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RIC-6451 5.2/506


Bullying in a cyber world (Ages 6–8) Published by R.I.C. Publications® 2010 Copyright© R.I.C. Publications® 2010 ISBN 978-1-74126-980-2 RIC– 6451

Copyright Information

Titles in this series: Bullying in a cyber world (Early learning) Bullying in a cyber world (Ages 6–8) Bullying in a cyber world (Ages 9–10) Bullying in a cyber world (Ages 11–13)

Only the blackline masters contained within this publication may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of these blackline masters for purposes of reproduction. No other part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher.

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Accompanying resources for this series: Set of six posters each for: Bullying in a cyber world (Lower) Bullying in a cyber world (Upper)

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This master may only be reproduced by the original purchaser for use with their class(es). The publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this master for the purposes of reproduction.

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Internet websites

In some cases, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended that the class teacher checks all URLs before allowing students to access them.

View all pages online PO Box 332 Greenwood Western Australia 6924

Website: www.ricpublications.com.au Email: mail@ricgroup.com.au


Foreword Bullying is not a recent phenomenon; it has been always been with us. The negative effects of childhood bullying can remain with both the bully and his or her targets into adulthood. Everyone, child or adult, should be free to live without the fear of emotional abuse which bullying engenders. Bullying in a cyber world (Ages 6–8) aims to help young children grow into socially-competent, empathic adults who can cope with bullying and avoid becoming bullies themselves. Aspects covered in the book include providing positive environments, building self-esteem and a sense of own worth, building children’s self-resilience, developing a sense of empathy towards others, developing tolerance and an appreciation and acceptance of similarities and differences in others. The book gives an insight into many facets of bullying, providing material to help students understand why bullying is wrong and that collectively, they have the power to eliminate it. Bullying in a cyber world is a complementary resource to the previously-released R.I.C. Publishing series, Bullying: Identify, Cope, Prevent.

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• Bullying in a cyber world Lower

Titles in this series are: Bullying in a cyber world (Early learning) Bullying in a cyber world (Ages 6–8) Bullying in a cyber world (Ages 9–10) Bullying in a cyber world (Ages 11–13)

• Bullying in a cyber world Upper

Contents

Teachers notes.................................................................. iv–xiii Bullying reports.................................................................xiv–xv Class anti-bullying pledge.....................................................xvi Student/Family anti-bullying pledge...................................xvii Merit certificates/Bookmark..............................................xviii Student internet safety checklist/Parent cyber safety checklist.......................................................................xix Resources..........................................................................xx–xxi

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This series of books is supported by sets of six posters:

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What is bullying? ...................................2–11 Not again!...............................................................................2–3 Maddie’s problem..................................................................4–7 Is this bullying?....................................................................8–11

Forms of bullying . ............................... 12–19 Gemma’s nightmare..........................................................12–13 Ouch! That hurt!................................................................14–15 Billy meets his match........................................................16–17 Sticks and stones..............................................................18–19

Who bullies and why? ........................ 46–57 What do bullies look and act like?..................................46–47 Bystander bullies...............................................................48–49 Sad Sam..............................................................................50–53 Some bullies are jealous..................................................54–57

Cyberbullying ..................................... 20–31 Cyberbullying stories........................................................20–23 Stop it before it starts.......................................................24–27 What will I do?...................................................................28–29 Trouble for everyone.........................................................30–31

Targets of bullying ............................. 32–39 Grace’s story.......................................................................32–33 Picking the team................................................................34–37 Camisha’s poem.................................................................38–39

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Effects of bullying ............................. 40–45 ‘What’s wrong?’.................................................................40–43 More than bad memories . ..............................................44–45

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Dealing with bullying . ........................ 58–69 Reporting bullying..............................................................58–61 Being confident..................................................................62–65 Things I can do...................................................................66–69 Preventing bullying.............................. 70–81 The game............................................................................70–73 The new girl........................................................................74–77 Being friendly.....................................................................78–79 Angry feelings....................................................................80–81 Glossary............................................ 82–84

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Teachers notes The books in the series are divided into a number of sections, each covering a particular aspect of bullying. Within each section are a number of individual units, each with student pages and supporting teachers pages.

Teachers pages Each teachers page includes the following components. A focus, identifying the main purpose of the activity Teacher information, providing information relating to the topic

background

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An introduction, with specific information and/or suggestions relating to the activity

Answers as necessary, to specific questions on student pages

Supporting activity/Supporting activities to develop the focus or section

Student pages

The student pages are divided into three parts:

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Discussing the text, suggesting questions to promote discussion about the topic. Possible answers may be included.

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Read about it – a stimulus text to inform students about the theme and to promote discussion

Write about it – in which students demonstrate what they have learned about the theme from the stimulus text

More about it – an opportunity for students to think more deeply about the theme and how it relates to their own lives

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These parts may be included on one page or on three different pages.

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Teachers notes The eight sections are:

What is bullying? pages 2–11 Bullying is the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker. The act of bullying is generally repeated over time and is usually an enjoyable experience for the person(s) dispensing the behaviour.

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An imbalance of power, whether real or perceived, is usually a key component of bullying. When one or more people feel they are more powerful than another, bullying situations and experiences may well develop and continue indefinitely. ‘Perceived power’ imbalances may include: intellectual, social, physical, verbal or financial.

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Bullying may occur within the school grounds; between home and school; at local shopping centres, parks and playgrounds or sporting facilities; at parties; or via the internet and mobile phones.

Bullying can happen anywhere, at any time and to anyone. It can be directed by the same person towards the same target over a short or long period and it can be a repeat of the same behaviours or can involve a range of bullying behaviours. In order to identify bullying behaviours and tactics, we first need to identify behaviours which are sometimes misinterpreted as bullying. The first is mutual conflict between two students over a problem. In this type of situation, both parties generally want a fair resolution but are having difficulty reaching one, and there is a balance of power. The second situation involves social rejection or dislike. We don’t always have to like everyone, so long as we respect each person for who he or she is. Some children may feel they are being bullied just because someone doesn’t particularly like spending time with them. This does not constitute bullying behaviour. The third situation is when nastiness occurs on a single occasion. A child may push another child in the playground on a particular day. Unless physical, verbal or psychological acts occur over several occasions, this is also not considered bullying.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons f or r ev i ew pur posesonl y• Forms of• bullying pages 12–19

Although the vast amount of research currently available categorises bullying in varying ways, the content remains consistent.

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Bullying, which can occur between an individual or a group of bullies and an individual or a group of targets, can broadly be categorised as physical, social or psychological. The resilience of the target and the extent of the bullying are key factors in determining how severely the target is affected emotionally. Depending on the circumstances, bullying acts can feature in any category. Physical bullying is direct contact between the bully and the target. Examples include verbal abuse relating to the target’s appearance, family, home, possessions, physical and intellectual abilities; punching, kicking and tripping; using or throwing objects to cause personal injury; intimidation which threatens physical abuse; extortion in which money or goods are demanded to avoid physical injury to the target or his or her family; deliberate damage to the target’s property, or something borrowed in his or her name, and theft of a target’s possessions, or those borrowed in his or her name.

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Social bullying is any actions on the part of the bully which make the target feel humiliated or embarrassed by his or her peers or excluded from them. Examples can include being excluded from conversations, jokes, games, peer groups, social activities; being mocked and mimicked for intellectual and athletic capabilities, physical appearance and habits; being the object of unkind messages sent to others via gestures, notes, sms texts, emails; talking negatively about something related to the target, pretending the target is not within earshot, making silent phone calls or sending cryptic sms text messages; and being ‘befriended’ by the bullies and asked to do foolish things ‘for a joke’. The target is then ridiculed for his or her foolish actions. Psychological bullying is a form of bullying which can be difficult for the target to prove and so he or she is less likely to report it. The bully can appear totally innocent of any wrongdoing but he or she has a powerful, negative hold over the target. Examples can include following or stalking, silently threatening intent to harm; gestures such as wafting a hand over the nose when the target approaches, implying that he or she has a personal hygiene problem; and subtle exclusion such as greeting everyone else with a smile and eye contact but ignoring the target. R.I.C. Publications® – www.ricpublications.com.au

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Teachers notes Cyberbullying 20–31 Cyberbullying is the act of bullying a target using technology such as mobile phones or the internet as a vehicle. In the ‘real world’ there are generally physical boundaries where the bullying stops; for example at home or in the classroom (with the teacher present). However, cyberspace knows no boundaries and a target has no reprieve or safe haven from his or her tormentor. Cyberbullying includes repeated attacks, threats, defamation or harassment designed to cause distress to the chosen target. The bully or group of bullies may use mobile phone messages or pictures; internet social sites or blogs; or email to render the torment. They may stage the same attack over and over or vary the delivery. It may be organised by one bully and carried out by several others or it may be organised and carried out by the same person.

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Cyberspace provides the bully with a sense of anonymity which they can’t possibly have in the ‘real world’. It allows them to take the bullying to another level beyond what is possible at school or other ‘traditional bullying hotspots’. It also provides the target with a hard copy of the event(s) which they are then able to read and reread many times over—causing much deeper harm. Traditional bullying may be observed by a few people or a large group of ten or more. However, technology allows the bullying to be witnessed (and carried on) by a far greater audience—adding to the target’s humiliation. This form of bullying can also be continued over a longer period and total strangers can ‘join in’. Almost like a ripple in a pond, it can grow and grow. Every time someone forwards a text message or email, that person helps the bully to continue his or her campaign against the target. Fortunately, this technology also provides a level of security that can not be found in real life. It is education and an understanding of the technology which will provide a safe and secure environment. Individuals have the ability to lock their profile, blog or webpage—allowing only selected friends access to their information, while specific callers can be blocked from a mobile phone contact list.

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Individuals also need to be aware of the information they share with others. It is up to the individual to carefully consider the sharing of photographs, information and personal events. By taking simple precautions, individuals can take charge and reduce the risk of becoming an online target.

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The ‘upside’ of cyberbullying is that it does provide a hard copy which can be saved and used as evidence against the bully. The target must be educated to save and keep all documentation and share it with the appropriate authorities (school, parent, law enforcement officers) to have the matter dealt with. Criminal legislation is now available to pursue any specific behaviours involving such technology to cause harm to another person.

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Types of cyberbullying

Cyberstalking occurs when an individual repeatedly sends threatening messages via the internet or a mobile phone. The messages instil the fear that the stalking might move offline and become physical.

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Flaming involves sending correspondence using chat rooms, email and instant messenger. Flaming refers to arguments to which images are often added to emphasise a point. It includes harsh language.

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Exclusion occurs when an individual is singled out and excluded from a group. The group then taunts the excluded person using the internet or mobile phones.

Outing occurs when an individual publicly shares personal communications involving another person using online communication methods or a mobile phone. That individual is then ‘outed’ when his/her private information is broadcast publicly, either online or offline.

Masquerading is a form of cyberbullying in which an individual creates a false identity and harasses another while pretending to be someone else. Masquerading includes attempts to steal log-in information, then using that information in a harassing manner, such as sharing it publicly. Impersonation is pretending to be someone else and sending or posting material online to make the impersonated person look bad, get him/her in trouble or danger, or cause damage to that person’s reputation or friendships. Harassment is the act of repeatedly sending offensive, rude or insulting messages. Denigration is the act of ridiculing someone online. It involves sending or posting cruel gossip or rumours about a person to damage his or her reputation or friendships. vi

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Teachers notes Targets of bullying pages 32–39 Anyone can be bullied. It may be for a specific reason or for no particular reason. Bullies enjoy the sense of power they have over their targets and they thrive on the reactions elicited from them. A target who gets upset, showing fear or anger, is more likely to be ruthlessly pursued by a bully, whereas one who ignores a bully’s taunts may be left alone. Often, a person (or group of people) is singled out for bullying because they are different in some way from the mainstream group. This difference puts them in the minority. As the motivating force behind bullying is power, targeting a minority group is an easy option for the cowardly bully. Minority groups commonly targeted by bullies are those of different ...

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• Race – with different coloured skin, hair type or facial features • Religion – who follow a different (or any) religious faith

• Sexual orientation – those who are gay or who are perceived to be gay because of their choice of style, fashion, activities, friends. A person can become a bully’s target if a family member of the target is gay or if his or her family unit comprises single sex parents. Bullying of this nature is known as homophobic bullying.

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• Culture – from another region or country and who may have different accents, languages, foods, fashions and customs

• Physical ability – This can be divided into two main groups: those who have a medically recognised physical disability, including those who wear hearing aids and glasses, and those who have all their faculties but are not adept at either fine or gross motor skills. The latter are often bullied for their lack of sporting prowess.

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• Intellectual ability – This can also be divided into two main groups: those who have a medically recognised intellectual disability and those who have all their faculties but who are at either end of the curve of natural distribution. If a nonacademic student is talented in another area, he or she may escape bullying. Academically gifted students are often bullied and some deliberately underachieve in order to fit in with the majority.

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• Physical features – In addition to those who may be bullied because of different physical features related to race, some become targets because they have features that do not match the ‘norm’. Examples include big ears, lower than average height, unruly hair, prominent birthmarks, and protruding teeth.

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• Social status – This is manifest in many areas, such as type of home, car, suburb, lower or higher than average income family, personal possessions (whether or not the target has the latest electronic toys and gadgets), types of holidays or destinations and social activities.

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• Personality – Shy students are often targeted by bullies. They lack the confidence to stand up to the bully and find it difficult to tell someone about the problem. Their vulnerability often prolongs the bullying onslaught and they may retreat even further into their shells.

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Teachers notes Effects of bullying pages 40–45 All targets are affected to some degree by bullying, but the extent depends on their confidence, self-esteem and resilience. Some will have strategies for coping with the bullying, thus ending the problem, but many more will suffer consequences in the short and the long term. Some short-term consequences ... • for the target are: loss of appetite; insomnia; feelings of sadness, fear, anger, shame, loneliness; excessive absenteeism from school; drop in school work standards; poor attention span; loss of interest in social activities; anxiety attacks; feeling responsible for the attacks; lack of trust in friends.

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• for the bully are: shallow friendships (peers are ‘friends’ for fear of being bullied themselves); negative reputation among staff and some students. Some long-term consequences ...

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• for the target are: low self-esteem; difficulty in making and maintaining friendships; depression; non-fulfilment of academic potential; poor career prospects; open to bullying in the workplace; paranoia– specifically related to cyberbullying; selfharm; possible suicide; revenge attacks; and abusive behaviour at home. • for the bully are: unpopularity and loss of peer group as ‘friends’ no longer fear retribution; continued antisocial behaviour possibly leading to crime; and abusive behaviour at home.

Who bullies and why? pages 48–57 Although the focus in schools is often on providing support for the targets of bullying, the bullies themselves also need to be understood so they too can be helped. Categories of bullies

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• Bystander bullies: Even bystanders who observe bullying and take no active role in that bullying are themselves classified as bullies if they fail to take any action.

• Accessory bullies: Bystanders become accessories to bullying when they encourage a bully by, for example, making statements of support, laughing, jeering or mimicking.

• Advocates: There is a further category involved in bullying; those who are neither targets nor bullies. They haven’t actually observed the bullying, but they may suspect that bullying is occurring. This group can be very effective in preventing bullying.

Characteristics of bullies

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Bystander bullying is of particular relevance in cyberbullying. Students may pass on images or information which amuse or shock them. They may do this without thinking of, or being aware of, the effect on the target or of their own role as a bully. Depending on the nature of the material being sent, these students could be performing an illegal act.

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The following list contains generalisations about bullies. There can be no one set of characteristics to describe all bullies. A bully may be a very confident, high achieving, apparently popular student with high self-esteem or a target who is retaliating by bullying other less powerful or younger students in order to hide his or her own lack of confidence. Bullying is about power and control. Bullies may have a conduct disorder; lack empathy and sympathy; be confident and popular; lack self-esteem and have difficulty making friends; be physically bigger and stronger than their targets; be able to talk their way out of trouble; have a small group of friends who support their bullying; question authority, break rules, push boundaries and admire violence; tend towards physical bullying if they are boys, or be more likely to use social exclusion or humiliation if they are girls; be impulsive, socially dominant, easily frustrated, confrontational, aggressive, needing to control or attention-seeking. There is no common reason for bullying, but the following generalisations worthy of consideration are: jealousy and competition for attention and valued objects; personal experience of being bullied; inadequate supervision; child abuse and neglect; harsh physical discipline; overly permissive parenting or lack of limits; inconsistent enforcement of rules and consequences; or poor role models at home or school. Students have reported they have bullied others because: ‘They are annoying’, ‘To get even’, ‘It is fun’, ‘To take things I want from others’, ‘Others do it’, ‘To show how tough I am’, ‘They’re weak’, ‘They deserve it’ or ‘I can’.

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Teachers notes Dealing with bullying pages 58–69 To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, students are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future. Examples of strategies to give students include: • Have a ready response for a given bullying situation and deliver it with direct eye contact with the bully before walking away confidently. Examples of these responses can be practised during role-play of prevalent bullying situations. It takes courage for students to appear brave while inside they may be feeling quite the opposite, especially if they are on their own against more than one assailant. But by reacting in this way, they are challenging the bully who, in many cases will back down, as most bullies are cowards.

• Turn what the bully says or does into a joke. Without making fun of the bully, if a target can make light of the situation, the bully will see that he/she has no power over the target. • Improve your body language. By walking purposefully, with shoulders back and head held high, students will look less vulnerable, reducing the likelihood of being targeted.

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• Do not react emotionally to the bully but look him or her straight in the eye before smiling and carrying on with the activity in progress. This action says, ‘You can’t hurt me and I’m not bothered by what you say or do’. Bullies do not like to be ignored, so if the student can calmly play out this response, the bully will get the message.

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There’s Zoe and Erin. This time I’m going to stand up to them.

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• Increase your social circle. By making an effort to engage fellow students in general conversation and showing an interest in them and their lives, students develop a greater social network and potential support against bullying.

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• Talk to people if you feel you are being bullied. In sharing their experiences, students realise they are not alone and they will identify peers and adults in whom they can confide. They will need to know that in talking with school staff, their problems will be taken seriously and dealt with appropriately. If more than one student is being targeted by the same bully or group of bullies, they could go together to speak to a member of staff. The sooner targets talk about their problems, the sooner they can be dealt with, reducing the risk of emotional damage.

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• Keep any evidence of bullying. A record of events with names of bystanders and witnesses is useful for recalling details. Any physical evidence related to the bullying, such as a note that has been passed around, should be retained. While cyberbullying is difficult to trace and monitor, saving all messages and emails will help to find the initial perpetrator. Instruct students to inform an adult as soon as they receive any unwanted photos, texts or emails and if they discover anything negative relating to them on social networking sites. Students need to talk to their parents and trusted friends about being bullied in this way. It is one type of bullying from which it is almost impossible to escape so it is important that they have a supportive network in whom they can confide, discussing the content of the photos and/or messages.

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• If possible, avoid the bully. While no-one should have to use avoidance tactics to be safe, it is possible that keeping out of the bully’s way for a while may be enough to stop the opportunistic bully who has no specific gripe against the target but who bullies just because he or she can. In more serious cases, adults should be informed of unsafe areas where bullies are likely to strike. • Avoid being alone when you are at risk of being bullied. It is not always possible to avoid bullies. In these cases, students should try to always be in the company of their friends. • Know where the ‘Safety Houses’ are on your route home. If a bully saves his intimidation for after school, it is helpful for students to know if there is a place of safety between school and home. • Walk to and from school with friends. Students should feel safe to walk to and from school alone without harassment, but if they are concerned, walking with friends will ease their discomfort.

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Teachers notes Preventing bullying pages 70–81 Bullying is not a new problem and or one that all teachers see the same need to deal with—some perhaps because they perceive bullying as ‘just a part of growing up’ and as something they and others have all survived. Others may believe the problem of bullying is too difficult and believe they lack the skills and training to deal with it effectively. But preventing bullying, particularly at a time when cyberbullying is affecting an increasing number of students, is important, and there is a great deal teachers and the students in their classes can and must do to protect targets from pain and humiliation. Teachers need to:

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• participate in whole-school planning to deal with bullying … and include students in this planning • ensure that students and parents understand the school bullying policy • be consistent in imposing consequences for bullying behaviours

• assist students to accept and appreciate physical, cultural and attitudinal differences • be sensitive to the needs of both targets and bullies

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• listen, try to understand and respond appropriately to reported bullying behaviours

• ensure that all students are well informed about different forms of bullying and how to deal with them

• provide opportunities for students to understand bullying and empathise through role-plays and discussions

• realise how effective well-informed advocates (students who are neither bullies nor targets) can be in preventing bullying • be informed about the different forms, possibilities and technologies involved in cyberbullying

• realise cyberbullying between students at home needs to be addressed by parents and the school.

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All students need to:

• be able to identify bullying and differentiate between bullying and hurtful behaviours that are isolated or unintentional • be involved in the development of the school’s bullying policy

• empathise with targets and understand more about bullying through discussions and role-plays

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• appreciate differences in cultural practices, values, physical appearances, abilities and attitudes, including sexual orientation

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• accept they have a role in supporting targets and preventing bullying • understand that it is acceptable to report bullying

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• understand some forms of cyberbullying are illegal

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• be aware of the need to protect personal details when posting information in chat rooms and network sites.

Targets need to:

• be able to identify bullying behaviours and realise that bullying is wrong

• understand that it is acceptable to report bullying

• know they will be listened to and action taken when they report bullying • realise they are not alone and that other students understand and will help them • have strategies to employ when bullied; e.g. things they can do or say • keep any evidence of cyberbullying • develop a support network.

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Teachers notes Preventing bullying pages 70–81 (continued) Bullies need to: • realise that bullying is wrong • understand when they are bullying • expect that bullying will be reported • realise there are consistently applied consequences of bullying and that it will not be tolerated

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• learn to empathise more with the feelings of others • become more tolerant and less aggressive

• learn to interact with others and resolve differences in a more acceptable way

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• understand that posting photos and hurtful or false information is a form of bullying.

Accessories or bystanders who are also bullies because they actively support bullies need to:

• realise if they support or encourage a bully by joining in, passing on hurtful material or even laughing, they are accessories and therefore are bullies too • know they have choices and do not have to support bullying • know others will help them if they too become a target

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• understand that it is acceptable to report bullying.

Bystanders who are also bullies because they passively support bullies by doing nothing need to:

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Advocates who are neither bullies nor targets need to: • realise the importance of their role in preventing bullying • learn strategies to deal with bullies and targets

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• report bullying.

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• realise that by not supporting the target they are being bullies too.

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Teachers notes Preventing bullying pages 70–81 (continued) Provide a firm base for young children In order to help young children grow into socially-competent, empathic adults who can cope with bullying and avoid becoming bullies, it is important to: • provide positive environments where individuals are free to express their feelings and be themselves – Young children should feel safe and comfortable in their home and classroom and know that they belong. They should feel free to be themselves, be able to play often and know their boundaries. They should feel they can express their feelings and concerns to peers or adults with whom they interact positively. Adults within their immediate circle should be supportive and a positive influence on the children by the example they set.

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• build self-esteem and develop a sense of one’s own worth – Children should be able to express something which is special about themselves, and know that others can see this as well. They should be praised often and feel free to take risks, knowing that even if they fail, at least they tried (or ‘had a go’). Encourage the children to make positive self-statements: ‘I can do this if I keep trying’, ‘I can get this finished in time’, ‘I tried hard’, ‘I didn’t do very well this time but I know what to do now, so I can do better next time’.

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Train them how to make good decisions: to stop before making a decision, think about why they want to do it, what the choices/options are, what the consequences are, how the decision will affect others, and whether the decision is in their best interests. After making a decision, children need to learn to judge if it was a good choice or not, thereby giving them a basis for better decision-making next time.

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• build self-resilience – Teach the children life skills, and praise them whenever they use them. They may learn to clean their teeth and dress themselves at home, but at school they can help to give out paper and other supplies, collect and give out lunches, blow their nose, tie their own shoelaces, peel their own banana, open their own lunch box and care for their own belongings.

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• develop a sense of empathy for how others feel – Empathy is the ability to understand the feelings of others. Young children can be very egocentric. To some extent, they consider that the world revolves around them. Some simple strategies may be used to develop a sense of empathy in young children. Children need practice in recognising and learning about emotions in everyday situations. Ask them to identify the sad/happy/ angry/excited face of a child or adult in a picture, photograph, DVD or movie. Ask ‘How are they feeling?’, ’Have you ever felt sad or happy or excited?’, ‘When?’ Daily situations which arise in the classroom or playground may require an adult to ask, ‘How would you feel if someone did this to you?’

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Children learn by observation and experience. Teachers, parents or adult helpers need to demonstrate empathy for the children and others they come into contact with. This provides a good role model for the children to copy. • develop tolerance and an appreciation of similarities and differences in others – Lead by example. Demonstrate that you appreciate the similarities and differences in each child and other adults. Avoid stereotyping. Talk positively about people who are different from you. Provide opportunities for the children to interact with children of diverse cultures and play games from different cultures. Consider carefully which books, toys, music, art or videos children will be exposed to. Acknowledge differences and similarities within families. Celebrate the uniqueness of different cultures by holding multicultural days, lunches or special visits and learning about different holidays and religious celebrations. Above all, help the children to feel good about themselves. They should respect themselves as much as others.

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Teachers notes BULLYING IN SCHOOLS It is now widely accepted that bullying is unacceptable at any level and that everyone has the right to a bully-free life at school and in the outside world.

A safe school environment The school environment itself should discourage bullying activities. Staff supervision in the playground, school buildings and on school transport should create safe areas for play, areas of retreat and eliminate ‘blind spots’ where bullying may occur. The physical design of the school buildings may also need to be considered. Schools need to target key times and locations for bullying and take steps to minimise risks to potential targets. Students may assist in providing this information.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Professional development

Teac he r

Establishing an anti-bullying policy

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In order for schools to effectively combat bullying, staff and other adult helpers or supervisors need to understand bullying fully. Professional development by experts should include information about legal responsibilities relating to the care of students at school. Welfare or government agencies may be approached. In Australia, the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) is a statutory authority within the federal government portfolio of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy. It provides trainers for teachers and parents, in particular in the area of cyberbullying.

A school needs to assure its students that bullying will not be tolerated, incidents will be thoroughly investigated, perpetrators will be dealt with appropriately and targets will be supported. The biggest hurdle to achieving a bullying-free school is that many incidents go unreported, either because targets and witnesses fear retribution, or because they believe that although an initial investigation may take place, there is no follow-up and the bullying is allowed to continue.

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While an anti-bullying plan is drawn up by the staff, if the students are also involved in the process they will feel ‘ownership’ of the document. Ensure the students know the policy and all procedures, including the consequences. As a result of this knowledge, they will be more likely to report bullying incidents if they believe the procedures will be followed. Students, parents and staff provide valuable information regarding their personal experiences of bullying. This will help the school establish, and evaluate the effectiveness of, the anti-bullying policy.

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When establishing an anti-bullying policy, the school leadership team should actively demonstrate positive anti-bullying behaviours and, if possible, gain support from the wider community, especially parents. Other schools in the local area may also be interested in working together to establish a bullying policy. Recording of bullying incidents should be clear and consistent. Confidentiality, fair and effective investigations, listening strategies and appropriate follow-up should all be included in a bullying policy.

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Sanctions for bullies should be fair, consistent and reasonable. The bully should be provided with opportunities to learn from and change the offending behaviour. Targets should be supported—disruption to normal routines should be kept to a minimum and they should be aware that the bully is being dealt with. Rewards for students taking care of each other and good behaviour should be well established. By engaging in role-play, students should know how to support each other and assert themselves in a bullying situation. By building confidence and resilience, students should be able to better withstand bullying.

Including anti-bullying messages within other learning areas Curriculum areas provide opportunities to raise awareness of bullying. Physical education, Health and Personal development; and Society and Environment lessons can be used to discuss issues and support anti-bullying procedures. Creative activities such as music, drama and art can develop positive social and emotional aspects.

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Teacher

Teacher completing form:

Date:

Child reporting incident:

Class:

Children involved and their roles – target/bully/bystander

Date:

Time:

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Incident details

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Follow-up interview date

Parents informed? Teacher’s signature:

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No

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Steps taken to resolve incident

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Date: Class teacher’s signature:

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Student

Name:

Date:

Who was involved?

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r o e t s Bo r e Describe the incident. Include: p ok u what happened why you think it happened S why you were there exactly what you did what you saw the others do

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Who do you think was/were the target/targets, bully/bullies and bystander/bystanders in this incident?

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Class

School

Class/Group:

We want everyone to be safe and happy at school. We don’t want bullying.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok be nice to everyone u Snot bully

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We promise to:

tell if we see someone being bullied help someone being bullied tell the bully to stop

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Class teacher:

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Date:

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Student

I want everyone to be safe and happy at school. I don’t want bullying. By writing my name, I promise to: be nice to everyone

r o e t s Bobullied r e tell if I see someone being p o u someone being bullied k S help tell the bully to stop

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not bully

Class/Group:

Student’s name: Teacher:

Date:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Family •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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We don’t want bullying.

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We want everyone to be safe and happy at school.

By writing our names, we promise to:

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be nice to everyone

o c . ch tell if we see someone being bullied e r e o t r help someone being bullied s supe r not bully

tell the bully to stop

Student’s name:

Class/Group:

Parents:

Date:

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Merit certificates/Bookmark

Awarded to for

saying ‘No’ to bullying

Teacher:

Date:

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by

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helping others being bullied

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by

Teacher:

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Awarded to © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons forso •f orr evi ew pur pose nl y•

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Student

When online I will ...

Name

make up a clever password and keep it secret. always log out of shared computers.

r o e t s Bo r e talk nicely to others. p ok u Sto go to meet a stranger. never agree

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never give out my name, address, phone number, birthday, school or club names.

only download from safe websites.

tell a trusted adult if I see something that makes me feel bad. never open emails from strangers.

ask before sharing pictures or information about others.

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To ensure my child is protected online, I will ...

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Parent

educate myself about dangers he/she may encounter including online predators and cyberbullying.

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talk to my child about things on the web that make him/her feel uncomfortable.

monitor their internet use by sharing an email account, checking browser history, keeping the computer in a shared situation, and maintaining access to my child’s account. research and recommend appropriate child-safe sites.

maintain an appropriate amount of parental control of software through user time limits, and access to sites, games, chat and file sharing. install defensive software such as anti-virus, anti-spyware, spam blocker and personal firewall, and update these regularly. select child-safe mobile devices, including those which do not include a camera or web access, and phones with a limit on the number of calls that can be made.

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Resources Internet sites There are many internet sites which give information on how to recognise and deal with bullying. For example: www.kidscape.org.uk http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetailsKids.aspx?p=335&np=286&id=1695 http://au.reachout.com/find/articles/bullying-what-it-is

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S www.bullyingnoway.com.au http://www.ncab.org.au/

http://kidshealth.org/kid/feeling/emotion/bullies.html

http://www.police.govt.nz/service/yes/nobully/whats_bullying.html http://www.childsafetyaustralia.com.au http://www.bullying.com.au/

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http://www.bullying.org/

http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/agd.nsf/Page/CyberSecurity_ProtectingYourselfOnline-WhatEveryoneNeedstoKnow http://www.kidspot.com.au/subsection+258+School-Bullying.htm www.notcooltobecruel.com

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• www.antibullying.net/knowledge/questiononeg.htm www.teachers.tv/bullying/download

http://www.squidoo.com/search/results?q=bullying

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http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/

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Resources Books The tale of Sir Dragon: Dealing with bullies for kids (and dragons) by Jean E Pendziwol

Bully beans by Julia Cook Big sister, little sister by Leuyen Pham Bootsie Barker bites by Barbara Bottner and Peggy Rathmann

When Sophie gets angry, really angry by Molly Bang

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When I feel angry (Way I feel books) by Cornelia Maude Spelman

Butt Ugly by Lynn Montgomery

The ugly duckling (traditional fairytale)

Pebble: A story about belonging by Susan Milord

Hooway for Wodney Way by Helen Lester

Eggbert the slightly cracked egg by Tom Ross

Shrinking Violet by Cari Best

My teacher’s my friend by P K Hallinan

Hurty feelings by Helen Lester

Stop picking on me by Pat Thomas (A first look at bullying) Tyrone the horrible by Hans Wilheim

Willy the wimp by A Browne

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I can play it safe by Alison Feigh

Ruby the copycat by Margaret Rathmann

Don’t feed the monster on Tuesday by Adolph Moser

The recess queen by Alexis O’Neill King of the playground by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor Jungle bullies by Steven Kroll

Just me and Dad by Mercer Mayer

It’s okay to be different by Todd Parker Odd Velvet by Mary Whitcomb

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Nobody knew what to do: A story about bullying by Becky Ray McCain

Crowboy by Taro Yashima

Ant bully by John Nicole

A rainbow of friends by P K Hallinan

The Berenstain Bears and the bully by S and J Berenstain

Learning to be a good friend by Christine A Adams

Enemy pie by Derek Munson

Dinosaur chase! by Benedict Blathwayt

Pinky and Rex and the bully by James Howe

Blubberguts by AJ Rochester

Henry and the bully by Nancy Carlson

Hooray for Horrible Harriet by Leigh Hobbs

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Martha walks the dog by Susan Meddaugh

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Arnie and the new kid by Nancy Carlson

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The bully blockers club by Teresa Bateman

Tashi and the golem by Anna Fienberg and Barbara Fienberg

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A weekend with Wendell by Kevin Henkes Myrtle by Tracey Campbell Pearson

Stand tall Molly Lou Melon by Patty Lavell

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No more teasing! by Emma Chichester Clark Elmer and the big bird by David McKee0

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What is bullying?

Not again! Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a poem to understand that bullying is a repeated behaviour and not an isolated incident

WRITE ABOUT IT

1. (c) most days

Teacher information

2. (a) (b) (c) (d)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S MORE ABOUT IT

punched/pinched/hit; arm; teacher; more

Supporting activity

• Choose one of the verses in the poem to draw Seth and the boy he is bullying. Add speech and thought bubbles to write text to describe what is happening.

• Refer to page v for further information. Introduction

• The poem on page 3 is about a boy who is continually being bullied by another boy, Seth. Seth is mainly using physical forms of bullying to harass his target. The poem should help the students identify that an incident such as a student pushing or kicking another in a one-off situation is not considered bullying. (However, incidents where a student is hurt should be reported to a teacher.) Bullying consists of deliberate, repeated acts over time. Discussing the text

pushed the boy against the wall stomped on the boy’s bag put the boy’s lunch in the bin kicked the boy in the shins

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• Bullying is the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker. The act of bullying is generally repeated over time and is usually an enjoyable experience for the person(s) dispensing the behaviour. Bullying may occur within the school grounds; between home and school; or at local shopping centres, parks and playgrounds or sporting facilities. With older children, it is increasingly occurring via the internet and mobile phones. Bullying can happen anywhere, at any time and to anyone. It can be dispensed by the same person or persons towards the same target over a short or long period and it can be a repeat of the same behaviours or involve a range of bullying behaviours.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• What is the name of the bully in the poem? (Seth)

• How often does he bully the boy who wrote the poem? (Nearly every day)

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• Why is the boy miserable? (Because he’s always scared of what Seth might do to him)

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• What kind of things does he do to bully the boy? (Pushes him, jumps on his bag, puts his lunch in the bin, kicks him)

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Not again!

What is bullying?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S WRITE ABOUT IT

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READ ABOUT IT On Wednesday, he took my lunch. I am being bullied I found it in the bin. And I have no joy. When we played footy on It happens nearly every day Thursday By the same boy. He kept kicking me in the On Monday, Seth pushed shin. me I stayed at home on Friday Straight into the wall. Pretending to be sick in bed. On Tuesday, he stomped on Seth’s making my life miserable my bag As I am always scared. And that’s not all! Write your answers after discussing the poem above.

1. Circle the correct answer. Seth bullies the boy in the poem: (a) once a week.

(b) on Mondays.

(c) most days.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f or e vi ew pur poses(b) on l y• (a)r Monday Tuesday

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2. Describe how Seth bullies on these days.

(c) Wednesday

(d) Thursday

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o c . cheMORE ABOUT IT r e o Write some words you think will complete t r s s r u e p the fifth verse of the poem. Draw a picture to match. Back at school on Monday Seth

me on my

.

I think I’ll tell the Before he causes me

harm.

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What is bullying?

Maddie’s problem Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a pictorial scenario to understand that bullying is the repeated behaviour of one or more people to deliberately hurt a target physically and/or emotionally

Page 6

Teacher information

1. (d), (a), (e), (b), (c) [or (c), (b)]

2. (a) Yes (b) Because Maddie says ‘Here they come again’/ the boys say they’ll be back again/ Maddie says all she has to eat is fruit again

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• Refer to page v for further information. Introduction

3. Possible answers: scared, sad, worried, nervous, afraid

4. Answers should indicate that the bullies felt pleased with what they’d done and it was easy to do.

Page 7

1. mean 5. again

Supporting activity

3. meant 7. outside

4. happen 8. inside

• Students draw pictures with speech and thought bubbles for the characters to illustrate a bullying incident that has happened or is happening to them, or one they know of that is happening or happened to someone else.

• The scenario on page 5 shows a girl around seven years of age being bullied by two older boys as she enters school. Clues in the text and pictures reveal the incident is one dealing with bullying. Maddie has been approached by the bullies before and they say they will be back again. They are using physical tactics and fear to bully her in order to get her lunch money. Their actions are deliberate and repeated. Discussing the text

2. bully 6. Bullying

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• Bullying is the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker. The act of bullying is generally repeated over time and is usually an enjoyable experience for the person(s) dispensing the behaviour. Bullying may occur within the school grounds; between home and school; or at local shopping centres, parks and playgrounds or sporting facilities. With older children, it is increasingly occurring via the internet and mobile phones. Bullying can happen anywhere, at any time and to anyone. It can be dispensed by the same person or persons towards the same target over a short or long period and it can be a repeat of the same behaviours or involve a range of bullying behaviours.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• What is the name of the girl in the pictures? (Maddie)

• What is happening in each of the pictures? (Assist the students to identify the events in each scene)

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• How do you know this? (Because she says ‘... here they come again’/ the boys say they’ll be back again/ Maddie says all she has is fruit to eat again) • How do you think Maddie feels? (Sad, upset, afraid, anxious etc.)

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• How do you think the bullies feel? (Really great about what they have done)

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• Is this the first time they have tried to do this? (No)

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Please stop doing this ...

Oh, no! Here they come again!

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No way! We’ll be back again.

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Give us your lunch money!

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Now all I have to eat is fruit again. How can I stop them doing this?

Ow!

Yeah!

Ha! Ha!

Too easy!

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Hey, Maddie!

What is bullying?

Maddie’s problem

READ ABOUT IT

5


Maddie’s problem – 2

What is bullying?

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the pictures on page 5. 1. Order the things that happen to Maddie by writing the numbers 1 to 5 in the boxes.

r o e t s B r e oo (b) The boys run away laughing. p u k (c) Maddie is S upset because she has no lunch money again and only fruit to eat.

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(a) One of the boys pushes Maddie.

(d) Maddie looks frightened as two boys come towards her. (e) The boys make her give them her lunch money. 2. (a) Has this happened to Maddie before?

Yes

No

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (b) How do you know this? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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3. Colour the words you think describe how Maddie felt when she was being bullied.

. t e excited

worried nervous

o sad c . che happy e strong r o r st su r e p afraid bored scared

4. How do you think the bullies felt about what they did to Maddie? 6

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Maddie’s problem – 3

What is bullying?

MORE ABOUT IT Choose the correct words at the bottom of the page to complete the sentences about bullying. Bullying is when someone makes someone else unhappy by being

means to r o e t s B r e oo into someone p do it. It isn’t something that just happens, like knocking u k S accidentally during a game. and hurtful on purpose. The

2

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1

The two boys who took Maddie’s lunch money

3

to do it.

They pushed her and made her give them her lunch money. Bullying doesn’t

just once. It happens again and

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. The boys had done the same thing to Maddie a few

5

is something that can hurt you on the outside and on the

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inside. A bully might punch or kick you or push you over. Maddie was pushed by the bullies. That’s hurting someone on the

.

. teyour feelings by saying or doing something o A bully can hurt nasty. c . che ehurting someone on r Maddie was scared and upset by the bullies. o That’s r st super the

7 

.

8

Bullying

inside

meant

happen

mean

outside

again

bully

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What is bullying?

Is this bullying? Focus

Answers

To read and discuss scenarios to identify the differences between bullying behaviour and mutual arguments or disagreements

Page 10

Teacher information

Story 1 1. gave out invitations to both their parties except to Concetta/ talk about Daisy’s party so Concetta can hear/whisper to each other about her/giggle at her behind her back/tell her to go away if she tries to join in

2. many times

4. Concetta is upset and tries not to cry.

3. Yes

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Answers should indicate that Story 1 is about bullying because Campbell is meaning to upset Brooke by damaging her property and annoying her to get a reaction. It is repeated and not an isolated incident.

Answers should indicate that Story 2 is not about bullying. While Caitlin is accident prone and tipped over the glue pot, she didn’t mean to do it. Della was showing frustration and called her a name but it was not bullying.

• Refer to page v for further information. Introduction

• The scenarios on page 9 provide the students with two situations to read and discuss to decide if either is an example of bullying behaviour. In Story 1, the two girls, Eliza and Daisy, are clearly displaying bullying behaviour towards Concetta. Their actions are deliberate, repeated and intended to hurt emotionally. In Story 2, Rosco and Braden are having an argument and using some physical force but are not bullying. Showing anger in this way is not displaying bullying behaviour­—it’s a mutual argument that is resolved and likely not to be repeated.

Story 2 1. (a) True (b) True (c) True (d) False (e) False (f) False 2. No

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• In order to identify bullying behaviours and tactics, we first need to identify behaviours which are sometimes misinterpreted as bullying. The first is mutual conflict between two students over a problem. In this type of situation, both parties generally want a fair resolution but are having difficulty reaching one and there is a balance of power. The second situation involves social rejection or dislike. We don’t always have to like everyone, so long as we respect people for who they are. Some children may feel they are being bullied just because someone doesn’t particularly like spending time with them. This does not constitute bullying behaviour. The third situation is when nastiness occurs on a single occasion. A child may push another child in the playground on a particular day. Unless physical, verbal or psychological acts occur over several occasions, this is also not considered bullying.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Supporting activity

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• The scenarios on page 11 provide the students with two more situations to identify, with less teacher input and guided questions, if each is bullying behaviour. The students could read and discuss these with a partner, or read and make up their own mind before explaining why they think each is bullying or not. Discussing the text

• Ask the students questions about what each character in the four stories on pages 9 and 11 is doing and the sequence of events.

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• In pairs, make up a story about a bullying and a story that has an argument or disagreement but is not bullying. Share with the class.

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• Then ask them about the feelings shown by each character.

• Next, ask them if the behaviour was repeated/if they meant to do it etc.

• Finally, ask them if they think each story is about bullying and their reasons for their belief.

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Is this bullying?

What is bullying?

READ ABOUT IT Story 1 Eliza helped Daisy give out her birthday invitations to all the girls in their class—except Concetta. When it was Eliza’s birthday, the same thing had happened.

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Concetta can hear they are talking about Daisy’s party to other girls. They also whisper to each other while looking at her and giggle behind her back.

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If Concetta tries to join in a game they are in, they tell her to go away. Concetta tries not to cry.

Story 2

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Last Friday lunchtime, Rosco and Braden were playing cricket with some other boys. The two boys began to argue about whose turn it was to bowl. Rosco tried to grab the ball out of Braden’s hand. Braden pushed Rosco’s arm away. Rosco said Braden had more turns at bowling than anyone. Braden replied that wasn’t true. They continued arguing until Ethan told them to both go and field and to stop holding up the game.

o c . che e r o t r s Rosco and Braden super

looked at Ethan and then each other. They grinned, shouted ‘Sorry, guys!’ to the other boys and ran off to field.

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Is this bullying? – 2

What is bullying?

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the stories on page 9. Story 1 1. List five things Eliza and Daisy did to Concetta. (a) (b)

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(c)

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(d) (e)

2. These things happened:

once

many times

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 4. How does Concetta feel about what is happening? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 3. Are Eliza and Daisy being nasty on purpose? Yes

No

No

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o c . (b) Rosco tried toc take the ball from Braden. e her r o t s su er p (c) Braden pushed Rosco on the arm. (a) Rosco and Braden were arguing.

(d) The boys pushed Ethan. (e) Braden and Rosco stayed angry. (f) It’s likely Rosco and Braden will behave like this again. 2. Is this story about bullying? 10

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Is this bullying? – 3

What is bullying?

MORE ABOUT IT Bullying is when someone hurts another person on purpose. The bully can hurt the person on the outside, such as by punching them. Or, the bully can hurt the person’s feelings on the inside. Bullying does not just happen once. It goes on over time and happens again and again. The person being bullied becomes very unhappy.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Story 1 u S next to Campbell. He does things Brooke hates sitting when the teacher isn’t looking. When Brooke writes, Campbell tries to knock her arm so her pencil makes a mark across the page. He pushes her pencil case or pad off the desk. Sometimes he empties crumbs from his lunch box all over the books on her desk.

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Read the two stories below and decide if each is bullying or not.

She thinks he is the one who puts her bag upside down on her hook and opens up the zip so things fall out. It’s really upsetting her.

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Story 2

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Is this bullying? not?p •f orWhy/Why r evi ew ur posesonl y•

o c . c e On Friday, Caitlin, and who sits next to r hDella, e o t r s su her, were finishing off a poster together. Caitlin r e p bumped the glue pot and glue spread all over the poster. Caitlin is a messy kind of person who has trouble keeping things tidy.

Della got mad and told Caitlin she was an idiot. Is this bullying? Why/Why not?

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Forms of bullying

Gemma’s nightmare Focus

Discussing the text

To read and discuss a narrative describing examples of social bullying

• How was Gemma being bullied? (She was not allowed to join games. She was laughed at when she gave a wrong answer. No-one would be her partner for work so she had to work with a boy. She had to eat lunch on her own. She was called names.)

Teacher information • For young students, bullying which can occur between an individual or a group of bullies and an individual or a group of targets, can broadly be categorised as physical, social or verbal.

• What kind of bullying was Gemma suffering? (Social) • How would it have made her feel? (Sad, lonely, embarrassed, angry)

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• Give words to describe the behaviour of the girls who were bullying Gemma. (Mean, spiteful, nasty, uncaring, unkind)

– Social bullying includes any actions on the part of the bully which make the target feel humiliated or embarrassed by his or her peers or excluded from them.

• When someone is being bullied like this, what are the worst times of the day? (Recess and lunchtime, because that’s when you are all alone)

– Verbal bullying includes name-calling and saying unpleasant things about the target or someone close to him or her and the target’s home and possessions.

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– Physical bullying involves direct contact between the bully and the target; e.g. punching and kicking.

Answers

WRITE ABOUT IT

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1. leaving her out, ignoring her, calling her names, making fun of her

Introduction

2. feelings

• Talk about the different forms of bullying using phrases appropriate to the age of the students. Ask for examples of each. For example:

MORE ABOUT IT

Supporting activity

• Refer to page v for further information.

physical – hurting their body: punching, kicking, throwing missiles;

Teacher check

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social – hurting their feelings: ignoring, excluding, making fun of;

verbal – using words to upset: name-calling, making up unpleasant rhymes, spreading rumours.

• This activity highlights a number of behaviours typical of social bullying: excluding, ignoring and laughing at the target. It also includes the most common of verbal bullying behaviours: namecalling.

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• Ask the students to make an eight-page booklet by folding, cutting and stapling an A4 sheet of paper. The students write ‘Forms of bullying’ and their names on the cover. On the inside pages, they choose six examples of bullying to illustrate. On the back cover, they write an anti-bullying message such as ‘No bullying in our school’.

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Gemma’s nightmare

Forms of bullying

READ ABOUT IT Gemma woke up crying, ‘Mum! Dad!’ ‘Shh. It was only a dream’, soothed Mum. ‘Now, what was it all about?’ ‘Big monsters were chasing me!’ sobbed Gemma.

r o e t s B r e ‘All the girls at school were being really mean to me,o every day! At recess, they p o were playing chaseyu but they wouldn’t let me join in. I hadk no-one to play with S and I was all alone.

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‘Don’t cry’, soothed Mum. ‘What brought on this terrible nightmare?’

‘In class, no-one wanted to be my partner so I had to work with a boy! Then I told the teacher a wrong answer and they all laughed at me. ‘At lunch, they all sat in a circle and when I tried to squeeze in, they wouldn’t let me in. They carried on as if I wasn’t even there. ‘After I’d eaten my lunch on my own, I helped a teacher carry some things and they pulled faces at me and called me, “Teacher’s pet”.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons ‘Mum I’m so upset I can’t go to school today!’ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• WRITE ABOUT IT

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punching her making fun of her

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calling her names ignoring her

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1. Tick the ways that the girls bullied Gemma. throwing things at her leaving her out

o c . The girls deliberately chehurt Gemma’s r e feelings) o t r s s r u e p MORE ABOUT IT 2. Write the correct word to finish the sentence.

. (body/

Write some other ways that a bully can hurt a person’s feelings.

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Forms of bullying

Ouch! That hurt! Focus

Discussing the text

To study and discuss illustrated examples of physical bullying

• What are the three kinds of bullying behaviour shown in the illustrations? (Direct contact between the bully and the target; indirect contact in which the bully throws something at the target and doing something to the target’s possessions)

Teacher information • For young students, bullying which can occur between an individual or a group of bullies and an individual or a group of targets, can broadly be categorised as physical, social or verbal.

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– Physical bullying involves direct contact between the bully and the target; e.g. punching and kicking.

– Social bullying includes any actions on the part of the bully which make the target feel humiliated or embarrassed by his or her peers or excluded from them.

• Refer to page v for further information. Introduction

• Talk about the different forms of bullying using phrases appropriate to the age of the students. Ask for examples of each. For example:

physical – hurting their body: punching, kicking, throwing missiles;

social – hurting their feelings: ignoring, excluding, making fun of; and

verbal – using words to upset: name-calling, making up unpleasant rhymes, spreading rumours.

• How might someone damage your things. (Dropping them on the floor so they may get dirty or break, opening the zip of a bag or pencil case so that everything can fall out, putting rubbish in your bag or desk) • Why might people take your things? (To steal them, to use them because they don’t have their own, to hide them for fun or to get you into trouble) • Why would anyone throw something at you? (To attract your attention, because: they are too far away to touch you; they are afraid you will hurt them back if you touch them; they can’t see who threw it and you can pretend it wasn’t you) Answers WRITE ABOUT IT

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– Verbal bullying includes name-calling and saying unpleasant things about the target or someone close to him or her and the target’s home and possessions.

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• How might someone touch your body to hurt you. (Pinching, prodding, flicking, slapping)

Across: 1. hitting 5. breaking 7. kicking

Down: 2. throwing 3. pinching 4. pushing 6. taking

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Teacher check

Supporting activity

• Discuss how to use the body in a positive way; for example, playing sport, displaying positive body language, learning sign language, helping others (lifting and carrying), writing, drawing. Display findings in a book or on a wall display.

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• This activity highlights a number of examples of physical bullying in which a person is actually harmed or his/her possessions are tampered with in some way.

MORE ABOUT IT

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Ouch! That hurt!

Forms of bullying

READ ABOUT IT There are many ways someone can hurt us, like ... pushing

r o e kicking t s B r e o p We are also hurt when someone does somethingo to our things, like ... u k S h! hoos pinching

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breaking them

taking them

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hitting

throwing them at us

WRITE ABOUT IT

Use the clues to place the bold words from above in the puzzle.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons o ryour r ev i ew pur posesonl y• 1. Do • thisf with hands. 1.

Across

2.

3.

4.

5.

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7. Do this with your feet.

6.

Down

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2. You need a good aim.

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5. This means destroying.

o c . 4. Shoving che e r o t r s 6. This means stealing. s uper 3. Squeezing a tiny bit of skin.

MORE ABOUT IT Write some other ways a bully can harm a person’s body or things.

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Forms of bullying

Billy meets his match Focus

Discussing the text

To read and discuss a poem about indirect bullying

• Why do you think that Billy bullies others in the school yard? (To make up for not be being so smart in class)

Teacher information • For young students, bullying which can occur between an individual or a group of bullies and an individual or a group of targets, can broadly be categorised as physical, social or verbal.

• Why did everyone want to be in Billy’s group? (If he thought they were his friends, he would not threaten to harm them.)

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– Physical bullying involves direct contact between the bully and the target; e.g. punching and kicking.

– Social bullying includes any actions on the part of the bully which make the target feel humiliated or embarrassed by his or her peers or excluded from them.

– Verbal bullying includes name-calling and saying unpleasant things about the target or someone close to him or her and the target’s home and possessions.

• Refer to page v for further information. Introduction

• Talk about the different forms of bullying using phrases appropriate to the age of the students. Ask for examples of each. For example:

physical – hurting their body: punching, kicking, throwing missiles;

social – hurting their feelings: ignoring, excluding, making fun of; and

verbal – using words to upset: name-calling, making up unpleasant rhymes, spreading rumours

• How could you describe Sam? (Courageous, confidence, fair) • What might all of the children have said and done when Billy cried? (Some may have laughed. They would have been relieved that Billy’s ‘reign of terror’ was over. Some may have felt sorry for him.) Answers

1. (a) ... they were afraid of him. (b) ... threatening them. (c) ... Billy could not hurt him. (d) ... Sam had stood up to him.

2. Teacher check

Supporting activity

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• Why might it be that, ‘Billy never fought or said bad things’? (He didn’t like confrontation, preferring to threaten harm rather than actually doing it.)

• Compile a list of negative words to describe Billy’s behaviour and a list of positive words to describe Sam’s. Place them on a display showing Sam and Billy.

• This activity highlights threatening behaviour as an example of social bullying. Through fear, the targets, in this case the whole class, are forced to agree to all of Billy’s demands or risk the threatened consequences. It is not until Sam challenges Billy that his weakness is revealed.

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• Behind Billy’s macho exterior lies an insecure, frightened child. This could explain his choice of bullying tactics. Physical or verbal bullying require confrontation while Billy’s menacing glares and invasion of personal space are enough to ensure his peers comply with his wishes.

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Bullying in a cyber world

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Billy meets his match

Forms of bullying

READ ABOUT IT No-one ever messed with Billy. He was tough and he was mean. He wasn’t very smart in class But in the school yard he was king.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u SEveryone wanted to be in Billy’s group.

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Billy never fought or said bad things. But he always got his own way. He would just stand close and glare If anyone dared to disagree.

It was the safest place. But brave Sam stood up to him. He wasn’t going to be pushed around. Billy could not believe it! This had never happened before! He started to tremble and shake And tears sprang from his eyes. They saw him for what he was, A sad and frightened coward. That’s all a bully is.

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WRITE ABOUT IT

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons As everyone gathered round him •f orr e v i ew p ur po ses onl y•

1. Match the beginning of each sentence to its end.

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o c . ch e (b) Billy bullied people by • • they were afraid of him. r er o t s s r u e p (c) Sam believed that • • Sam stood up to him.

(d) Billy cried because

(a) No-one messed with Billy because

• Billy could not hurt him.

• threatening them.

2. Finish this sentence in your own words. .

Never let a bully MORE ABOUT IT Make up a story about Sam and Billy becoming best friends. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Forms of bullying

Sticks and stones Focus

Answers

To read and discuss an explanation of an old rhyme about verbal bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT

Teacher information

MORE ABOUT IT

• For young students, bullying which can occur between an individual or a group of bullies and an individual or a group of targets, can broadly be categorised as physical, social or verbal.

1. words (a) mean

3. sad

(b) horrible

4. unkind

(c) cruel

5. lies

(d) spiteful

Supporting activity

– Social bullying includes any actions on the part of the bully which make the target feel humiliated or embarrassed by his or her peers or excluded from them.

– Verbal bullying includes name-calling and saying unpleasant things about the target or someone close to him or her and the target’s home and possessions.

• Make a shield from sturdy cardboard. On the inside, add a handle and write the rhyme. On the outside, write many synonyms of the word ‘unkind’, vertically from the bottom of the shield. This will represent the words having hit the shield and then fallen down, without penetrating it.

• Refer to page v for further information. Introduction

• Learn and recite the rhyme together. • This is a strange rhyme because it is a lie and a truth! It is true that words cannot cause cuts, bruises and physical pain in the way that sticks and stones can. But words can and do cause emotional pain so, in that respect, the rhyme appears to be untrue. The true meaning of the rhyme goes deeper than it first seems. It is the resilience and power within the speaker that prevents words from causing harm. The speaker is saying, ‘I will not allow myself to be hurt by unkind words’.

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Discussing the text

2. cuts

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– Physical bullying involves direct contact between the bully and the target; e.g. punching and kicking.

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• Give examples of things people might say unkind words about. (Appearance, work, physical skills, family, home, possession) • Why is telling lies about someone a bad thing? (Some people may believe the lies and this might affect how they think of, and act towards, that person.)

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• Give more examples of ‘sticks and stones’. (Kicking, punching, pinching, prodding, pushing)

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• How can you take ‘no notice’ of unkind words? (Talk to a friend about it and he/she will help you to be strong as you try to ignore them.)

• How can saying the rhyme make us strong? (By repeating a positive phrase, you can come to believe it and it gives you a feeling of power.)

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Sticks and stones

Forms of bullying

READ ABOUT IT ‘Sticks and stones may break my bones, But words will never hurt me.’ This is a very old rhyme your parents or grandparents might know.

r o e t s Bo r e When people try to hurt pyou by: ok u calling youS names or saying unkind things to you, Teac he r

But what does it mean?

saying nasty things about you or about someone you love or

telling lies about you,

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their words don’t give you cuts or bruises, but they can hurt your feelings and make you feel very sad.

The rhyme tells us that if we take no notice of the unkind words, they cannot hurt us. The rhyme is like a shield. If we say it to ourselves, we are protected from the nasty words.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons • f orr vi ew and pu r p ose so nl y • Believe ine the rhyme the shield will protect you!

Choose words from the box to fill the gaps.

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cuts

lies

. t not give us e

sad

words

The

unkind

to hurt us. This does

People sometimes use nasty

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WRITE ABOUT IT

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or bruises but it does make us feel very

about us.

Sometimes, people tell

MORE ABOUT IT Sort the letters to give words meaning the same as nasty and unkind. (a) a e m n

(b) b e h i l o r r

(c) c e l r u

(d) e f i l p s t u

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Bullying in a cyber world

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Cyberbullying stories Focus

Answers

To read about and discuss cyberbullying and the technologies cyberbullies use to hurt others

Page 22

Teacher information

1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

handheld game console mobile phone computer, school intranet/email internet, online gaming/social networking site, chat site video camera, computer, YouTube/internet (video hosting site) 2. Possibly story 1, story 5

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• Cyberspace does not have the physical boundaries that exist in the ‘real word’. While face-to-face bullying ends when the target gets home, cyberbullies can continue attacks using the internet or a mobile phone at any time of the day or night. Cyberspace provides the bully with a sense of anonymity, empowering bullies who may never have to see the effects of their actions on their target; it can be done quickly and on a large scale, because of the speed and reach of email, mobiles and websites; it easily allows bystanders to become bullies if they pass on emails or text/picture messages or take part in an online discussion. • Refer to pages vi–vii for further information.

3. Answers will vary but should include cyberbullying being a form of bullying using technologies such as mobile phones and the internet to intentionally and repeatedly hurt others.

4. Examples include messenger chat (IM), chat rooms, message boards, social networking sites, online gaming.

5. Cyberbullying is different from face-to-face bullying because it is often anonymous, and it can spread quickly and to many people. Anyone can bully and be bullied and it can happen almost anywhere and anytime.

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• Cyberbullying is the use of information and communications technology (ICT), particularly mobile phones and the internet, to repeatedly and deliberately upset or attack someone. It can include threats, impersonation, exclusion, cyberstalking, defamation, or harassment designed to cause distress to the intended target. The bully or group of bullies can use mobile phone messages, calls or pictures; Internet social sites (chat rooms, message boards, social networking sites, video hosting sites, gaming sites or blogs); instant messaging or email to render the torment.

Cyberbullying

1.–4. Answers will vary. Teacher check

Supporting activity

• The students can make a poster to give a short lesson to another class to help them identify cyberbullying and also help people be more aware of their actions when using mobile phones and the internet.

• Before reading the text, ask the students about their use of information and communication technologies; ask if any students play games online, use ‘Neo pets’ or similar social networking site (some may have Facebook pages, Webkinz, Club Penguin, KidSwirl), watch YouTube clips, use Skype, have mobiles or email accounts. If time permits, ask them to explain to others what they can do and the fun they can have with these technologies.

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• Explain to the students that while most of the time people use these technologies to have fun, contact each other and share pictures and ideas, some people also use these technologies to hurt others. This is a kind of bullying called cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is not ‘face-to-face’, but is using technologies to hurt others in different ways, sometimes in front of large number of people.

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Introduction

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• Ensure the students understand any difficult terms such as ‘anonymous’ and ‘distort’. Discussing the text

• Read the text with the students and ask if they know of anything like this happening to anyone they know. Do they think each example is bullying? Ask them if they know of any other ways the internet, mobiles or other technologies could be used inappropriately.

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Cyberbullying stories

Cyberbullying

READ ABOUT IT Some bullies use modern technologies to intentionally hurt others. This is called ‘cyberbullying’. Story 1 Some girls in Alice’s class used their handheld game console ‘distort’ key to change photos of Alice to make her look fat. They sent the photos to other console users, calling her ‘Fatso’. Emma got a mobile and gave her number to everyone in her grade. She started getting texts, day and night, from an unknown number. The texts said, ‘U R a LOSER’ and ‘No1 likes you’. Story 3

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Story 4

Sophie had a ‘pet’ in an online game. Someone with a pet in the same game who knew Sophie found out Sophie’s pet’s name. From then on, whenever Sophie played, the girl’s pet followed hers and sent chat messages like ‘I know who u r’ and ‘I’ll get U’.

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Jarrad heard Mike telling his friend his school login code and password. Jarrad got into Mike’s account during school a few times each week and sent other students Mike’s family photos with captions like ‘My dad’s as ugly as me!’

Story 5

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Story 2

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I’ll get u!

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David got his friend to trip Harry over a number of times. He filmed it all on a video camera. David knew Harry was hurt, but thought it was funny and posted the videos on YouTube where thousands of people watched them. David planned to make more videos. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Cyberbullying stories – 2

Cyberbullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the stories on page 21. 1. For each story, write which technologies the cyberbully used to hurt or scare others. (a) Story 1: (b) Story 2:

(d) Story 4:

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(c) Story 3:

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(e) Story 5:

2. In which stories did the targets know who the bullies were?

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3. Write a definition of cyberbullying in your own words.

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4. Write any other ways cyberbullies can hurt their targets.

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5. How is cyberbullying different from ‘face-to-face’ bullying? Use the words in the box below to answer the question.

o c . c e r spread quickly,h toe many people anyone o t r s s r u e p anonymous anytime home, school – anywhere

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Cyberbullying stories – 3

Cyberbullying

MORE ABOUT IT It’s just a gamet!

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1. Do you think Jackson is being a cyberbully?

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Jackson played ‘Wizard World’ (an online game). His wizard avatar was much stronger than many others in the game. Jackson liked picking on weaker players, like PJ22. Using his wizard, he was nasty to PJ22. He stopped PJ22 from gaining credits, sent PJ22 messages like ‘I’ll kill you’ and he told the game moderators lies about PJ22 so they would ban PJ22 from playing. Jackson didn’t think there was anything really wrong— it was his wizard doing those things, and it was just a game, right?

2. Imagine you are the person trying to play as PJ22. Write how you would feel if someone who you didn’t know ...

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(a) sent a message saying ‘I’ll kill you’.

(b) stopped you from winning the games.

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(c) lied to make you look bad so you‘d get banned from the game.

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3. What would you do if this happened to you?

4. Jackson thinks it’s OK to be nasty to people online. Write what you could say to Jackson to make him realise it’s wrong. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Stop it before it starts

Cyberbullying

Focus

Discussing the text

To read about and discuss ways students can protect themselves from being cyberbullied

• Ask the students if Sophie has kept her personal information private. (No)

Teacher information

• Who could read this information? (Anyone who uses the internet) Why is that dangerous? (It means strangers can read details about who she is, where she lives and goes to school, and they can use or forward this information for their own purposes.) Discuss how safer behaviour could reduce the chances of her being cyberbullied.

• Young people have many opportunities to disclose personal information online. Many of them are unaware of the public and permanent nature of these disclosures and the ability of others to see, use and forward the material they place.

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• Students also need to learn positive online behaviours, or ‘netiquette’, such as communicating respectfully with others; not forwarding someone else’s personal information or material; and not responding in anger or frustration to rude or offensive messages (which, as with face-to-face bullying, tends to make the problem worse).

Answers Page 26

1. Answers will vary, however a nickname or only part of Sophie’s name should be given; a different image (Sophie with sunglasses or a picture that is not close-up of her face); settings should be ‘private’ or ‘friends only’; no phone number, address or email given; likes should be generalised (no names of clubs or games), no response to the chat message at the bottom; friend request blocked and delete the messages without opening them.

2. (a) Knowing Sophie’s full name and town, a bully could find out where she lives. (b) With her email and mobile phone number a bully could send her hurtful texts, pictures or emails, and call her.

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• Young children can be quite vulnerable to bullies through games, mobile phones or chat rooms. Cyberbullies can use personal information to gain access to a target’s accounts to find out and spread personal or embarrassing information, or to impersonate their targets. Cyberbullies can set up fake accounts using the target’s details, set up websites with photos of the target to mock and degrade their targets, use mobile numbers to send anonymous, offensive or threatening messages. Students need to know that hiding their personal details, such as their full names, passwords, phone numbers and other private information is essential to helping protect themselves from such attacks.

3. Answers will vary but should mention the message could contain a virus (or other malware).

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Introduction

Supporting activity

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• Students in this age group are likely to have different levels of experience and abilities with ICT. Before beginning the lesson, find out if any students have a profile, wall or home page on an online game or social networking site. (If necessary, explain what a social networking site is—a website where members create a profile with information about themselves and communicate with each other by chat, instant message, video or blogs.) Ask these students to explain what sort of information is in their profile. Ensure all students have an understanding of the terms ‘cyberbullying’, ‘public’, ‘private’, ‘computer virus’, ‘profile’, ‘social networking’, ‘friend request’ and ‘fake’.

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• Teachers might like to show the students a video available online; Faux Paw the techno cat ‘adventures in the internet’ or choose from videos at <http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/Young%20Kids/ Hectors%20World/Hectors%20World%20stories/Keeping%20 your%20personal%20information%20safe.aspx>. It is suggested that teachers view the material privately before showing it to the class to decide whether it is appropriate for the students, as there are no ratings on the videos.

• Ask the students if they would tell a stranger all their private and personal details. (No!) Ask them why this would be a bad idea. (It’s not safe to tell a stranger your personal details.) Discuss how a lot of the information that they can put online in these types of profiles is public—anyone, lots of strangers, can see it. It is also permanent. Even after they delete it, a copy of it can remain on the internet. Just as they should not tell strangers personal details face-to-face, they should never give out this information online. This information can easily be used by other people, including cyberbullies, to find them or hurt them.

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• Refer to pages vi–vii for further information.

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• The students can play the game on page 27 to reinforce safe cyber behaviour.

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Bullying in a cyber world

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Stop it before it starts – 1

Cyberbullying

READ ABOUT IT

Annie Louise James Privacy settings: public Birthday: 12 Jan. ‘02

Make sure your profile is made ‘private’ in the settings. This means only your friends can see your details.

Home: Strafeld, r o e t s r SydneyBo e p o tel: 0010 3211 k u 123 S NEVER share

Only accept friends online that you know in real life. ‘Anon11’ could be someone wanting to hurt you.

anniej@ricmail. com.au

Likes: Springfield Swimming Club Playing ‘Bebear online’ with my pet ‘annie-lj’ 1 Friend request:

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Cyberbullies can use your photo to create a fake account or to find you in ‘real life’. Use a picture that doesn’t show a close-up of your full face.

information about your school or sporting clubs, your family, your age, your full name, your phone number, email or address online. This is personal information others could use to find or hurt you.

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you met online. You don’t know who they are – ‘Funkid22’ could be a bully wanting to hurt you.

. te Never open

messages from people you don’t know. The messages might have a ‘virus’ that gets your personal details or lets someone else control your computer.

open

delete

Funkid22:

- let’s meet up! open

delete

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© R. I . C. Publ i cablock t i ons Anon11 allow Never meet in f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• Mail: person • anyone

Never tell anyone your passwords – not even your friends!

o c . che e r o t r s s uper Angel02

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(unknown sender) - no message open

delete

- can I have ur password?

instant chat bbp85: Ur page is boring just like u. bbp85: no1 likes U. AnnieLJames: Who is dat? Bullying in a cyber world

Don’t respond to rude or nasty messages. Block or report the sender and tell a trusted adult. 25


Stop it before it starts – 2

Cyberbullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the information on page 25. 1. Fill in Sophie’s profile page to help her be safer from cyberbullies. You can choose to leave some spaces blank. Fill in the spaces and colour in boxes to show safer online behaviour.

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r o e t s Bo r Privacy settings: e p o u k Birthday S

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Home Tel.

Email Likes

©Anon11 R. I . C.P ubl i cat i ons chat allow block bbp85: Uro page iss boring just •f orr evi ew p ur p se on l ylike•u.

1 Friend request:

Funkid22:

- wanna meet up!

(unknown sender) - no message - open delete

open

delete

bbp85: no1 likes U. AnnieLJames:

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Mail:

o c . (a) full name andc home town? e her r o t s super

2. What sort of things could a cyber bully do knowing Sophie’s ...

(b) email address and mobile phone number? 3. What might happen if Sophie opens the message from ‘unknown sender’? 26

Bullying in a cyber world

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Move 1 space

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Move 3 spaces

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You emailed someone else’s private information to others.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Move 2 spaces

You told your friend your password.

Bullying in a cyber world

2 spaces

Move

3 spaces

Move

You arranged You put your to meet school’s in person name on someone you your profile. met online.

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You deleted a mean message about someone else.

Move 2 spaces

Move 2 spaces

You put a closeup picture of your full face on your profile. Move 3 spaces

Move 1 space

You blocked the sender of a nasty message.

You didn’t reply to a nasty message.

3 spaces

Move

You put your phone number online.

Safe from cyber bullies quest

Start quest

You are cyber safe! Quest completed.

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You logged out of a shared computer.

Move 1 space

You didn’t accept a ‘friend invite’ from a stranger.

Move 2 spaces

You told an adult about some nasty messages.

Move 1 space

You set your profile to ‘private’.

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Move 1 space

You don’t open a message from someone you don’t know.

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The person on the computer before you didn’t log out. You log out for them without reading anything.

Cyberbullying

Stop it before it starts – 3

MORE ABOUT IT

27


What will I do?

Cyberbullying

Focus

Discussing the text

To read and discuss what students should do if they see, or are the target of, cyberbullying

• Ask the students why they should block the sender of bullying messages. (It means they will stop receiving nasty messages or calls from that contact.) Why shouldn’t they reply to any nasty messages? (This gives the bully the reaction he or she wants, and will make the matter worse.) Ask them to suggest ways they could support targets of bullying and encourage others to do the same. (Say nice things, let them know they can hang out with you, encourage others to not join in with the bullying and to befriend the target.)

Teacher information • The ways in which targets and bystanders deal with incidences of cyberbullying have a significant impact on the effects and duration of the bullying.

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• For bystanders: Bystanders play an extremely important role in cyberbullying. Studies such as those by Hawkins et al., show that peer intervention can be highly effective, stopping the bullying within 10 seconds. Support from bystanders gives the target confidence and helps him or her deal with, and recover better from, the bullying. It shows the bully that his or her peers think what they are doing is doing is not ‘cool’. For some bystanders, standing up to a bully might be too difficult. In this case they should report the behaviour to an adult or moderator, refuse to take part or to pass on an abusive email or text message, and befriend the target. Bystanders who watch what’s going on without acting on it become part of the problem rather than the solution.

• Find out which sites, games, or services the students in your class are using. If possible, log onto one or more of these sites and demonstrate how to flag or report a message, sender, number or user. Answers

WRITE ABOUT IT

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• For targets of cyberbullying: Targets of cyberbullying need to not respond to the bully (this makes the problem worse as cyber bullies often want a reaction just like other bullies); they need to tell an adult (Many children don’t tell adults, fearing adults won’t understand, will make it worse, or will overreact and restrict their access to their digital world.); keep any evidence of cyberbullying, such as text messages, screen captures, URLs (address of a web page ), and emails (even unread and stored in a folder); report the problem to an internet or telephone service provider, website or game moderator, or flag the content as inappropriate; block the sender of any rude messages to stop the harassment continuing.

Answers will vary but should include the steps outlined in the LASER message.

Supporting activity

• Give pairs of students one story from the Cyberbullying stories on page 21. Each story outlines a different use of technologies to bully others. The students can decide how best to deal with the bullying scenario, using the B-SAFE steps, from the point of view of the person being bullied.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Reference

Hawkins, D, Pepler, D, Craig, W. ‘Naturalistic observations of peer interventions in bullying’ in Social development, volume 10, issue 4, pp 512–527. November 2001

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• Students need to understand that by forwarding bullying messages or images, or taking part in online chats where someone is being insulted, abused or humiliated, they are cyberbullying. • Refer to pages vi–vii for further information.

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Introduction

• Discuss what cyberbullying is and the ways in which it can be carried out. (Refer to pages vi-vii.) Discuss how it is serious and that it is important for both the bystanders and the target to do something about it. Inform the students that if they see cyberbullying happening, and do nothing about it, they are becoming part of the problem. If they receive bullying messages or images, or take part in online chats where someone is being insulted, abused or humiliated, they are cyberbullying.

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• Tell the students that reporting cyberbullying is not ‘dobbing’ or ‘telling on someone’, which is what children do when they want to get someone in trouble. When they report bullying, they are helping someone else (or themselves). Telling a trusted adult is an important part of dealing with the bullying. • Ensure the students understand terms such as ‘flag’, ‘blocking’ a sender or number, ‘trusted’, ‘post’, ‘user name’ and ‘evidence’.

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Bullying in a cyber world

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What will I do?

Cyberbullying

READ ABOUT IT If you are being cyberbullied, think If you see cyberbullying, think B-SAFE. LASER.

BLOCK the sender of the

LET the bully know what he or

messages, emails or calls.

she is doing is not OK or cool.

is happening, or call a helpline. r o e t s Bo r e SUPPORT be friendly to p oand u k‘I saw what Ava the target; e.g S ALERT a trusted adult or call wrote. That wasn’t fair. Are you

SAVE the evidence – keep a copy

a helpline. Keep telling them what is happening until they do something.

FLAG or report the sender or the post.

okay?’

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of any nasty messages or emails. This can help you (or the police) to find and stop the bully.

ALERT a trusted adult to what

ENCOURAGE others to stick up for the target.

REFUSE to

join in, pass on or look at any nasty messages, pictures or videos cyberbullies send you.

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change your contact details (email, phone number, user name) if necessary.

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WRITE ABOUT IT

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons by not replying to nasty messages, and •f o rr e vi ew p ur posesonl y• END the bullying

Imagine you have just received a text or email making fun of a classmate. What will you do? Name two adults you could talk to.

o c . che e r o t r s super MORE ABOUT IT

With a partner or in a small group, come up with a way to present either the B-SAFE or LASER message to others. You could make up a rap, a short play or a TV commercial. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

Bullying in a cyber world

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Trouble for everyone

Cyberbullying

Focus

Introduction

To read and discuss possible legal ramifications of cyberbullying

• Remind students that if they forward bullying messages or images, or take part in online chats where someone is being insulted, abused or humiliated, then they are cyberbullying.

Teacher information • There are various laws against incidents that can be part of cyberbullying, such as threats, extortion, stalking, harassment, misuse of telecommunications (using telecommunication services to menace, threaten or hoax others), defamation and indecent conduct.

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• Many young people don’t consider the consequences of their actions or realise their behaviour is hurting others. The ‘unintentional’ or ‘inadvertent’ cyberbully forwards a ‘funny’ clip, thinks they are role-playing, or ‘plays a joke’ on a friend without considering the target’s feelings or realising there could be serious consequences. They might just send their friends one ‘funny’ photo, but the nature of technology means the photo can be sent on, posted online and have a wide and repetitive circulation and cause the target great distress.

Discussing the text

• Discuss why cyberbullying is ‘trouble for everyone’. (Because the actions of the two boys created trouble for the target, his parents, the school principal, their teacher, the police and even themselves) Ask the students who was the cyberbully. (Both Evan and Tom) Ask them what it was that Tom and Evan did that was wrong. (They took and circulated a photo of Ben’s private parts.) Ask the students how they think Tom and Evan felt when the police came to the classroom; did they still think what they did was funny?

Answers

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• Cyberbullying incidents can themselves act as evidence. Text messages, emails or computer ‘screen shots’ provide evidence that an incident has taken place. They can also provide information about the identity of the bully. Even if a text is sent with the sender’s information withheld, police have ways of tracking the sender; text messages contain the message and the date and time that it was sent. Emails and websites, too, can remain in servers long after they were deleted or taken down from accounts or the web, and be located.

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• Explain that sometimes people forward messages because they think it’s funny. However, when someone else is being hurt, it is not funny. It is cruel and can even be against the law. Explain that laws are put in place to protect people and keep them safe. Ensure they understand terms such as ‘law’, ‘suspended’, ‘expelled’ and ‘arrested’.

1. The police were called to the school because the boys’ actions were against the law.

2. The police wanted to speak to Evan because even though he didn’t take the picture, he forwarded it to other people, and so was part of the cyberbullying.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Supporting activity

• Students can create a short comic strip about what happened next.

• Teachers, too, should be aware that they might be legally implicated in cases of cyberbullying. There can be ‘duty of care’ implications for teachers, in terms of schools and teachers being required to take reasonable precautions against (psychiatric) injury and protect students from the conduct of other students.

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• ICT allows young people to communicate without seeing the person they are ‘speaking’ to, and without people seeing them. This can lead them to feel ’invisible’, especially if using anonymous accounts or user names, or avatars (a computer user’s representation of him or herself in computer games, or internet forums and other communities). This can remove concerns about detection, disapproval or punishment. The lack of tangible feedback also interferes with empathy and can lead them to think no harm has resulted. Students need to learn that just because they cannot see the reactions and feelings of the person receiving the message, doesn’t mean it hasn’t hurt them. Cyberbullying can have extremely serious consequences and devastating effects.

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• Refer to pages vi–vii for further information.

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Bullying in a cyber world

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Trouble for everyone

Cyberbullying

READ ABOUT IT 3 weeks later ... Mum, someone’s sending photos of me around school. They show ... my private parts ... it’s really embarrassing.

2 weeks later ... Tom and Evan, the police would like to speak to you both, please.

r o e t s Bo r e more than pIt’s o u k Ben, S embarrassing, it could be against

Ha, and more! That’s funny! Send it to me, Tom, and I’ll pass it on!

the law. I’m glad you told me. I’m going to speak to the principal.

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Hey, Evan! Look at this picture I took of nerd boy getting changed for swimming! You can see his butt!

Cyberbullies might think it’s funny, but it’s not! There are laws against it.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Cyberbullies might think they are ‘invisible’, but the police can find out who made the texts, emails or calls.

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1. Why were the police called to the school?

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Cyberbullies can be suspended or expelled from school or even arrested. WRITE ABOUT IT

o c . cpictures, 2. If Tom took the why did the police want to speak to Evan? e her r o t s s r u e p

MORE ABOUT IT Tom and Evan did not stop to think about what could happen to them, or consider Ben’s feelings. On the back of this sheet, draw a symbol or sign you could put in your classroom to help people stop and think about what they are doing before they send a message, picture, email or text. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

Bullying in a cyber world

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Targets of bullying

Grace’s story Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a scenario to identify that bullies often target those with vulnerable personalities

WRITE ABOUT IT

1. She is upset because two boys keep bullying her.

Teacher information

2. They say nasty things about the way she looks, what she says or what she does.

3. It makes the bullying worse.

MORE ABOUT IT

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Examples of other minority groups targeted by bullies include those of a different race, religious faith or culture; who have a different (or perceived as different) sexual orientation, physical ability or physical feature(s); and those who have a high or low intellectual ability or social status.

1. Answers should indicate that because she cries, the boys get a quick reaction which gives them enjoyment and makes them want to bully her more.

2. Teacher check

Supporting activity

• Discuss the ways people might respond if they are feeling upset; for example, cry, become quiet, withdraw from company, not want to join in.

• Refer to page vii for further information. Introduction

• The scenario on the opposite page describes a girl who is being bullied at school. Clues reveal she has a vulnerable personality, which bullies like to target. The girl reacts by crying—a quick reaction—which invites more taunting by the bullies. Discussing the text

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• While anyone can be bullied, bullies generally target an individual or group because they are different in some way and part of a minority. This makes them an easier option than if they were in a mainstream group. Bullies tend to find children easier to target if they have a vulnerable personality—shy, insecure, find it hard to stand up for themselves and get upset (cry) easily. Bullies get a bigger reaction from these victims which makes the bullies feel like they have the sense of power they are after. Forms of bullying used against these victims are usually of the direct type—e.g. verbal, physical or negative body language— as the bully gets an immediate reaction.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• What is the name of the girl? (Grace)

• Why is she upset? (She’s being bullied)

• How do the boys bully Grace? (They say nasty things about her)

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• Why do you think her crying makes them worse? (Direct the discussion to explain that bullies get satisfaction from seeing someone react quickly like crying, which makes them do it more.)

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• How does Grace act when this happens? (She cries)

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Bullying in a cyber world

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Grace’s story

Targets of bullying

READ ABOUT IT

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S WRITE ABOUT IT

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Hi. I’m Grace ... and I’m very upset. Two boys at school keep bullying me and they’ve just done it again! They always say nasty things to me about how I look or what I say or what I do. It makes me cry. That seems to make them worse! I wish it wasn’t happening to me.

Write your answers after discussing Grace’s story above. 1. Why is Grace upset?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 2. How the boys her? •dof o rtwo r ev i ebully wp ur posesonl y•

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3. What happens when Grace cries?

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o c . 1. Why do you think makes them bully her more? chcrying e r er o st super MORE ABOUT IT

2. Has something like this happened to you or someone you know? Describe it. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

Bullying in a cyber world

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Targets of bullying

Picking the team Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a pictorial scenario to identify that bullies can target those who have a different physical ability—in this scenario, someone who is not good at sport

Page 36

1. Joel is upset because he hasn’t been picked again in a team for a soccer game.

Teacher information

2. (a) No (b) Answers should indicate that he’s not being nice as he’s laughing at him while saying he’s missing out.

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• Refer to page vii for further information. Introduction

• The scenario on page 35 shows a group of students during recess choosing others in turn for a soccer team. Joel, who is not good at sport, is always excluded by not being picked unless he has to make up the numbers. Even when he has to be picked, some students trip him up and push him on purpose or won’t attempt to pass to him. Some of the students who have already been picked are making unkind comments. • Before answering Question 3 on page 37, discuss possible reasons children could be made targets for bullies. Direct the discussion so the students suggest things such as for getting lots of things wrong in school, for having frizzy hair, for wearing glasses, for wearing different clothes, for having ears that stick out, for having a strong foreign accent, for having or not having the latest fashionable clothing items or gadgets, for being seen as a ‘wimp’ and crying easily etc.

3. They’re glad he wasn’t picked/Saying not to pick him as he’s hopeless.

4. He only gets picked to make the team numbers even.

5. He gets pushed and tripped on purpose and no-one passes to him.

Page 37

1. Answers should indicate because he isn’t good a sport (physical ability).

2. Teacher check

3. Teacher check

Supporting activity

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• While anyone can be bullied, bullies generally target an individual or group because they are different in some way and part of a minority. This makes them an easier option than if they were in a mainstream group. Examples of minority groups targeted by bullies include those of a different race, religious faith or culture; who have a different (or perceived as different) sexual orientation, physical ability or physical feature(s); and those who have a high or low intellectual ability or social status; and those who have a vulnerable, sensitive personality.

• Instead of the students drawing only the target in Question 3 on page 37, with words in a speech bubble, extend the activity by also drawing the bully/bullies, bystanders and other conversation in speech bubbles.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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• What is happening in the picture? (A group of boys is picking a team for a game of soccer.) • How many boys are there on each team so far? (Four) • Which boy is Joel? (The one on the far left)

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• What is Joel thinking? (He’s always left until last and only gets picked if the teams aren’t even)

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Discussing the text

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• What is the boy saying to Joel? (That Joel is missing out)

• What are some of the other boys saying about Joel? (Not to pick Joel as he’s hopeless/glad they didn’t have to pick him) • Is anyone saying anything nice? (No)

• Joel is being bullied. Why do you think Joel is being bullied in this way? (Because he’s not good at sport)

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Bullying in a cyber world

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I knew this would happen! I’m always left till last. And as the teams are even, I won’t be picked at all! If I have to be picked, I get tripped and pushed over on purpose ... or no-one passes to me.

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You miss out, Joel. Ha! Ha!

Teac Don’t worry. I don’t h havee to. r

Glad we didn’t have to pick him!

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Don’t pick Joel. He’s hopeless!

Yeah!

Targets of bullying

Picking the team

READ ABOUT IT

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Bullying in a cyber world

35


Picking the team – 2

Targets of bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the picture on page 35. 1. What is happening to Joel?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Yes 2. (a) Is the boy talking to Joel being nice?

No

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(b) Why/Why not?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. What are some of the things the other boys are saying about Joel?

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4. Why does Joel get picked sometimes?

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5. What happens to him if he does get picked?

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Bullying in a cyber world

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Picking the team – 3

Targets of bullying

MORE ABOUT IT 1. Why do you think Joel is being bullied? You miss out, Joel. Ha! Ha!

r o e t s Bo r e p bullied for this reason? ok Yes 2. (a) Have you been u S (b) If you have, explain what happened.

If you haven’t, you may know about someone else who it happened to. Explain it.

No

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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3. There are lots of other reasons why bullies choose people to be nasty to in some way. Think of something that has happened to you or someone you know. Draw a picture of the person and a speech bubble with words to explain what happened.

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Bullying in a cyber world

37


Targets of bullying

Camisha’s poem Focus

Answers

To view and discuss two bullying scenarios to identify that people can be targets for bullying because of their different race or culture

WRITE ABOUT IT

Teacher information • While anyone can be bullied, bullies generally target an individual or group because they are different in some way and part of a minority. This makes them an easier option than if they were in a mainstream group.

2. The second verse should be highlighted.

3. No

4. It makes her want to stay away from school.

MORE ABOUT IT

• Refer to page vii for further information. Introduction

• The poem on page 39 is about a girl from an African or similar nation who is being bullied at school because of her race and culture. She is being targeted because of her hair, skin colour, accent and, as the food she brings to school is different, the bullies think it belongs in the bin. While not everyone bullies her, the students who do, make her not want to go to school.

1. (b), (c), (d), (f)

2. No. The students’ answers should reflect that just because someone is different because of where came from, their skin colour, hair type, accent or the food they eat, they should not be bullied.

Supporting activity

• Tally and graph various facts about the students in the class to highlight the differences in appearance and culture among them and to promote tolerance; e.g. hair type, hair colour, skin colour, country they were born in, traditional foods eaten.

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1. A country far away/A country different from here

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• Examples of minority groups targeted by bullies include those of a different race, religious faith or culture; or who have a different (or perceived) sexual orientation, physical ability or physical feature(s); who have a high or low intellectual ability or social status; and those who have a vulnerable, sensitive personality.

Discussing the text

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• What is the name of the girl in the poem? (Camisha)

• Does she come from a place that is the same or different from where she is now? (different) • How is Camisha different (hair, skin colour, accent, food she eats)

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• Why does she think some kids say these nasty things? (because she comes from a country that has a different culture and different looking people) • Does she like school? Why/Why not? (she doesn’t like school because she is being bullied)

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• What do you think about the bullies?

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• What doesn’t she want to hear? (refer to Verse 2)

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Camisha’s poem

Targets of bullying

READ ABOUT IT I come from a country far away Quite different from here. Is this why some kids say Things I don’t want to hear?

r o Although some kids are nice e t s B r e omake The bullies me sad. p o u I don’t want to k come to school S When so many things are bad.

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They make fun of my fuzzy hair And also my dark skin. They laugh at my accent And say my food belongs in the bin.

WRITE ABOUT IT

Write your answers after discussing the poem above. 1. Where does Camisha come from?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y • Yes

2. Highlight the verse that tells of things she doesn’t want to hear. 3. Does everyone say nasty things and bully her?

No

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4. What does the bullying make her want to do?

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. MORE ABOUT IT te o c 1. Tick the correct boxes. Camisha is being bullied because: . che e r o t r (b) of (a) she is clever s her skin colour super (c) of her fuzzy hair

(d) she has an accent

(e) she isn’t good at sport

(f) her food is different

2. Should Camisha be bullied because she has these differences? Yes

No

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Explain your answer on the back of this sheet. Bullying in a cyber world

39


Effects of bullying

‘What’s wrong?’ Focus

Answers

To read about and discuss the short-term effects of bullying

Page 42

Teacher information

• Bullying has an effect on the target, the bully and the bystanders.

1. Drawings representing five of the following: sick, tired, sad, lonely, scared, worried, upset or angry.

2. (a) Schoolwork and grades: Because Amy is upset and worried, she cannot think clearly or complete her schoolwork properly. She also wants to avoid school; if she does, her attendance will drop, as will her opportunities to learn. (b) Sleep: Amy can’t sleep properly because she is so upset and worried. This is making her very tired. (c) Food: Amy doesn’t feel like eating so is not eating properly. (d) Health: By not eating properly, sleeping well, or getting exercise playing, Amy’s health is suffering.

• All targets are affected by bullying, but the extent to which they are affected depends greatly on their confidence, self-esteem and resilience. Some children will have strategies for coping with the bullying, thus ending the problem, but others will suffer consequences in the short (and long) term.

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• For the bully, there can also be negative short-term effects, such as shallow friendships (peers are ‘friends’ only because they fear being bullied themselves), negative reputation among staff and some students, and the effects of being unable to deal with their emotions and problems appropriately. • Bystanders can feel uncomfortable, afraid, uncertain, stressed and guilty for not intervening.

Introduction

3. Olivia herself is unhappy, and is less liked by others, even her own friends who play with her because they fear her, not because they like her.

Page 43

Answers will vary but should include the possible effects of bullying, such as feelings of sadness, fear, anger, shame, loneliness; worry; loss of sleep and hunger; a drop in ability to do school work; sickness; and not wanting to go to school or play with friends.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Supporting activity

• The comic strip on page 43 shares some of the thoughts and feelings of a girl who is being bullied. Ask the students if they have ever been really upset by something before. How did they feel? Did the feelings go straight away or did they affect the students for a while? Ask the students to suggest how something very scary or worrying can affect different parts of their lives, such as their appetite, sleep, activities and thoughts.

• In pairs, the students can make simple finger puppets and act out the scenario on page 43.

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• The text can be read together as a class or in pairs. Discussing the text

• Ask the students to identify the bully, the target and the bystander from the text. (Olivia is the bully, Amy is the target and Tess is a bystander.)

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• Refer to page viii.

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• Short-term effects can include loss of appetite; insomnia; feelings of sadness, fear, anger, shame, loneliness; excessive absenteeism from school; drop in schoolwork standards; poor attention span; loss of interest in social activities; anxiety attacks; feeling responsible for the attacks; and a lack of trust in friends.

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• Ask the students how to imagine what it must be like for Amy to feel tired, afraid and upset every day. Is it easy to concentrate and work hard? What could feeling this way be doing to Amy’s ability to be healthy, happy and a good learner?

• Finally, ask them who was affected by the bullying (the bully, the target and the bystander, Tess, were all affected). Ask the students to suggest the different ways these people were affected.

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‘What’s wrong?’ – 1

Effects of bullying

READ ABOUT IT Amy! What’s wrong?

Tell me. It’s OK. I saw what she did to you last week. It made me upset.

You must be tired.

can hardly sleep.

bullying me, Tess. I’m so ...

It must be awful to feel so ... awful!

Have you told anyone?

Yes, and on top of that I’m not hungry; I feel sick.

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r o e t s r WellB ... o e p I’m scared o u k of her. I’m S so worried I It’s Olivia ... she’s

You know, Olivia seems unhappy too. I don’t think her friends really like her; they hang out with her so she doesn’t pick on them.

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can’t do my school work properly. I don’t even want to come to school anymore.

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I feel so alone. I don’t feel like playing or going outside.

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© R. I . C.Pub i t i ons Nol ...c Ia don’t Yes ... I’m so upset I know who •clearly, f orr ev ew pur p sesonl y• can’t think so I i to o trust. Really?

o c . che e r o t r s super

Yes. I think lots of people like her less since she started bullying.

I didn’t realise.

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I think we should tell our teacher. All this awfulness needs to stop.

Bullying in a cyber world

OK. Let’s go.

41


‘What’s wrong?’ – 2

Effects of bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the cartoon strip on page 41.

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1. In each circle, draw a different face to show five things Olivia (the bully) is making Amy feel. Write the word underneath.

2. Next to each picture, write how the bullying is affecting that part of Amy’s life.

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3. How has Olivia been affected by her own bullying? 42

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‘What’s wrong?’ – 3

Effects of bullying

MORE ABOUT IT Imagine your friend has just been bullied. He or she doesn’t think anything needs to be done about it.

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Draw yourself in the box. In the speech bubble, write what you could tell your friend about what effects the bullying might have on him or her.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Effects of bullying

More than bad memories Focus

Discussing the text

To view and discuss ways childhood bullying experiences have affected the lives of two men

• What happened to Steve at school? (He was bullied for two years.)

Teacher information

• How long ago do you think the bullying happened (In primary school, so over 14 years ago).

• The effects of bullying may, for some targets and bullies, endure long after the actual bullying has stopped, possibly extending well into adulthood.

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• Adults who were targets of childhood bullying can have low selfesteem, have difficulty in making and maintaining friendships, suffer from depression, be unable to fulfil their academic potential, have poor career prospects, be open to bullying in the workplace, engage in self-harm, attempt suicide, plan or engage in revenge attacks, or be involved in abusive behaviour at home.

• As some bullies do not learn healthy social skills, problemsolving or coping strategies, they grow up to be antisocial adults. Rather than ‘growing out of’ their bullying behaviours, the aggressive behaviours continue, sometimes leading to delinquency and violence in adulthood. A study conducted by Norwegian psychologist Dan Olweus found that 60% of students classified as bullies in 6th through 9th grades had one or more criminal convictions by the time they were 24 years old. Many bullies will have poor relationships with others, including family members and friends.

• What sort of problems caused by the bullying does Steve have as an adult? What about Ricky? • Do you think everyone who is bullied has the same problems as Steve? (No. Not every target of bullying is affected into adulthood.) • Why do you think Steve’s life was so affected? (Part of the reason is that Steve didn’t do anything about it, tell anyone or get help.)

Answers WRITE ABOUT IT

• Refer to page viii for further information.

1. Steve: Three of the following: difficulty in making friendships and trusting people, not feeling good about himself (low selfesteem), didn’t like school, left school early, possibly doesn’t have as good a job as he could have (if he had finished school), feelings of unhappiness. Ricky: Spent time in jail, he still hurts others, doesn’t have any real friends and has problems dealing with emotions.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• MORE ABOUT IT

• The speech bubbles on page 45 contain the reflections of one man who was bullied as a child, and one who was a bully at school. Before reading the text, discuss with the students what they think happens to bullies and targets after they leave school. Do those behaviours just go away? Do the feelings that targets feel always stop when the bullying does?

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• Read the text with the students and ensure they know which character is the bully (Ricky) and which was the target (Steve). Also ensure they understand that these two characters are men with different experiences of bullying as children. Also explain that these are just examples; that not all targets of bullying and bullies go on to have these problems as adults.

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• The student’s leaflets will be different. Each leaflet should include details of one possible long-term effect of bullying with the intention of helping others understand the possible ramifications of bullying.

Supporting activities • The students could turn their leaflets into posters to put up around the school. Provide them with large sheets of paper and paint, and allow them to create a poster using their leaflet as a template.

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Introduction

44

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• When did the effects of the bullying stop? (They haven’t stopped for either the bully or the target.)

• In pairs, the students can role-play going back in time to when Steve was being bullied or Ricky was bullying children at school. They can prepare conversations, talking to Steve or Ricky, letting them know how their future will be affected by what is happening if they don’t do something about it.

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More than bad memories

Effects of bullying

READ ABOUT IT I was bullied for two years at primary school. I never did anything about it, never told anyone or got help. I hated school because of it, so, even though I was clever, I didn’t finish school. I wish I had, maybe I’d have a better job now.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Steve (age S25)

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The bullying stopped, but I still suffer; I don’t trust people, it’s hard for me to make friends and I am unhappy a lot of the time. I’ve never felt good about myself since then.

I had problems at home when I was a kid. When I hurt others, I felt like I had some power and control. I couldn’t deal with problems or emotions properly and I still don’t know how to ... I still hurt people, I have been to jail, I don’t have any real friends ... Ricky (age 32) WRITE ABOUT IT

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Write your answers after discussing Steve and Ricky’s comments • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o n l y• above.

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1. Write three ways the childhood bullying has affected each man’s life. Ricky

o c . che e r • t o r s super MORE ABOUT IT

Think about the possible long-term effects of bullying. Which one do you feel is the worst? On the back of this sheet, design a leaflet telling people about that possible effect. Use images and words to help others understand the effects of bullying can last a long time, and why they should deal with bullying sooner rather than later. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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45


Who bullies and why?

What do bullies look and act like? Focus

Answers

To view and discuss pictures of different children to understand that while anyone can potentially be a bully, it is actions—not physical characteristics—that identify a bully

WRITE ABOUT IT

Teacher information • There can be no one set of characteristics to describe all bullies. A bully may be a very confident, high achieving, apparently popular student with high self-esteem or a target who is retaliating by bullying other less powerful or younger students in order to hide his or her own lack of confidence. Bullying is about power and control. A bully’s actions identify him or her as a bully.

2. Answers should indicate that you can’t tell by the way someone looks if he or she is a bully.

MORE ABOUT IT

1. (b), (d), (e), (f)

Supporting activity

• Think of more ways bullies might act to add to the suggestions on page 47.

• The pictures on page 47 are of three different-looking children. By naming and describing the children, and discussing and answering questions, the students should realise that anyone has the potential to be a bully, no matter what they look like. However, a bully can only be identified by the person’s actions, not looks. Discussing the text

• How are the children you named and coloured in different? How are they the same?

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1. Teacher check: Descriptive words students might use could include boy/girl, tall/short/medium height, black/blonde/red/ brown/curly/straight hair, freckly/dark skin etc.

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• Refer to page viii for further information. Introduction

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• Do any of them look like bullies? Why/Why not? (Guide the discussion to this bullet point and the one below to conclude that you can’t tell by the way someone looks.) • Can you tell by how someone looks if he or she is a bully?

• Can anyone become a bully? (Yes, if he or she chooses too.)

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• How can you tell if someone is a bully? (By his or actions; e.g. saying mean things all the time)

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What do bullies look and act like?

Who bullies and why?

READ ABOUT IT

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WRITE ABOUT IT

Write your answers after discussing the pictures.

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Look at the pictures of the children. Colour them in. Think of a name for each one and write it on the line underneath.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

1. Write each child’s name on a line and add words to describe him or her. : :

(c)

:

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(b)

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(a)

2. Can you tell by the way someone looks if that person is a bully?

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o c . che e r o t r s sup MORE ABOUT IT er

Why/Why not?

Anyone can be a bully. But you can only tell a person is a bully by the way he or she acts. Tick the ways a bully might act. (a) is helpful

(b) says nasty things

(c) cares about you

(d) won’t let you join in

(e) pinches/hits you

(f) makes up tales

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Who bullies and why?

Bystander bullies Focus

Discussing the text

To view and discuss a diagram to identify that bystanders can also be bullies

• What is a bystander? (Someone who watches something happening, in this case, bullying)

Teacher information

• What is a bully? (Someone who repeatedly hurts someone on the outside [physically] or the inside [emotionally])

• A bystander is a person who watches the bullying. Bystanders can support the bully’s actions by laughing or cheering. Other types of bystanders may even feel uncomfortable about the bullying, but do nothing to help the target. They are still supporting the actions of the bully. A bystander may also ignore, or pretend that he or she does not know about, what is happening. If a bystander joins in or does nothing to help the target, he or she is classified as a bully too.

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• There is a further category involved in bullying—advocates­ —those who are not targets or bullies. They haven’t actually observed the bullying but they may suspect that bullying is occurring. This group can be very effective in preventing bullying.

• Why is everyone except Ben coloured black? (See comment in ‘Introduction’ section.)

• What could Kym and Zac do to help Ben? (Take Ben away from the situation, tell an adult [with or without Ben], tell Tom and Sam they don’t like what they’re doing and to stop) Answers WRITE ABOUT IT

• Refer to page viii for further information.

Introduction

MORE ABOUT IT

Ben Tom and Sam Tim and Zoe Kym and Zac

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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bullied, join, nothing, bully

Supporting activities

• The poster featuring bystanders that accompanies these books could be displayed in the classroom and discussed. • Make up role-plays for students to take turns being a bully, a bystander who joins in laughing, a bystander who does nothing and a bystander who assists the target. In this way, students will identify the ways they should act if they find themselves witnessing a bullying situation.

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• The diagram on page 49 identifies the target, bullies and bystanders in a bullying situation. Explain that the figures represent children who are involved. (Their names are on their heads.) Ensure the students understand the meaning of the word ‘bystander’ as it relates to bullying. The bullies and all bystanders are coloured black to indicate they are all bullies in some way as none are supporting the target. Ben, the target, is coloured white. (The bystanders who are watching could change to white if they support the target.)

48

(a) (b) (c) (d)

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• A bystander can assist the target in a number of different ways: he or she can tell an adult about the bullying, with or without the target; he or she can tell the bully that what he or she is doing is wrong and to stop; he or she can take the target away from the bullying situation.

Teac he r

• Explain what each of these children in the picture are doing by referring to the labels: Ben (the target who is being bullied), Tom and Sam (the bullies targeting Ben), Tim and Zoe (bystanders who are bullies too as they are supporting the bullies by laughing along with them at Ben), Kym and Zac (bystanders who are bullies if they keep watching and do nothing to help Ben).

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Bystander bullies

Who bullies and why?

READ ABOUT IT Ha! Ha! Tim

Zoe

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Tom SKym Zac

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bystanders who are joining in by laughing

Ben

bystanders who are watching and doing nothing

Sam

bullies

person being bullied (target)

ABOUT ITt © R. I . CWRITE .Pu bl i ca i ons Write your answers after discussing the diagram. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(a) Who is being bullied (the target)?

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(c) Who are the bystanders laughing? (d) Who are the bystanders watching?

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(b) Who are the bullies?

o c . cheMORE ABOUT IT r e o bullies. r Fill in the missing words to learn about bystander st s up er

, you can

If you are watching someone being

in and laugh,

become a bully yourself. If you

, you

you are a bully too! If you watch and do are a

nothing

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too! bullied Bullying in a cyber world

bully

join 49


Who bullies and why?

Sad Sam Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a narrative about a boy who bullies because he is unhappy about his life

Page 52

1. sad, lonely, miserable, unpopular, unhappy

Teacher information

2. (a) Sam’s classmates don’t want to sit by Sam or play with him. (b) Sam’s brother calls Sam names and punches him when he gets angry. (c) Sam’s mother doesn’t look after Sam properly or stop his brother from hurting him. (d) Sam’s teacher keeps on nagging Sam.

3. (b) He didn’t know how else to get people to be his friends.

4. They don’t really want to be his friends but they are afraid that if they are not, he will bully them.

5. Teacher check: Possible answers may include that his mother should take better care of his health and welfare.

• There is no common reason for bullying, but the following generalisations are worth consideration: jealousy and competition for attention and valued objects; personal experience of being bullied; inadequate supervision; child abuse and neglect; harsh physical discipline; overly permissive parenting or lack of limits; inconsistent enforcement of rules and consequences; poor role models at home or school.

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• Sam is not a bad boy but a sad and lonely one. He is deprived of care at home and his self-esteem is very low. People bully for many reasons but they are often cries for help rather than expressions of bullying in its true sense.

Page 53

Teacher check

Supporting activity

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• The text is a story about a boy who resorts to bullying because he sees no other way of making friends. That the friendships are not genuine is of no consequence. He now has people to play with and has influence among his peers. It gives him a feeling of self-worth which he did not have before.

Discussing the text

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• Refer to page viii for further information about who bullies and why. Introduction

• Design a poster with Mr and Mrs Bully at the centre, the question, ‘Why do you bully?’ across the top and arranged around the poster, other questions beginning with, ‘Are you ... ?’; for example: ‘Are you lonely?’, ‘Are you afraid?’

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Is Sam a bad boy? (Prior to the bullying, there is nothing to suggest this.)

• Who could have made a big difference to Sam’s life? (If his mum had looked after him properly, he would not have smelled and he would not have been bullied by his older brother. This would have made Sam feel better about himself.)

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• If Sam’s mum had looked after him properly, how would this have made his life better? (His classmates would not have avoided him and they would have got to know him better, accepting him for who he was even if he wasn’t good at schoolwork or sport. They would have discovered what he was good at.)

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• Why didn’t anyone want to be friends with him? (Sam smelled so much they didn’t want to be near him.)

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• What might have happened if Sam had talked to someone about how sad he felt? (He may have been helped and his life may have improved without him having to resort to bullying.) • What would happen to Sam’s friends when his bullying was reported? (They would stop being afraid of him and stop being his friend. His mum might start to look after him better and things would improve for him.)

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Sad Sam

Who bullies and why?

READ ABOUT IT Sam’s clothes and hair were always a mess. He smelled, too. No-one wanted to sit next to him. He was never invited to parties or homes to play. Sam was very sad.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Sam was very sad. S At home, Sam’s big brother, Jack, used to say mean

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The teacher used to say to Sam, ‘If you tried harder, Sam, you could do better’. Sam did his best, but the teacher still kept nagging him.

things to him, like, ‘Hey, Sam, you’re so stupid, even the goldfish has more brains than you!’ Sam was very sad.

When Jack got angry about something, he would take it out on Sam by punching him or hiding his things. Their mother never told Jack to stop.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Sam was very sad. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Sam was very sad.

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Sam loved sport, but he wasn’t very good at it. He couldn’t run fast and if anyone threw him a ball, he always dropped it.

Sam was really fed up. He was no good at anything and no-one cared. He wanted friends, but no-one liked him. What could he do?

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o c . c Sam was very sad. e her r o t s su Then Sam started to bully some of the children. r e p The others were scared and thought that he might pick on them too, so they became his friends. Sam’s life began to change ... Sam wasn’t alone at recess now. He chose the games they all played. He was even invited to homes to play. ‘At last,’ thought Sam, happily, ‘I’ve got some friends’. Sam wasn’t sad anymore!

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Sad Sam – 2

Who bullies and why?

WRITE ABOUT IT 1. Circle the words that describe how Sam felt before he became a bully. sad cheerful lonely glad

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S (a) Sam’s classmates • • doesn’t look after Sam properly or

(b) Sam’s brother

(c) Sam’s mother

(d) Sam’s teacher

jolly miserable happy unpopular unhappy

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2. Draw a line between the people and how they don’t care about Sam.

stop his brother from hurting him. • keeps on nagging Sam.

• don’t want to sit by Sam or play with him.

• calls Sam names and punches him © R. I . C. P ubl i cat i ons when he gets angry. f o rr evi ew p r po se sbox. onl y• 3. Why do• you think Sam started tou bully? Tick one

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(a) He was no good at sport and his classmates laughed at him.

(b) He didn’t know how else to get people to be his friends.

. te o 4. Why are Sam’s new friends not as happy as Sam? c . che e r o t r s super (c) He was a bad person and wanted to hurt people.

5. What do you think should change in Sam’s life to make it much better?

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Sad Sam – 3

Who bullies and why?

MORE ABOUT IT People bully for different reasons. Sometimes, they may not want to hurt others but they just don’t know what else to do.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Being untidy and S smelly

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• If you had asked Sam why he was bullying, what do you think he might have said about how he felt about each thing?

Being poor at schoolwork and his teacher nagging him His brother calling him names and punching him

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons His mother saying •f or r evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Being poor at sport

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o c . che e r o t r s suggest some things that s up er If you were trying to make Sam feel better, Like everyone, Sam was probably good at something; maybe he hadn’t yet discovered what it was.

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nothing to stop his brother

he could try, to find out what he was good at.

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Who bullies and why?

Some bullies are jealous Focus

Answers

To read and discuss visual and written information about a target and to identify how feelings of jealousy can lead to bullying

Page 56

Teacher information

• Although the focus in schools is often on providing support for the targets of bullying, the bullies themselves also need to be understood so they too can be helped.

1. (a) rich (b) Possible answers include: They live in a big house, go on big holidays and buy Rob expensive things.

2. (a) Yes (b) Possible answers include: He is good at school and he wins awards.

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• Bullies may be attention-seeking, lack self-esteem, have difficulty making friends or be sad and unhappy.

• Some reasons for bullying include jealousy and competition for attention and valued objects, to feel superior or to feel powerful and in control.

3. (a) happy (b) Possible answers include: He is happy, he looks good and he has things to play with and share with his friends.

4. Answers will vary.

5. Answers will vary.

• Refer to page viii for further information about who bullies and why.

Page 57

Introduction

• Students should understand that some bullies suffer low selfesteem and a sense of personal inadequacy. Motivated by jealousy, they may target someone they perceive as having qualities they lack. Bullying that person may help them to feel better about themselves and give them a sense of power and control.

Teacher check

Supporting activity

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• Complete a Y chart with the students recording their ideas about what feeling jealous looks like, sounds like and feels like.

Discussing the text

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• What does ‘jealous’ mean? (Answers may include: wishing you could do something as well as someone else, had something someone else had, looked like someone else, did things someone else could do or was as happy or as popular as someone else)

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• Why was Shan jealous of Rob? (Answers may include: He thought Rob was good at everything and looked good, had lots of things, did fun things, was popular and got lots of attention, and was happy.)

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Some bullies are jealous

Who bullies and why?

READ ABOUT IT Shan is a bully. He picks on Rob. He is jealous of him because Rob: wears great clothes.

goes on big holidays.

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wins awards.

lives in a big house.

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wins races.

is good looking.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• has his own mobile phone.

has computer games.

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has lots of friends.

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o c . che e r o t r s looks very happy. su is good at schoolwork. gets lotsp ofe attention. r

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Some bullies are jealous – 2

Who bullies and why?

WRITE ABOUT IT Record your answers after discussing the text and pictures on page 55. 1. (a) Do you think Rob’s family is rich or poor? (b) Give two reasons why you think this.

r o e t s B r e oo • p u k S No 2. (a) Do you think Rob is a clever boy? Yes

(b) Give two reasons why you think this.

3. (a) Is Rob a sad or a happy boy?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (b) Why do you think he has lots of friends? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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4. Think about all the things you know about Rob. If you were Shan, which two things would you be most jealous of?

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o c . c e her r 5. Shan bullies Rob because o t s super he is jealous of him. He probably wishes he was like Rob but he isn’t. Think about Shan and guess what he’s like. Draw and write about him.

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Who bullies and why?

Some bullies are jealous – 3 MORE ABOUT IT

1. Everyone feels a bit jealous of someone else at times. There are lots of different things for us to feel jealous about. Think about a time when you felt jealous of someone.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k (c) Was this person very good looking? S

(a) Who were you jealous of?

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

(e) Could this person do something better than you? Yes

No

(d) Did this person have something you wished you had?

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(b) Did you think this person was very clever?

(f) Draw a picture and explain why were you jealous of this person.

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(g) What did you do to make yourself feel better about this person?

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o c . ch (a) Do you think bullying Rob made Shan feel good? e r er o Explain why you think this. st su per

2. Not everyone who is jealous becomes a bully like Shan.

Yes

No

(b) What do you think Shan could have done instead of bullying Rob? R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Dealing with bullying

Reporting bullying Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a scenario to understand that bullying should be reported to a trusted adult

Page 60

1. (b)–1

Teacher information

2. He wasn’t sure if it was serious enough or if he would be believed.

3. Possible answers: He could get seriously hurt when they try to stop him using the playground equipment or when they trip him in class/his pencils and marker pens would keep getting broken

• To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, students are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future.

(d)–3

(e)–4

(c)–5

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• Refer to page ix for further information.

4. Lexie was afraid that if he didn���t report the bullying Nathan could get really hurt.

5. Answers should indicate it is a good idea because it will help Nathan feel like he can report it and Lexie and Olivia will be able to back up what has been happening to Nathan.

Page 61

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• Students should talk to people if they feel they are being bullied. In sharing their experiences, they will realise they are not alone. Students will identify peers and adults in whom they can confide. They need to know that, in talking with school staff, their problems will be taken seriously and dealt with appropriately. If more than one student is being targeted by the same bully or group of bullies, they could go together to speak to a member of staff. Students who witness others being bullied can also assist the target to report bullying. Bystanders have an important role to play in that they can assist or defend the target or report the bullying. The sooner targets talk about their problems, the sooner they can be dealt with, reducing the risk of emotional and/or physical damage or injury.

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(a)–2

1. In order across top: (Ms Perry), Nathan, Lexie, Olivia

2. Answers should indicate a trusted adult such as their class teacher or parent.

Supporting activity

• Take turns being the characters in the play on page 59. Make up an extra scene before the play with Alex and Jason kicking (pretending to!) Nathan off the slide and other scenes where Nathan, Lexie and Olivia approach their teacher, Ms Perry, and report the bullying.

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• The short play on page 59 includes an example of a strategy students can follow to help deal with bullying. Although Nathan has been bullied by Alex and Jason for some time, he has been reluctant to report it, thinking it wasn’t serious enough or that he wouldn’t be believed. Some of the things they have been doing have hurt him physically as well as emotionally and need to be reported. Simply trying to put up with it as he has done has not made it stop. A trusted adult (in this case, the teacher) needs to be involved. Lexie and Olivia help him to realise it must be reported and are also able to assist by being witnesses. Discussing the text

• What have Jason and Alex done to Nathan in the adventure playground? (Kicked him off the slide, hung onto his legs to get him off the monkey bars, grabbed him by the shirt to get him off the rope ladder)

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Introduction

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• What have they done to him in the classroom? (Banged into his desk to knock things off, tried to trip him, took the tops off his markers, broke his pencil leads) • Why are these things bullying? (Because they are intentional, repeated, hurtful, the bullies enjoy doing it and know it upsets Nathan) • How has Nathan acted towards the bullies? (Tried not to say or do anything, hoping it would stop) • Why hasn’t he reported it? (Refer to answer 2 opposite.) • Do you think he should report it? Why/Why not? • Who would you tell if you were being bullied?

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Reporting bullying

Dealing with bullying

READ ABOUT IT Nathan is being bullied by two boys in his class, Jason and Alex. Lexie and Olivia, who are also in his class, have just seen what Jason and Alex did to Nathan on the slide. They come over to speak to him. Lexie: Are you OK, Nathan? We saw Jason and Alex kicking you in the chest as you tried to climb up behind them to get to the slide.

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r o e t s Bo r e Nathan: (rubbing his chest and looking upset) Yeah, p o u k I’ll be alright. I’m getting to used to it. S Olivia: I heard Jason say that the adventure playground is out of bounds for you as he kicked you. What does he mean by that?

Nathan: Well, if I try to play there and they’re around, they try to stop me. They do things like hanging onto my legs when I’m on the monkey bars and grabbing my shirt to pull me off the rope ladder.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Nathan: I hit my head on the ground hard when they made me lose my f o rr ebars. vi e w pthere ur p os esunderneath. onl y•And a grip on• the monkey Luckily was sand Lexie: That’s so mean. Have you been hurt?

button ripped off my shirt when they pulled it.

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Olivia: That’s awful. I’ve seen what they do to you in class too. I thought it was a bit of annoying fun when I saw each of them bang into your desk as they passed so your stuff fell on the floor. But after what they did on the slide just then I think they are meaning to be really nasty to you.

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o c . Nathan: I try not to but if I go down the aisle neare one of their desks c h r they stick their leg out e to try to trip me. Andt when they get the chance, o r s s r up eso they dry out, and break the they take the tops off my marker pens Lexie: Is that true, Nathan? What else do they do in class?

lead on my pencils so I have to keep sharpening them. Olivia: Have you thought about telling the teacher?

Nathan: Yeah, but I don’t know if it’s serious enough or if she’ll believe me. Lexie: It’s serious enough, Nathan. It’s bullying. They’ll just keep doing it. And you might get really hurt. Ms Perry will believe you. We’ll come with you and tell her what we saw. Come on. Let’s go. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Reporting bullying – 2

Dealing with bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the play on page 59. 1. List these events in the order they happened from 1 to 5. (a) Nathan told Lexie and Olivia what happens in class.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k (c) Nathan, Lexie and Olivia went to see Ms Perry. S

(d) Olivia asked if Nathan had told the teacher.

(e) Lexie insisted Nathan reported the bullying. 2. Why didn’t Nathan report the bullying before?

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(b) The girls saw what happened to Nathan on the slide.

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4. Why did Lexie insist that Nathan tell Ms Perry?

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3. What do you think would happen if Nathan kept on just putting up with what Jason and Alex do to him?

5. Do you think it is a good idea that Lexie and Olivia are going to see Ms Perry with Nathan? Why/Why not? 60

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Reporting bullying – 3

Dealing with bullying

MORE ABOUT IT Nathan, Lexie and Olivia went to see Ms Perry. She asked them questions about what happened and wrote down their answers so there was a record. Next, she will have to work out how to solve the problem. 1. Read what each student said and write the correct name at the top.

Olivia and I saw Jason and Alex kicking Nathan off the slide. I found out some other serious things they’ve been doing to him and I wanted to report what happened. We went to see if Nathan was OK after the boys kicked him. Then we talked and he told us about the other things they do to him in the playground and in class. Alex and Jason have done lots of really mean things to Nathan. He could get badly hurt. He didn’t know whether to report it or not but I said it’s bullying and he must.

Lexie and I saw Jason and Alex kicking Nathan off the slide. I’d seen them do other nasty stuff in school to him, too.

After we checked to see if he was alright, Nathan told us about all the other things Alex and Jason had done. I was worried and asked if he’d told you. I think it’s awful. Jason and Alex could really hurt Nathan. And they wreck his pencils and marker pens too. That’s really wrong. It’s bullying.

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Explain exactly what you did.

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Jason and Alex keep bullying me. They pull or kick me to stop me playing in the adventure playground. In class they bang into my desk on purpose, trip me when I pass their desk, break my pencils and take the tops off my markers so they dry out. I try not to say anything or push them back. I’ve just put up with it, wishing they would stop. They’ve been doing it for ages. I wasn’t sure if it was serious enough to tell or if I’d be believed. Lexie and Olivia helped me to come and report it. I feel afraid they might really hurt me badly. It hurts when I get kicked off the slide or pulled off the monkey bars. I think my mum will be cross with me if I tell her about my pencils and stuff because she’ll think I’m not looking after them and she’ll have to buy me more.

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How do you feel about it?

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What has happened?

Ms Perry

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2. If you were being bullied or knew someone else was being bullied, who would you report it to and why? R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Being confident

Dealing with bullying

Answers

To read and discuss two scenarios to identify an example of a correct strategy to use to deal with bullying

Page 64

1. Story A: (a), (b), (e).

Teacher information

Story B: (c), (d), (f).

• To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, students are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future.

2. Story B

3. Answers should indicate they enjoyed making Jayne cry yet again after they said something nasty, which would mean they’d do it again.

• Students should have a ready response for a given bullying situation and deliver it with direct eye contact with the bully before walking away confidently. Confident students with a positive self-image may be able to dismiss their bullies naturally, but others need to be given strategies to deal positively with them. They need to be given examples of responses which can be practised during role-plays of relevant bullying situations. It takes courage for them to appear brave while inside they may be feeling quite the opposite, especially if they are on their own against more than one assailant. Students need to have good body language by walking purposefully with head held high and shoulders back. By reacting in this way, they are challenging the bully, who, in many cases, will back down, as most bullies are cowards. As students get older, they may be able to turn what the bully says or does into a joke. Without making fun of the bully, if a target can make light of the situation, the bully will see that he/she has no power over the target.

4. Answers should indicate they were surprised she didn’t cry and wondered why it wasn’t working.

5. Answers should indicate because Jayne acted confidently and Zoe and Erin didn’t get enjoyment out of her reaction.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Page 65

1. Teacher check students’ alternative answers before they use them in role-playing practice. Answers could be similar to the example given or another positive, confident comment.

Supporting activities

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Focus

• Role-play being the different characters in both scenarios on page 63. Talk about the differences between what happened when Jayne was confident and not confident. • Compare answers with other pairs of students in the class for the activity on page 65 and practise role-playing their answers too.

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Introduction

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• The pictorial scenarios on page 63 both have the same characters—Jayne, the target, and Erin and Zoe, the bullies. In Story A, Jayne is not appearing confident—her shoulders are slumped, she is looking down and cries when Zoe makes nasty remarks about her hair. In Story B, she acts confidently—stands tall, looks them in the eye and has a ready response when Zoe makes nasty remarks. Zoe and Erin don’t get the reaction they want and back off. Discussing the text

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• How did Jayne act in Story A?/Story B (See comments above.)

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• Refer to page ix for further information.

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• How did Zoe and Erin act in Scene A after Jayne began to cry? (Laughed, glad she cried, said she was a pain and a crybaby) • How did Zoe and Erin act at the end of Story B? (Noticed she didn’t cry at what they said, surprised)

• How can being confident help bullies stop? (They don’t get the reaction they are after/They see that their target doesn’t appear to be affected by what they do.)

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Bullying in a cyber world

Really? Well other people have said they look great!

Hey, Erin. Look how Jayne’s done her hair! Those plaits look stupid!

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There’s Zoe and Erin. This time I’m going to stand up to them.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• I think I’m going to cry.

wish they’d stop.

You’re a pain, Jayne!

Teac he I getr so upset. I

Good one, Hey, Erin. Look Zoe! Now how Jayne’s done her hair! you’ve made her cry again. Those plaits Ha! Ha! look stupid!

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Story B

Oh, no! Here they come again. What are they going to say to me this time?

Yeah. Jayne usually cries at what we say.

What a crybaby!

It’s not working today, Erin.

Hurrah! It worked!

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Story A

Dealing with bullying

Being confident

READ ABOUT IT

63


Being confident – 2

Dealing with bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing page 63. 1. The sentences below describe the ways Jayne felt and acted in Story A and Story B. Write A or B in the box at the end of each sentence.

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k (b) Jayne was looking down. S

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(a) Jayne’s shoulders drooped.

(c) Jayne stood tall with shoulders back.

(d) Jayne looked straight at Zoe and Erin.

(e) Jayne cried when they said her hair looked stupid.

(f) Jayne said other people thought her hair looked great after Zoe and Erin said her hair looked stupid.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 2. In which story didr Jayne act • f or e vi e wconfidently? pur posesonl y•

Story B

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3. How did Zoe and Erin act in Story A?

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Being confident – 3

Dealing with bullying

MORE ABOUT IT If you or someone else is being bullied, a good thing to do is to look and speak confidently, even if you don’t really feel that way. Don’t let bullies think you’re afraid of them by crying or showing you’re scared. That makes them want to bully more.

Bully:

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r o e t s Bo r e pbeing the bully and the target. okThink of With a partner, practise u something elseS you could say and write it on the line. Remember to stand tall, speak clearly and look at the bully when you speak. Go away. You’re not going to play in this game.

Answer 1: I’d rather play with someone who is friendly anyway! Answer 2:

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Bully: Hey, freckle-face! You’re so ugly! •f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Answer 1: I don’t think so. I like my freckles! Spots rule!

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Answer 2:

. te mean you’ll be sorry! I’m telling the teacher. Answer 1: You o c . che e Answer 2: r o t r s super Bully:

Give me your lunch money again or you’ll be sorry!

Bully:

Why do you always have such smelly food in your lunch box?

Answer 1: It smells different but it tastes yummy! Want to try it? Answer 2: R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Dealing with bullying

Things I can do Focus

Discussing the text

To read and discuss a summary of things students can do to deal with bullying

• Before the students play with their chatterbox with a partner, discuss each of the statements written on the template.

Teacher information

• Also ask: Should you hit/pinch/punch etc. a bully who does that to you? Should you yell or shout back at a bully who does that to you? (No, being mean back will not stop the bullying. The bully likes to get a reaction. Hitting someone back can also cause that person to be accused of bullying too.)

• To persist with bullying, bullies rely on evoking a reaction from their targets. They want to see fear, hurt or anger. These responses give bullies the feeling of power on which they thrive. By learning strategies to deal positively with bullying attacks, students are empowered to stand up for themselves and are less likely to be regular targets in the future.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

• Students should have a ready response for a given bullying situation and deliver it with direct eye contact with the bully before walking away confidently. Confident students with positive self-image may be able to dismiss their bullies naturally but others need to be given strategies to deal positively with them. They need to be given examples of responses which can be practised during role-plays of appropriate bullying situations. It takes courage for them to appear brave while inside they may be feeling quite the opposite, especially if they are on their own against more than one assailant. Students need to have good body language by walking purposefully with head held high and shoulders back. But by reacting in this way, they are challenging the bully who, in many cases, will back down, as most bullies are cowards.

Page 68

1. (a) bullying (b) trust (c) bullies (e) stop (f) control (g) scared

2.–3. Answers will vary.

4. Refer to final bullet point above

Page 69

(d) away (h) nice

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• Students should talk to people if they feel they are being bullied. Students will identify peers and adults in whom they can confide. They need to know that, in talking with school staff, their problems will be taken seriously and dealt with appropriately. If more than one student is being targeted by the same bully or group of bullies, they could go together to speak to a member of staff. Students who witness others being bullied can also assist the target to report bullying. Bystanders have an important role to play in that they can assist or defend the target or report the bullying. The sooner targets talk about their problems, the sooner they can be dealt with, reducing the risk of emotional and/or physical damage or injury.

Answers

1.–2. Students answers should reflect the strategies covered in this section.

Supporting activities

• Role-play scenarios created by the students’ answers on page 69. • Make a class chart for display, about ways to deal with bullying.

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• Refer to page ix for further information. Introduction

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• The chatterbox on page 67 is a fun method to reinforce some of the strategies covered earlier in this section. To make it, first cut out the template and lay it print-side down. Fold in the corners so they meet in the centre of the square. Turn it over and repeat the procedure by folding corners to meet at the centre. Then fold the chatterbox in half so two of the children’s faces are showing on each half. Place thumbs and forefingers under the square flaps. Move them in an ‘open/shut’ motion so four of the eight numbers inside are revealed each time. Follow the directions on page 67 for using it.

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• In the activity on page 69, students may suggest different answers but all should reflect the strategies covered in this section. Discuss the answers the students suggest and how or if they would be effective in dealing with bullying. Note: A ‘PSP’ in Activity 1 stands for ‘PlayStation Portable’.

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Things I can do

Dealing with bullying

READ ABOUT IT 1. Follow your teacher’s instructions to make a chatterbox toy.

Gr

Al

ex

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ac

6

7

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2. When it is finished, play with a partner. – Ask your partner to choose one of the children on the outside. – Open and close the chatterbox for each letter of the child’s name. – Hold it open and ask your partner to choose one of the four numbers showing inside. – Open and close the chatterbox while you count that number. – Hold it open and ask your partner to choose one of the four numbers showing inside. – Lift up the flap and read about something you can do if you or someone else is bullied.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi e w pur posesonl y• Tell bullies

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Play with others who are nice. Keep away from bullies.

Try not to look upset or scared.

4

Tell the bully to stop.

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2 Za c

el ob

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1

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e

5

Report the bullying.

Stay calm and confident.

you don’t like what they’re doing.

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Things I can do – 2

Dealing with bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing page 67. 1. Fill in the missing words to complete these sentences about things you can do if you are bullied.

r o e t s Bhelp. r for e oo p u kdoing. you don’t like what they’re S .

(a) Report the

(b) Ask someone you Tell

(d) Keep

from bullies. .

(e) Tell the bully to (f)

Stay calm and in

. or upset.

(g) Try not to look

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(c)

. n © R. I . C.Publ i cat i o s 2. Name three orr more people you trust who could help you if you • f o r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o n l y • were being bullied. (h) Play with others who are

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3. What would you do if you saw or knew of someone else being bullied?

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same back? Why/Why not?

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Things I can do – 3

Dealing with bullying

MORE ABOUT IT 1. Imagine you are the person being bullied in the story below. What would you do or say to try to stop it? Write your answer on the lines. Jackson is a clever boy who nearly always gets everything correct in a test. He sits next to Oliver, who is good at sport but not so good at his schoolwork. Oliver has been making Jackson show him his answers when they have a test like spelling or maths. Oliver says that if Jackson stops showing him, he’ll make sure Jackson doesn’t get picked in games such as football at recess and lunch. He’s also said he’ll make other boys not let him join in games on PSPs, something Jackson loves to do.

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2. Imagine you are watching the person being bullied in the story below. What would you do or say to try to stop it? Write your answer on the lines. Georgia is sitting on the end of a bench eating lunch with some girls. She hears Asha on the next bench talking nastily to Sophie. Asha tells Sophie to stop trying to sit next to her and her friends. She says no-one likes her and she’s a loser. Sophie looks as if she’s about to cry. Asha and the other girls laugh and whisper among themselves.

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Preventing bullying

The game Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a play about bullying, and identify ways bullying could be prevented by actions from the target, the associates and/ or the passive bystanders

Page 72

Teacher information • Through activities to develop appropriate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, teachers of young students can help them to prevent bullying. The students need to:

1. Ava and Sienna picked people they wanted for a game where they sat in a circle and had to put their hand up if they agreed with what one of the girls said.

2. Ava said they should let Mia join in that day as she had a surprise for her.

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– be able to identify bullying behaviours and realise that bullying is wrong

– understand that it is acceptable to report bullying—whether they are the target, associate or bystander

– know they will be listened to and action taken when they report bullying

– empathise with targets and understand more about bullying through discussions and role-plays

– have strategies to employ when being bullied; e.g. things they can do or say

– accept they have a role in supporting targets in preventing bullying, and

– help to resolve conflicts that could lead to bullying.

3. Mia was allowed to play the game and was happy. Ava got Sienna and the other children not to put their hand up if they liked Mia, which meant she had to leave the game.

4. Mia was upset and had tears in her eyes.

5. Ava and Sienna were pleased with what they made happen.

6. Answers should indicate they would do it again because they liked the reaction they got from Mia and the other children.

Page 73

1. (a) (b) (e) (f)

2. Teacher check

Supporting activity

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• Students take turns role-playing different characters in the script. Before the role-play, talk about how each character would be feeling. Role-play some of the endings the students make up for Question 2 on page 73.

• Refer to pages x-xii for further information.

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• The scenario on page 71 includes the characters of Ava and Sienna, who are displaying bullying behaviours; Mia, who becomes their target; bystanders who are joining in by laughing; and bystanders, who are either playing the game but don’t laugh at Mia or are just watching. This short play provides opportunities for the students to identify the different people who can be involved in bullying situations and what part each can play in preventing bullying. Read the play with the students and help them to identify the characters. (Use the illustration to assist.) Pages 72 to 73 would best be completed after the students have developed some background knowledge from previous sections. Discussing the text

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Introduction

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• Who are the characters in this play? (Ava, Sienna, Mia, children playing game, children watching) • Briefly describe what happened through:

– Ava’s point of view – Mia’s point of view

– Sienna’s point of view

(Guide the children in their discussion to identify that Ava and Sienna enjoyed intentionally planning to hurt Mia’s feelings.)

• What did different children playing the game do to Mia? (Some laughed with the bullies, some watched her and kept quiet) • Do you think it is a good game? Why/Why not? (Guide the discussion so students identify the girls are pressuring or manipulating the others to follow their lead, so these children are assisting in the bullying, especially those who laughed.) • What would you have done if you were Mia? If you were playing the game? Watching? (Guide the discussion so the children give some of the answers in Question 1 on page 73.)

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The game

Preventing bullying

READ ABOUT IT Ava and Sienna had been playing a game at school with some of the boys and girls from their class. The two girls would not let everyone join in, so some children just watched. The game began with the chosen children sitting in a circle. Ava or Sienna would take turns to ask questions or make a suggestion about what to do. The others had to put up their hand if they agreed. This is what happened one day.

Sienna:

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Ava:

r o e t s Bjoin in today. She’ll think r (whispering e to Sienna) Let’s let Mia o pbe friends. But I’ve got a surprise okfor her! we want to u S (whispering back) OK. What are you going to do?

Ava replies ‘You’ll see’ and she and Sienna choose who they want to join in the game. When Mia looks hopeful, they say she can join in. Mia grins and runs to sit in the circle with the others. Some children are standing around looking on.

Sienna: I’ll start. Put up your hand if you like ice-cream.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Put your hand if you like pizza. •f oup rr ev i ew pu r p osesonl y•

All children put up their hand. Ava:

All children put up their hand.

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Sienna: Put up your hand if you’d like to go down the slide. All children put up their hand. Then Sienna gets up and they follow her to the slide. All shove and push a bit and go down the slide. Then they return to the circle.

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o c . All children put upc their hand. e her r o t s r eMia. Ava: Put up your hands if u youp like Ava:

Put up your hand if you like Sienna.

Ava looks at Sienna and gives her head a slight shake. The two girls don’t put up their hand. Some children start to lift their hand and stop. Mia looks stunned. Ava:

No-one likes you, Mia. That means you have to go. Ha! Ha!

Some of the children laugh along with Ava and Sienna. A couple stay quiet and look at Mia. Mia gets up with tears in her eyes. R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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The game – 2

Preventing bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the play on page 71. 1. Describe the game Ava and Sienna had made up.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Sto Sienna before the game started? 2. What did Ava say

3. What happened to Mia?

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© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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4. How did Mia feel at the end of the game?

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o c . c e he r 5. How do you think Ava and Sienna felt? o t r s super

6. (a) Do you think they’ll try something like this again? Yes No (b) Why/Why not? 72

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The game – 3

Preventing bullying

MORE ABOUT IT There are some things the children in the story could do to try to prevent Ava and Sienna being mean to Mia and behaving like bullies. 1. Tick the things you think could prevent the bullying.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok (b) Mia could report it to a teacher. u S

(c) Mia could run away crying.

(d) The children who are playing can keep laughing at Mia.

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(a) Someone who joined in the game or is watching could report it to a teacher.

(e) Mia could be strong and not cry. She could stand up and say, ‘This isn’t a nice game. I don’t want to play with people who are nasty. I’m going to play with someone else. Who wants to join me?’

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons (f) • Someone who is could f orr e vi ewatching w pur posay, se‘You’re sonnot l ybeing • nice,

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(g) The people watching could do nothing.

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Ava and Sienna. I think you should stop playing this game’.

2. Choose one of the ideas above you think could prevent the bullying. Write one or two paragraphs to give your ending to the story.

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Preventing bullying

The new girl Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a pictorial scenario that shows tolerance, acceptance and an appreciation of similarities and differences in others

Page 76

Teacher information • Through activities to develop appropriate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, teachers of young students can help them to prevent bullying. One method is to assist students to accept and appreciate physical, cultural and attitudinal differences. Students have the right to be valued for their individuality, including race, gender, culture, and physical and intellectual differences. No-one has the right to bully others because they look different, speak differently or do different things.

1. Min’s family had moved from Korea.

2. Yes

3. (a) Ella said Min spoke English very well. (b) Yoshi said Min’s accent was nice.

4. A Korean dumpling called ‘mandoo’.

5. (a) Yoshi said it looked ‘yum’. (b) He thought it smelt good. (c) The second boy agreed with the first boy.

6. He said ‘See you tomorrow’.

7. Answers should indicate that Min would want to come to school as everyone was nice to her.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Introduction

Page 77

• The pictorial scenario on page 75 is about a class’s positive interaction with a new girl, Min, who has come from a foreign country. The teacher and students are warm and welcoming to her. Nothing negative is said about her different appearance, accent, mistakes she makes in grammar when speaking English or the different food she has brought to school. Students such as Min can be a target for bullying because of their different race or culture. The aim of this activity is for the students to demonstrate acceptance of others different from them. Discussing the text

Teacher check

Supporting activities

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• Refer to pages x-xii for further information.

• Students take turns role-playing the different characters in the scenario. • Celebrate the uniqueness of different cultures by holding multicultural lunches, visits by parents or grandparents of students in the class who come from a different country and learning about different cultural holidays and celebrations.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Why does Min have an accent? (Because she comes from Korea) • Why does she make mistakes with her grammar? (She’s still learning to speak English properly.)

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• Are the students tolerant (understanding of differences) of each other? How do you know this? (Yes. They don’t say anything bad about her way of speaking or her unusual lunch etc.) • Sometimes people say nasty things about others because they look, sound or act differently. What do you think about this? (Guide the discussion so the children identify that because someone looks, sounds or acts differently is no reason to say nasty things.)

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• Are the students in the school used to having children from other countries? Why/Why not? (They are, because the teacher mentions there are other children from foreign countries.)

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That looks yum, Min. What is it?

Bullying in a cyber world

Called ‘mandoo’. Is Korean dumpling.

I’m glad I have someone sitting next to me at last.

At recess I try. Miss Hi Min. I’m Ella. words You speak out. Have English very accent. well.

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Some other children here are from different countries. Take a seat next to Yoshi.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Sure does.

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At lunch

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Hmmm. Smells good.

It good seat at front.

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My family move here from Korea.

Welcome to our class, Min. Tell us about yourself.

Bye, Min. See you tomorrow.

After school

Bye, Yoshi. Had good time today. Everyone very nice.

Your accent is nice. We’ll help you.

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Monday morning

Preventing bullying

The new girl

READ ABOUT IT

75


The new girl – 2

Preventing bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT Write your answers after discussing the pictorial story on page 75. 1. Why was Min new to the school?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok Yes No 2. Was Yoshi happyu to sit next to Min? S 3. What did each child say about Min’s way of speaking English?

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(a) Ella:

(b) Yoshi:

4. What was Min eating for lunch?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 5. What did each person say about her lunch? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

(a) Yoshi:

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(c) Boy 2:

6. What did Yoshi say to Min at the end of the day?

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(b) Boy 1:

o c . che e r o t r s 7. (a) Do you think Min will want to come to school tomorrow? su er p

Yes

No

(b) Why/Why not? 76

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The new girl – 3

Preventing bullying

MORE ABOUT IT Min was a new girl to the class, having come from another country. There were some things about her that were different from the others and some things that were the same. Look at the others in your class—you are all different in some ways. No-one is exactly the same.

r o e t s Bo r e p You ok u S Where were you

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Choose a person in your class and answer the questions below about yourself and him/her. Highlight in yellow the things that are different.

born?

Eye colour

Hair colour

Hair type (curly etc.)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Skin colour •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Do you have freckles?

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Height Favourite school subject

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Favourite foods Favourite drink Favourite TV shows

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Favourite movie Things you like doing R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Preventing bullying

Being friendly Focus

Answers

To read and discuss an acrostic poem about the importance of being friendly to create a positive, caring atmosphere in the school to help prevent bullying

WRITE ABOUT IT

Answers will vary

MORE ABOUT IT

Teacher information • Through activities to develop appropriate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, teachers of young students can help them to prevent bullying. One way is to assist students in identifying ways they should interact with each other to help create a positive, caring atmosphere. By being friendly to everyone, not just the students they play with the most, negative acts such as bullying will not be tolerated as a positive, caring ethos will become second nature.

• The acrostic poem on page 79 includes words and phrases describing some of the qualities of friendly people. Identify and talk about these suggestions with the students and see if they can create alternatives to the list. Discussing the text

• What is a friend? (Someone you like and who likes you) • How is a best friend different from a friend? (A best friend is someone you know very well and like being with most of all)

(b) Possible answers: feel unhappy, feel like crying, feel scared about playtimes, don’t want to be near that person

2. Answers should indicate that we should be friendly towards everyone as it makes everyone feel happy/the world is a better place/people won’t feel like being mean to others as they are used to being friendly. Ensure the students consider ‘stranger danger’ in their answer. They should be friendly to other children in the class, but careful about strangers.

Supporting activity

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1. (a) Possible answers: feel happy inside, want to come to school, enjoy playtimes, enjoy learning, makes me smile

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• Refer to pages x-xii for further information. Introduction

• Write another acrostic poem using different phrases that begin with the letters in ‘FRIENDLY’. • Role-play situations suggested in the poem about acting friendly towards someone. Role-playing situations involving unfriendly actions could also be presented. Discuss how the different characters in both sets of role-plays would feel.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• What does it mean to be friendly? (Being nice to others)

• Do we have to be best/special friends with everyone? Why/Why not? (No. Some people we simply like more than others because they have similar interests or personality.)

• How do you feel if someone is friendly/unfriendly towards you? (List the words/phrases students give)

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• If everyone was friendly towards each other, do you think people would bully? Why? (Answers should indicate that people wouldn’t bully because it wouldn’t occur to them to be mean.)

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• What are some things friendly/unfriendly people might do? (Answers will vary.)

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Being friendly

Preventing bullying

READ ABOUT IT This acrostic poem is about friendly people.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S WRITE ABOUT IT

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Feel fun to be with Really care about you Invite you to play Enjoy your company Never leave people out Don’t hurt people with words or actions Let you join in games You know they’ll share things

Write your answers after discussing the poem above.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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MORE ABOUT IT

1. How do you feel if someone is:

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List three things in the poem you like the most about friendly people.

o c . che e r o t (b) unfriendly towards you? r s super (a) friendly towards you?

2. Should you be friendly towards everyone? Why/Why not? R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Preventing bullying

Angry feelings Focus

Answers

To read and discuss a scenario to understand that anger can cause people to behave in unacceptable ways and people can control the way they respond to angry feelings

WRITE ABOUT IT

(a) By glaring at Lucas, hitting him, blaming Lucas for getting him out, arguing

Teacher information

(b) By pushing Connor back, telling him he was a slow runner, arguing

• Through activities to develop appropriate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, teachers of young students can help them to prevent bullying. Students can be assisted to identify ways they should interact with each other to help create a positive, caring atmosphere.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

• Both bullies and their victims often have poor conflict resolution skills. Bullies can become aggressive or intimidating and victims may respond aggressively or by giving in. Resolving conflicts includes knowing how to express feelings acceptably (including anger), seeing the other person(s) point of view/perspective and working out a solution.

(a) Possible answer: calming down and accepting he got out and Lucas didn’t mean to hit the ball to shortstop

(b) Possible answer: not hitting Connor and calmly trying to say he didn’t mean to hit the ball to shortstop

Supporting activities

• Discuss these steps about learning to control anger: 1. Stop and take a deep breath. 2. Think and choose the best way to act. 3. Stay calm and in control. 4. Talk about the way you feel and find a proper way to act.

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• Young children can be helped to deal with anger in a socially acceptable way. Unacceptable ways of expressing anger include hitting and pushing; sulking and crying excessively; and lashing out with nasty, rude, untrue or exaggerated comments. Different people act in different ways when they are angry. Often, bullies use being angry as an excuse for bullying others and doing bad things. They lack the skills needed to handle the feelings of anger when they arise. Some children who can’t control their anger or use it as an excuse for bullying may be copying behaviour from home where they are exposed to aggressive and unacceptable interactions with others.

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MORE ABOUT IT

• Take turns role-playing the conflict between Connor and Lucas. Other characters on either T-ball team could also be included and appropriate conversations made up among the characters.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Introduction

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• The scenario on page 81 demonstrates unacceptable ways two boys have responded to feelings of anger. Not being able to control feelings of anger can lead some people to bully using anger as an excuse for doing bad things to others. Discuss the conflict with the students and work out ways in which each boy should act to control unacceptable feelings of anger. Discussing the text

• What made each boy angry? (Connor got out and wouldn’t accept it; Lucas accused Connor of hitting the ball to shortstop on purpose.)

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• Refer to pages x-xii for further information.

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• How did each boy show his anger? (Refer to answers opposite.)

• Was it OK for each boy to act that way? Why/Why not? (Guide the discussion so students say ‘no’ because no-one has the right to do bad things to others when they feel angry.) • How do you act when you feel angry?

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Angry feelings

Preventing bullying

READ ABOUT IT

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Connor was playing a game of T-ball during recess. He was on third base and trying to get to home base to score a run. Lucas was batting. He hit the ball off the tee straight to the shortstop. Connor took off for home base. The shortstop threw it to the catcher. Connor slid in to home base but the catcher tagged him and he was out. Connor was angry. He sat down in line and kept glaring at Lucas, who was safe on first base. When the game was finished, Connor went up to Lucas and whacked him with his mitt. He nastily asked Lucas why he’d hit the ball on purpose to the shortstop so Connor wouldn’t make it home. Lucas pushed him, said it wasn’t true and that Connor was just a slow runner. The two boys continued arguing and pushing. WRITE ABOUT IT © R . I . C .Publ i cat i ons Write your answers after discussing the conflict above. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• How did:

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(a) Connor show his anger?

(b) Lucas show his anger?

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o c . c e h r Everyone has feelings and gets angry sometimes. But being angry er o t s s r doesn’t mean you are allowedu to p acte in a bad way. Briefly explain a way

MORE ABOUT IT

each boy should have acted. (a) Connor: (b) Lucas: R.I.C. Publications® - www.ricpublications.com.au

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Glossary advocate/associate a person who has not actually observed the bullying, but may suspect it is occurring. An advocate can be very effective in preventing bullying.

anxiety

a state of worry, distress, nervousness or uneasiness caused by apprehension of danger or misfortune

attachment

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a representation of a person online (in virtual reality). An avatar can be a three-dimensional model (used in computer games) or a two-dimensional picture (commonly used on Internet forums and other online communities).

internet bashing is a hostile and insulting interaction between internet users, usually occurring in public forums such as discussion boards, chat rooms, game servers or websites. Bashing is sometimes referred to as flaming.

a website, or part of a website, created as a ‘virtual journal’ with entries of commentary, descriptions of events, videos and photos. The word is an amalgamation of ‘web’ and ‘log’.

bullying

denigration

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bystander bully

see ‘instant messaging’

a form of computer-related crime where the internet or computers are used as a medium to commit crime (also called cybercrime)

email messages sent from one person to another (or to groups of people) via computers

a representation of a facial expression created by typing a sequence of keyboard characters, to indicate an emotion. For example, :-) denotes happiness and :-( denotes unhappiness. The word is a combination of ‘emotion’ and ‘icon’.

empathy

the ability to perceive, appreciate and share the thoughts, feelings, or state of another person

a site on the internet that allows people in different locations to communicate with each other through typed messages, usually in real time. The discussion may or may not have a moderator.

cyberbullying the use of the internet or other electronic communications to bully another person or persons

emoticon

exclusion

chat room

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to copy data from the internet to a user’s computer, or from one computer to another

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a bystander who is an accessory to bullying by encouraging a bully by, for example, making statements of support, laughing, jeering or mimicking

chat facility

a state of despondency where a person experiences feelings such as sadness, pessimism, anxiety, helplessness, worthlessness and guilt

download

bystander

a form of cyberbullying whereby a person posts, emails or texts information (including digitally altered photos) about another person or other people that is untrue or derogatory

depression

the act of using superior strength or power to intentionally harm, intimidate or humiliate someone who is weaker

a person who observes bullying. Bystanders who observe bullying but take no active role in that bullying are themselves classified as bullies if they fail to take any action.

the ‘invisible world’ of the emails, computer networks, information resources and websites that make up the internet

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons e-crime •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

blog

bashing

cyberspace

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cyber stalking the use of the internet or other electronic communications to follow and repeatedly harass and/or threaten another person or group of people, making them fear for their safety

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a document or file (containing pictures, text or video) which accompanies a primary document or email. Basic plain text emails are unable to transmit most viruses, so attachments are often used to do so. Any unknown, unexpected or unsolicited attachments should be deleted without being opened.

avatar

a form of cyberbullying whereby a bully sends repeated offensive or nasty messages to a target, usually using personal communication channels such as emails, texts and instant messaging

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cyber harassment

a form of cyberbullying whereby an individual is excluded from a group, by being knocked off friend lists, left off party invitations or not accepted as a friend in social networking sites

filter a program that processes packets of data (from websites), blocking certain packets and allowing others through, hence restricting or controlling what content a computer user is able to access

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Glossary firewall a system that protects a network from unauthorised users, usually for security purposes

flame war

occurs when flaming (see below) develops into a series of heated exchanges repeatedly and personally attacking a person or group

flaming

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to gain unauthorised access to computer systems in order to steal, change or destroy information

internet acronyms

intimidate

a private or restricted computer network belonging to an organisation that is accessible only to its members/employees or other authorised people

a connection between two documents (on the internet)

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons link •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

a nickname or made-up name an internet user uses when online

login

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a physical assault on an unsuspecting target, often accompanied by verbal abuse, which is usually photographed or filmed using a mobile phone camera. The footage is sometimes sent to others or posted online.

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to injure a person’s dignity, self-esteem and self-respect by shaming, degrading or embarrassing them

a form of cyberbullying whereby a bully gains access to another person’s (the target’s) accounts (or creates accounts using the target’s personal information) and communicates inappropriately or rudely with others from that account

a location on a website where users can post (type) messages that other visitors to the site can read and often respond to. A message board (sometimes called a forum) differs from chat rooms in that messages are not shown in real-time.

minority

identity theft/impersonation

software created to infiltrate, damage or destroy a computer system, usually without the user’s knowledge or permission. Includes viruses, trojan horses and worms. Malware is short for ‘malicious software’.

message board

a request from a web browser for an item from a website. The number of hits made to the web server is sometimes used to measure the popularity of a file or website.

humiliate

identifying oneself to a computer system or network for access or use, usually requiring a password

malware

a printed copy of data stored in a computer, or from a word processor

hit (internet)

hard copy

to intentionally make another person feel fearful or timid

happy slapping

see ‘message board’

intranet

a lightweight, portable electronic device with a screen, controls and speakers, such as a Nintendo DS™ or a Sony PSP™

handle

acronyms used on the internet or mobile phones as a method of communication, usually used to save time in preparing messages, such as LOL (laughing out loud) or ROFL (rolling on floor laughing)

Internet forum

handheld game console

a vast network of computers (academic, commercial, and government) connected internationally through other, high speed computers, allowing electronic communication among millions of computers

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a website that is itself a game, playground or virtual world. Some games incorporate complex graphics and virtual worlds, where players can chat to and play with other players, while other sites offer single-player games

hack

internet

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brief, hostile attacks using offensive language towards a person, group or institution, usually in public forums such as chat rooms or websites

game or gaming site

real-time text conversations between two or more computer users over the internet. Often users are only able to chat with one person at a time, although a user may chat with multiple friends simultaneously through separate chat interfaces.

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instant messaging

a group of people who differ (culturally, racially, religiously or ethnically) from the larger group it is part of

mobile internet-enabled devices

mobile devices such as phones, laptop computers and game consoles that are able to access the internet

netiquette

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short for ‘network etiquette’, it is a code of appropriate and courteous online conduct

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Glossary online forum (newsgroup) an internet-based discussion, usually requiring subscription, where users can read and reply to others’ posts about a particular topic

outing

target

a form of cyberbullying whereby personal or embarrassing information about a person is shared with people the information was never intended to be shared with

the use of electronic communications to obtain private or sensitive information (such as usernames, passwords and credit card details). It can be done by masquerading as a trustworthy entity (such as online banks), usually by email or instant messaging.

trickery

a form of cyberbullying whereby a person is tricked into revealing personal or private information about themselves, which is then shared with others

trojan/trojan horse

computer software that appears to perform a desirable function but actually performs another, such as transmitting a virus

troll

a person who posts controversial, inflammatory or off-topic messages in an online forum or chat room with the intention of aggravating, offending or baiting other users into an emotional response

upload

self-confidence

a person who is the subject of the bullying

a measure of a person’s belief in his or her own abilities, judgement or power

to transfer or copy a file or other information from a computer to a larger system, such as from a personal computer to a network (for example, putting a video onto YouTube™)

© R. I . C.PuURL bl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

self-esteem

a person’s sense of his or her own worth; an evaluation encompassing beliefs and emotions including pride and shame

server

a computer and/or program that holds large amounts of information for one or more websites and streams it to users when requested via a network

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the act of sending or receiving sexually explicit messages, videos or photos electronically, usually between mobile phones

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video hosting/sharing site

a website (or service) designed to build social networks among people, allowing them to communicate and share ideas, activities, events, and interests. Users usually have a profile or other representation with some personal details and social information.

unwanted email, especially commercial or advertising material, sent in bulk to many recipients

wall

a section of a profile (such as on a social networking site) that acts as a public writing space, where anyone viewing the profile can leave or read messages

software installed on a computer without the user’s knowledge, that collects pieces of information about the user/s and sends it back to another source. Spyware can also take partial control of the user’s computer, and can be difficult to detect.

a document or page of information within a website on the World Wide Web

website

spyware

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a software program designed to infect, destroy or interfere with a computer or a computer’s software. A virus can copy itself and be transmitted between computers via networks or removable storage (such as CDs and USB drives).

web page

spam

an internet site that allows users to upload (q.v.) and share videos for others to view online

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social networking site

the address of a web page or resource on the internet. It is an initialism from ‘uniform resource locator’.

virus

sexting

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a network that allows users direct access to each other’s computer hard drives to share files, rather than through a central server or website. Any information in a shared folder (even that of a personal nature) can be accessed and used by anyone using the same P2P software.

phishing

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peer-to-peer (P2P) networking

to attach the name of a friend to a picture or video on a social networking site, so that person and his or her friends receive a link to the picture or video

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tag (social networking)

a collection of interlinked pages, images and other files available from the same URL (q.v.), published on the World Wide Web

wiki

a website that allows users to add and edit content collaboratively

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Bullying in a Cyber World: Ages 6-8