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STUDENT PUUICATIO N

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1110 S1£11UICSU WI ltlltr 11/nt, l...,. .... kon.oo fl t-2111 WID IIIII • IIHU UI..,H • IMOIOIWKJ • M l _ . • IHSIUtl

vol. l no. 2

polron &ubtcriptlon '"11Uior •ubwlptio~

fall 1955

$10.00

~or

$ A.OO ~or

lnde,.ndonl iludonl p11b1lcotlon inued twice o yeor

c..-: light .,oclulcrto< by Don ,.,..,.. plootograph by Klyo>)oi Ki:uchl

STUDENT PUBLICATION

box 2127 ann orb«, michigan


Eliz.abeth Douvan

2

EOfTOitlAI.

5

SOCIAL SCIENa AND ARCtiiTKTUU

Roncdd Goodfellow 10

TOWARD INTtGitATB> ltATlONAl MOBU AUTONOMY

Wcdter A. Petnh4ns

22

VISUAL TIIAINING

Ki)'oshi Kilu.u:hi

33

INTERNATlONAl DESIGN CONFERENCE 1955, ASPEN

WiiiMd A. Oberdiclt

42

ltESfAIICH: PRECAST THIN SHEllS


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wclt, romcin td&C:II

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fotJ to make them

opet'Otionol.

<>-aUy the proceu of brinqing to * r upon indi.iduat problems concept> ocquired llwu ,..,_, ond iniUilion rerooains oubjecsiva ar>d onysteriov$. Todoy ,_,. designen ,.. trying to rotionalil.e creo1ivenen, This aniiude points. out the failure on ovr port to undetStand design os o comprehens•ve process in whid1 ovt who'• boir1g, and not only

,..oson, should participate. To paint out this failur<> is easy. To sugoest o solution is lhe attempt of the present editorial.

We are in ev•ry sen$e svrvi.,ors and offspring_• of the $trong bottl• thot for several decodes mode-rn orti$t$ fovght ogolnst Ecle-ctlc:tun. For this reoson our irtheritonc:e tndud•s. not only the ac<:Ompliohmonts, bur also the wour>ds and prejudices necessory os tools of victory. We &ve in o post·modorr>i>l world, ar>d ille dar>Qer of <>very " pas!" mov.menr ;, the ter>der>ey to d<Koy. Wl101l10r !hit is tnlo or 1101 in ovr presentg-atioto we sh<>uld be wary of the cyclic pal!ern of lho greor hisroricol mo..,ments.

w•

con Wive to i&erch Roi•ctlng a fatoli$tic o11iludo as oppo"'d to freedom and growth for bases of fvtore devolopment In the aggregate of contemporary under.,anding in phllo•aphy, S<ienco, ond art. Although the aggregate cannot bo deS<ribed her• in its complex totality, w~ should like to reler to contemporory PhiloS<>phy - especially Metophysics - sinoo for obviouo reooons tho question• of beir>Q, space, time, etc.•.• hov• bMn at the root$ of evttry arth.1ic and $t:ie-tttifk move-ment of po$t ood pre~nt. We o re no1 coo-t>ed hent with lh• complete h istorical bockgtOUftd of the pregat ,.,r>der>ci••· In o 9-"0rol way th.y c<>r> bo traced bock to ontiqLJity ar>d mere di<e<tly to Hagel . Tho deciJi..., rurning paint occurred in the thought of Soren Kie•~egoard, who d~ed exactly o "f'ltvry ago. Klerkegoard's worSt. unrecognized by his con1emporariH, como Into effect vpon Edmond Husser!'• theo1ies an Phenomenology. Today we tho development, and Improvement of Kierkegoord's work in the wrltir>QS ot Heidoggor,

fX>''""

Jospers, Marc.et Sartre ond mony othen.

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What oro some of '"""' concepti and ~ow con th&y subotontially ofleet our ottilvdes toward de•i;n?

for the first lime we meet o .....,. rheory of beif19 bo!ed upon exlster•c. and ~yi..g tho reality of euences. All of the phllo>ophic:al th-ies of the patt were concerned with the "wha-r· of th\t1g$, rhar ii with essence$_, s.om• O<"ptjne t)\err exi,tence ond others rejocting them. Today oven tho question of the r•olity of ellence i> denied os ab1urd. Our concern is ttot "what thin;• are"6 blolt 11how thoy are". The dimen1ional impHco,ttQra il a re-newal of subie<.tivity, o 1tate of constont Aux in which exb'l ence btcorn&s dynamic: and rnon o process in ttme. Th• th&ory e1ovatM human existence abe>vo tho luporfluifios of error and truth, tho obs.oluto ond the reloHve, th& absttoct and the ~. and oil tt.. he><ouH>g concdflb with wNch we have tried lor c.nturiel IC> hid& our own lear or "despair" before tl.o reality: ......., ore not",

"we just exist".

Tho impact of this existential dynomltm '""'' IC> b• expr•>Sod in ,.voral 20th century mov6mt'nts in paintin9, music, and archltedure - for •xompl& Synthetic Cubbm, Futuritm, and Funetionoliom. We might especially refer lo the work. of Pico110, Boyer, Colder and Buckministor fuller. FrMdom

f1om !he exhtoMial lh&ary of beit19 derives o n&w thee>ry of freedom. Traditionally we rega1d l<ee<lom m psyc!tologicat, iA. we dooose SOIIIefhif19 lhat alr...dy •lli>ls. Not sa for Kiertc.goard. for him lreedaro is ontolagQ:ol, 1001 psychalovical, ;..,. nyou aeare whot you choate.P Satire has gone lur1hor . 1<1 apply tho concept to hum on existenc• rn its totolity. Man, who is not an e$-Mtlc• but Ot'l existence, con set a proogrom lor hlmMII and beeame what he ontologically wonts 1<1 be. le" phllos.ophkally man i' concel'fed a' on odventurer who Wing pure existence MIS out to conqver Gn

enence .

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Our own e.xperienc& in dM;;n might help w to vt~der~tond the n-ew orientatlon. Whenever we choose a new or pnt..existent concept we do not consid•r ""'ndreds ol oThen. thot we 111ay apply. The .......," is thot we c....mt or ro·treote tho condltiono that make the choa nece,.ory. WJ,o,.ver we ch00$8 Is oc1ually created by limltlr\g the approoch and putting 0\Jf'lelve'S within o por1ic\llor set of dtc..,mstonccn. The most important sTep in the design procen t>.c.omos the choice, i.e. tl·•• creation or rfl~(r•otion of the frome of rotfuence - malriK wi!l.in whi<h lnot solution evolvotL The frame of reference ~hovld be ocmp.-ohenslve of the clrcumsiG~>ees. Time

What to choractorlttic about time io that It ls compooed c>f ttw.., pha•os: the pool, tho present. and Th• future. tf tfme ho1 three uoges that c.onnof simultaneously c.o-exist, th• temporol lacks any obsolu,. reality. Ttoo.efore thln~J• can c>nly take tompo<OI meaningt against a bockgnovnd of eternity IIKrt contlsto in the duplication 011d reduplication of at!rlbulo~ or qualir"''· Tl'oo otemal then boco""'' the pro,.nt against which po.t and future oro beilt9 oontinul>usly reidentified.

t""•

In lhi5 concept of tho historical >ludy of art acquit.. o new moaning. The Art ond An:h~ctvro of the posl ora of ..,luo becauoe of th~ own conlempct<X1eovsness, which constiMes the identical relollonoltip lnol our awn An and Architocture hova In roiOiion to our lime. Eclec:llci•m it tlletefo,. reaffirmed as on absurdity in every fio1c!. These kw concept• lhot ore tuggettod here presnt on uample of ~>no theory within ana field, !hal may help us to onderstond our own svblectivlty and give us more confidence lo operate. We belie"" lh<>l o greater vndorttonc!ing of "'""' people do in othH fie1d.s. outside design can ghe us bos.e1 to overcom& diffkvki•s in the conception of a dotign philooophy, and in mokin; ~ oper01ionol. A• d.,igners wo mllll open our curiotity and our mlndo oo !hot the groat inheritance from tho near post will bo II'OII$Cended by on O<iglnal opprococh 1011ndly relo1ed 10 the oggrOQote of contempanc>ry understanding.


Elizabeth Dorwan sr~mcy rt~ttn•(h.

uuivcr1it)'

nJ

di1'tl'tCJr

,,·c:hig<~ n

SOCIAt SCIENCE AND ARCHITECTURE

It seem'\ on obvious proposition - e-'sting r;;irOJmstonces notwith.sklnding - tl1ot ~dol lho.td be in-.:1 in eoch ollleT's p<odU<JS and onx;oo, to promote a-oss-fertilizotion between their two fie1ch. The arc:hiJect, ut~like the point&t

S<iet>li>ts ond o rchoKt<

and sculptet, cappltes hit erect ive powers to the s.o-lution ol a hYman social problem. His work e<:~rnpel!. him to moke C:trtcin O»umption:s obout the ooture aod needs of mon, ond the meaning of th& good life. Clearly he hos. on intere11 io odvaoces in the systematic vnder~tonding of man, sine:e thl 9reotar our knowiedee of rnon, the more voltd will be his O$$UmpHons..

The orchited'i role as o ioclol •t~gineer ol:so requires thot he bring his own values into hi• work. He builds hou>O> which will ollow people lo live the ~ind of life he onvisl<>n> os desiroble. He pions communilies to il"'clode focilitioe$ for o4;1ivilie$ he believe& ro be enjoyoble Qnd bfoadening. In fo rmttl' times men often acte-d o.s lhough lhttir v~Jve) were f'lot mottefs of preference, bvt of unlver1al feet. Today. with o\l.r greater comm\lnlc:ation

ond knowledg•. we con 'ee that o range of 1olvt~n e:xisb for ony given human need, and thot the pO<ticvlor solution ••lettod is o moller of thoice or belief about who! is good. While this i> of1en o SOU<t• of doolb! in O<K modern wa<kl. ~ olso permil> the mo" uruquely lwmon of all oelions. II we differ~ molttr< ol value front lho><t ol foct o~ o.t1ic:ulo1e oltcMo.live poU'tions on questions of voloe, we ope.n opportvnilie' for me-n to malce conscious and considered choic:e.s where pttt>tiously no c:hoic:e seemed available - thot is. where man wos pteviously mechonicolly buRe-l•d by lrodltlon or miscC>nception or unrecognized prefudlce. Such distinctions ond clorificotlons of values ore pott of the rosk of 1oc.io1 science. The 6ocial sci~ntist. for his port. find& In orchj:'ect11rol produc1~ o ri(h sovrc::e of ln$ight into a c1.1lture's vCJives ond onumptlons tegord ing life. Sjnc& on~hiteetvre is o .olvtion

to the prob1~m of shelt&r, it beo" a functional relotion ro the physi<ol ond todol conditions of lif~ in the society. At an on form it moy express mot~y of rh• unconsc;ovs. and irrotioool o.ssutnptlon:S which each cuhute makes obout IHe. Ju~t as it rev•ols lh4: ~ociety's compttenoee ond s.ophisticotlon In handling physico! reol ity. orchi••ch,r• yields

information obovt more subll<> qualities of a people. Fe< ~•omple. o •tvdy of buildif!Q> would be Mlpfvl in onoW<!ting ony of the following qv0>1ion< oboul o society•

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1, How iJ the relotlon betw••tl mon and nature conce1vtd? I• the world of narure seen O$ on uncontroUoble and hanh odversofy ogoinit which mcsfl mu•t build doftruive wolh, or ot o retgHve1y control1ob1e and non-threatening

sphere which mon con us• o'

g

setting for his own life and en a source

of pleasure? 2 . Whot ;, the dominant concept;cn of the """~vers-e and men's relation to it? Is the mode of thought primor~y rolioMJI 0< mystic?

.... ;m.gmtiftg "'"""" of fOllOily life, Oftd how is a organized? b the lam~y primorily o p<oducing or a Com\1111ing unit? Is tho nO<., on eJ<ioncled fomily, or i$ lhe elemen1ol 10clol unit re$h'icted to o mon, Ms wife, and thoir immQture offspdng? A, Whot is the cvhur•'s onitudo toword chitd.roi$itlg? Whet• in the home is spa~ ~et oside for chHdren, and whot t$ the f'elotive d itffibution of space to children oncl adults? 5. What i• the cultvral eoncoptlon of privacy ond how hl9hly is it valued? How ;, 5ocial intet""OC:tion viewed end u'ed?

3. What -

&y juxtoposing the conremporory American house

O<ICI other rime>, we

,..;H. ito """"..,.,.., in other covnlrios moy highlight tile value• ood O$$u..,.,tiDtls It uniq""ly impt..,., Let

us consid•r a few e,.;amples.

the concept of privacy

A number ol olomonls in cvrrent homo architeclure in the U.S. 1uggest a d ... ompha•i• on penono1 ond family privocy. Compared to E..,ropean trodition, 'he Americon home ha$ alwoyt been leu concernGd Qbovt privacy and hal occer~ted openneu and availability to the passer·by. The high 1hrub, protective wall, and borrtd window ore likely 'o be omong the mo5-t t~riking firu lmpression1 goined by on Am•rie:an abroad. It is only by <011ttm1 thot our ui\Obstructod lawn• ond open porch• • become remarkable. '"• interio< ol American homo1 hos abo bun len empltofic about privoqr. At Ieos! on the moin floot, planning i.s 1'1'\0r• d'lorccteristi-calty open~ 'lll'ilh few if any lockable

chamben. But the Amorioon home of today control!$ also with tho homtt in out own eountry of o f.w decade• 090 in lhit respect. It i1 os though in our eogornen to 1-ee 011t - to ~olidat• our own beha•ior ogointr t~o conc:ensvs. of Ovf neigt.bon, or perhops. to see whot 1h• Joneies gre vp to now - wo hgd los-t inle-res.t in restr•ctin; any oreo of our own lives from pvblic view. We ate In the kab~ of con•;d•ring family life en " legit;more wbjw of public cfl$f>loy. hc:~t been from the multi·story to the ono·level pion . And thi• change refle(ts, among other th;ng•, a reduction in 1ho Yalue ptaced on privacy. No door or woll olfofd~ the some kind of

Tt!e mot.t ob..,iovs ond ext-ensive chon-go in home building in rtcent 1ime1

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obstac1• to normal comml.micotiOI"' ond social traffic that is produced by s.~.o~per-imposing

ftoor spoces. The muhi·stor;•d house

p~rmitted

ond encouraged the '•porotion of vorlou• spheres

of fomily Hfa. The moin. Aoor comprised rooms- used predominort11y for <ommuno1

oc1i-;Hies tit.:• eoti,g ot~d recreotion. ond tho-te other octlvlti•s n•c•uory to famUy maintenance. The oreo up$toirs. in addition to hou$ing the family's sleepin9 quor1ers., had o numb-er of sp~c~oliz.ed fvnctions. It wo~ the shelter for Jiclcneu, the refuge of emotion, th-e comfort on roiny days. Children were born h•re. Ol\d the 11ursery ond sewing roOm$ were por1 of ifl accommodations. Th• upper stotiet of the house held ou.oc1caliOM with warmth, prQtKtion and emotion. Tho moin fiool' wos. the home of

work 0<1<1 social ploy. One mi9ht soy the Ant floor represented tho ego l•nctions, the upper "-> the "'elings end impulses of the home.

lodoy tt.ese honctioru 01e ..CI. os ~ were. reduced ro one le.,.l. They ore in conseqvnce 1om diotinctly ~ areas of experienu. T~e mufli>itOI'y orror>geo>Oflt also mod. ~ """" loosi!M ro dofine cloorly lhose areas open to acqUQinl<>nceo and lhowo ,_...,j to f.,.ily and i"tirnate friends. The houoe of fifty ye<>rs 090 ~ """" R..u d'rlloronliotioM in awmibilit y permi!tecl voriou> clon.es of people. In addition to the v.,.icol seporolion, there wos a special porlor - dosed off from doily lifo - ...t.ich wos resorv.d for ""tettcMnment of "guest\"'., os di$tinguished from neighbor• and ~ fotN1* ocquaintanc:M.. Entertoil\~ M8hf if\ this room (Qrri.ed certoin honorific connotolioM, bvl oJ10 lcept tf1e ¥ilitor from tho heart of the he>use ond from the busy cenlttr> ol lomo1y moint..,once ond family life.

"'"'"be"

Again" the movement 1n modern homes. ho\ been toward d is.crr!i"'lation of these de:greti of acceuibility. The vi1•1or in o contemporary hous.e hot p•t\etroted a good many as.pecH of fomily life tfte moment he enter'~. He moy s.it in lhe llvin; room., ar.d hoW'& a vida of kitc:hen, dining, and livin9 tpoce~ or once. In foct in rnony co~ts he need nDt enter the hou'8 ol aU to hove o fairly comple1e view of the lif• it contoina. The geniu~ of our oth.or·clirected ero ho~ de)ioned windows ond wolls which moke fami1y 1ife ever more ovoilcble to the casuol observer.

ch lid,.., in lite home

In Vi(1orion days childfen were to be seen ond not heord, and the Victorian home

expre>led rhi• telotion between adult• ond children by placing the children in o ot the top of the hou•• - isololecl from the maln1treom of odult file e•cept ''" periods of eoting1 entertainment, and e-Jlhibition to vltltort, all of which were relet1ively cl•orfy delimited.

""""'Y

Today'• home i• disrinctly child-centered. Work, play, ond •looping 1poce1 flow Vl\obstrv<tedly into each other in our oingle·level houtlng, ond no part of the house

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;, specifccolly reW!rved for adults. A family room i< o p((IMio>ent f<totur& of many contemporary plans, ond the children'• ploy oreco - if it is distinct from th& family ploy >poe&, is choraeteristieolly located next to the kitchen >o th<rt child fen ore intil~Jr<rted even into the mother's work life. work aiMI play

Tho c:ont•mporary home differs from iii antecedent! <1lso in tho ollocotion of space ta work and ploy. To on increasing extent fif~ tn 1he family setting is focvslrtg on rocreotion rather thon work. Today few men engage in occupotlonol pvrsults a! home, and many elements of the hovWiwif_.s wofk fole hove been taken over by manufacturers or romovtd from the home. Our hovses reflect these changes. The library or >tudy or studio in the home elthef hos disappeared or i> treated os on extension of the living room. Tho sewing room is a thing of the poll, kitchens ond laundry rooms are reduced in siu and often also flow out of general living quartets. One may object at this point that the deletion or reduction of the>e rooms i• o response 10 ocanomic prenure, or that th& >mall hou>e will not accommodate so mony •pecial·

purpose roam< thai nand idle for long periods. Bvt the evidence is inho•pitable to thi• obj&ctio". At the some lime that the library and <ewing room hove been eliminated f((IM tile floor plan, a oew room - o ploy room or second living room in on informal idiom has often been odcl&d. In >Ome model pions there is a stot>dord living room, a family room, and on artongement in the bo,.ment which provicl&< for eventual frons· formation of this orea into o r&ueotion room os, welt The urbon family hen not been a work unit for perhaps half o century - the house-shop or hauso-factory i• a port of the dimming po<t. 8ut todoy even !he work of th& hood of lh& hou.e is more clearly isolated from his fomily that> wos !rue in the lost generation when many ortisons and profouionats work&d directly out of the home. The Japone<e house at the Museum of Modern Art reveal> tho opposite oriofllation In an interesting way. Here the largest spaco is dominotecl by o desk which iden~fies the nalur• of the occupant's work. In our society oo >ymbols of oce<Jpotion ore apparent in thtt do•ign of a mon's home. We hove clecllt with some examples of the way in which the value< of a society tfansmitt&d through the oftill - Of& reflected in th& plan af dwelling•. However, the onumption.s thot 1he or<hitact mokes do not involv• question• of vofu• alone. Soma also Imply questioM of fact. To cite o minor exomple, tho expanding u<e of glon in the home implies on cmumption thot the occupants eithor hove no strong oggre ..ive impvlses of at leost !hot they of& able, from o v&ry early age, lo keep ho>tilily from croslling throvgh p<ychologicol control$ and glo» walls. Tho $0Cial psychologist would soy that tit& ossumption i< reasonably well justifi&d in

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tho,. ,.gmento of the populotion for which modern houseo ore currently being built. But he would olso point out that designs bastd on fomiliority with upper middle <lou notdo and behavior might be quite inappropriote to other parh of tho community where d irocl aclin; out of host~e impuls., is nO! discouraged and ;. often actvolly provoked In dlilclren a s a \ign ol 0 Spitit."

Another OHumption of psychological laet is "'91iJeoted by the mulli·purpose space concept. When. lor example, no spoce in o house is opecifically de•l;ned "' o sllldy, a desk moy b• provided in the living or dininliJ room. Such o treotmenl assume< that moo is broodly adaptable - os adoptable os the space- ond thot elllcient work doe• not require a place uniquely associated with and bearing the tradition ond troppin91 of work. Such an assumption would be otron;ly contested by mony people. including mony psychologis,.. In deoling with the que.6on of privacy c.-roln f0<111al as....,prio•n are oko implied. While a 'SOC:iety coo c-hoos.e be-tween greotet or leu pers.onal ptivocy. 'her• may be timib in •ithtr d irection beyond which th• hvmon mec:honism ca~not go without serious ill conH~uenc•s. A.rad ot ony rote there oro c•ttoin fods known about people'• need' for i\OiotCon w•1hin our ow11 c.ultvre. Th~•, for •xompf&.. obterven in the li•td of chi'd dovelopment have found thot at some limo between tho oges of eight and len mo>t children •nttf o period whete secretl and secret ~oci-eties toke on great importance. This iJ th• period of the do~d door ond the "Private" s;gn on it tf ptit~acy il min;mized beyond o cot1oin point in tho house - If there .,.. "" d<>O<s behind which the secret ""' be kept - thd need Vtill not be

.,.t.

Th'"' •"•"' are a few of the infe-rences rltat a s.odal scientitt might draw from con· temporcry orchireeturco. It should be clear by now th<>t there is a wealth of motorial jvrt inside the door of a homo which i> highly provocotive to oociol 1clenco.

And tho social scienri!l's way of looking ot the home can be >timulotin; to the arncitecl. Fitst, j\ltt b•covse it is a different point of view and becaus& part of th• excitement ond plea.suc• of ony de~l.gn produd is its &\l.sceptlbillty to voriou$ leveh of lnterpre1ation ol\d poinh of view. More importanr, the social 1cHtntist <on a.n$Wer certain factvol questions about man'• MOdo oncl he con help to clistingunh q""otion• of val.,. from !hoM of facl and clarify ~ ""'"•• ell~ ;, ....,iJoble. lho archltect not only reftects the cultvr•1s volue.s b111 olso teinforcet Ot redlrech c•rtet"rn valuoo o s he provide• or omits the focilale> thtough which they gain expression. Soctol $Cience.can be of a<d in helping moko the•o inRoence effot1s and rne choice• involvtd more~ apparent ood conscious.

9


Ronald Goodfellow

TOWARD INTEGRATED RATION Al MOBILE AUTONOMY

Tho selection of ~uipm&nt end mechonicol itrvh:eo which will permit reolizotion of tho mobility ond geographic adoptability generally inherent in induo!Tiolly man· produced ohelters must reoolve lttolf in freedom of tho olructure and il$ equipment irom e.Jtterno~ water, waste, ond power sys.temt. To determine the possibilities of de\le.loping s.ue:h ern outonomout system on i"'ventory wen token of equipment ovoilcble ne>w, 1955, which •ooms best lo answer tho notda of o healthful human environment and ;. at the oome limo li9hl enough in w~ljl>r and >maU on~ in !>.tilt 10 ollcw lntovr<Jiion in o ·~ of mobile poclcogos. e.-on a cuncoy .,._inotio<o of - " "" iotvonklry r.,.ols tho~ a hiQh d09ree of OVIO<Ioroy ol the mechanical equipment of ahelter ;, pouible tod<JY. And fur1ilermore, it is pcuiblo IM>W to design W. lenM of OulonoGIOUS wb..ystems w~hin lhe autonomy of the total mochnicol 'Y'Iem. With develcped spatial mobility such sub-.ystom• moy permit o now kind of freedom of spoce organization in tho home. An integrated s11tem of autonomous, mobile, poc~ogod unih is pc"uloted here from o bo~ic in"e"10ty covering duue diverre Mfvlc.~s: Reftigeroted food $tOroge, provh.ton of potable water (hot and cold), perSonal clton1ing, dothos lou<>doring, dish washing, air purfficotton ond dehumidi6cotion, dhpo,a\ of metabolic ond combustible woUM, roplenlshmont of the woter •vpply, and primary energy tron•formotion. Spoce hooting

and c:ooling, t-$!enticl to o comprtthenMve package of medlonicol eqr,ipment, is "•r• oroined bocovse of the dose relotionohlp that lit>• deolgn of o n efJ~ient ten~po•oMo control >ysSOM to rho •poce·form and motorial• within which it mU$1 .......-. The two c011not be ~otely «)01tideved, and os tho equipment inYenlory tool< ohope it become i<l<:reosingly clear !hot by mi1linti%ln9 dotign for special opplicatiotu lhe botic concept could more clearly be demonstrated. likowi>o. no coo~in{! opporotu< is incl uded In tho fino' selection of food pres•r-volfon and prtporolion equipm•ttt. best sotution seom1 fo be it~di..-idoot opplioncttt with in1eeral heat JOurces. ovotlobl~ <ommetcially, wh01e compoctnen. mobility ond indivjduol Jt1ectivity obviotot o "ni1 $tOv~~ fequitin9 only sto,oge spo~. A!. org(Jntr.ed here, thl1 voJfety of mec;ho11ic;ol ~qvipmertt is joined in integroted $ys.tems of wotet eolfection and circulation, refrigeror\t circvlation. oir com · pr•nion ond iilttotio", woste di~po1o1, detergent 1upply, ond eledricol dis.tribvtlon. All thit comprises fovr ~porote po<kagoSt food pr~servcflon ond p<oparotion, por>Onol hygitlne, woter collect,on, ond power veneration.

Tt••

10


Although thb equipment is ovolloble on the market on<l could bo assembled os o oomp,.le •ystem today, the form and dlmeMiom of the sol..tion prapo>ed here ore penn;n,d o..ty by oswmed cf>cmoes in forra and copocify of """" of the equipmem. Thooo chaf\901 aro mode in the il\lor'"' of moximitU>g the mobi~ty and compoclnen of the •ystem and in no way violate ih operating ofticiency. power

Yower genercrtion ond woter collection ore eoch orgo"iz:ed os seporot• functions onc:J

seporote sylloms, pormi"ing seloctlvlty of lc.catlon outside or in•ide the houto, ond ominion of one or both in favor of locolly ovoiloble woter or power in the cose that those oro economically favored•

.. water coiiKtion

Diagrtzm A

Colloclion of wo,.r from 1M oil" is o two-pi!- process U.vdving first tho adsorption of wolff vapor by o silica gel which, on ICifurorion, releose. it to 300' f ai< possed OYfJt tho gol during reactivation. The •uper·saturoted, w~-heatad a ir h po..ad over t~o coils

of o ref-rigercrtion system ond the water vopor c-ondensed out, to be f'•ltered

through do-ionization type filters to remove diuolved solids from tho gol, ond then i• Jtored In o tonk under ultra-violet radiation until needed to replenish tho other poc1tog•'• woter systems. Tronrlor of water from the storoge tonk to ihe other unitl il through o temporory ho.se connecUon., which n1ed not be mode more thon o,.,ce in

ten doys. Sefectad ;,., conformonc•

w~h

the o•limoted water-replenishment needs of tho

totGI 'y.stem. the pGrticulor w<Jter coUectct chosen con drow a minimum of ti.IC gcUon1

froro tile a ir every twenly.fow ho~r> unde< rile ~est humidlty ond tet'Aporoture conditio<ls fo'"'d cmywloofe outside ordic arwl d esert rogiom. Wl>on opetoriflg ;..s-., where constant moderate temperature-' promote greot•ft efficiency, i.b tkorov;t. fihratiQn of the air which over the odJOrb•"' gel providM effective air puriftcotion and c!ehumidiflcatlon.

pa""'

Synohronlzlnv tho operation of oil the equipment so that heavy power oonsumers ote not operating simultaneously permits maximum power deMond to be met by the twenty·five ~Uowott output of o small, efficient comp.. ession.iniection 1ngine ond generator . The angin• i:S designed to op•rote en ony avoiloble hydrc-c<nben fv1t, 0¥1d

can ""''" tllan adequately rrutot the power need> of the sysre"' while beinv camped, liaf\l-w6ight, ond portable.

H


Aport fr- speclfyln; •'l"ipmont and inte;rotlon pollerM for wator collection ond pa-r oene<atlon, the.. sys!Om> oro ; iven no more dotoilod study here OJ organized packages, ho•ine su""ufully demonllrcrted the lmmedlote pouibility for autonomovs o.,..otlon of the h..-llold equip~~ttr>l which they servo. The ,..m<>inin; two packages of fc<>cl preservollon and proparotlon, and peroonol hygltno ~uipntlnt, demon....not only autonOOOty but the adclilioolol refinement of spatial ,,ob!lify of semi·outono<ftous wb ..ystoms. llolh poc.o;os hove lndopendonlly operotine wotlt purifieotion and ree:irculotion systems, refrlger<31ion equlpmltnt, went• lnc.in.wotors, and atr

flh«s.. {fer

the most pori the rep.rlllon of ~ulpment repre,.ntt o 111ilcl redundancy, compensOiod by ,..sullont •impliflccrtion of the sporocl'oc operating po-..s of much of 1l>e ~ulpmont, ond tile ;realer flo•ibifity of o doconttolizod system.)

In both pack~os wosle is filtered into o distillatio<> tonk from wiUch chomiccrlly ond biologically pure water is conclenstcl out Into o sloroiJe tonk, whore it is kept under slerllizine ultra..iolet radiation •otil "eoded. Pulled on demand from sho tcnk lhrovgh on Immersion pump, tho woltr moy rrovol directly to the poirrt of use c>r it 01oy be shunted 6rst to a cold woler storage took "' be ralsod 10 ony profered le01p1toture by Induction hOOiing. The condensation pilose of tho wotor stills is, in bolh package>, adap.d to clrC\IIatloo of «>01ont from tho refriljororion ay•tom.

12


per iodi<: replenhh_,r from -~ col lector

Diagram A oir

metabolic woâ&#x20AC;˘tes

olr & combvsrible wast&'


food pNservotlon and

pr&pc~ralial\

Diogram B

In the food pr~nervation and preporotion pac~o;e !wenty·slx gallons of water storage, phi! ll>e eight gollon wotor cooler, amount to a copocity of thirty-four gallons of woter stored in the $ystem. Allowing two to three gallons per day to cover the one·eighth to three-fourths gallons octool consumption per person in o three person houS<Iholcl, plu• o fifty per cent solely foetor, refilling f...,m the water collector Mod be made no more oftener thon two or three times o month. In the woy the four and one·holf gallons needed to opetote the dish-washer is olwoy• in tho •y•tem. Because of the impouibilily of forecaltlng precise indivicluol poHerM of con1umption, eoch of the two water >ystems is designed to corry the full lood of wotor consumed by a family of three or four, plus a frlty-percent safety fodot, between ten day re611s. In combined operation thoso value> would amount to an effective solely fador of 250 to 300 over the octuol need> of a three person household. In ocldnion ta acting in con!undion with the distillation equipment, the refrigeration system ~irculates coolant tllrovgh the cold water tonic ond refrigerated food storage, eight cubic feet of 40• f and IWO cubic feel of froxen storage, >vfficienl for o family of tbrn. All combustible kitchen waotes ore disposed of by incineration. lhe gaseous by·ptOclucts of the ptooess are drawn from the unit a~d pulled through activated carbon filters which remove all noxiau> and obiectlonoblo od<>rs ond impuraies. Clean air, dtown into the >ystem oncl mixed with the indnorator exhaust, dilutes and cools it before pouing through the carbon filter>, whicll to,. efficiency ot v&ry high temperotures. The system needs no exterior venting.

· hygiene

DiagrfJm C

For the pet$0nal hygiene poclcoge woter stotCJge capCJclty must be greater than that of the kitchen poc~oge by the higher qvCJnti!y needed to operato> the laundry. Thirty· seven gallon storage, plv• eight gollon water cool&r, allow a fifty-percent safety factor for water consumption and losso• due to evaporolion from bothing opporotu>, repl&n· lshing two or three times monthly from the water collector. Water used in the clothes washer and dryer i• heated by on induction element integral with tho equipment, and water vapor withdrawn from the clothe• during tho drying phase is conden,.d ftom the air heated by another el&ment and circulated over ll>e clothes. Th& dosod cir<ulotion of air aver oloment, clothes, and conden>Or coils Is adopted to utilization of the coolant from the refri9orotion system and is up to ninely-fiv& percent effective in redoiming woter absorbed during thtt washing cyd&. Be.ides reclaiming woter from 1he laundry equipment, coolant from the tefri{lerotion >ystem circulot&S through the condensing apparotu• of the water distillolion equipment and through the cold water tonic, assuring a constont supply of cold water ot the faucet.

l4


perlodoe replel'llshment from water collector

oir & combustible woS!et

~

1ndnerotor

~---


Combuolo'bl10 wa•te• are incinerot10d and exhau1t gaws fillered, just ,.. in th kitchen podtage. 1\ut m10tabolic wostes ore dbpa..O of in an indopendent, clooe<l recirculating •yslem ufllizing 1M p<inciples of OIOtQblc reductio~~ in an active 111ixfute of water and entrap~ o•ygen. Wa•te ento,;ng the sy•tem is carried by a cet~Jrlfugol pump through a grinder and into the aerating seeliOI\ al the reduction tank. whid\ iJ k•pt c:omsonsly aghated ond ot high o.ygen sotur<rtion by comprelled <>ir. In the tonk t,. wolfe is a10robically r10ducad to a small '\Uantity of inactive slud910 whldt must be r•movo<l '" one or two year int•r-.ol>. Clear wat•r from a settling IIOclion of the tGrtk is circulotad through the wotar-daset during llu>hing. bhau.e go- from the taM ore pulled ovt through the some octivatod carbon filtration sy>10<11 u..d far the lnclner<>IO< exh.....,, Gild, cleaned ond min9led .,;rh fTesh oir, entor-.1 into the atm...phere without need of eXIerlor vont~. The sys..., needs no water replenlshm•nl or chemical odditives. (At argonized in this pock., the waste r10cl\oction oystem hat been ccnsiderobly altered from lite form in which it is commerciolly available. The gravity-/e-.! method of the comrurciol product has be10n repl<>ced by tho centrilv90l pump, permitting operotie>n crf the water dcroet below the woter Jev.l of she.lar>k; and the wal&r closet Itself hos been re-deslgno<l to beller O<ce>mrnadate it to pock~~~Jing In o compoct unk s.. i111111rotlons.) Ratner tlton spoce-oonoum"'g. woter-<.onsurlling shower or botll equipment commonly used tadoy, penonal cleonsing by a pMim'Otic sy•tem permits the ....,.. function 10 be porlorm•d more ef!lciently and with far less weight and bulk in the equipment. A group of nozzle• on telescoping . universol·iointed extensors forafully eject ony desired rnixture of we~1er.. d-'erg.•nl, a11d oir at sixty pound' preuure, o combination which wilt -'lectivefy cloonse lhe olein with o miainKim of rubbing ond a maxim11111 of •afety, using abo..! a quart of wolor. A full bath may be taken ...,out need of enclosure or water catcher of any sort far the spray evaporate• within tlwee feet of the nou.le, to be ~urrwtd 10ventually to the •ystein by woy ol th& water colle<tor. An oir compressor, operating continuously, maintain• the aghcrtlon and oxygen •vpply of ,,. waste reduction tonk, and poo•ldos oir at lix!y pounds far th<l pneumlltic bolt. ing apparatvs. 8oth the foundry and metobalic wast;a redv<lion equipment p<opaso<l for this pockoge hove been reduced in capocity from th<>t of the commercloMy marketed prodvc. This permits a p8r1()f\ol hy~jlone package a• o pol•acy vnlt for use in p<lvote spoces rather thCJn en a comm&rciol ubothroom". The vnlt pr,...nled here is •ufliclonl for a couple or a single person.

16


humid .. air •

Diagram C

power •


PERSONAl HYGIENE

1

refrigeration & told woter took

2

woter still (sink obove)

a

woter storoge

4

ultrovioiet romp

5

iiiVfteJ'Sion

&

clothes WO$her-dryer

1

pneumotit bothiog (extended)

8

woter tloset (oir comp. behind)

9

wosle oerotion tonk

p<JmP

10

incinerotor

11

exllovst filters

18

0


FOOD PfiESERVATION AND PREPAIIATION

0

0

0

1

refrigeration & cold water tonk

2

oold food 61orogo

!

frozen food storage

4

wo ler 1tlll

&

water atorogo

6

ultraviolet lamp

1

immer&lan pump

8

â&#x20AC;˘ink cavity

9

dish washer

10

incinorotor

u

exhaust t.l'-11

19


FOOD PRESERVATION AND PREPARATION

PERSONAL HYGIENE


Walter A. Peterhans df.pctrlmtflf of crch•'t«ru-n illinoi' •'tUtiru-«c oj l«hn~

VISUAL TRAINING

"Archlttctvre io a focus whe,.. three separate purpotlts hove converged. They o re blended irl a single melhod; rhy oro fuiGUed in o singlo r-11; yet in their o..n nature !hey ewe distinguished from each othtt by o deep and permanent d"osporlty." Thus Geoffrey Scott, in Th. Architecture oJ Humanism, e•pounding three conditions of good Archlteoe1ure that may bt traced bad to Vlttuv[u., Commodify, fimtneu. and Deligb!. from these condition• the curriculum of any Deportment of Arch~ectvro in au< uni· versifies and collegn rake$ its. stan. In the coune of their s.tudies our ttudertts oc.quire <Jn intimote 1cncwledge of construction. in wood~ in bride, ln reinforced concrete., o11d in steel; they understand the nature. the mogn;tude, ond the dl>tribution of the forces lnvol...t. They aboorb and apply bcuic principles for tho analysis of putpo!WI ond func:tloft of distinct bullcfong types. They pion rho h<>me and the aport.,.tll house, hotel and oflice buildi1>9o school and theotre; and they comider their "''•"•lotion in a gi'ren community. In o parlic"lcu building fir.,.,an and commodity. otrudural SO<mdnen oncl fll!te" for of !ltucture, by itself, do•• not provide ,.rvi<e. may hove been achieved. But yet conv.,ni•n<o. Equolly. firmne" end commodity do not gront yet delight. The otructuro

''"'ndne"

22


mu$t b• so arron9ed Q1 to obtoin firmness: i1 mvs1 be so ordered as 1o provide exp«ted MTVic.s; it mu>l toke •uch shope cr> to in>tlll clolight. One ond the •ame el~meniS orticvloro the strvc:tvre, cender itt. functions intelltgible, ond unite in o configuratjon of moving eloquence. 8eauty; in porticulor, il not on ortido that can be obtained seporotely and affixed to a building; it con, howev.r, be oxtrocted ond founded upon the •1emenls thot comprise the 1tructur•.

Thul wt~ moy u~m up accepted princip,es of orehitedvre, ond training in architecture. Tilt •ducotionol idea• involved come oli•e beyond long accepted elemental> only rhrough tbe poniwtar ways and meot'ls of il'\ttrvdion. CNr contern hera is with udelight1' , with beauty; and with tt>e meftlock developed within the Deparlmttrtt of Atchiteclure of Ulio!ois Institute of TechnoJoey, to owolten CM~d to strengthea tl.e feeli"9 fo r f'loopor1ion. for Form one! Space, for Colo. or>d Textuve. In Archihod\lre, these qualiti.. j;g.,.. conspicuously. They wlU either highly ot110nlu on elevation will> concentrated energy ood spititecl o!ogonce; they will imparl to o• interior ,.quonce of •pace< 11o1ely mo••· m•nt 011d prh•ine aerenity; or else they will '"'" ••terior a11d interior into <Jn anonymous arid mc,.k.

23

I j

,i•


1


'r

,

I.

Four white space&, obtolned by subdividing the full si~e space. The block •tripes should not sway or float oimle$$ly on the aurfo~1 they should cut deep ond decisively into the white spoce. At the some time they ·sl->ovld reintegrate the four spoces which they define, expanding the configuration, into on union thor is crisper, more distinct. more orti<vlote throughout than the one undivided original spoce. None of the spaces must overllow or bulge; none of them mvst be squeezed in or pV$hed out. Each one should be equally dense; equally d~p in itself. of the same nature throughout. The spotiol quality finally obtained should obliterate the pure material quality of the poper surfoc.. A multitude of relationships exists: the relation of ony one space to eoch of the other spoces. or to the whole in which it tokes port; the relation of two spaces, either adjacent or diogonolly opposite, to the other two. Many more moy easily be found. Two or lhr~ of these relations will. u•ually, dom;note on lndividvol eonfiguration. they "oorry !he show"; the others c:ontribure and enrich. This spoee oonfoguration is not o symbol representing some other problem or object. e.g . on elevorioo, or port of on ~evotion. It is the whole problem and it <:On be oppnooched without reference to corre•ponding problems ill other field$. Yet it is o bosic problem in o pure and abstract form, which underlies related problems in Archllccture. in Pointing, and In the Industrial Arts. It seems relatively easy to analyze this portlculor problem; therefore. it has been discvSled in some detail. However, it iJ one of our severest problems. Changing one spaoe involves changing of fovr spoces. Yet oil of them mvst Interact and hong together In one well-defined whole. Mll\ute chooses in position ond width of the two thin strips ore usuolly necessary to bring about o solution. A few oddirionol e><erci..,. will be briefly described, defining the problem, specify· ing techniqiA!s, Indicating expressive qualities.

I

Parallel rectangular areas of block or>d white. Width, order, and distance, ore to be determined. The block and while intensify each other. The great contrasts in area and intenally hove been resolvd In a oonfigurotion with precisely set caesuras of norrow white within the block, and of narrow block within the white.

25


26

2

Three di•tinct sets of >poces. interplaying, superimposing their seporote rnytnms upon ~ch other. Ao:uroteness of position ond ovtline achieves perfect rhythmical orgonizotion of the Jorger >poce, marks it with ivory quality.

3

Free foiling planes holding between them spoces, interrelatecl in a complete ond "closed" sequence; nothing con be added or subtracted. The planes ore so contoured ond arranged that the spaces ore equally clearly defined, different amounts of overlapping notwithstanding.

4

A curve- not on ornament - so shaped as to develop o spoce, greatly increasing its density, embedding it into, and reloting it to the surroundin9 space, through the connecting opening as well os through the thin membrone·like ports of the curve.

5

Stvdies in texture, bound to a specific instrument of te<hnique, ond o pigment which the instrument applies to the fibrous surface of the illustration boord.

6

The bristles of the brush and the fibres of the paper split the pigment. White breaks through, ligl'lling the block.

1

Watercolor dropped into pools of water. The pigment •pr~ds from the center in concentric shells. Protuberances form around the periphery of the Iorge oreos through capillary action upon loosely floating particle• of pigment. Eclipsed suns in a luminous space enveloped by dissolving floating mists?


!I

jl

'


I .' .' .' .. i

It

I

I

6


INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE 1955, ASPEN

"Tho purpose of the International Do>i9n ConferenCA! is the exchange of Ide.,., the enrichment of our own vieW1 through the support of the chollenge provided by the views of others. It is o sitvation <reated opeolal1y fC< the putposes of communication." lhere wore S. I. Hoyokawo's opening romarkl at the conference. In the following five days much wa• •aid and mony quOitions o1ked . There were not a nswers to oil of thom ond everythin9 soid wos not crgrnobie to everyone, but whether we ogreed or not, It provided tho challenge of .s;oeking our own solution•. The .selec:tion of tho following few excerpls is my •valuolion of the confetonce. It was felt that those excerpt$ best ••present my specific needs os o studenY in soarch of oriletia for design.

Kiyoshi Kikuchi

33


Lt-fl to

IC-i,hr~

WWiam Friedt114tt, R(lkrr O.shnt,

Will .llurlin, Ctorp C"fltr1 ~r,.old 4-rncltf, JJerntJ/'4 Btn.wn


WiU BUTtin

One reali&es ll>al the principal onolivotion lot going th<ou~h wllh tllis oroblliov• end...ls tho de•iro for bolter understanding and tho hope thot by pooling our oxperionc.. and idea• we will have cr-ed botlor cond itions For progren. It ._• .,, to me that man Is at hio be~l and grea.,.lt, w\len he loc~s up and beyond himself. Approcialing tho ,.o\ity of living througb hi• sensel, he ha• asked questio.u and lfied to find onswou ever since he rose from prehistoric flmos. Tho rapidity of his prCQross is intlmO!tly tied to social lreeclomo, which give him tile climate In which h con present hi£ ideas to his fellow ..archon ond fellow man.

. . . It;, from the refotio>nships which -

estobll•h among ourselves and to the problem• about which we will think ond talk, t!>ot we con gradually proceed toward the expro~&ion• of clearer undentanding of ovr tiMe, whkh will rewlt In style.

011 fundamental molten the"' is no oxcu .. for dogmotlsm. There is •till ample •cape for experiment, •pe<vla1ion, and dia.covery. All cvtrenr orthodoxies m'JJt be wro1'19 somewl\ere. Exact acienti•h in many other bronchet ho11• been inc,.osingly co"t::etr"od with the cotlective properties of complex system• contoini•g many entitle•, one! have found themlllvo• emphasizing the impcrtonce cf symmetry, structure, pattern, ordor, oreanlzation, form. Thua there ore two poles In exact science, perhaps Ulu•troted best by the tlttreme cases of random atomic motions and of obsch111 g~metricol tymmetry. Y.r th•.. elttromes do not exhou•t the deoign; th•y dominate current theories merely bocauM Kience ho• toorned how to deal with !hom first.

for belwoorl theso pol.. lies t!>e vast rec>lrn where there il neither comp'-te dt-oe., or o lotont on!e< -"ing Ia cle..lop. In thb onare c:.oonpleJt real,. order I• ob.tructecl by i"'S*fectiotl, ~~ corrtrosb, and leftsions wloldl ..., to genenm cfton;e aocl 1ror1sformatio<>. lhd is the world of real praceu. of developing ardor, of growth, of tile, and ol mind, to which the cmentlan of oclentlsls b Increasingly drown. There ha• boon on increasing aworene,. In many flelds of intellectual and pradical aciMly that the det.,rmining facto< in ony .Jtuotian io a systttn of relation.. The design of nature may not be a •ummO!ion of individual movement• but o changing pottorn of partly ordered relationthips. One of the great need• of education ;, for a melhcd of approach which brings the volt range of contemporary knowledge into lOme kind of ardor, lO tho! the mind ;. not intimidot.d and confuoecl. More particularly, we """d a vl•w of nature wftich givel 1he imoginotiol"' ltt prOper status... ar-d $0 promotes itl dovolopmenl. The Slondordizalian and mechonisotlan of life con only be compeniGted by o view which give$ new authority Ia the indivlduo'l imagination. S~tl> o view would also throw light on lhe relcotie>nt of sci10ntific and aesthetic activity.

35


&rl C. Kellt"j

Per<eptio~ is that which comes into consciousneu when stimuli, ptincipolly light or ..,.,nd, lmpit>ge vpon the organism from the ouhicle. It is through the phenomenon of perception thot we know anything of oil about what is around us. Perhaps the mo>t importont foct revealed by recent studie1 in perception is thot our perceptions come from "'• not from our surrounding•. He con only perceive thot which he hos experience and purpooe to perceive,

leatnlng, becauoe experience is uniquely interpreted, increases di~milority. learning promotes uniqueness rorher than dimini•hin9 it.

Michael FtJ1"1

"The olm• of design ore those of education il!olf. Design should enlarge and enliven human intellectual and emotional experience; It should enable vs to make more precise and more profound demands on our environment. We do not live in an ideal stole, therefore wtt must know what can legitimotoly be expected from our rna$11·producing industries before insistin9 that it be achioved. To begin with, the de.lgner is not o free orti•t in the sense that ''"' painter may be •oid to be free. Ha worh on ideos in his stuclio, b~l they seldom materialize into design proittctt until the co..operation of one or more ovtside intelligence• is enlistod.

"" Prof85sor J.

z.

YoYng p<>ints o~t in his book Ooubt and c.rtainfy in Science,

•'tmptovtn'len1 in communication leod' to increasing ace:vracy, dirodnes.s ond complete. "~'

of desctiption". Elsewhere in the book, speaking of the uncertainties that otis&

ofi scientists ventute

t()

ta1k in unacc~u.tomed ways, he asserts that th• "•xtet'l'-'on of

communication is often t!te prelude to entirely new discovery"• • • • So the de»ign ideo grow• or withers according to th& eRort mode by ea<h member of the team to communicote wah the otho". An original view introduced by one member disturbs tho balance, become o fresh >tandpoint tc> be reached by his colloogu ... each of whom is able to reject it, modify it or accept it occording to his ability to communicate.

Arnold F. Arn<>ld

36

We mu•t hove hc>useo planned for leisure-time employment: houses in which tho od~lts of tho family will be spendin9 mo•t of their lime, rather than houses designed for sociol ''"'"' or the making easy of household chore• olone. Our houses will no longer be s~Ricient as shells into which we go to slup, or pleasant backgrovndo for week...nd


W&lltr Ntuch, W M . dtMoj<> •~d

H•rry ~loi•

Albml'.-.


wdttcril potties, or walk buill orout1d eosy choir> and N sets, but they will haM to be h<KM• wt.ich are the warkploc.e• of tho family, in wt.ich people wilt spend "'"'" time thon 01 plant or otfoce. We shall hove 10 concentrate mere on designl~g oclivity provoking implements, rather than end.produeU. The productt of avtomatio'l will hoM to be Incidental to the activities tt.ey stlmulaie. We shan have to "'nc•rn our~el-tet more with th• new fun.ction of eliciting porti<ipotion and less with mere mechonlcol efficiency and styling. To that purpose we may eYen have re-design many of our existing tools. Wo will be called vpon to re-int~ttprei tools, new and o1d, to sugge~t, encoura;• and make ottroc.Jive their imaginotive use by people with time on their hond>.

HArry Bertoio

Vorbol inadequacy o~ my port, result> f<om o ilrong desire to ob~rve In silence, then venerate. In the realm of sevlpturo, structure i• not required ro give o p<ecise d.rtnaion to the practical. l:och strvc:ture hos its >pecio\ offinitie> for weight, density, light, material, ev<>lt~tionary conti~vity and approprl<>te devel<>pmenr. To be valid, it mu>t be tuned to contemporaneous lifo. A l;fe demonding perpetual renewal, th•r•by unfolding its mode of expre~u.'ion~


One prevailing chorocteri•tic of sculpture is tho interplay of • aiel and molter. The void being of e(\uol vol\fe to the tomponent mot•rio.l units. PMf\ops ;, i' no •xavveration to say, the reality of sculptvre is to be lou~d in the woid. Mottor simply bein; an intrO· cluctory device to the essenti<>l. Void and matter define each <>thor, how they a re related rosulh in form, which dep&nds for its li!.-libre on srructure, wo con cl~t~trmineclly push

It ; nto the field of activity most in need. Void and matter eon be &qvotod in a multitude of woys. Ste~licotly or dynooticolly. The equation can olso be mode to s.ati5fy an indi>~iduol or1ittic requiroment. Tf\• emotiYe lt.,yboord allows for play from tho dense, d•"'a'-'ioliz.ed form to tho •oc•~~~~~~~e ,_..,ietlized voi<:l.

Pal>ops the direction I have been """' inlerflled in indie-s an ost<1mbloge of lleld toge\bor as if by o .,~ Ioree. h is desitobt. to leave tho equalion -.t.or ;.,.-p~ete. theteby givir>g the observer a ch"""o lor completion, and cO<ta;,,y tho ¥Glut of w9IJO'iion is not to be unclet-ifwoted in winning the observer's confide nce. AH tni> is done directly w~h materials and rechniquos af ovr ""'"' d ..... eotllj)O-

wi1}1 o desire to porall~l natural pt0<ene1. ro1her that\ llmulole the visible worfd. ftequontly the moteriol pre<!ic<m!os the theme. but mot is not ""OUIJft. The virility of sculplllro, os of oil the oris ond tae, lies in II$ possibility far growth.

Tliclot Gruen

Whot we ore facing il remini$c.ent of a merging of o dozel'l freewoy1 ot supet·highwoys with doverleavet litce tenacle$ of a giont octopus intertwined with eoch oth• t ond with

all of the diredional signs removed. The cloverleov&J hove the dlllurbing quCIIity that, when you are entering o branch thinking it leods to the right, it winds up finolly in tho opposite direction; and another, with most inwiting lookir>g vlllos, may wind vp at o sign "End of Freeway". Our trouble is tit<>! we hov& "' mony choices. Our trouble is thai wo hov• b ..n l•eed of limttotions, thot we Ofe informed M every av&nt occurrinv on this •orth wf1hin seconds. that we con be <:o.rriod wlthin ,ours from on• i!:nd of o contln•nt 10 1he other~ thot our 1emes toke in too mud\- more thon our •mo1iont and our broin can proeeiS. Architect's moJt vrge!\t miiiion todoy is. to converr thoos into order, cha"go m&thar\izcr·

tion 1<-om a tyrant lo a slove

c~nd

lhv• make place lor beovty whore there is vulgarity

cttd u;lin•ss. Ar,h.itecture todoy connot concern itself only with then o"o partic~lar let

of""'"""" wl-.ich happm to •land upri;ht and bo hollow "buildings• In the conventional tt must concetn iMff wjth gtl Man.-llf'locle elementt whidl form our • rwVonmcntt.,. with toods and highways, with •illns ai.d po•ten, with 0111<1oor spaeos os crRtecl by strvCtllrfl, with city<cope ancf lonOscope.

HMe.


r

41


Willard A. Oberdick dtpartnctnC ()/ ouhitt,lurt ,miv.tQily of m;<higa.tt.

RESEARCH: PRECAST THIN SHELLS

Double curved thin shell concrete, cdthouqh extramoly efficient >lfu<turolly, hos hod o limited use in the United Stoles. This ha• been due primarily to the high cost of formwork ond the difficulty in placing <oncrete. However, sinqle curvotvre thick shell construction hos bHn used for many projects. Formwork costs of 8orrel Shell rook hove b~n redu.:.d by the use of movable forms and the adoption of preco•~ng techniqu~ Sorrel shells oro poured in o llocked condition and lifted with vacuum equipment. These technique> have mode >Ingle curvoture shell concret& a feasible structural S)"lem in this country. Ooubly curved thin shell concrete hos bean used extensively in countries where tho materlol·lobor eost telotionship is different than ours. Felix Candela has successfully used the Hyporbolie Peraboloid in many buildings in Mexico. In the case of the Hypetbolic Paraboloid, formwork is simplified by th& us& of the straight line generators which ore choroc:1eristie of the surface. Tho shells in Mexico hov& been poured in place using l>ond labor. However, notwitl,.tondinQ these practices, the cotts are extremely low compored to oth&r structural systems used in the United Statos. The research project «mently sponsor~cl by tho Collo90 of Architecture and De•ign through the Enqineering Research Institute is intended to develop ond explore precosting techniques odoptoblo !o do~bly curved thin shell concrete. Work an the projec:t ta dote hos conoisted generally of (a) construct:on of o Kale model of a •ingle Equilateral Hyperbolic Paraboloid, (b) construction of o lo~e model con· sistlng of twa of the single units and, (~) structural te1tin9 of OCICh of these models. The formworlc far the large 10'-6" x 10'·6" model wos erec:ted ond placed os shown in the photograph. The form consisted of adjustable Uni•trut supports wah wood sttlps

42


wedged In the groove>. Ma$Cnite ,,.ipo woto nailed to the wood Urif"'. Tho entire fo"" wos covered with KorC>Oal. The ribs wore removable >a that change> could be modo for tho diRorent edge conditions. Reinforcing conoloted of e..pondod sutol mesh cut from 4' " 8' •heel>. Addisionol W' rods wore placed In the ribs and at the support. Concrete modo ol fine aggregate, birdseye ;ravel and high early >trongth Portland comont wo• used in each of tho shells. Tho wet concrete wo• screened with o •traighl edgo utilizing one ol the choroeleristic stroight line generalorl. &vnrossed precast columns ore do>ignod to toke the tlvuot of individual shell• with tho tie rod removed. Coiwlr>S Olld bu!tres,ses etro of tho samo climtullioft. Dowels are groutod In 01 ll>o bo"' and the upper joints oro pourod In plaoo. Two equilateral Hyperbolic Poroboloidt comptlso the roof >tructure. Tho individual >holts hove tho •ame •urfaco charo<leri>lics b<ll hove diflerent odge conditions. One shell hao IWO stifloning rib• and the other fovr ribs. Tho th kkne>~ of tho shell i> Y." with each of tho ribs 2" thick. Each ohell wo> lilted into place on proca>t columns using a latge cradle. The joint consi>ted of lapped "'"'h ond grout. Each shell hos been loaded "'porotoly with doad lood weights and with o ht>ri•ontolly projoctod lood opplied by means of o water tonk suppetrtod on adjustable wood fMIII and springs. Each shell hos svpportecl o load of fifty pounds per square foot without any visible croek>, dollecti<>ns hove boton small and st<oss.es In the concrete havo been low. P11rthor load tom oro planned with concontr-d os woll os uniform load>. $1ructural >llldios of .... sholls Qt8 intended to compote octions of the two molls. "'• rooulll of wf>idl will form the bmis of funher studios in the precotling toochniquos fetr

clo..bly .......t tllin "'•• concnto roofs. Tho full report ol tllis lVOtk and of the at tho completion of th• project.

f~tklr<l studifS will follow

In 1ucceoding

po~n

43


1

Formwork for on eqvilolerol ttyperbolic Porobolo<d Size 10'. 6" x 10'. 6" hori· Pfotected area. Thdnen Y.". Sriffcnmg ribs T x 6" The slope of edge is 3 10 I0. Formwork with reinforcing >!ell on pkxe •• showr> for tt.. two rib shelL

zoniOIIy

2

lifting of the two rib shell.

3

Two Hyperbolic Paraboloid shells in place. The water tonk is used to obtain a horilontolly projocred load. The SIMI supports ore used to hold dial govges during testing.


2

3


PATRON SUBSCRIIERS

JOSEPH f . ALU.NO J. 0 . ANNANO

ARCHITECTURAL FORUM FRED E. ARNOLD CHARLES ATWOOD WEUS I. &ENNffi

FRED A. 8RINKMAN RALPH A. CAl.OER 01ARlES E. COleMAN FRANCESCO DatA SA1.A CORNEliUS L T. GAatn WAl.TEl J. GORES EDWARD HAMMAIISICJOI.D RAlPH W. HAMMETT JOSEPH HUDNUT IICTINOS OF ALPHA RHO CHI ELWOOD IIIISH kARL kRAUSS AARE k . LAHTI CHET LAMORE THEOOOI!E C. LARSON WAlTU V. MARSHAU TliOMAS tkCLUR£ EDWARD V. OI..ENCKI CHARLES PEAIMAN WAlTER 8. SANDERS G ll.eEIT P. SCHAEfER

CHARLES M. SMITH EIIEllE M. SMITH MALCOlM R. STUITON JONATHAN A. TAYLOR EDWARD X. TUTTLE

Ann Arbor, Michigan Portland, O~n Now York, Now York

Lillie Roc!<. ArkoMa> Wayrte. Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan kololf"ll, Mon1aoo O...o~. Mid>filon Oor<lon Oly, ~ Ycrl Noploo, Italy

Ootroil, Midoi9Qn Ann Arbot, Micl>igon Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor, Mlchigc>n Dover, Mauochu1etts Ann Arbor, Michi;on Dearborn, Midli90n LanolniJ, Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan

An. Ann Ann Ann AM Ann

Arbor, Mlchleon Alber, Michigan Atbot, Mid>igan Atbot, Michi9Qti AtbO<, M;.Jotgon Arbor, Michi90n Clowe!....d, Ohio Thorll\opolll, Wyorning Orono "-· Mlchigcao Oro•,. Pointe Farrns, Michlg"" Graue lie, Mlthigoo llrll\inghom, Mlchlgon


EDITORS AND STAFF: Jo"' Teran, Kiyoohi Kikuchi, Kenneth Koji. Carolyn McKechnie, Stonley Ai;tino>, John Amu, Joc<>bo Reineo, JrKiuli> U.ipiQ>, Ricilord s..ltll, Gutii'OI' Gtvzdins, Dole Suoroelo, Robe" Wine, Nieketo Dolley, frofiCis &arlett, Anna MIIOChen. heim, Roy Euker, Murray Korman, fMh Hoold, A"hur Muschenheim, Fred Der>9, William Smith FACULTY ADVISORSe

Francesco dello Solo and Charle• Pe....,.on

oil motorial within this magazine Is copyri9hted by the student publication orKI moy not be ••p•oduced without wrillon permiulon


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Student Publication v1 #2