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Plants

R.I.C. Publications RIC-0522 4.1/366

Animals

Matter

E V E L

2 Energy

By Donna Cocking


Foreword The Active Science series has been designed to make science fun and understandable for teachers and students alike. Each of the seven books available in this series covers an entire year of the primary curriculum. These books can be used as a basis for the year’s work, or to supplement and enrich an existing curriculum. The four major areas of primary-level science are covered in this book, these being plants, animals, matter and energy. A variety of activities are provided in each section, including experiments, observation exercises, concept reinforcement exercises and research topics, in an easy-to-use, reproducible format. Enrichment activities and assessment exercises are also included. Many of the activities are designed to be self-explanatory for the student, but all activities also encourage teacher input and peer group discussion.

Contents Teachers Notes ................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Background and Materials ............................................................................................................................................... 3

Plants

Vegetables .................................................................................................................................................. 5 Describing Vegetables ................................................................................................................................. 6 Growing Vegetables .................................................................................................................................... 7 Vegetable Bake Off ..................................................................................................................................... 9 Harmful Plants .......................................................................................................................................... 10 Useful Plants ............................................................................................................................................. 11 Plants Review ............................................................................................................................................ 12

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Animals

Animals, Animals, Everywhere .................................................................................................................... Animal Homes ........................................................................................................................................... Big and Small ............................................................................................................................................ Walk, Run, Hop, Fly and Swim! ................................................................................................................... Where Do They Live? ................................................................................................................................. Collecting Insects ...................................................................................................................................... Many Different Insects ............................................................................................................................... Make an Insect .......................................................................................................................................... Insect Identification Game .......................................................................................................................... Animals Review .........................................................................................................................................

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Matter

Sand ........................................................................................................................................................ The Uses of Sand ...................................................................................................................................... Using Water .............................................................................................................................................. Float or Sink ............................................................................................................................................. Ice, Water, Steam ..................................................................................................................................... Matter Review ...........................................................................................................................................

23 24 25 26 27 28

Energy

Mirrors ..................................................................................................................................................... Reflections ................................................................................................................................................ Spring .................................................................................................................................................... Autumn ..................................................................................................................................................... Weather .................................................................................................................................................... Rolling Objects .......................................................................................................................................... Floating Objects ........................................................................................................................................ Clouds ...................................................................................................................................................... Your Own Invention .................................................................................................................................... Paper Glider .............................................................................................................................................. Make a Whirligig ........................................................................................................................................ Energy Review ..........................................................................................................................................

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Teachers Notes Science can be fun! Using this package • Children should keep all worksheets, pictures and information in a large scrapbook. Written activities can be done in an exercise book or pad. • Visit the library with children prior to the introduction of each topic so that fiction and non-fiction materials and resources can be collected for reading and display. • All worksheets and activities should be thoroughly discussed with children prior to them attempting them. This ensures that they understand the concepts to be mastered. • Keep a science equipment box in the corner of the classroom from the beginning of the year for students to bring corks, buttons, pieces of string etc. so that most of your equipment is already collected. To avoid keeping a whole pile of rubbish, sort the box occasionally with the children. This makes a great language activity. Or ask the children to invent craft ideas for ‘junk’ material. • The worksheets in this book presume that the children always have a ruler, rubber, pencil or pen, coloured pencils or crayons, paper glue and scissors handy. • Enrichment activities are included in most areas. These can be used as extra class activities or given to early finishers.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Safety • Compile af list ofr science safety rules forp theu children to follow. Thiso should be stapled in the • o r e v i e w r p o s e s n l y • front of the scrapbook.

• The collection of plants and animals must be supervised. Animals should be treated humanely during capture, captivity and release. Students should be aware that live animals should only be kept for a short time for observation and then set free where they were captured. They should also be made aware of the dangers of eating plants, as there are many poisonous varieties growing in gardens. • The class should be encouraged to take responsibility for classroom pets. Pets should not be left at school on weekends or holidays and children should be rostered to feed the animals and maintain their enclosures. • Make the class continuously aware of the dangers involved in smelling, tasting, touching and looking at substances. Insist on safety procedures at all times, especially when dealing with heat or open flames.

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Background and Materials Plants Background A vegetable is a plant which provides us with food. Vegetables are roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds or fruits of a plant. Celery and asparagus are stems, onions and turnips are roots, cauliflower and broccoli are flowers, tomatoes and peas are fruit, and cabbage and lettuce are leaves. Some vegetables are only eaten raw, whereas others are better when cooked. Useful plants can provide us with food, shelter, cloth to make clothes, and medicines. They can also help to eradicate pests. Some plants are harmful if eaten or even touched.

Materials Variety of vegetables, knives and cutting boards, stove, pots with lids, peas, seeds, garden area, fertiliser, trellis, wire, paint and trays for printing, pieces of cloth for dyeing, large potatoes, alfalfa seeds, teaspoons, timer/clock Animals Background All living things are divided into plants and animals. Plants produce their own food, whereas most animals consume other animals or plants. Animals move, can produce sounds and have limited growth. Animals are divided into two major groups: invertebrates, animals without backbones and vertebrates, animals with a backbone. Visits to zoos and museums will enable children to view the range of animals.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons Insects make up the largest group of animals. They have three distinct body parts: head, which contains• feelers, mouth parts and eyes; thorax, which carries three pairso of n legs, and as is the case f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s l y • with most insects, two pairs of wings; and the abdomen. Most insects have compound eyes. Most insects grow and change from egg, larva, pupa to adult. Examine the characteristics of insects and list them as a class, before attempting any of the worksheets.

Materials For animals worksheets: magazines, aquariums, cages, classroom pets, stocking, wire coat hanger, soil, leaves, vegetables seeds, jars with lids. For insects worksheets: insect collections, jars or aquariums, leaves and soil, scissors, glue, bug catchers, ant farms, plastic containers.

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Background and Materials Matter Background Sand is the result of eroding rock. There are many different types of sand and many different uses. A visit to a plant nursery or a sand supplier will enable the children to view the various kinds of sands. Sand is an important ingredient in building. If possible, examine the intricate structure of an ant's nest or a wasp's nest to see how animals use sand for building their homes. Water is one of our precious natural resources. All life on earth depends on water. Most of the earth’s water is in the oceans. Rain is the major source of water. Discuss the water cycle with children in simple terms, so that they understand that the source of all water on the earth was originally rain. Ask the children to consider a world without water. We have many uses for water. Examine how water has shaped the land by wearing away rocks and sandbanks to flow its natural course back to the sea.

Materials For the sand worksheets: a variety of dry sands, rocks and stones, jars with lids, strong glue. For the water worksheets: different-sized and -weighted objects to test floating in water, pots, with lids, cold and hot water, timer/clock, variety of different-sized and -shaped containers, dishcloth, buckets, wading pool, stove, refrigerator.

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Energy Background A mirror is a flat sheet of glass which has been treated with a thin coat of metal. Mirrors reflect images. Looking through a shiny piece of glass or into a pool of clear water can provide the same image seen in mirrors. This is because light is reflected. When looking or moving in front of a mirror, images appear opposite. Encourage children to copy a partner's movements as a mirror would. Some mirrors are designed to distort images, such as those seen in the crazy houses at fairs and shows. Placing many mirrors at right angles to each other can produce this effect and give children a view to the construction of kaleidoscopes. Spoon-gazing will enable children to grasp the concept of concave and convex curves, which distort and invert the image. Spring and autumn are two of the four seasons. Both have fairly distinct climates. Autumn is usually typified by the wind blowing leaves from the deciduous trees. Spring is the season of new life. Many wildflowers bloom in spring. Some trees lose their leaves in autumn, thus avoiding a great loss of moisture through evaporation. Objects will move by the force of pulling or pushing. When objects roll they gain momentum which causes them to roll faster and further. When conducting experiments for rolling and floating, control the variables such as using the same height for each drop and the same starting position for each roll.

Materials For the mirrors worksheets: large wall-size, small rectangular hand mirrors or objects to reflect. For the seasons worksheets: magazines, leaves collected during autumn For the objects worksheets: different-sized and -shaped objects to float and roll; e.g. paper, rocks, pencils, plastic toys, bags, paperclips, feathers, stapler and staples. R.I.C. Publications

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Vegetables There are many kinds of plants.

Colour and name the vegetables in this group of food.

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Vegetables come from parts of plants. Draw these vegetables which are the seeds of plants.

corn

peas

beans

Name these vegetables which are the roots of plants.

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Describing Vegetables Plants can be grouped and identified by their characteristics.

Glue or draw pictures in each outline. Vegetables with a strong taste or smell.

Vegetables © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons without a strong taste or smell. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Which vegetable has the strongest smell? Does it also have a strong taste? Does cooking change the smell and taste? R.I.C. Publications

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Growing Vegetables Seeds grow to produce plants.

Cut and paste these pictures to make a book or frieze.

Growing Beans

Tiny shoots will appear.

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Plant the bean seeds.

Choose a sunny place with good soil.

This is the bean pod.

Buds and flowers start to appear. Continued next page.

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Growing Beans by

Bean pods begin to fill with beans.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Fertilise and water the tiny Shoots grow into vines.

shoots.

Use wire to tie the vines to a trellis.

Shell the beans.

When you’ve made your book or poster, you may want to try growing bean plants! R.I.C. Publications

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Vegetable Bake Off Some plants may be harmful to other living things.

Write instructions for the preparation and cooking of one of these vegetable dishes: • mashed pumpkin • roast potatoes • honeyed carrots Cooking utensils and ingredients:

peeler

Preparation:

1. Peel the © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons

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Cooking procedure:

Presentation: What other foods would accompany your vegetable dish? Draw on the back of this sheet how you would present a meal which included your dish. Label all the foods. R.I.C. Publications

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Harmful Plants Some plants may be harmful to other living things.

Circle the harmful plants.

daffodil

pansy

oleander

azalea

daisy toadstool cactus Discuss why some of these plants are harmful. Write the reasons below.

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In what way is the cape lilac harmful to sheep and cattle?

In what ways is the cactus plant useful?

Can you think of any other plants that are harmful to animals?

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Useful Plants Many plants are useful in some way.

There are many ways that plants are useful. Draw some plants that help humans in these ways.

©R I . C.Publ i c at i o ns Plants give us. food. Plants give us shelter. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Find out what these plants are used for. Cotton Plant:

Mint:

Venus Flytrap:

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Plants Review

1. Find the names of 12 different vegetable in this sleuth. C A

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2. Name three useful plants. 3. Name three harmful plants. 4. Name a plant that gives us shelter. 5. How are cactus plants useful? 6. How are venus flytraps useful? 7. Name three vegetables that are also seeds. R.I.C. Publications

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Animals, Animals, Everywhere! Animals live in many different places.

Animals that live in the sea.

Animals that live in fresh water.

Sea animals that can live on land. Freshwater animals that can live on land.

©Animals R. I . Cthat .Plive ubon l i c at i ons land and in the air. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Animals that live underground.

Animals that live in trees and on the ground.

Animals that live in trees.

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Animal Homes Many animals need shelter.

Some animals carry their homes around with them. Draw these.

turtle snail crab Some animals build their homes. Name and draw the animals that live here. Home:

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Animal:

Some animals use materials around them, such as rocks, caves,trees,leaves,flowers and even the homes of humans as their homes. Name some of these on the back of this page. R.I.C. Publications

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Big and Small Animals vary in size.

These animals are small: fly, mouse, bee, caterpillar, frog, turtle, squirrel, rabbit, cat, possum, bat. These animals are big: elephant, bear, giraffe, whale, tiger, horse, deer, cow, pig, camel, moose, hippopotamus. Glue pictures of small animals below.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Which animal is the tallest in the world? Which animal is the heaviest in the world? Which animal is the smallest in the world? R.I.C. Publications

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Walk, Run, Hop, Fly and Swim! Animals move in different ways.

These animals fly. Draw them.

mosquito owl These animals swim. Name them.

bat

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Draw and name three animals that walk.

Can these animals walk, run, hop, fly or swim?

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Where Do They Live? Animals live in different habitats.

Cut and paste these animals into their natural habitats.

rabbit

monkey

bee

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• bear

frog

fish

jungle

ocean

pond

hive

cave

burrow

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Collecting Insects Insects are animals.

Collect an insect in a jar. Make sure that there are holes in the lid to let in air and some sand and leaves in the jar. Look carefully at the insect for a short time and then put it back where you found it. My Insect Name: Colour:

Picture © R. I . C.Publ i cat i on s •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Looks like:

Body: Does it have legs, wings etc.?

What was it doing when you found it?

What was it doing while in the jar?

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There are many different kinds of insects.

Many Different Insects

Drawing

Why?

Which type of insect did you see the most?

Insect name

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Where found?

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Insects are tiny animals. Many different types of insects can be found in the garden and the bush. Look outside for insects and complete the insect chart below.

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Make an Insect Animals can be identified by their characteristics.

Cut and paste these insect parts to make a bee. Colour each part first.

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Insect Identification Game Animals can be grouped and identified by their characteristics.

Copy onto card twice, colour and use as ‘Snap’ cards.

bee

butterfly

horsefly

mosquito

moth

ant

weevil

wasp

flea

termite

cockroach

cricket

ladybird

silverfish

grasshopper

dragonfly

earwig

cicada

ant-lion

praying mantis

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Animals Review

1. Name six different insects found in the garden.

2. Complete this picture of a bee and label the following parts: head, antennae, eyes, mouth parts, thorax, wings, legs, abdomen.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 3. Name an animal that can hop. Name an animal that can swim. Name an animal that can fly. 4. Unjumble these animal names. grite awelh osuocpt yeonmk azerb R.I.C. Publications

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Sand Substances can be described by the use of the five senses.

Glue four different types of sand in the spaces below. Use some of these words to describe each type. dark coarse dry

light fine wet

brown rocky lumpy

yellow hard powdery

black soft

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The Uses of Sand A substances uses depend on its properties.

Collect samples of sand, rocks, stones for display. Find stones and rocks and try to crush them into sand. Where did you find rocks that you were able to crush? Draw pictures to show three ways that sand is used by humans. Sand is used

Sand is used

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Sand is used

Read and discuss how sand is used to make glass. Explain why sand is used to help build houses.

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Using Water We use water in many ways.

Draw pictures for each.

We wash ourselves with water.

We drink water.

We use water in the garden.

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We swim in water.

We use water to put out fires.

We use water for cooking.

There is water all around us in oceans, rivers, streams and lakes. Some water is not safe to drink. Do you know why? Where does all of our water come from?

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Float or Sink Substances can be grouped according to their properties.

You will need a large container and a variety of objects such as: rocks, leaves, small toys, paper, pins, feathers, grass, sand, sticks, chalk, plasticine, flowers etc. Test your objects to see if they float or sink. Then draw. Things that

Things that

Float Sink

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List any objects that floated for a short while and then sank.

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Ice, Water, Steam Water can be solid, liquid or gas.

Water is in liquid form when it comes from the tap. Water is a solid when it is frozen. Water becomes a gas when we boil it. You will need: two pots with lids, warm water, cold water, hotplate, timer.

I . C.Publ i cat i ons Instructions:© R. 1. Place cold water in one pot, warm •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• water in another. 2. Put the pots on a hotplate and time how long it takes for each pot to boil. How many minutes do you think it will take to boil the cold water? How many minutes do you think it will take to boil the warm water? . When it boils

The water in the pot is a and steam rises the steam is called a

. If

we put the lid on to trap the gas, it becomes again. R.I.C. Publications

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Matter Review

1. Use this sleuth to list the ways that we use water. S

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2. Water can exist in three forms: 3. List three things that float. 4. List three things that sink.

5. Sand is made up of small pieces of 6. List three ways that we use sand.

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Mirrors Mirrors reflect images.

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Place your mirror against the dotted lines to help you complete the other side of each drawing.

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Use your mirror to solve each picture puzzle and write the name beneath. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

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○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

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Draw your own for a friend to solve.

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Reflections Mirrors reflect images.

You will need a large mirror and a small rectangular mirror. Look at yourself in the mirror. Lift your right arm. What happens to your reflection in the mirror?

A mirror is used to

Activity © R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons 1. Place an object like a rubber or sharpener in front of ap small mirror. •f orr ev i ew ur p osesonl y• 2. Tilt the mirror towards the object until all of it can be seen by you. 3. Bend the mirror backwards until the object can't be seen. 4. What do you think will happen to the size of the object in the mirror if you place it a long way from the mirror?

5. What did happen?

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Spring Weather changes with the seasons.

Cut and paste more spring pictures below.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Spring is a special time because

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Autumn Weather changes with the seasons.

In autumn, many trees and plants shed their leaves to prepare for the cold winter. Find four different autumn leaves to paste below. Write a sentence to describe each.

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What is special about the leaves of native Australian trees? R.I.C. Publications

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Weather Weather changes with the seasons.

Complete the date and weather information for each day. Use these symbols to help you to record the weather.

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

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Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature

Which day had the highest temperature? Which day had the lowest temperature? R.I.C. Publications

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Rolling Objects Objects can move by rolling.

Many things can roll. Collect some of these objects.

Practise rolling them. Choose four objects to test. Roll the objects four times and see in which order they finish. Test object 1. 2. 3.

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Test 4

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4.

Which object travelled the furthest during Test 2? Which object travelled the least distance in Test 4? Roll your four objects again. Which one travels the straightest path? Why?

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Floating Objects Some objects float in the air.

Some things float in the air, others drop to the ground quickly. Collect these objects to test which ones float and tissue paper which do not. feather plastic ball leaf

stone

plastic bag

paperclip

Stand on a desk or chair and drop these objects. Tick to record how they fell. Object

Floats

Floats a little

Drops quickly

feather

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons paper •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• stone ball plastic bag leaf paperclip

Change the shape or size of the paper and the plastic bag. Does this change the way they fall? Explain what happened.

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Clouds Different clouds in the sky indicate changes in the weather.

There are four main types of cloud.

nimbus

cumulus

stratus

cirrus

Using the drawings above, name which cloud is like: fluffy cottonwool dark, stormy balls flat lines or layers

©tentacles R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons long feathery

•f orr evi ew ur p sesseen onl ythe •sky On this chart, record the p types ofo clouds in each day for five days. List words to describe the weather for each day. Day 1

Day 2

Day 4

Day 5

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Your Own Invention Objects can roll and float.

Invent a machine which rolls or floats. What is your machine called? Draw and label your machine’s special features. What materials did you need to construct it?

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Does it need special fuel, a specific surface or certain conditions to operate?

Why did you invent it? What can it be used for?

Which parts would be most likely to wear out?

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Paper Glider Some objects can glide in the air.

Make this paper glider.

1. Fold paper in half. Unfold.

2. Fold corners to centre crease.

3. Fold corners into centre again.

6. Open out the wings. © R. I . C.Publ i cat i o n smodel should Your like this. •f orr evi ew pur poseslook on l y•

4. Turn model over. 5. Fold model in half along centre Fold edges back crease. to centre crease.

Fly your glider a few times. Measure the distance it flew in footsteps. What was the shortest distance travelled by your glider? What was the furthest distance travelled by your glider? Cut small holes and pieces from your glider. How does this change its flight? Use paperclips or staples to add weight to your glider.What happens?

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Make a Whirligig Some objects can float in the air.

1. Fold square paper in half diagonally.

2. Fold again diagonally the other way.

3. Whirligig should now have two creases like this.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. Fold edges halfway to centre.

5. Whirligig should now look like this.

6. Turn whirligig over and fold edges to centre again.

7. Fold whirligig to create two diagonal creases running through the centre.

8. Fold whirligig in half. Pop in the bottom corners where you just made the creases in (7). You should end up with a hexagonal shape.

9. Fold top flap of hexagon down on the diagonal and crease. Turn whirligig over and repeat this on the other side.

Open whirligig up. Put some modelling clay or reusable adhesive in the centre for balance. Drop the whirligig from a height and it will spin.

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Energy Review

1. Circle true or false for these statements: Mirrors reflect images. true Mirrors can distort images. true The size of a reflection in a mirror gets smaller as the mirror is moved closer. true

false false false

2. Write a sentence describing these two seasons: In autumn In spring

3. List five objects which can roll along a flat surface.

© R. I . C.Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

4. List four objects which can float on water.

5. List three objects which will sink in water.

6. How would you make a whirligig spin: faster? slower?

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Active Science 2


Active Science: Level 2 - Ages 6-7