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A digital facsimile of selections fromWalters Ms. W.168, Book of Hours

Published by: The Walters Art Museum 600 N. Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21201 http://www.thewalters.org/

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode Published 2011


This document is a digital facsimile of selections from a manuscript belonging to the Walters Art Museum, in Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States. It is one of a number of manuscripts that have been digitized as part of a project generously funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and by an anonymous donor to the Walters Art Museum. More details about the manuscripts at the Walters can be found by visiting The Walters Art Museum's website www.thewalters.org. For further information about this book, and online resources for Walters manuscripts, please contact us through the Walters Website by email, and ask for your message to be directed to the Department of Manuscripts.


Shelf mark

Walters Art Museum Ms. W.168

Descriptive Title

Book of Hours

Text title

Book of Hours

Abstract

This fine illuminated Book of Hours was produced in two stages in the second and third quarters of the fifteenth century. The manuscript contains eleven full-page miniatures and twenty historiated initials. The first stage of production includes a section attributed to the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg and the calendar (fols. 3r-14v, 52v-211v), while additional prayers illustrated in the style of the workshop of Willem Vrelant were added later in the fifteenth century (fols. 16r-50v, 213r-223r), presumably when the book was bound in its present binding. The Hours of the Virgin is for the Use of Rome. The Use of the Office of the Dead is unidentified, but the calendar is for the Use of Utrecht. The two separate parts of the manuscript were bound together in Flanders. The sections of W.168 attributed to the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg have been compared to Utrecht, Utrecht University Ms. 1037; Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum James Ms. 141; the second hand in New York, Pierpont Morgan Library Ms. M.87; Stockholm, Royal Library A 226, and Philadelphia, Free Library Lewis Ms. 88.

Date

Second quarter of the 15th century (ca. 1430-35), with additions ca. 1460

Origin

Utrecht, with additions probably in Bruges

Artist

Supplied name: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg

Artist

Supplied name: Style of Willem Vrelant

Form

Book

Genre

Devotional

Language

The primary language in this manuscript is Latin.

Support material

Parchment Medium-weight, light-cream-colored parchment, well surfaced on both sides; miniatures on heavier parchment

Extent

Foliation: 223+ii

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Modern pencil foliation in upper right corners Collation

Formula: 1(8), 2-6(8), 7(4), 8(10,-10), 9(8), 10(10,-2), 11(12,-3,8), 12(12,-5,10), 13(12,-8,12) 14(10,-10), 15(8), 16(10,-7), 17(8), 18(6), 19(10,-10), 20(8), 21(10,-9), 22-25(8), 26(8-8), 27(12,-1), ii Catchwords: None Signatures: None Comments: Quires begin on pastedown (1) and fols. 8(2) 16(3), 24(4), 32(5), 40(6), 48(7), 52(8), 61(9), 69(10), 78(11), 88(12), 98(13), 108(14), 117(15), 125(16), 134(17), 142(18), 148(19), 157(20), 165(21), 174(22), 182(23), 190(24), 198(25), 206(26), 213(27)

Dimensions

11.4 cm wide by 16.0 cm high

Written surface

5.6 cm wide by 8.6 cm high

Layout

Columns: 1 Ruled lines: 15-16 Brown and red ruled lines

Contents

fols. 1r - 223r: Title: Book of Hours Artists: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg; Style of Willem Vrelant Hand note: Written in Gothic bookhand by two scribes in separate campaigns, the first responsible for fols. 1r-14v and 52r-212v, the second for fols. 16r-51v and 213r-223r Decoration note: Eleven full-page miniatures edged in gold and white-streaked blue/rose; Zweder Master sections feature five historiated initials (1 to 9 lines high); Vrelant Master sections feature fifteen historiated initials (8 lines high), as well as ornamental initials (1 to 4 lines high); borders decorated as in Zweder Master sections; floral sprays often found in margins; rubrics in red; text in black ink fols. 3r - 14v: Title: Calendar

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Artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg Rubric: Januarius Text note: Full calendar, Use of Utrecht, graded (black and red); saints include George (January 11), Benigne (June 28), Frederick (July 18), and Philibert (August 20) fols. 16r - 22v: Title: Office of the Cross Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant Rubric: Incipit officium sancte crucis Incipit: Domine labia mea aperies Decoration note: Historiated initial "D," fol. 16r fols. 23r - 29r: Title: Mass of the Virgin Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant Rubric: Incipit missa beate Marie Virginis Incipit: Introibo ad altare Dei Decoration note: Historiated initial "I," fol. 23r fols. 29r - 34r: Title: Gospel sequences Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant Rubric: Initium sancti Euuangelii secundum Johannem Gloria tibi domine Incipit: In principio erat verbum fols. 34v - 38v: Title: Obsecro te Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant Rubric: Oratio deuota de beata Virgine Incipit: Obsecro te domina sancta Maria Mater Dei Decoration note: Historiated initial "O," fol. 34v fols. 38v - 41v: Title: O intermerata Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant Rubric: Alia oratio de beata Virgo Incipit: O intermerata et in eternum benedicta fols. 41v - 43r: Title: Stabat Mater Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant

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Rubric: Oratio de beata Virgine Incipit: Stabat Mater dolorosa fols. 43v - 48v: Title: Prayer Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant Rubric: Oratio deuotissima ad dominum nostrum Ihesum Xpristum Incipit: O dulcissime domine Ihesu Xpriste uere Dei Filius fols. 48v - 50v: Title: Seven Last Words of Christ Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant Rubric: Oratio septem verborum Ihesu Xpristi Incipit: Domine Ihesu Xpriste qui septem verba fols. 52v - 107r: Title: Hours of the Virgin, Use of Rome Artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg Incipit: Domine labia mea aperies Decoration note: Full-page miniatures on fols. 52v, 76v, 81v, 85v, 90v, 94v, and 102v; historiated initial "D," fol. 53r fols. 108v - 127v: Title: Long Hours of the Holy Spirit Artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg Incipit: Domine labia mea aperies Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 108v; historiated initial "D," fol. 109r fols. 128v - 147r: Title: Short Hours of the Cross Artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg Incipit: Domine Ihesu Xpriste qui nocturno tempore Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 128v; historiated initial "D," fol. 129r fols. 148v - 161v: Title: Seven Penitential Psalms Artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg Incipit: Domine ne in furore tuo

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Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 148v; historiated initial "D," fol. 149r fols. 161v - 165v: Title: Litany and one collect Artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg Rubric: Letania Incipit: Kyrie eleison Text note: Collect on fol. 165v: Protege domine famulos tuos subsidiis fols. 166v - 211v: Title: Office of the Dead Artist: Masters of Zweder van Culemborg Rubric: Incipiunt vigilie mortuorum Incipit: Placebo domino Text note: Use unidentified Decoration note: Full-page miniature on fol. 166v; historiated initial "D," fol. 167r fols. 213r - 223r: Title: Suffrages Artist: Style of Willem Vrelant Rubric: Memoria de Sancto Johanne Baptista Text note: Suffrages to SS. John the Baptist, James the Great, Christopher, Sebastian, Adrian, George, Ghislain, Catherine, Barbara, Apollonia, Margaret, and Anne Decoration note: Historiated initials on fols. 213r, 213v, 214v, 215v, 216v, 217v, 218v, 221r, 222r, and 222v Decoration

fol. 16r: Title: Crucifixion Form: Historiated initial "D," 8 lines Text: Hours of the Cross: matins Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 23r: Title: Madonna and Child enthroned Form: Historiated initial "I," 8 lines Text: Mass of the Virgin: matins

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Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 34v: Title: Lamentation Form: Historiated initial "O," 8 lines Text: Obsecro te Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 52v: Title: Betrayal Form: Full-page miniature Text: Hours of the Virgin: matins Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 53r: Title: Madonna and Child in half-length, "clothed in the sun" Form: Historiated initial "D," 9 lines Text: Hours of the Virgin: matins Label: This historiated initial is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 76v: Title: Christ before Pilate Form: Full-page miniature Text: Hours of the Virgin: prime Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 81v: Title: Flagellation Form: Full-page miniature Text: Hours of the Virgin: terce Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 85v: Title: Christ carrying the Cross Form: Full-page miniature Text: Hours of the Virgin: sext

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Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 90v: Title: Crucifixion Form: Full-page miniature Text: Hours of the Virgin: none Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 94v: Title: Deposition Form: Full-page miniature Text: Hours of the Virgin: vespers (disassociated from the incipit, which starts on fol. 93v) Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 102v: Title: Entombment Form: Full-page miniature Text: Hours of the Virgin: compline (disassociated from the incipit, which starts on fol. 101v) Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 108v: Title: Trinity Form: Full-page miniature Text: Hours of the Holy Spirit: matins Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 109r: Title: Pentecost Form: Historiated initial "D," 9 lines Text: Hours of the Holy Spirit: matins Label: This historiated initial is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 128v: Title: Man of Sorrows, surrounded by the Arma Christi Form: Full-page miniature

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Text: Hours of the Cross: matins Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 129r: Title: Nativity Form: Historiated initial "D," 9 lines Text: Hours of the Cross: matins Label: This historiated initial is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 148v: Title: Last Judgement Form: Full-page miniature Text: Seven Penitential Psalms: First Penitential Psalm Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 149r: Title: Christ holding a globe and blessing Form: Historiated initial "D," 9 lines Text: Seven Penitential Psalms: First Penitential Psalm Label: This historiated initial is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 166v: Title: Funeral Mass Form: Full-page miniature Text: Office of the Dead: vespers Label: This miniature is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 167r: Title: Three female souls in purgatory Form: Historiated initial "D," 8 lines Text: Office of the Dead: vespers Label: This historiated initial is illuminated by the Masters of Zweder van Culemborg. fol. 213r: Title: St. John the Baptist Form: Historiated initial "I," 8 lines Text: Suffrage

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Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 213v: Title: St. James Major Form: Historiated initial "O," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 214v: Title: St. Christopher Form: Historiated initial "A," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 215v: Title: St. Sebastian Form: Historiated initial "O," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 216v: Title: St. Adrian Form: Historiated initial "A," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 217v: Title: St. George Form: Historiated initial "G," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 218v: Title: St. Ghislain Form: Historiated initial "S," 8 lines Text: Suffrage

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Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 219r: Title: St. Catherine Form: Historiated initial "I," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 220r: Title: St. Barbara Form: Historiated initial "A," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 221r: Title: St. Apollonia Form: Historiated initial "V," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 222r: Title: St. Margaret Form: Historiated initial "A," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. fol. 222v: Title: St. Anne teaching the Virgin to read Form: Historiated initial "C," 8 lines Text: Suffrage Label: This historiated initial is illuminated in the style of Willem Vrelant. Binding

The binding is original. Bound in fifteenth-century Flanders (Bruges); black calfskin covering beech boards; blind panel-stamping laid out in two panels on both boards, each panel displaying two vine-scrolls

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in mirror image of each other containing a bird, a rabbit couchant, a cock, a deer couchant, and a pelican in piety; both panels surrounded by the inscription "Ora pro nobis sancta / Dei genitrix ut / digni efficamur promis / sione Xpristi"; between panels a smaller compartment composed of three stamps displaying a wivern couchant, St. Margaret emerging from the dragon, and a gryphon rampant; all edges gilt; indications of a central fastening, now a pair of late Gothic brass catch-and-strap clasps hinging from lower board Provenance

Created in two phases, with the original part made ca. 1430-35 and the second part made in the late fifteenth century; calendar for Utrecht suggests original site of production Libraire Morgand no. 26084, nineteenth century

Acquisition

Walters Art Museum, 1931, by Henry Walters bequest

Bibliography

De Ricci, Seymour. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Vol. 1. New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1935, p. 794, no. 235. Byvanck, A. W. "Kroniek der Noord-Nederlandsche Miniaturen, III." Oudheidkundig Jaarboek, 4th series, 10 (1940): 36, figs. 12-14 (fols. 108v, 52v, and 53r). Byvanck, A. W. De Middeleeuwsche Boekillustratie in de Noordelijke Nederlanden. Antwerp: De Sikkel, 1943, pp. 29-31, figs. 21, 22 (fols. 52v, 53r). Wadsworth Athenaeum Museum of Art. Life of Christ Exhibition Catalog March-April, 1948. Hartford, CT: Wadsworth Athenaeum, 1948, p. 3, no. 182. Walters Art Gallery. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1949, no. 121, pl. L (fol. 108v). Panofsky, Erwin. Early Netherlandish Painting, its Origins and Character. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953, p. 102, n. 4; p. 103, n. 4.

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Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts Loan Exhibition November 25, 1953-January 9, 1954. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1954, no. 73 (fol. 76v). Miner, Dorothy. "Dutch Illuminated Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery." Connoisseur Yearbook (1955): 74-5, fig. x (fol. 76v). Diringer, David. The Illuminated Book. London, 1958, p. 443, pl. VII-31. Rijksmuseum. Middeleeuwse Kunst der Noordelijke Nederlanden. Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum, 1958, no. 156, fig. 81. Oberlin College. Spring Bulletin 1960, p. 104, no. 22; p. 107 (fol. 76v). Hoogewerff, G. J. Gelderse miniatuurschildes in de eerste helft van de XVde eeuw. Oud Holland 76 (1961): 47, figs. 37, 38 (fols. 52v, 53r). Kessler, Herbert L. A Book of Hours from the Atelier of Willem Vrelant. Scriptorium 18 (1964): 98, pl. 16a (fol. 215v). Delaisse, L. M. J. A Century of Dutch Manuscript Illumination. California Studies in the History of Art 6. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968, pp. 26, 46, n. 84, figs. 36, 37 (fols. 52v, 76v). Wieck, Roger S. Time Sanctified: The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life. New York: George Braziller, 1988, pp. 127, 220-221, fig. 113 (fols. 166v-167r). Marrow, James H., Henri L. M. Defoer, Anne S. Korteweg, and Wilhelmina C. M. W端stefeld. The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting. New York: George Braziller, 1990, pp. 115-116, no. 37. Fisher, Carol, and Kathleen L. Scott, eds. Art into Life: Collected Papers from the Kresge Art Museum Medieval Symposia. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1995, pp. 168-169 (fols. 166v, 167r).

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Binski, Paul. Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation. London: British Museum Press, 1996, pl. 3 (fols. 166v-167r). Ketelsen, Thomas, and Uta Neidhardt. Das Geheimnis des Jan van Eyck. Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2005, p. 92, Abb. 2 (fol. 52v). Gottler, Christine. Last Things: Art and Religious Imagination in the Age of Reform. Proteus 2. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers, 2010. Contributors

Principal cataloger: Marrow, James Catalogers: Devine, Alex; Hedeman, Anne D.; Herbert, Lynley; Walters Art Museum curatorial staff and researchers since 1934 Editor: Noel, William Copy editor: Bockrath, Diane Conservators: Owen, Linda; Quandt, Abigail Contributors: Bockrath, Diane; Boot, Christine; Dutschke, Consuelo; Emery, Doug; Noel, William; Pizzinato, Riccardo; Tabritha, Ariel; Toth, Michael B.; Valle, Chiara

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The Walters Art Museum 600 N. Charles Street Baltimore, Maryland 21201 http://www.thewalters.org/

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode Published 2009


This document is a digital facsimile of selections from a manuscript belonging to the Walters Art Museum, in Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States. It is one of a number of manuscripts that have been digitized as part of a project generously funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and by an anonymous donor to the Walters Art Museum. More details about the manuscripts at the Walters can be found by visiting The Walters Art Museum's website www.thewalters.org. For further information about this book, and online resources for Walters manuscripts, please contact us through the Walters Website by email, and ask for your message to be directed to the Department of Manuscripts.


The Walters Art Museum 600 N. Charles Street Baltimore, Maryland 21201 http://www.thewalters.org/

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode Published 2009


Book of Hours, Walters Art Museum MS. W.168