from north to south. All new buildings stand on artificial bases eight meters above sea level - out of reach of the most extreme flooding. On the exposed windward sides, such as the southern sides of Strandkai and Überseequartier, the external perimeter will actually lie at 8 to 9 meters above sea level.
HafenCity, Hamburg, Germany - stock photo taken from Google
90 |CONCLUSION - PRECEDENTS
In Malawi, maternal and neonatal mortality continue to be major public health challenges, largely because few deliveries are attended by a skilled professional; in 2010, one in thirty-six Malawian women had a lifetime risk of dying during pregnancy or delivery. Maternal waiting homes address this issue by providing a facility within reach of a health center where expectant mothers, after their 36th week, can stay until their delivery period in order to receive care. Past attempts at using this model have been less successful as the homes have lacked places to sleep, adequate ventilation, and sanitation.
Kasungu Maternity Waiting Village, Malawi, Africa - Mass Design Group
Perkins+Will developed a design competition submission to transform an unknown, inaccessible, undesirable municipal facility into a welcoming community asset. The goal of the design was to have the plant double as an educational Resource Recovery Center and use wastewater to generate clean energy while recovering nutrients and potable water from itâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; simultaneously collecting and reusing rainwater and recharging an adjacent creek with freshwater.
San Mateo Wastewater Treatment Center, San Mateo, CA, USA - Perkins+Will
The design concept for the Galveston Fire Station responds to extreme weather events with an elevated command and living quarters combined with observational decks positioned above a sacrificial utility base. A hardened bunker-type vertical element anchors the structure as well as houses utilities and support functions where the building engages the ground. Structurally, this element acts as a dampening structure to limit torsional stress to the building as it withstands the hurricane forces of wind and water.
Galveston Fire Station, Galveston, TX, USA - HDR
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT ALPHABETICAL SUPPORT OF THE STUDIO Robert Adams, BAC Janice Barnes, Perkins+Will Ramsey Bakhoum, Perkins+Will Michael Boone, Perkins+Will Robert Brown, Perkins+Will Carolyn Cooney, Perkins+Will Jennifer Cooper-Sabo, Perkins+Will Chris Coscia, Perkins+Will Jim Cowdell, Lynn EDIC Yanel de Angel, Perkins+Will Swathi de Faria, Perkins+Will / BAC Bob Edwards, BAC Nicole Gaenzler, BAC Tom Grimble, Perkins+Will Marcia Harris, Perkins+Will Kate Hart, Perkins+Will Emily Hinckley, Spaulding Rehab Thor Jourgensen, Lynn Item Chris Karlson, Perkins+Will Rick Kuhn, Perkins+Will Luke Laverty, Perkins+Will Glen LeRoy, BAC Tamica McKinney, Perkins+Will Stephen Messinger, Perkins+Will Joe Mulligan, Mass Development Karen Nelson, BAC Douglas Pierce, Perkins+Will Jenny Ragan, Perkins+Will Drew Russo, Lynn Museum / Lynn Arts Kyle Sturgeon, BAC Huda Shalhoub, Evidera Jason Thornton, Perkins+Will Brooke Trivas, Perkins+Will
92 |CONCLUSION - ACKNOWLEDGMENT + INSTRUCTORS
INSTRUCTORS TYLER HINCKLEY, AIA, LEED AP BD+C Tyler is a Project Architect and Senior Associate in the Boston office of Perkins+Will. In his over ten years of experience Tyler has worked on a variety of award winning projects and a number of different project types, always with an emphasis on an integral approach to sustainability and design excellence. At Perkins+Will Tyler serves on the Sustainability Steering Committee for the Boston office, and is a member of the Resilience Task Force for the overall firm. Recently, Tyler has developed a passion for regenerative design, and has a project currently under construction that is targeting Net Zero Energy status. As an instructor at the BAC since 2010, Tylerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s academic work has focused on the process of design. His studios preference the integration of functionality and form-making, from the macro to the micro scale. Along with his colleague Arlen Stawasz, Tyler has been co-teaching a studio over the past two years that is dedicated to Resilient Design. The course seeks to contribute to the current discourse around resilient planning and design relative to climate change through an active involvement with local stakeholders and experts.
ARLEN STAWASZ, Associate AIA, LEED AP ND, CPHC Arlen has over nine years of design experience and has focused his career on researching resilient design strategies for coastal communities. Just recently, Arlen served as a panelist for a ULI Technical Assistance Panel in St. Petersburg, Florida, addressing social equity and economic development from the risks and vulnerabilities predicted from climate change. Arlen was also awarded the John Worthington Ames Fellowship from the BAC, which allowed him to travel to the Netherlands, Bangladesh, HafenCity - Hamburg, Germany, New Orleans, and Miami to research flood resilient architecture and emergency disaster response systems. Arlen works for Perkins+Will and serves as the key ambassador for the Resilience Task force in the Boston office. His work experience ranges from a multitude of projects, including high rise development, civic, higher education, k-12, science and technology, energy + residential, urban planning, and design. Arlen is a BAC Alumni, and serves as an instructor of BAC City Lab and Resiliency: Designing for Change co-taught with his colleague Tyler Hinckley. Arlen is also the co-chair of the ULI Climate Resilience Committee for ULI Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s District Council.
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94 |CONCLUSION - #resilientlynn
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