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For t Years or e4 - 7

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Christmas Around the World

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Cross curriculum activities •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• researching global Christmas customs

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and traditions.

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Written by Judy Gabrovec. Illustrated by Melinda Parker. © Ready-Ed Publications - 2004. (Revised Edition) Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2004) P.O. Box 276 Greenwood, W.A. 6024 COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution. ISBN 1 86397 268 4


Teachers’ Notes “Christmas Around the World” is an activity book for 8 -12 year olds that explores how different countries celebrate Christmas. The book provides children with a variety of research, art, craft and cooking activities designed to give children the opportunity to examine the Christmas traditions and customs of other countries and cultures. Some of the research activities incorporate the use of the Internet as a research tool and a comprehensive list of Online References relating to Christmas is included.

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Some suggestion for making the best use of the activities.

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Bookmark all the Internet sites before you begin this unit of work. If you have more than one computer available the sites for each country can be bookmarked on different computers and the children can rotate around the computers.

The activities are ideal for group work with each group looking at one country. The group can choose an art or craft activity and a recipe relating to the country from the book. At the end of the unit of work a presentation day and a “cooking and tasting” day can be planned. On the presentation day, the children can display their craft and give a talk on what they have learnt about how their country celebrates Christmas. On the “cooking and tasting” day, children from the each group could be responsible for providing the ingredients for the recipes and the tasting of the food could replace the traditional class Christmas party.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • f or r ev i ewIf youpcan’t ur pos e s o nl y• Sometimes Internet websites disappear. connect with the site immediately, try

again at a later time. The site might have only disappeared temporarily or moved to another location.

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If a site does disappear, the Online Reference page provides a comprehensive list of Christmas sites that can be used for the research activities. The list is only a fraction of the Christmas websites on the Internet and if the children can use the search engines they will be able to locate many more that could assist in their research.

. te o c Please note: Due to the dynamic nature of the Internet, at times . c e websites will disappear or undergo modifications. While every h r e o t effort has been made tor select stable r and potentially long-term s s u e p sites the publishers advise that they will not be responsible if any Internet websites used in this book change or cannot be located. Check this URL for updates to websites in this book:

www.readyed.com.au/christmas/

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Contents

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Teachers’ Notes .............................................................. 2 Online References for Christmas .................................... 4 Christmas Around the World Christmas Words ............................................................ 5 The People of Christmas ................................................ 6 A World Wide Christmas (Internet Activity) .................... 7 Universal Christmas Traditions (Internet Activity) ........... 8 Welcome to the North Pole (Internet Activity) ................ 9 Giant Christmas Sleuth ................................................ 10 Christmas Quiz ............................................................. 11 Christmas in Spain Christmas in Spain (Teacher Information) .................... 12 Christmas in Spain (Internet Activity) ........................... 13 Holiday Traditions in Spain (Internet Activity) .............. 14 The Nativity Scene ....................................................... 15 Nativity Scene Stencils ................................................. 16 More Nativity Scenes ................................................... 18 Spanish Christmas Treats ............................................ 19 Christmas in Ireland Christmas In Ireland (Teacher Information) ................... 20 Christmas in Ireland (Internet Activity) ......................... 21 Irish Christmas Crafts ................................................... 22 Christmas Pudding Stencil .......................................... 23 Irish Recipes ................................................................. 24 Christmas in Mexico Christmas in Mexico (Teacher Information) .................. 25 Christmas in Mexico (Internet Activity) ........................ 26 Mexican Christmas Craft .............................................. 27 Poinsettia Christmas Tree ............................................ 28 Poinsettia Stencil ......................................................... 29 Mexican Christmas Recipes ........................................ 30 Christmas in Canada Christmas in Canada (Teacher Information) ................. 31 Christmas In Canada (Internet Activity) ....................... 32 Canadian Christmas Traditions (Internet Activity) ........ 33 Christmas Cards .......................................................... 34 Holly Leaf Card Stencil ................................................. 35 Fun in the Canadian Snow ........................................... 36 Christmas Down Under Christmas Down Under (Teacher Information) ............. 37 Christmas Down Under (Internet Information) .............. 38 Family Traditions (Internet Information) ........................ 39 Christmas Craft Down Under ....................................... 40 Christmas Cooking Down Under .................................. 41 Christmas in Japan Christmas in Japan (Teacher Information) .................... 42 Christmas In Japan (Internet) ....................................... 43 Japanese Christmas Craft ............................................ 44 Japanese Treats for Christmas ..................................... 45 More Christmas Art and Craft More Christmas Art and Craft ....................................... 46 More Christmas Craft (Painted Glass) .......................... 47 More Christmas Craft (Using Play Dough) ................... 48 More Christmas Craft (Working with Paper) ................. 49 More Christmas Crafts (Doily Cards) ............................ 50 More Christmas Craft (Decorative Christmas Shapes) .......... 51 Christmas Shapes Stencils .......................................... 52 Sweet Basket Stencil .................................................... 53 More Christmas Shapes ............................................... 54 Answers .................................................................. 55, 56 Ready-Ed Publications

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Online RReferences eferences for Christmas www.the-north-pole.com/around/ - Christmas Around the World eclecticesoterica.com/christmas.html - Joy to the World

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www.santas.net/australianchristmas.htm - Santa Down Under www.chebucto.ns.ca/~ai251/xstor.html - Christmas Stories

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www.lnstar.com/mall/main-areas/santafaq.htm - Santa FAQs

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www.northpolesantaclaus.com/main.htm - North Pole www.chebucto.ns.ca/~ai251/xart.html - Christmas Art

www.christmas.com/ - Celebrating Christmas Around the World www.santas.net/canadianchristmas.htm - Christmas in Canada www.kidsdomain.com/games/xmas.html - Christmas Games

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew p-u r po sesonl y• www.merry-christmas.com/recipes.htm Christmas Recipes www.rats2u.com/christmas/christmas_crafts.htm - Christmas Crafts and Gifts

www.santaclaus.com/email.html - E-mail Santa

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www.christmas.com/worldview/ - Christmas Around the World

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northpole.net/world.htm - Christmas Around the World (again!)

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www.christmas.com/ - Christmas Traditions Around the World

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www.kraftmstr.com/christmas/christmas.html - Christmas Stories www.kidsdomain.com/holiday/xmas/around.html - Kid’s Domain www.kidsdomain.com/holiday/xmas/links.html - Christmas Links

www.rats2u.com/christmas/christmas_directories.htm#calendars - Advent Calendars www.henry.k12.ga.us/pges/xmas_around.htm - Internet Scavenger Hunt www.santaclaus.com/world.html - More from Around the World

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Research Activity

Christmas Around the W orld World

Christmas W ords Words R What do these Christmas words mean and which country do they originate from? Use the resources in your library or search the Internet to find out. Refer to the Online Reference page (Page 4) for useful and informative Internet sites. Noël ........................................................................................................................................

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yule ......................................................................................................................................... wassail ...................................................................................................................................

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carol .......................................................................................................................................

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lebkuchen............................................................................................................................... frankincense...........................................................................................................................

panettone ............................................................................................................................... hallacas .................................................................................................................................. bonbon ...................................................................................................................................

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Piñata .....................................................................................................................................

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posadas ................................................................................................................................. Felis Natal ...............................................................................................................................

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Research Activity

Christmas Around the W orld World

The PPeople eople of Christmas There are many different Christmas characters from all around the world. R Use the resources in the library or search the Internet to find out who these people were and what country they were from. Refer to the Online Reference page for some useful and interesting Internet sites. On another piece of paper do an illustration of what you think each character might look like. Kris Kringle

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Swarte Piet

La Befana

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas Around the W orld World

AW orld W ide Christmas World Wide Go to - northpole.net/world.htm R Find out how children around the world celebrate Christmas by clicking on the countries at the website. Give some brief information about seven of the countries below. Country:

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Custom: .................................................................................................................................

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Country:

Custom: .......................................................................................... ........................................................................................................ Country: Custom: .......................................................................................... ........................................................................................................

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas Around the W orld World

Universal Christmas TTraditions raditions Go to Site 1 www.absolutelycrackers.com/historynew.html Go to Site 2 www.museevirtuel.ca/Exhibitions/Noel/angl/basnoel.htm R The Christmas stocking and the Christmas cracker seem to be part of the Christmas tradition in countries all over the world. Use the Internet sites to find out about how and why these Christmas favourites came about.

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2. Who was the illustrator of this story? .......................................................................................

3. What was used to place gifts in before Christmas stockings became popular? Where is it likely that this tradition originated from?

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1. Who was the first author to talk about Christmas stockings in his stories? In what century did this happen? ...............................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 4. Explain why mandarin oranges have a special •tof or r einv i ew pur posesonl y• meaning some people Canada. .......................................................................................

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1. Who invented the cracker and in what year? .....................................................................

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2. What was the inventor’s occupation? ................................................................................

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3. From which country did the inventor get the idea for the cracker? ..................................... What was its original name? .............................................................................................. 4. Explain how the cracker makes a small explosive sound when pulled. ............................. ............................................................................................................................................... 5. List some of the many items that have been placed inside crackers since their invention. ............................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas Around the W orld World

Welcome to the Nor th PPole ole North Go to www.northpole.net/ R Click on “Christmas Around the World”. Explore the website to discover an interesting Christmas tradition for each of these countries. Germany ................................................................................................................................

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............................................................................................................................................... Ukraine ...................................................................................................................................

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Norway ................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

Finland ................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

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Austria ................................................................................................

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Lebanon ................................................................................................................................. ...............................................................................................................................................

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Italy ......................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... Switzerland ............................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................... Czech Republic ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................

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Language Activity

Christmas Around the W orld World

Giant Christmas W ord Puzzle Word U

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R E N D E E R F U S ©I R ea dIyEd P ub l i ca t i on sS A T I V I T Y U L E T I D E • f o rKr e vi ew p uYr pUos es o nl yG• R E C A R C L E L O Z

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Baboushka Boxing Day Cake Candlelight Candles Crackers Crib Decorations Epiphany Frankincense Ivy Jesus Mince pies Nativity

Mistletoe New Year Plum pudding Presents Reindeer Saint Nicholas Santa Claus Shepherds Three Wise Men Traditions Tree Yule log Yuletide

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Language Activity

Christmas Around the W orld World

Christmas Quiz R How much do you know about Christmas? Try your knowledge with these. 1. By what title were the three wise men known? .................................................................... 2. Who invented Christmas cards? ........................................................................................

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3. In which city was Jesus born? ........................................................................................... 4. Where did Joseph, the carpenter, live and work? ...............................................................

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5. Who is the gift bringer on Germany? ..................................................................................

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6. What do the French call a nativity scene? ..........................................................................

7. What is a “Bûche de Noël”? ...............................................................................................

8. In which country does a good witch called Befana deliver presents? ................................ 9. In which country is Santa Claus called Sinter Klaas? ........................................................ 10. Who is the gift bringer in Russia? .....................................................................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • f or r evcrackers? i ew................................................................................. pur posesonl y• 12. Who invented Christmas

11. In Russia, what is left out to put presents into? ................................................................

13. Who do the Norwegians leave porridge for on Christmas eve? .......................................

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14. Who wrote the words for the carol “Silent Night”? ............................................................ 15. What did the three Magi bring to baby Jesus in Bethlehem? ...........................................

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16. What were the names of the three wise men? ..................................................................

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17. On what date is the feast of the Epiphany? ...................................................................... 18. Who was Saint Nicholas? ................................................................................................ 19. What is another name for Boxing Day? ........................................................................... 20. What is yuletide? ..............................................................................................................

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Christmas in Spain

Christmas in Spain Teacher Infor mation Information

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Christmas in Spain is a time of religion as well as a time for family and festivities. Eating, singing, dancing and merrymaking are all part of the celebrations that include Christmas Eve, Christmas Day and the Day of the Three Kings (January 6th) which marks the end of the Christmas period. The way in which people observe these celebrations may differ according to what part of Spain they live in. Christmas recipes and other traditions will also vary due to regional differences but there are many traditions that remain constant throughout the country. The cooking of a turkey at Christmas, which is an American tradition, is customarily done in nearly all parts of Spain.

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas in Spain

Christmas in Spain Go to Site 1: www.european-schoolprojects.net/festivals/Spain/winter/main.htm Go to Site 2: www2.worldbook.com/features/holidays/html/spain.htm 1. Who is the patron saint of Spain? ...................................................................................... 2. What is a Nacimento? ........................................................................................................

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Illustrate a Nacimento below.

3. What is unusual about the ceremony called los Seises? ................................................... 4. What is Epiphany and what does it celebrate? ..................................................................

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5. Describe a typical Christmas Eve for a family in Spain. ......................................................

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6. On Christmas Eve it is traditional to leave out a stocking to be filled with gifts by Santa. What do the children of Spain leave out and who are the gift bringers? ...............................................................................................................................................

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7. Illustrate what you think the Spanish gift bringers might look like.

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas in Spain

Holiday TTraditions raditions in Spain Go to www.readyed.com.au/christmas/spain.htm 1. An unusual tradition in Spain is “Hogueras”. Explain what this tradition involves. ...............................................................................................................................................

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............................................................................................................................................... 2. List the Spanish traditions which are similar to that of most countries.

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3. What is “La Misa Del Gallo”? ............................................................................................. 4. Describe what would be served at a traditional Spanish Christmas dinner.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f o rr evi ew pur po s esonl y• The Legend of the Three W ise Men Wise

5. What is a truffle? .................................................................................................................

6. What might be served as dessert? .....................................................................................

R Fill in the missing words.

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The legend tells of three ........................ ........................ travelling throughout the country on their way to ........................................... To welcome them, ............................................ fill their shoes with ............................... on .......................................... ................................

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For their efforts, their shoes are filled with ................................... on the following morning. The most popular of the three wise men is ..............................................

1. On what date is the Epiphany? .......................................................................................... 2. Why do you think the Three Wise Men were travelling to Bethlehem? ................................ ............................................................................................................................................... 3. Why do the children fill their shoes with straw? .................................................................. 4. Why do you think Balthazar is considered to be the most popular of the Three Wise Men? ............................................................................................................................................... Page 14

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Spain

The Nativity Scene The nacimiento or nativity scene can be found in nearly every Spanish home and church at Christmas time. Here are some ideas on how to create some simple and effective nativity scenes.

Cone Figure Nativity Scene

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Materials To make the manger The manger can be made in several ways. The simplest way is to use a shoe box or any other suitable sized box and decorate it with paint and crayons to resemble a manger. To make the manger look authentic, ice-cream sticks could be used to cover the outside of the boxes before they are painted.

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Other ideas are A manger can be constructed using strong glue, ice-cream sticks, cardboard and wood. (This would be ideal as a Design, Make and Appraise activity.) To make the figures To make the Three Wise Men, Joseph, Mary, the shepherds and baby Jesus, use the stencils on the following page. You can draw your own cone figures to add to the nativity scene. Colour in each figure and glue the cone together to make a standing figure. To make the animals The animals can be toy animals or made with pipe-cleaners wound around with wool, as shown.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons To make the crib •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The crib can be made from a match box or any other small box.

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To set up the nativity scene Spread hay around the floor of the manger and in the crib. Put baby Jesus in the crib and place the other figures in and around the manger.

Other suggestions Y This is an ideal group activity with different group members being responsible for completing different parts of the nativity scene.

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Spain

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Nativity Scene Stencils

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Spain

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Nativity Scene Stencils

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Spain

More Nativity Scenes Play dough is easy to make and easy to use. This is an ideal way to make the figures for a nativity scene. The manger and the crib can be made using the same ideas as described on Page 15.

Play Dough Recipe

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How to make the play dough 1. Mix the flour and salt together in a bowl. 2. Slowly stir in the water and the oil. 3. Squeeze the mixture together until it feels smooth. 4. If it is still breaking apart, moisten your hands and keep kneading. 5. If the play dough becomes too sticky, it needs more flour. 6. Store play dough in a plastic bag in the refrigerator.

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Ingredients 1 1/2 cups of plain flour 1/2 cup of salt 1/4 cup of vegetable oil 1/2 cup of water

The Nativity Scene Figures © Re ad yEd Pub l i cat i ons Making the people •f r r e vi ewball.pur posesonl y• 1. Roll a lump ofo clay into a body shaped 2. Roll a smaller ball of dough into a head shape and attach to body by moistening a matchstick and connecting the two parts.

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3. Continue using the dough to make arms and legs and attach to the body using moist matchsticks.

4. Give your figure eyes, ears, mouth, nose, hair, beards or clothes, etc. Animals may need tails, fur, wool or manes.

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5. Objects like toothpicks, buttons, wool, cloth, paper, cotton wool and wire can be used to help create figures and to make their features or clothing. 6. Hats and costumes can be added to the figures after the play dough is dry.

7. Make sure your figures are balanced and able to stand by themselves before you allow them to dry. Other suggestions Y If it is difficult to make the figures stand, model a base out of dough for the figure to stand on.

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Cooking Activity

Christmas in Spain

Spanish Christmas TTreats reats Spanish Christmas cooking is influenced by the many different regions of the country as well as the traditions of other countries. The cooking of a turkey at Christmas, which is an American tradition, is customarily done in nearly all parts of Spain. Following are some special recipes which are traditionally Spanish and are easy to prepare.

Spanish FFestive estive Rice Salad

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How to make the salad. 1. Cook the rice in 2 cups of boiling water for about 20 minutes. (This can be done before the lesson.)

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Ingredients 1 cup rice 8 tablespoons olive oil 3 tablespoons of vinegar 1 clove of minced garlic 1 small minced onion salt and pepper 125 g whole pimentos 2 tablespoons chopped parsley

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 4. When thef rice is cool, add dressing, pimentos and ando toss. • or r e vthe i e wp ur p oparsley ses nl y• 2. Combine olive oil, vinegar, garlic and onion. 3. Chop the pimentos.

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Ingredients 1 2/3 cup of plain flour 250 g of unsalted butter 1 cup of ground walnuts 1 teaspoon of vanilla essence 1/2 cup of icing sugar pinch of salt

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Christmas Nut Crescents

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How to make Christmas Nut Crescents 1. Mix the flour and butter together until they form crumbs. 2. Add walnuts, vanilla, salt and sugar. Mix well. 3. Chill dough for 30 minutes.

4. With walnut size pieces of dough, roll each piece to a 8 centimetre length. 5. Shape each piece into a crescent or semicircle. 6. Bake in a pre-heated oven at 180º F for 12 - 15 minutes. 7. Dust with icing sugar while warm.

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Christmas in Ir eland Ireland

Christmas In Ireland Teacher Infor mation Information Christmas in Ireland lasts from Christmas Eve to the feast of Epiphany on January 6th. The epiphany is called “Little Christmas” in Ireland. An Irish Christmas is more a religious time than one of fun and festivities.

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Traditionally, lighted candles placed in candlesticks made from turnips are placed in the window as a guide to Joseph and Mary as they look for shelter.

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Christmas fare is very plain in Ireland. The women bake a seed cake for each person in the house and three puddings are cooked over the Christmas period; one for Christmas, one for New Year’s Day and one for the Twelfth Night. St. Stephen’s Day, the day after Christmas, is important and is celebrated with football matches and other sporting events. For children, the Wren Boys Procession is a favourite event. Boys go from door to door with a fake wren on a stick asking for money. They are accompanied by singers, musicians playing violins and accordions and people blowing horns.

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas in Ir eland Ireland

Christmas in Ireland Go to members.tripod.com/~pg4anna/xmas.htm R Scroll down the page to The History of The Christmas Carol, “The Twelve Days of Christmas”. Why was the carol “The Twelve Days of Christmas” written?

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............................................................................................................................................... R Illustrate the verse of the carol that matches the following religious idea.

Faith, Hope and Charity

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Jesus Christ, the son of God

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The Old and New Testament

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f o rr vi ew pur po se onl y• Six Days ofe Creation The Tens Commandments

The Four Gospels/Evangelists

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Ir eland Ireland

Irish Christmas Craf ts Crafts R In Ireland, it is traditional to put a candle in the window at Christmas. Turnips are large enough and heavy enough to make an inexpensive candle holder and so turnip candle holders became part of Irish Christmas tradition.

Tur nip Candle Holder urnip

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Materials turnip knife candle small plate or lid holly, tinsel ribbon

To make the turnip candle holder 1. Cut the top and bottom of the turnip.

2. Cut a hole in the top of the turnip big enough to hold the candle. You can form a star pattern or a round hole. Make sure it is deep enough for the candle to balance properly. 3. Place the candle in the turnip. A red, green or gold candle will look more effective. 4. Place the turnip on the plate or lid, which could be painted a matching colour.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Christmas Pudding Advent Calendar •f o rr evi e w pu r pos esonl y•

Materials Christmas pudding stencil paints and coloured pencils tinsel and gift wrap

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How to make a Christmas Pudding Advent Calendar 1. Cut out the stencil and fold in half along the dotted line.

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5. Decorate around the base of the candle with holly, tinsel and other greenery from the garden. Ribbon can also be tied around the base.

2. Decorate the outside of the pudding by painting, colouring or decorating with tinsel and gift wrap.

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3. Write an inspirational Christmas message inside the pudding.

4. The puddings can be glued to a backing piece of cardboard that has been decorated or they can be pinned to a display board. 5. Every day a child chooses a Christmas pudding and reads the message which then can be discussed by the class. N. B. Traditionally there are 24 parts to an Advent Calendar, but this activity can be adjusted to suit the number of children in the class. Other suggestions Y The pudding shapes can be used to do a border decoration on a pin up board or attached together using wool or string and used as room decorations. Y The pudding shape can be used to write a story or a Christmas wish on. Page 22

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Ir eland Ireland

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Christmas Pudding Stencil

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Cooking Activity

Christmas in Ir eland Ireland

Irish RRecipes ecipes Irish Christmas Cookies Ingredients 1 cup butter 1 cup sugar 3 eggs 2 cups flour 1/4 cup milk 1/2 cup of candied fruit 1/4 cup raisins 1/4 cup almonds

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How to make Irish Christmas Cookies 1. Cream butter and sugar. 2. Beat in eggs until well blended. 3. Add flour and beat well. 4. Add fruit and nuts. 5. Drop a tablespoon of dough on a greased tray. 6. Bake for 8 - 10 minutes in an oven at 190º C.

Soda Scones

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How to make Soda Scones 1. Sift together flour, cream of tartar, salt and baking soda. 2. Mix lightly, add buttermilk and make a soft dough. 3. Knead dough lightly. 4. Roll out to about 2 centimetres thick and cut into wedges. 5. Place on a greased baking tray and bake for 15 minutes at 200º C.

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Ingredients 1 fruit cake 1/2 - 1 cup fruit juice red and green cherries white chocolate

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Ingredients 3 cups flour 1 teaspoon cream of tartar 1 cup buttermilk 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon baking soda

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How to make Miniature Christmas Pudding 1. Break up the fruit cake and moisten with a small amount of fruit juice. Roll into small balls. Melt the white chocolate and drizzle over the top of miniature puddings. 2. Decorate with a small piece of red or green cherry cut into small pieces.

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Ready-Ed Publications


Christmas in Mexico

Christmas in Mexico Teacher Infor mation Information Mexicans do most of their celebrating before Christmas Day, which is usually a quiet family day. Their celebrations begin on December the 6th when a parade that celebrates the journey of Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem is held. The celebration is called Las Posadas and takes place every night for nine nights. Children lead the procession carrying statues of the Holy Couple. Everyone else walks through the street with lighted candles. The parade enacts the drama of Mary and Joseph trying to find shelter on Christmas Eve. Eventually a posada, which is a lodging house, is found and everybody enters to pray.

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After the Las Posada, a huge party is held at which the main attraction is the piñata. A piñata is a clay pot covered in brightly coloured papier-mâché that is filled with sweets and treats. The blindfolded children take turns at breaking open the piñata which is suspended from a rope. The poinsettia plant is popular at Christmas time in Mexico. Legend tells of a story of a poor Mexican girl who had no gift to bring to the crib on Christmas Eve. She entered the churchyard where she saw an angel carved in stone. Tall grass and weeds nearly covered the angel and the poor Mexican girl bent down to clear them away. As she did she heard a voice telling her to pick the weeds and take them to the Christ child. As she walked towards the crib, the top of each weed turned to bright red. Ever since, people have grown poinsettias at Christmas time. They are known as the Fire Flowers of the Holy Night.

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas in Mexico

Christmas in Mexico Go to www.readyed.com.au/christmas/mexico.htm 1. How do you think you say Merry Christmas in Mexico? ..................................................... 2. Read the information on the website to find out the following information about the Mexican tradition “La Posadas”?

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When does it begin? .......................................................................................................... What does it commemorate? .............................................................................................

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Who leads the procession? ............................................................................................... What do the leaders of the procession carry? ...................................................................

What do the other members of the procession carry? .......................................................

3. Answer these questions about the “Piñata”.

What is a “Piñata”? ............................................................................................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons How is the “Piñata” game played? ..................................................................................... •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ........................................................................................................................................... What is it filled with? ...........................................................................................................

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4. From the description given on the website, illustrate what you think a Mexican “Piñata” would look like. Make sure it is coloured in bright, festive colours.

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5. What are some of the traditional Mexican foods that might be served at Christmas time? ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... Page 26

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Mexico

Mexican Christmas Craf Craftt Piñata

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Materials large balloon Vaseline newspaper glue treats (sweets, etc.) paint paint brush Christmas gift wrap varnish or spray varnish (optional)

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How to make a Piñata 1. Blow up a large balloon and knot it. 2. Cover the balloon with petroleum jelly. 3. Cover the balloon with three layers of newspaper ripped into strips. Use plenty of glue and do not cover over the knotted end. 4. Leave for at least one day so that the balloon is completely dry. 5. Burst the balloon at the knotted end and remove by pulling it through the hole. 6. Put the treats inside the papier-mâché shape and glue on more paper strips to cover the hole. 7. Allow to dry. 8. Decorate the outside of the piñata by painting and varnishing, or by gluing Christmas gift wrap around it. 9. On the last day of school before Christmas, blindfold the children and play the piñata game.

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Other suggestions Y Using a variety of craft materials, different shaped piñatas can be made. Animal shapes such as turtles, donkeys and reindeers can be made using cardboard toilet rolls for legs and forming solid shapes for the heads and other body parts from papier mâché pulp. Attach the parts by using newspaper strips until the parts are firmly in place.

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Recipe for papier mâché pulp. newspaper ripped into small pieces

paste made from 1 part plain flour and 3 parts water How to make papier mâché pulp. 1. Combine paste ingredients until smooth. 2. Put small pieces of newspaper into glue.

3. Mix paper in thoroughly and then let it soak until it feels like clay. 4. Make sure that anything you make with papier mâché pulp is dry before you use or paint it.

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Mexico

Poinsettia Christmas TTree ree Materials glue paper plates poinsettia stencil (This stencil can be enlarged and reduced to fit the size of the plates.) sheets of green lightweight cardboard

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How to make a Poinsettia Christmas Tree. 1. Use the poinsettia stencils to make one large petal shape, and two smaller petal shapes. 2. Paint the large petal green and the smaller petals red. 3. Glue the two red petals on top of the green petal. 4. Add some small yellow and white dots to the top petal. 5. Using the green cardboard, cut out a triangular shape to form the Christmas tree shape. 6. Glue the poinsettias on the green cardboard, leaving an edge along one side of the tree for gluing. 7. Glue or staple the tree together and place on top of a plant pot decorated with Christmas paper.

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Other suggestions Y The Poinsettia Christmas Tree can be made by groups of children or by the whole class rather than individual children. It can be an ongoing project with children gluing their poinsettias on as they complete them. Y Different sized poinsettias can be made by enlarging and decreasing the size of the stencil. The small poinsettias are used at the top of the tree and the large ones are used towards the bottom of the tree. Y The poinsettias can also be used to make decorative chains, wreaths and decorations for a real Christmas tree. Page 28

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Mexico

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Poinsettia Stencil

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Cooking Activity

Christmas in Mexico

Mexican Christmas RRecipes ecipes Mexican Christmas Cookies Ingredients 1/2 cup almonds 1/2 cup pecans 1 cup butter 1 3/4 cups icing sugar 2 cups flour

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2. Add the butter to the nuts and beat well. 3. Add 1/4 cup of icing sugar and vanilla. 4. Add flour and blend well.

5. Use floured hands to roll dough into a thick log. 6. Slice into 8 pieces. 7. Roll each piece into a rope.

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How to make Mexican Christmas Cookies 1. Finely ground almond and pecans. (This can be done before the lesson. Other less expensive nuts can be used.)

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 10. Cool and in r icingr sugar. •roll f o evi ew pur posesonl y• 8. Cut into balls and crescents.

9. Place on a greased tray and bake for about 16 minutes in a 160º C oven.

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Ingredients 1 small packet of corn chips 1 bottle of taco sauce 1 avocado sour cream grated cheese chopped tomato

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Festive Mexican Dip

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How to make Festive Mexican Dip 1. Place corn chips in a shallow dish. 2. Spread taco sauce over chips. 3. Beat together avocado and sour cream thoroughly. 4. Spread over taco sauce. 5. Sprinkle grated cheese over top.

6. Place tomato around the edge of the dish.

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Christmas in Canada

Christmas in Canada Teacher Infor mation Information Christmas in Canada is influenced by the multi-cultural background of its people. The influence of the French, English and Germans and other European countries is reflected in the traditions and customs which have become part of Christmas in Canada.

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French Canadians

The Canadians of Quebec celebrate their Christmas with a distinctive French flavor, attending Midnight Mass or reveillon on Christmas Eve and calling Santa Claus Pere Noel.

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French Canadians introduced the Nativity scene which is popular in Canada today. In modern Quebec, it is still a custom with some people not to give or receive gifts until New Year’s Day.

English Canadians

Canadians from English backgrounds introduced many Christmas traditions which have become universal, like mistletoe, wreaths, fruit and nuts.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons German settlers brought with them even more wonderful traditions like Advent calendars, gingerbread houses and special Christmas fir tree thato is used for •f o rr e vi e w pcookies. ur pThe os es nl ythe• Christmas tree was introduced by the Germans who had settled in Canada.

Ger man Canadians

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German Canadian children still call Santa Claus Christkindl and Christmas fare includes stollen, a type of bread, and many different types of Christmas cookies.

The First Nations celebrate the winter solstice with gift giving, feasting, singing, dancing and games. Different tribes have their own traditions to celebrate the festive season.

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The Cree nation visit relatives and on Christmas Eve children hang a cloth bag which is filled with toys, gifts and candy. The Iroquois nation celebrates on the first day of the New Year. Children visit their mother’s relatives with a bag that can be filled with apples, candy and doll shaped doughnuts. The Inuit traditions have been influenced by Christian missionaries. Caribou, seal, fish and turkey are traditional favourites and Santa Claus comes for the children. Activities like harpoon throwing, igloo building and the traditional Drum Dance are all part of the festivities.

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas in Canada

Christmas In Canada Go to Site 1: www.kidsdomain.com/holiday/xmas/around/canada.html Go to Site 2: http://www.jeannepasero.com/Christmas/canada.html 1. What countries have influenced Christmas in Canada? What traditions have come from each of these countries?

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2. Why do you think Christmas traditions in America have been influenced by so many different cultures?

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3. In Quebec, which language is predominately spoken? .....................................................

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4. What is Tourti and gravere? ................................................................................................ 5. What is Christmas dinner called in Quebec? What does it mean and when is it eaten?

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6. What is La fete du Roi and when is it celebrated? .............................................................. ............................................................................................................................................... 7. What special custom is observed to mark the end of Christmas in Quebec?

............................................................................................................................................... 8. What is some typical Christmas food that would be eaten by people in Quebec? ............................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas in Canada

Canadian Christmas TTraditions raditions Go to Site 1: www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Noel/angl/sapin.htm Go to Site 2: www.museevirtuel.ca/Exhibitions/Noel/angl/crefami.htm The Christmas TTree ree 1. Who brought the custom of the Christmas tree to Canada? .............................................

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2. Why did the fashion change from small Christmas trees to large ones? ........................... ...........................................................................................................................................

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3. Where are Christmas trees grown in Canada exported to? ...............................................

The FFamily amily Crèche

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1. In which century did the crèche or nativity scene first appear? .......................................... What were they called? ......................................................................................................

2. What did the crèches depict? .............................................................................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 4. Where is the crèche usually placed? .................................................................................. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 5. List the people and animals that you think might be included in a crèche.

3. When did crèches become popular in Quebec? ................................................................

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6. The crèche is traditionally a French tradition. Why do you think the people of Quebec follow many of the customs and traditions of France?

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7. To see some examples of different crèches click on the links at the website. Illustrate one of the crèches below.

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Canada

Christmas Cards Snowflake Card Materials coloured card (25 cm by 18 cm) white paper glue scissors compass or round objects to trace

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How to make a Snowflake Card 1. Fold the coloured card in half.

3. Draw a 9 cm circle on the white paper.

4. Fold the white paper circle into four and cut out small shapes.

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2. On the inside of the card, draw a circle with a diameter of 10 cm. Cut the circle out.

5. Unfold the white paper. Open the coloured card and glue the white snowflake on the right hand side.

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Materials stencils (see next page) thin cardboard (24 cm by 18 cm) green and red pencils, felt tipped pens

How to make a Holly Leaf Card 1. Fold the cardboard in half. (The fold is at the top of the card). 2. Use the stencils to create a border for the edge of the card. Colour in and glue onto card. 3. Using a lettering stencil, put a message in the middle of the card. Add a message to the inside of the card.

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in Canada

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Holly Leaf Card Stencil

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Cooking Activity

Christmas in Canada

Fun in the Canadian Snow Marshmallow Snowman Ingredients marshmallows licorice strap (red licorice straps are available) assorted sweets icing sugar toothpicks

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How to make a Marshmallow Snowman 1. Attach two marshmallows together with toothpicks for the body and the head of the snowman.

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2. Cut one marshmallow in half and attach to each side of the body for arms.

3. Decorate using the sweets. The licorice strap can be used for a scarf and a large sweet for the hat. Smaller sweets can be used for eyes, nose and buttons, etc.

Canadian Christmas TTrees rees

Ingredients Ice-cream cones icing sugar food colouring popcorn assorted sweets

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How to make Cone Trees 1. Turn ice-cream cones upside down on a tray.

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3. While the icing is still wet, decorate with popcorn and sweets. 4. Let stand until set.

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2. Coat the cones using different coloured icing sugar.

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Ingredients 50 g of butter 100 g of icing sugar 1 tablespoon of drinking chocolate coconut

How to make Snowballs 1. Beat the butter and the icing sugar together. 2. Add chocolate and form mixture into small balls. 3. Roll in coconut and set aside to dry.

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Christmas D own Under Down

Christmas Down Under Teacher Infor mation Information New Zealand New Zealand is the first country in the world to celebrate Christmas each year because it is the first country inside the International Dateline. The weather is hot and it is a time of vacations and holiday spirit.

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Throughout December schools celebrate with concerts, pantomimes and carol singing. Because of the warm weather, a lot of these activities are held in the open air.

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Traditional decorations like Advent calendars, wreaths, holly, ivy and stockings are common in homes throughout New Zealand. Children make their own Christmas cards and decorations and, as in most countries, they write to Father Christmas with their Christmas “wish list”. Christmas is a time for families and people travel long distances to be with their families at this time of year.

The celebrations of the Maori people are colourful and full of happiness. They often cook the Christmas chicken, turkey or duck using the hangi, where the food is placed in a hole dug in the ground. Rocks are placed in the hole and a fire is lit. When the rocks are hot the fire is put out. The food, including root vegetables like kumara (sweet potato), is wrapped in aluminium foil and placed in the hole on a metal tray. The hole is then covered and the food is left to cook.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons A sign that Christmas is on its way in New Zealand is that the pohutukawa tree blossoms. f o r r ev ew u r po se s onChristmas l y•Tree. As the • flowers are a bright redi this tree isp often known as the New Zealand Australia

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Christmas in Australia is similar to Christmas in New Zealand. As the weather can be extremely hot, it is a time of holidays by the ocean and camping is very popular at this time of year. Although there has been a trend towards seafood picnics for Christmas lunch, many Australians still celebrate Christmas day with traditional food like turkey and puddings. Some concessions have been made to the hot weather with food being served cold and puddings being made with ice-cream.

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Carols by Candlelight, where people sing both traditional Christmas carols and Australian songs have become very popular. Although this custom began with the miners at a coalfield in Moonta, South Australia in the last century, the first organised Carols by Candlelight was held in Melbourne in 1937 on a stage near the Yarra River. The money that people paid for their candle was donated to charity. Because of Australia’s multi-cultural society many traditions from other countries have become common among the Australian people. Customs such as Advent calendars, Christmas trees, stockings, nativity scenes and Christmas crackers all have their origins in European countries but still feature strongly in an Australian Christmas.

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas D own Under Down

Christmas Down Under Go to Site www.azmetro.com/nzchris.html R Click on Christmas Down Under to answer these. 1. What is the main difference between Christmas in New Zealand and Australia compared to other parts of the world? ............................................................................................................................................... 2. What are some of the traditions that have come from countries in the northern hemisphere?

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............................................................................................................................................... 3. What adaptations to the hot weather have some Australians and New Zealanders made when celebrating Christmas dinner or lunch? ...............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................... R Click on Carols by Candlelight to answer these. 4. When did Carols by Candlelight begin and whose idea was it?.........................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 5. Where was the first Carols by Candlelight held? ................................................................ • f or r ev ew pur posesonl y• 6. Why are candles for Carols byi Candlelight

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sold to the public?

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7. Describe a pohutakawa. .................................. ............................................................................. ............................................................................. 8. Do an illustration of a pohutakawa.

9. Why is this tree struggling to survive? ............................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... Page 38

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas D own Under Down

Family TTraditions raditions Go to Site www.azmetro.com/nzchris.html Click on Family Traditions. R Read the different accounts of the traditions of different families in New Zealand and Australia.

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1. What are some of the unusual things that people do at Christmas time?

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2. What is the most interesting family tradition that you read about at this website?

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R Write an account of your family’s Christmas day. Include information about what you eat, the activities you do, who you visit, how and when you exchange gifts and any unusual family traditions you have.

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas D own Under Down

Christmas Craf rom the Sea Craftt FFrom Seashell Bell Materials small terracotta pot seashells gold spray paint cord, ribbon, glitter, tinsel

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How to make a Seashell Bell 1. Turn the pot upside down and glue shells to the outside of the pot. 2. Spray paint gold. 3. When dry, decorate with ribbon, tinsel, etc. (The pot should be decorated upside down.) 4. Tie a knot at the end of the cord. Thread the cord through the hole in the pot so that the knot prevents the cord passing through. 5. Hang the bell from the cord.

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Materials seashells thread gold paint

2. Spray paint gold.

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3. Thread together to form a garland.

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Christmas Craf Craftt from the Bush

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Nature’s Christmas String

Material gold ribbon and thread eucalyptus tree leaves (or any other leaves from the garden) gumnuts, pine cones, dried flowers craft glue or glue gun dried berries

How to make a Christmas String Using the glue and the thread or ribbon, make a string of all the objects collected from the bush. Some things like leaves can be attached by threading through a hole in the leaf, while other things can be glued or wrapped into bundles with ribbon and tied onto the string.

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Cooking Activity

Christmas D own Under Down

Australian and New Zealand Christmas Cooking Ice-cream Plum Pudding Ingredients vanilla ice-cream mixed fruit (raisins, sultans, cherries, dried peel) chocolate bits nuts

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2. Add the mixed fruit, chocolate bits and nuts. 3. Spoon into a pudding shaped bowl. 4. Cover securely with plastic wrap. 5. Put into the freezer until well set.

Christmas Bush Damper

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How to make an Ice-cream Plum Pudding 1. Soften the ice-cream with a spoon.

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How to make Christmas Bush Damper 1. Rub the butter into the flour. 2. Add salt, sugar, dried fruit and mix.

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Ingredients 2 cups of self raising flour 1/2 teaspoon of salt 2 teaspoons of sugar 2 tablespoons butter 1 cup of milk 1 cup of mixed dried fruit

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4. Knead into a medium soft dough. 5. Add more milk if necessary. 6. Shape into a circle.

7. Bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.

Kiwi FFestive estive FFrr uit Salad

Ingredients variety of fruit 3 kiwi fruit How to make Kiwi Festive Fruit Salad 1. Cut up 2 kiwi fruit and all the other fruit and put in a bowl. 2. Slice 1 kiwi fruit and place on the top of the fruit salad. Ready-Ed Publications

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Christmas in J apan Japan

Christmas in Japan Teacher Infor mation Information Christmas is mostly a commercial, rather than a religious, celebration in Japan as there are not many Japanese people who were raised as Christians. The idea of Christmas in Japan was introduced by missionaries and now the Japanese associate Christmas with gift giving and a time of festivities. Department stores in particular encourage the commercial side of Christmas with huge decorated Christmas trees, plastic and tinsel decorations and Christmas carols being played throughout the Christmas season.

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On Christmas Eve, carols are broadcast by radio stations and those people that are Christians attend church services. The church service often involve pageants of the Christmas story that the characters perform in traditional dress. After the service it is common to have a tea party where children are encouraged to dance, sing and play games. The Japanese Christmas cake is a sponge cake, decorated with trees, flowers and other Christmas symbols, made with white icing.

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Inter net Activity Internet

Christmas in J apan Japan

Christmas In Japan Go to Site 1: www.the-north-pole.com/around/Japan.html Go to Site 2: www.santas.net/japanesechristmas.htm 1. Who introduced Christmas to Japan? ........................................................ 2. What are some of the western Christmas traditions that have been adopted by Japan?

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3. Who is Hoteiosho? ............................................................................................................. ...............................................................................................................................................

Illustrate what you think Hoteiosho might look like.

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4. What is the most important day of the year in Japan? .......................................................

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5. What are some of the activities that the Japanese people do on this day? ........................ ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... 6. Why do you think that Christmas in Japan has only been celebrated in recent times? ............................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... Ready-Ed Publications

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Art & Craft Activity

Christmas in J apan Japan

Japanese Christmas Craf Craftt Japanese FFan an Materials length of Christmas lace (30 cm by 10 cm) or length of Christmas paper clothes peg ribbon, cord or curling ribbon

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2. Open up and spread glue along the bottom edge of the fan.

3. Concertina again and hold the bottom of the fan in place with a peg.

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How to make a Japanese Fan 1. Carefully concertina the length of paper lace or Christmas paper.

4. When the glue is dry a ribbon or cord can be tied in a decorative knot around the bottom of the fan. If curling ribbon is used the edges can be curled with scissors. 5. Other decorations like holly, dried flowers and beads can be used.

Paper Chains

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Materials Christmas paper hole punch pinking shears

2. Use pinking shears to trim the edge of some strips.

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3. Use the hole punch to create a pattern on other strips.

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How to make Paper Chains 1. Cut strips, 2 cm × 16 cm, from Christmas paper.

4. Glue two strips together so both the inside and the outside of the chain links are decorated.

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5. Glue the chain together.

Materials Christmas paper scissors

How to make a Christmas Lantern 1. Cut out a 30 cm by 15 cm piece of Christmas paper. 2. Fold paper in half lengthways. 3. From the folded edge, cut inwards every 2 cm. Be careful not to cut to the edge of the paper. 4. Unfold lantern and glue together. Add a handle. Page 44

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Cooking Activity

Christmas in J apan Japan

Japanese TTreats reats for Christmas Festive Sushi Ingredients sushi nori ( seaweed wrappers) soy sauce leftover turkey, chicken, duck, ham, etc cooked rice

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How to make Festive Sushi 1. Evenly spread a small amount of rice on a seaweed wrapper. (A bamboo mat can be used to lay the seaweed wrapper on.)

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2. Add small pieces of meat on top of the rice.

3. Wrap the seaweed wrapper up carefully. It should be done quite firmly and is easier if you use a bamboo mat to help. 4. Slice into 2 cm rolls and serve with soy sauce.

Strawber Strawberrr y Banana Shake Ingredients 1 small block of tofu (soy bean curds) 1 ripe banana strawberries

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons How to make a Strawberry Banana Shake •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. Put all the ingredients in a blender and blend well.

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Japanese Christmas Cake Decorations

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Ingredients 500 g of icing sugar 1 egg white 1 teaspoon of lemon juice sweets

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2. Serve chilled.

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How to make Japanese Christmas Cake Decorations 1. Mix all the ingredients into a thick pliable paste. 2. Sprinkle some icing sugar on a bread board. 3. Roll out paste to about 1 cm thick. 4. Cut out Christmas shapes.

5. You can also use the paste to shape Christmas figures like snowmen and Christmas trees. The paste needs to be quite stiff for this activity. 6. Use the sweets to decorate the shapes. Ready-Ed Publications

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More Christmas Ar Artt and Craf Craftt Y Painted Glass Using play dough Y Christmas Wreath

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Y Doily Christmas Cards Y Decorative Christmas Shapes Y Sweets Basket

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Working with paper

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Art & Craft Activity

More Christmas Craf Craftt Painted Glass Glass plates, bowls, glasses and even old jam jars can be decorated with glass paint and used as containers for Christmas gifts like nuts, sweets and chutneys. Small gifts such as hair clips and marbles can also be placed in a decorated glass jar. This is also an alternate to a Christmas cracker on the Christmas dinner table and allows the gifts to be far more varied and personalized.

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How to make your painted glass gift. 1. Make sure the glass is very clean.

2. Decorate the glass container by working on a small area at a time. (Practise your design first on a piece of paper.) 3. Let the container dry.

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Materials glass container or bowl glass paint (This is available from craft, variety and department stores.) brushes

Other suggestions Y Glass paint thinner may be needed to thin the paint or to wipe away any errors. Teacher supervision will be needed if glass paint thinner is used.

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Y It is a good idea to plan a simple pattern first and practise with normal paint. A simple idea is to slip a piece of paper with a design on inside the bottle and press it against the sides. The design can then be “traced”. Y A simple repeated pattern using spots and lines is the best design for beginners. Y Glitter, tinsel and fluorescent shapes can be glued on to glass.

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Y Glass containers can also be decorated with Christmas stickers. Y After the glass container is painted and filled with the gift it can be further decorated with ribbons and gift tag cards.

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Y If the jar is to be used for home made chutneys or sauces, a piece of Christmas craft material could be placed over the top of the jar once it has been sealed. This could be held in place with ribbon.

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Y If a bowl has been decorated and filled with nuts or lollies, it can be wrapped in cellophane and secured with a ribbon. Y Candles can also be decorated with glass paint.

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Art & Craft Activity

More Christmas Craf Craftt Using Play Dough The recipe for play dough is on Page 18. Play or salt dough can be used in a variety of ways. It can be painted after baking or left the natural colour. To give it a glazed finish you can brush it with a mixture of egg and milk before you bake it or use a varnish on it after it has been baked. Many different Christmas shapes and decorations can be made with this salt dough.

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How to make a Christmas Wreath from dough. 1. Shape three rolls about 30 cm long and with about a 2 cm diameter. 2. Plait the three rolls together and shape into a circle.

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Materials dough

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3. Use the dough to make a variety of shapes like fruit, vegetables, leaves, flowers, stars and holly. 4. Place the shapes around the wreath and join with a little water.

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5. Brush with an egg and milk mixture and bake in a 150º C oven for about an hour or until the dough is hard.

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Material dough tools to decorate dough (pencils, toothpicks, fork, etc.) How to make a Christmas Angel 1. Make the triangular body shape from the dough.

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Christmas Angel

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2. Make the wings and attach to the angel with a little water. 3. Make a head and attach to triangle body shape.

4. Use tools to decorate the wings, face and body of the angel.

5. Use an egg and milk glaze and bake the angel in a 150º C oven until hard.

6. The angel can be painted after baking instead of being glazed before baking.

Other suggestions Y Many Christmas shapes can be made using this dough. Candles, Christmas stockings and stars are other simple shapes that can be easily shaped using salt dough. Y Christmas cookie cutters can be used to make the shapes out of the dough.

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Art & Craft Activity

More Christmas Craf Craftt Working with PPaper aper Papier-mâché bowl Materials mould (A bowl in the shape required.) different coloured tissue paper glue (wallpaper glue) paintbrush Vaseline

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How to make a Papier-mâché bowl. 1. Cover the outside of the bowl with petroleum jelly. 2. Tear the tissue paper into small strips and glue over bowl. 3. Do several layers and then let the bowl dry completely. 4. Trim the edges if necessary and remove the papier mâché shape carefully from the bowl.

Other suggestions Y If you use plain white tissue paper, the bowl can be painted a Christmas colour like gold or red when it has dried, and then varnished. Y For a different Christmas look, white tissue paper could be used for every layer except the top layer. The top layer can be decorated with gold, red, silver or green strips of paper or any combination of these Christmas colours. Y If white tissue paper is used, Christmas shapes like angels, candles and stars can be glued on the top layer. Y The bowl can be filled with simple objects such as shells or pasta that has been spray painted gold and wrapped in cellophane paper. Y The bowl can also be used for nuts or sweets and given as a Christmas gift.

Christmas TTray ray

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Materials 3 different sized paper plates glue cardboard tubes (toilet roll) paper cup paint and spray varnish

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How to make a Christmas Tray. 1. Glue a toilet roll into the centre of the top of the largest paper plate. You may need to use strips of newspaper to secure the roll properly. 2. Glue the middle-sized plate onto the top of the toilet roll. (Use strips of newspaper if necessary.) 3. Glue another toilet roll onto the second plate. 4. Glue the smallest plate on top of the roll. 5. Cut a decorative edge on the top of the paper cup and glue on top of the small plate. 6. Cover the tray with two layers of newspaper, making sure the edges and surfaces are smooth. 6. Paint with a Christmas design. 7. When the tray is dry it can be varnished. Ready-Ed Publications

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Art & Craft Activity

More Christmas Craf ts Crafts Doily Christmas Cards Material A selection of round and square paper doilies. Christmas paper and old Christmas cards Christmas stickers glue ribbons, foil paper, glitter, etc.

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How to make Christmas cards from doilies. 1. Experiment with different ways to fold the different shaped and sized doilies. The folds must be done so that the corners fold inwards to create an envelope effect.

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2. Using old Christmas cards and gift wrap, cut out pictures of angels, Santa Claus, Three Wise Men, etc. and glue them onto the doilies as shown. 3. Fold in the flaps and decorate by gluing on stickers and pictures. 4. Glue ribbons onto the inside of the flaps and tie together. Other suggestions Y The Christmas shapes for the cards could be cut out of gold, red, green or silver paper using Christmas stencils, or children can draw their own shapes and cut them out. Y Parts of the doilie could be painted gold or silver. Page 50

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Art & Craft Activity

More Christmas Craf Craftt Decorative Christmas Shapes

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Materials corrugated cardboard gold spray paint gold tinsel, ribbon, glitter and thread stencils (See Page 52)

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How to make Decorative Christmas Shapes 1. Use the stencils to cut out a Christmas shape of corrugated cardboard. The stencils can be enlarged and decreased for different sized shapes. 2. Spray paint the shapes gold.

3. When the shapes are dry, glue the tinsel around the edge of the shapes or on the angel’s wings, etc. (This is optional.)

4. Use the gold tinsel, ribbon or thread to wind around the shape and to form a loop tohang the decoration from the Christmas tree.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Other suggestions 5. Different sizes off the same shape can be glued together to make a more interesting design. This is especially effective with the simple shapes like stars and moons.

Y Any cardboard could be used for this activity, particularly if it has an interesting texture.

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Y These decorations can also be painted silver, red or green. They are more effective if they are painted and decorated in only one or two colours.

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Y When gluing two different sized shapes together, two different types of cardboard could be used for the shapes.

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Sweets Basket

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Material coloured cardboard basket stencil (Page 53)

How to make a Sweets Basket 1. Use firm cardboard and the stencil to cut out the basket shape. 2. Make the basket as shown. 3. Glue the handle on.

Other suggestions Y The basket can be painted or decorated before it is constructed. Y The basket could be covered with Christmas paper or Christmas fabric before construction. Y Bows, holly, tinsel and ribbons can be used to decorate the finished basket. Ready-Ed Publications

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Art & Craft Activity

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Christmas Shapes Stencils

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Art & Craft Activity

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Sweets Basket Stencil

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More Christmas Shapes

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Answers Page 5 Christmas Words

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Page 6 The People of Christmas

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Noel: Another word for Christmas (France); Yule: The Christmas season or festivities (England); Wassail: The singing of Christmas carols house to house (Scandinavia); Carol: A joyful hymn or religious song (France); Lebkuchen: A Christmas biscuit (Germany); Frankincense: An aromatic gum resin obtained from a tree (France); Panettone: Spiced bread (Italy); Hallacas: Cornmeal pastries filled with spicy meat (Venezuela); Bonbon: A Christmas cracker (France); Oplatek: Christmas wafer (Poland); Presepio: Nativity scene (Italy); Piñata: A shape filled with treats that suspended in the air and hit with a stick to release the treats (Mexico); Posadas: A tradition commemorating Mary and Joseph’s search for lodgings. (Mexico); Felis Natal: Merry Christmas (Portugal).

1. Modern day elf (Norway); 2. Father Christmas (Germany); 3. St Nicholas’ servant (Netherlands); 4. Good witch who leaves presents for good children and lumps of coal for bad children (Italy); 5. Baby Jesus (Italy); 6. Father Christmas (Norway); 7. Santa Claus (Sweden); 8. Santa Claus (China); 9. Three Wise Men; 10. Santa Claus (Japan). Page 8 Universal Christmas Traditions

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 1. Tom• Smith, 1847; 2.e Baker; 3. France, bonbon; 4. Answer wills vary; 5.n Masks, puzzles, f o r r v i e w p u r p o s e o l y • conundrums, jewels, games, mottoes, messages, love verses, cartoons, jokes, riddles,

1. George Webster, 19th Century; 2. Thomas Nast; 3. Shoes, Europe; 4. Answers will vary.

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1. Magi; 2. Sir Henry Cole; 3. Bethlehem; 4. Nazareth; 5. Christ child; 6. Creche; 7. Yule log; 8. Italy; 9. Holland: 10. Baboushka; 11. Shoes; 12. Tom Smith; 13. Julinesse; 14. Father Mohr and Father Gruber; 15. Frankincense, myrrh, gold; 16. Balthazar, Melchoir, Gaspar; 17. 6 th January; 18. An early Christian bishop; 19. St. Stephen’s Day; 20. A Viking festival to celebrate midwinter.

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1. The Virgin Mary; 2. A miniature Nativity scene; 3. It means “dance of six” but ten boys perform it; 4. The last day of the Christmas season, it celebrates the visit of the Magi to Jesus; 5. Family gathers for rejoicing and feasting, attend church; 6. Shoes, the Magi (in particular Balthazar).

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Answers Page 14 Holiday Traditions in Spain 1. People jumping over fire; 2. Christmas trees, fruits, flowers, sweets, candles, decorations and gifts; 3. The midnight mass on Christmas Eve; 4. Turkey with truffles; 5. Mushroom-like delicacy; 6. Caramel custard.

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Wise men; Bethlehem; Children; straw; Epiphany Eve; small gifts; Balthazar. 1. 6th January; 2. To see baby Jesus; 3. To feed the animals the Wise Men were riding; 4. He is believed to be the gift bringer.

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Page 26 Christmas in Mexico

1. Feliz Navidad; 2. December 16th; Mary and Joseph’s journey to Bethlehem; Children; Replicas of Mary and Joseph on a burro; Candles; 3. Pottery or paper decorated container; Sweets and toys; Blindfolded children hit suspended Pinata with a stick; 4. Answers will vary; 5. Tamalses, rice, rellenos, menudo. Page 32 Christmas in Canada

1. France - nativity, carols; Germany - trees, ornaments, England - cards, Ireland candles, U.S. - Santa Claus, Czechoslovakia, Japan - decorations; 2. Answers will vary; 3. French; 4. Stew with potatoes, meat, onion and gravy; 5. Reveillon, waking up; 6. The end of Christmas - 6th January; 7. Bake a cake with a bean in it. Whoever gets the bean is the king or queen; 8. Turkey, duck, rice pudding.

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1. General Von Reisesel in 1781; 2. Metal tree stands; 3. U.S., Mexico, Venezuela, Germany.

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1. 17th Century; Infant Jesus; 2. Christ, saints; 3. 1875; 4. Under the Christmas tree; 5. Mary, Joseph, Infant Jesus, cows, sheep, shepherds; 6. Answers will vary.

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Page 38 Christmas Down Under

1. Summer, hot weather; 2. Answers will vary; 3. Picnics, cold food; 4. Norman Banks, 1938; 5. Sidney Myer Music Bowl in Melbourne; 6. Money for candles was donated to charity; 7. New Zealand Christmas Tree; 9. Introduced possums eat them. Page 41 Christmas in Japan

1. Missionaries; 2. Answers will vary; 3. A god or a priest who resembles Santa Claus; 4. New Year’s Day; 3. Houses cleaned, decorated, people dress in finest clothes, throw beans in corners of the house to drive out the evil spirits; 6. Because most people in Japan are not Christians.

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Christmas Around the World  

As a Christian festival, Christmas is celebrated on a global scale with many countries lending special aspects of their life and culture to...

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