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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Written by Kevin Rigg. Illustrated by Elizabeth Buckley. Design & Typesetting by Shay Howard. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2007) © Ready-Ed Publications - 2007. P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 683 3


Contents

Contents

Teachers’ Notes Presentation Ideas Curriculum Links

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

........ page 4 ........ page 5 ........ page 6

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Lesson 2: Classroom Hunt Teachers’ Notes Activity

...... page 10 ...... page 11

Lesson 3: Classroom Materials Teachers’ Notes Activity

...... page 12 ...... page 13

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........ page 8 ........ page 9

Lesson 4: Materials at Home (1) Teachers’ Notes Activity

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Lesson 1: What Is It? Teachers’ Notes Activity

...... page 14 © ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ...... page 15 • f or evi ew pu r posesonl y• Lesson 5:r Materials at Home (2)

Lesson 6: Describe It! Teachers’ Notes Activity

...... page 18 ...... page 19

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Teachers’ Notes Activity

o c . che e r o Lesson 8: What Happens When? t r s ...... page 22 super Teachers’ Notes Lesson 7: Taste Test Teachers’ Notes Activity

...... page 20 ...... page 21

Activity

...... page 23

Answers

...... page 24

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Teachers’ Notes This book contains a package of photocopiable worksheets designed to be used to cover the Science learning area of “Natural and Processed Materials” with 68 year old students.

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Lesson Sheets Layout

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Each lesson has the potential to: • extend into more than one lesson by having separate parts to the lesson sheet. Some sections of a lesson may need planning on other paper before final copies are transferred to the lesson sheet. Some lessons may be too long for one lesson and could be completed at another time. • expand into other curriculum areas using a similar theme. There are ideas for crosscurricular integration with other learning areas. Sometimes a whole day’s work could be planned around one lesson sheet.

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At this level the students are aware that the things they use in their daily lives are made from different materials. Children will be involved in collating information about materials and their properties, writing observations, making assessments and graphing data. Specific tasks include a ‘feel test’ activity, a study of common materials found in the classroom and at home, a taste test using fruit, and altering the properties of materials through simple actions.

STUDENT LESSON SHEET Lesson title Student learning activities

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Science Materials and Equipment

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The equipment needed has been kept to a minimum to facilitate ease of planning. It is readily available in schools or is easily acquired.

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All lesson sheets are outcome linked to the various curriculum documents (see page 6). Answers are provided where necessary (see page 24). Other books in the Practical Science series:

• • • •

4

Earth and Beyond Life and Living Energy and Change Working Scientifically

TEACHERS’ NOTES INCLUDE: (FOR EACH LESSON) Outcome links;

Required materials;

Lesson plan ideas including extension ideas and teaching tips; Cross-curricular/integration ideas.


Presentation Ideas

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

• Create a display using items used in the lesson and worksheets. Children could make labels for the items. • Make a frieze of drawings, magazine cut-outs and worksheets used in the lesson. Students can label the pictures.

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• Take digital photos of the activity and download/print them for a language activity. Children can create labels to put under the photos.

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• Children could produce labels or text for the photos which can be used to create a class book or display in the library. • Display record pages alongside the data collection pages in a class display.

• Collect photos from the children of activities, pets, homes, etc.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons opieces rr e v e w ptou pos s onl y• •• Usef art as ai backdrop ar display ofe the children’s • Cut the worksheets up into parts and display, together with the children’s drawings. worksheets.

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• Children could prepare and present talks to another class using the worksheets as a guide.

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All websites listed in the Practical Science books are linked from the Ready-Ed website listed below. This saves the teacher and/or student from typing in the addresses each time. External websites referred to in this book will be updated through the Ready-Ed site below should they disappear or modify their address after publication. Bookmark this site for ease of use:

www.readyed.com.au/urls/science 5


Curriculum Links

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

The activities in Practical Science: Natural and Processed Materials can be linked to the following Science strands and learning outcomes for each state/ territory.

State/Territory

Outcomes

Natural and Processed r o e t s Bo r Materials e p ok u S

New South Wales

Victoria (VELS)

Strands

Science

·

- Materials and Their Uses 1.10, 2.10 - Structure and Properties 1.11. 2.11 1.12 - Reactions and Change

Science and Technology

· Products and Services · Built Environments

Science

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NT, ACT and Tas. (National Curriculum)

Subject Area

· Science, Knowledge

PS ES1.5 PS S1.5 BE S1.1 CSF 1.1

© ReadyEdPub i cat i ons and l Understanding · Science at Work •f orr evi ew pur po ses onl y• Chemical Science:

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Queensland

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South Australia

Western Australia

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Science

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Substances Reaction and Change · Natural and Processed

Materials

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1

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· Matter

1.7, 1.8


Natural and Processed Materials •What Is It? •Classroom Hunt •Classroom Materials •Materials at Home (1) •Materials at Home (2) •Describe It! •Taste Test •What Happens When?

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Lesson plans and activities for:

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Lesson 1

Lesson 1

Teachers’ Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

What Is It? Learning Outcomes: • Identifies materials and their uses. • Identifies properties of materials discernible by the senses.

Materials:

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• A collection of five items for each group of students. Select a variety of each of the materials (e.g. metal, plastic, wood and cloth). Objects may include things like: orange, paperclip, cotton wool ball, matchbox, thimble, feather, button, chalk, ball bearing, Plasticine, soap and so on. The idea is that each group’s set of objects is similar so that there is a challenge to work them out. One idea might be to put a ping pong ball, a squash ball, an apricot, a cotton wool ball and golf ball in the one bag = spherical objects. • A paper/cloth bag in which to place these objects.

Lesson Ideas:

• Choose items carefully so as to not make it too hard or too easy for students to guess the object. Make sure there is a range of features among the selected objects. • Students should be divided into groups of five for this activity. • FEEL TEST: Children take turns to pick one object from the bag and fill in the grid without actually looking at the object. They are allowed to feel the object. Once they have completed the relevant section of their sheet, students can look at the object’s features, mark if they were correct, replace the object, shake and pass the bag on to the next child.

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Focus questions for students: 1.Did you improve at guessing the correct answer? Why? 2.How could you tell the difference between the different materials? (What were the properties of the materials?)

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• Children answer the questions at the end of the activity. • Create a whole class graph on grid paper.

Integration Ideas:

Maths: Children construct a class bar graph to show the number of students who guessed the objects correctly in their group. English (Writing): Children write a report on the activity. English (Language activity): Make a chart of the words used to describe each object. Children match the word to the item. Extend to other items in the room.

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Lesson 1

What Is It?

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Using only one hand, FEEL one item in your group’s bag. DO NOT LOOK. Fill in the first box [ ] below. One at a time, work through each of the five objects in your bag.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok Description: ____________________________ u Sit made from? ___________________ What is

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Name of object: ________________________

Name of object: ________________________ Description: ____________________________ What is it made from? ___________________

Draw object

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Description: ____________________________ • f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• Name of object: ________________________

What is it made from? ___________________

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Name of object: ________________________ Description: ____________________________

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Draw object

Draw object o c . che________________________ Name of object: e r o t r s super Description: ____________________________

What is it made from? ___________________

What is it made from? ___________________

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How many items did you guess correctly?

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Who won from your group?

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Draw object

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Fill out the boxes below.

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Draw object

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Teachers’ Notes

Lesson 2

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Classroom Hunt Learning Outcomes: • Identifies materials and their uses. • Identifies properties of materials discernible by the senses.

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Materials:

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Lesson Ideas:

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• Children will need to collect four different objects made predominately of only one material (paper, metal, wood, plastic). These objects must come from inside the classroom and may include items such as a ping pong ball (plastic), wooden block/ cuisenaire rod (wood), ball bearing (metal), scrap paper (paper). Each of the four materials above must be represented.

• On the board, write the properties listed on the worksheet and show some examples to the class. Explain how the children must make a choice (e.g. rough or smooth). Discuss answers orally first. • Children draw the objects found for each of the four materials and list two uses for each object. They can then tick the boxes that best describe the object. • Demonstrate how the information on the chart can be used in the sentences. • Build collections of objects made from these materials. Have children create labels for each object (e.g. name, uses, properties).

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Integration Ideas:

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The Arts: Collect pictures of objects made from each of the four materials from magazines. Using four large pieces of art paper (one for each material) children can paste these images onto the correct sheet. They can also draw some other objects. Technology: Children choose a material for further study and complete a research sheet on it. They can use library books or Internet sites to help them with their research. Starting point: www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/7_8/ characteristics_materials.shtml

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Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Find something in your classroom made from paper, metal, wood and plastic.

Paper

Draw object

• _______________________

T Wood eac Metal he r Plastic

Tick the boxes Hard

Heavy

Soft

Light

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• _______________________ • _______________________

Rough

Stiff

Smooth

Floppy

Hard

Heavy

Soft

Light

Rough

Stiff

Smooth

Floppy

Hard

Heavy

Soft

Light

Rough

Stiff

Soft

Light

Rough

Stiff

Smooth

Floppy

•d _______________________ Smooth © Rea yEdPubl i cat i o ns Floppy •f orr evi ew pur posesoHard nl y•Heavy • _______________________

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List two uses

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Classroom Hunt

Lesson 2

• _______________________

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Use your chart above to help you finish these sentences:

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It is used for ____________________________________________

Wood is _______________________________________________ It is used for ____________________________________________ Plastic is ______________________________________________ It is used for ____________________________________________ 11


Teachers’ Notes

Lesson 3

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Classroom Materials Learning Outcome: • Identifies materials and their uses.

Materials:

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• collection of objects made out of glass and cardboard

Lesson Ideas:

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Discuss each of the items above and how the material is important to each item. Discuss the material’s strengths and limitations. Children can complete the worksheet sections about glass and cardboard. Use an actual section of the classroom to list the materials being used before the children study the picture to do their own listing. • Prepare a glass and cardboard product display. Children can write labels to list the good and bad points of the materials on the display.

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• • • •

© R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s The Arts: •f or r e v i ew partupaper r po s es on(one l yfor• Collage: Each child to divide his/her into two sections Integration Ideas:

glass and one for cardboard). Students then paste cut-outs of objects on them.

www.kidsdomain.com/craft/_recpaper.html

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Craft: Children could create their own cardboard out of old newspaper. Check this website for ideas:

Use the cardboard to create things in the classroom, e.g. pin-up boards.

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Society and Environment / SOSE / HSIE: In groups, students can complete projects on the production of paper and glass. Check out these websites:

• For Teachers: www.gould.edu.au/wastewise/waste_stop/pdf/act_05.pdf • Glass: www.historyforkids.org/learn/science/glass.htm • Cardboard: www.ollierecycles.com/uk/html/paper.html English (Writing): Take photos of the students completing the craft activities and use them in language activities.

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Lesson 3

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Classroom Materials

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

List three things in the classroom which are made of glass.

•________________ • ________________ •________________ Describe what is good about glass.

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Draw its main use.

_______________________________

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_________________________________

List three things in the classroom which are made of cardboard.

• _______________ • _______________ • _______________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Describe what is good about cardboard. its main use. •f orr evi ew pur posesoDraw nl y • _______________________________

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Describe what is bad about cardboard.

_______________________________

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_______________________________

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1. ___________________________ 2. ___________________________ 3. ___________________________ 4. ___________________________

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Teachers' Notes

Lesson 4

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Materials at Home (1) Learning Outcome: • Lists the ways materials are used for different purposes.

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• No materials required as students will complete this activity at home, using common household items. • Children will conduct a survey on the uses of wood, plastic and glass in their homes. They will choose one other material of their own to help them complete the fourth section. Children could also bring in photos of these items. • Students rate the number of uses from “plenty” to “not many” by ticking the box.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• • Students list four main uses of each material (wood, plastic and • Discuss how this rating works and show an example on the board, using some materials in the classroom. glass) and draw the main use in the box provided.

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• Children then choose a material of their own and complete a final survey (e.g. metal, paper). Explain the importance of choosing a ‘material’ and not an item (e.g. chair) that may be made from more than one material.

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• Lesson 5: Materials At Home (2) collates the information gathered in this activity.

The Arts: Children draw or paint scenes of their bedroom or living room and label the materials used. Technology: Children conduct research into the material they chose and present a talk.

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Materials At Home (1)

Lesson 4

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A

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Search for wood, plastic and glass objects at home. You can choose the last material.

Wood

List four uses of wood: How many uses does • ____________________

r o e t s Bo r • ____________________ e p ok u S • ____________________ • ____________________

Draw a use for wood.

List four uses of plastic: How many uses does • ____________________

Plastic

plastic have? Tick

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Plenty

• ____________________ • ____________________

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Not many

List four uses of glass: How many uses does • ____________________

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• ____________________

Draw a use for glass.

• ____________________ • ____________________ • ____________________

Draw a use. 15


Lesson 5

Teachers' Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Materials at Home (2) Learning Outcomes: • Lists the ways materials are used for different purposes. • Describes the way people in the community use science.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Lesson Ideas: S Materials: • grid paper

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• collection of materials made from wood, plastic and glass

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• Collate the information gathered on Materials at Home (1) with the whole class and discuss the amount of uses each material had. List the totals on the board. • Children fill in the totals using the graphs on the worksheet. • Discuss why some materials were used more than others (relate to the material’s properties). Use the collection of items to illustrate. • Children answer the questions on the graphs and write their sentences. • Collate a list of the items written down for each material. Students can volunteer the items until all class items are listed. • Ask students to answer questions on the spread of items listed for each material.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • Collate a list of the materials chosen and discuss in relation to the other results. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Integration Ideas:

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Focus Questions: • Is this material used more? • What items are made from this material? • Why?

English (Writing): o Use the list of items as a language activity, e.g. spelling, word building, classifying, etc. o Children can use the survey to write sentences about the materials found in their homes. E.g. “Wood is used the most in our homes.” “I chose metal for my other material and it was used the most.” English (Speaking and Listening): Children can use the Materials at Home sheets as a basis for a talk on materials. Also have a look at: www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/5_6/science_5_6.shtml (Interactive website)

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Materials at Home (2)

Lesson 5

A

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Graph how often the materials are used at home. 20

20

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10

5

10

5

15

10

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Some Uses

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20

Not Many Uses

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5

•Wood •Plastic •Glass

Use your graphs to help you answer these questions.

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•Wood •Plastic •Glass

•Wood •Plastic •Glass

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How many people recorded some uses for glass? _______

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___________________________________________________ Which material was used the least? ____________________ Why do you think this was so? ___________________________________________________ 17


Lesson 6

Teachers' Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Describe It! Learning Outcome: • Identifies materials and their uses.

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Each child will need: • brick • piece of paper • access to glass (window, drinking glass etc.) • magazines

Lesson Ideas:

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r o e t s Bo r e Materials: p ok u S

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • Show bricks and discuss that describe them. •the f o rr e v i ewwords pu r p oses oChildren nl y• • Select an item for section D or allow the children to choose an item of their own from the classroom.

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write down two of these words. Discuss the uses of a brick and let children tell personal stories about bricks. Children write down two uses for bricks. Repeat with the other materials.

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• When the writing has been completed the children could look for pictures in magazines which show these objects in use. These pictures can be cut out, labelled and used in a class display.

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The Arts: Collage – Children cut out pictures of bricks from magazines and paste onto a class collection. Another collection can be set up for glass and paper.

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A

Lesson 6

Describe It!

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Write two words that describe a brick.

• __________________________ • __________________________ Write two ways bricks are used.

r o e t s B r e o Draw a brick in use. • __________________________ p o u k WriteS two words that describe paper. • __________________________

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B

• __________________________ • __________________________ Write two ways paper is used.

• __________________________

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Draw paper © ReadyEdPubl i ca t i o nsin use. • __________________________

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two words thatp describe glass. f or r e vi ew ur pos esonl y• C •Write • __________________________

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Write two ways glass is used.

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. te Draw glass in use. • __________________________ o c . ch Write two words that describe _____________ e r e o t r s super • __________________________ • __________________________

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D

• __________________________ Write two ways _______ is used. • __________________________ • __________________________

Draw this item. 19


Lesson 7

Teachers' Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Taste Test! Learning Outcomes: • Identifies properties of materials discernible by the senses. • Identifies changes in materials using the senses. • Conducts simple tests and describes observations.

Materials:

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• A tray of fruit samples for each pair: Include a selection of four fruits (e.g.

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• magazines (for cutting out extension activity)

Lesson Ideas: Prepare the fruit and have the children sit in pairs.

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apples, pears, bananas, oranges) cut into similar-sized small cubes. There should be enough for each child in the group to have two cubes of each type of fruit. (Can also use stewed fruit which can be tasted using a teaspoon.) • blindfolds for each pair of children • teaspoon and paper towels for each child

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For Taste Test 1: • One person in each pair applies a blindfold and holds their nose so they cannot smell. • He/she is fed the cubes with a spoon one at a time and must guess the fruit. • The other person fills in their partner’s sheet for them and marks if they guessed correctly. • Each person rates each food on taste (e.g. Yummy, OK or Yucky). Allow no peeking until they have finished. For Taste Test 2: • This test is the same test (using a different order of the fruits), however, this time the students do not block their nose. • Children compare tastes of the fruit.

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Children should notice that the taste is more pronounced when they can smell as well. Ask students to analyse the test itself and suggest how such a test may be improved.

Integration Ideas: English (Writing): Children write a recount of the test. Health: Discuss the benefits of eating fruit and make a fruit picture display using magazine cut-outs. Classify fruits according to colour or type.

20


Taste Test!

Lesson 7

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A

Draw and label your four fruits.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Taste Test S1 – Wear a blindfold and hold your nose.

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Food Sample Guess

Yummy

OK

Yucky

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B

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

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Taste Test 2 – Wear a blindfold only.

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Food Sample Guess

. te

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D

Yummy

OK

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C

Yucky

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Which fruit was the easiest to guess? _____________ What happened to the taste when you blocked your nose? _______________________________________________ 21


Lesson 8

Teachers' Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

What Happens When? Learning Outcomes: • Identifies changes in materials using the senses. • Distinguishes between changes that cannot be readily reversed and those that can.

r o e t s Bo r e p Materials: ok u S

Teac he r

Lesson Ideas:

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Each child will need: • ball of modelling clay • piece of scrap cloth • 2 sheets of paper, scissors • a bucket of water and towel will be needed at the front of the room • Demonstrate what the children will be doing with each of the materials. Discuss some other actions that students could do to each of these materials, e.g. cutting them. You could later try these actions as a whole class activity.

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• Children start with a piece of paper and draw how it originally looks. They then screw up the paper into a ball and describe and draw what they see.

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• Children then move onto the modelling clay and the piece of cloth using the same process. Students need to keep each sample on their desk for the reporting later.

. te o c • Show children how to try to put the samples back to their original . c e state and report. h r e o t r s super Integration Ideas:

• Discuss the results and have children write answers in the “What did you find?” section.

English (Writing): Students write a recount activity on this lesson. Science: Create a similar task/sheet by using food to test “reversible” and “irreversible” changes to foodstuffs when heated, frozen, mixed, and so on.

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Lesson 8

What Happens When?

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

You will be changing how some materials look by: screwing up 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901

A

squeezing

cutting

wetting

A sheet of paper

Draw it.

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What happens to it when you screw it up?

__________________________________________ What happens to it when you wet it?

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B

A ball of modelling clay What happens to it when you squeeze it? __________________________________________ __________________________________________

Draw it.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons __________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• A piece of cloth

What happens to it when you cut it into pieces? __________________________________________

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__________________________________________

. te

Draw it.

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C

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__________________________________________

o c . Which material changed the most? ______________________ ch e r er o t Which material didn’t change much at all? s ________________ super __________________________________________

Try to put each material back to how they were before.

Which objects went back to how they were before? ________ _______________________________________________________ Write about what you found out. _________________________ _____________________________________________________ 23


Answers

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Lesson 3 – Classroom Materials A)

Answers will vary. Hard, see through (transparent), easy to clean, recyclable. Dangerous when broken; scratches; cannot be changed.

B)

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Answers will vary.

Soft; recyclable; many uses; easy to use.

C) Plastic, glass, wood, cloth, paper, metal.

Lesson 7 – Taste Test D)

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Teac he r

Goes soggy when wet; not very strong.

You can taste only certain things like sweet, sour, salty and bitter. You need your sense of smell to really tell the difference.

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Practical Science: Natural & Processed Materials Series - Book 1  

The three books in this Practical Science series contain a set of practical lessons, ideas and worksheets to explore the strand of Natural a...

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