Page 1

N ATION AL COA S TAL SAFE T Y RE POR T 2018 S U R F L I FE S AV I N G AU S T R A L I A


DROWNING S N A P S H OT

COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

MALE

FEMALE Location

AT THE BEACH

OFFSHORE

ROCK/CLIFF

AT LEAST 5KM FROM A LIFESAVING SERVICE

Activity

32% SWIMMING

9%

SNORKELLING

25% BOATING

9% ROCK FISHING

3 13

6 20

23 39 6


CONTENTS IN T RO D U C T I O N

S EC TION ONE: COM MUNIT Y

06

04

S EC TION THRE E: DROWNING A N A LYS IS

34

AUS T R A L I A N P O PU L AT I O N

08

N AT I O N A L OV ERV IE W

36

COA S TA L PA RT I CIPAT I O N

09

D ROWNIN G LO C AT I O N S

42

AC T I V I T Y PA RT I CIPAT I O N

10

F E AT U R E: A LCO H O L & DRU G S 4 4

S WI M M IN G A B IL I T Y

14

S N A P S H OT: RIP CU RREN T S 4 6

RI S K PERCEP T I O N

16

S N A P S H OT: B OAT IN G 47

COA S TA L RE S CU E S 17

S N A P S H OT: RO CK FI S HIN G 4 8

18

S N A P S H OT: WAT ERCR A F T 49

S A FE T Y PR AC T I CE S F E AT U R E: N O N - FATA L

NE W S O U T H WA L E S

50

D ROWNIN G 20

Q U EEN S L A ND

52

V I C TO RI A

54

WE S T ERN AUS T R A L I A

56

S O U T H AUS T R A L I A

58

TA S M A NI A

60

N O RT HERN T ERRI TO RY

62

G LOS S A RY

64

REFEREN CE

66

S EC TION T WO: C A PA B ILIT Y

22

C A PA B IL I T Y

24

S U RF L IFE S AV IN G S ERV I CE S

26

M EM B ER S HIP C A PACI T Y

27

A S S E T C A PA B IL I T Y

28

RE S CU E S

29

PRE V EN TAT I V E AC T I O N S

30

FIR S T A ID

31

F E AT U R E: B E ACH S A FE T Y EQ U IPM EN T FU ND

32


INTRODUCTION

T

Research into non-fatal coastal incidents has shown for each drowning death on the coast, there is on average one non-fatal incident that requires hospitalisation. Children under 10 years of age and women have a greater representation in non-fatal incidents compared to that of coastal drowning deaths. This reaffirms the need to ensure education, awareness and safety practices around water safety need to be applied across all ages, activities and gender.

he Australian coastline and related islands stretch for over 50,000 kilometres, including more than 11,500 beaches. More than 85 per cent of the population lives within 50 kilometres of the coast, and arguably Australia’s most popular recreation destination, the beach. Recent research has resulted in updated figures for visitations to the Australian coast, with an estimated 300 million beach visitations annually. While Australia boasts some of the best beaches in the world, there are far too many situations along our coast that end in individuals, or groups, having to be rescued and treated for injuries or finding themselves in circumstances that cost them their lives. Surf Life Saving Australia (SLSA) is the peak coastal water safety, drowning prevention and rescue authority in Australia. The role of the organisation is to reduce injury and loss of life along the coastal areas of Australia, with a vision of zero preventable deaths. The National Coastal Safety Report 2018 is a comprehensive summary and analysis of community perceptions, activities on the coast, coastal and ocean drowning deaths and related fatalities. This year’s report recognises 10,249 rescues were conducted around the country by SLS volunteers. Without these significant efforts there would have been an additional • 512 coastal and ocean drowning deaths • 307 people with permanent incapacitating injuries • 1,435 people with injuries requiring follow up treatment.1

THIS ANALYSIS PROVIDES SLSA CRITICAL EVIDENCE-BASED INSIGHTS AND UNDERSTANDING TO ADDRESS WATER SAFETY AND EDUCATION FOR THE COMMUNITY. The National Coastal Safety Report 2018 acknowledges drowning is only part of the analysis that informs sound decision making regarding coastal safety. This report includes research into first aid treatments and preventative actions, as well as visitation, and perceptions relating to coastal hazards. This analysis provides SLSA critical evidence-based insights and understanding to address water safety and education for the community. Surf Life Saving remains committed to the vision of zero preventable deaths along our coastline. The organisation is prepared to take on the challenges this poses, and through a commitment to collaboration and undertaking evidence-based research as part of the total strategy we will continue to work towards this objective. I commend this report to you as a vital tool to assist in understanding and reducing drowning deaths on Australia’s coast and remind all that the data presented within this report is more than facts and figures, but represent someone’s family, friend or loved one.

While continuing to have a strong focus on coastal drowning incidents, the National Coastal Safety Report 2018 includes a complete overview of all coastal fatalities. A total 173 coastal fatalities were recorded for 2017-18, with 110 of these drowning deaths. The remaining 63 fatalities were due to other causes. The 2017-18 summer period, December to February, recorded 52 coastal drowning deaths, making it the worst summer for coastal drowning from 2004. Males continue to be overrepresented in the drowning death statistics however, this year women recorded the highest percentage of coastal drowning deaths for the 14-year period with 20 per cent.

Adam Weir Chief Executive Officer Surf Life Saving Australia PWC (2011) What is the economic contribution of Surf Life Saving in Australia. SLSA: Sydney.

1

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


T O TA L S E R V I C E P L A N

T

he Total Service Plan is SLSA’s national drowning reduction strategy and service plan. It is created using an iterative process of analysis and review to identify coastal safety issues of national importance. This approach follows the public health model and is consistent with international risk management principles. In collaboration with stakeholders, SLSA identifies coastal safety risks using incident monitoring, coastal risk assessments and participation analysis. This information is analysed to identify the top national coastal safety issues, priorities and blackspot areas that require intervention or mitigation strategies.

Context Drowning Statistics Non-fatal Drowning Data Operational Statistics Market Research Population Data Participation/Behaviour Data

Coastal Safety Hub

Risk Identification Incident Tracking Capability Statement Participation/Behaviour Analysis

Communication and Consultation

THE NATIONAL SAFETY AGENDA Market Research The issues and blackspots identified Stakeholder Consultation Councils, Committees through the Total Service Plan and Groups process form the basis of SLSA’s Conferences and Forums National Safety Agenda. The agenda influences lifesaving operations, including services and equipment allocation. It drives public education, including evidence-based mitigation strategies, communications campaigns and pilot projects, and informs SLSA’s research plan. The Total Service Plan takes a risk management approach. It allows SLSA to use the evidence to ensure we locate lifesaving services and assets in areas of need and have appropriate public education programs and mitigation strategies to address the coastal safety issues and known blackspots. Embedded in the process is continual monitoring and evaluation to ensure the treatments and interventions are effective in reducing drowning deaths along the Australian coast. The coastal safety needs of the Australian community reflected in the National Safety Agenda and the Surf Life Saving movement’s capacity and capability to meet these needs are explored in the ‘Capability’ section of this report.

Risk Assessment

National Risk Register Coastal Risk Assessments

Monitoring and Evaluation

Analysis Coastal Safety Briefs Trend Identification GIS Analysis

Critical Incident Analysis Target Identification Case Studies

Monitor Trends Monitor and Evaluate Service/ Asset Deployment Evaluate Pilot Programs Evaluate Research

Evaluation National Coastal Safety Report Strategic Research Agenda

National Safety Agenda National Coastal Safety Issues Blackspot Identification

Treatment/Intervention Lifesaving and Support Services Blackspot Reduction Program Beach Safety Equipment Fund Communication Campaigns Public Education and Training Early Warning Systems

Figure 1

TOTAL SERVICE PLAN PROCESS OVERVIEW The Total Service Plan aligns with the International Standard ISO 31000:2018 framework, which provides principles and guidelines for risk management.

NATIONAL SAFETY AGENDA ISSUES 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

55

+

RIP CURRENTS

BOATING

ROCK FISHING

WATERCRAFT

TOXICITY & HEALTH

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS

05

SNORKELLING & SCUBA DIVING

INTRODUCTION

OVER 55 YEARS

DANGEROUS MARINE CREATURES

NEW MIGRANTS


COMMUNIT Y SECTION ONE

10M Swimming Participants

At least

300M beach visitations annually

11%

of Australian adults have ever performed a coastal rescue


A U S T R A L I A N P O P U L AT I O N

Figure 2

AUSTRALIAN POPULATION DENSITY PER LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (LGA) This map shows the estimated Australian population density per LGA at June 2016. Most LGAs with a population density higher than 100 persons per square kilometre are located on Australia’s coastal fringe.

Key to Population Density per LGA < 0.1 persons per km2

Darwin

0.1–1 persons per km2 1–10 persons per km2 10–100 persons per km2 > 100 persons per km2

Brisbane

Perth

Sydney

Adelaide

Canberra 0

1,000km

Melbourne

SCALE

Hobart

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


C O A S TA L P A R T I C I P AT I O N

PWC

Total: 2%

Scuba Diving

Total: 2%

5+ times per week 1-4 times per week 1-3 times per month 3-11 times per year less often

Total: 6%

Rock Fishing

Total: 7%

Watercraft

Total: 8%

Surfing

Total: 10%

Snorkelling

Total: 13%

Boating Land-Based Fishing Swimming

Total: 16% Total: 53%

Figure 3

2018: COASTAL VISITATION BY ACTIVITY Questions: Which of the following coastal activities have you participated in during the past 12 months? How often do you participate in these activities?

Swimming FREQUENT VS OCCASIONAL PARTICIPATION Annually, there are at least 14.9 million coastal activity participants. On average Australians visit the coast 3.2 times per month.

10 million swimmers 3.5 million frequent swimmers (at least once a month) 4 swimming hours per occasional swimmer per year 75 swimming hours per frequent swimmer per year

Watercraft

Surfing

1.2 million watercraft users 0.4 million frequent watercraft users (at least once a month) 5 watercraft hours per occasional watercraft user per year 100 watercraft hours per frequent watercraft user per year

1.5 million surfers 0.7 million frequent surfers (at least once a month) 5 surfing hours per occasional surfer per year 175 surfing hours per frequent surfer per year

Land-based Fishing

Rock Fishing

2.9 million fishers 1 million frequent fishers (at least once a month) 7 fishing hours per occasional fisher per year 125 fishing hours per frequent fisher per year

1.1 million rock fishers 0.5 million frequent rock fishers (at least once a month) 7 fishing hours per occasional rock fisher per year 175 fishing hours per frequent rock fisher per year

Scuba Diving

Snorkelling

0.4 million scuba divers 0.2 million frequent scuba divers (at least once a month) 5 diving hours per occasional diver per year 90 diving hours per frequent diver per year

1.9 million snorkellers 0.4 million frequent snorkellers (at least once a month) 3 snorkelling hours per occasional snorkeller per year 145 snorkelling hours per frequent snorkeller per year

Boating

Personal Water Craft (PWC)

2.4 million boaters 0.7 million frequent boaters (at least once a month) 6 boating hours per occasional boater per year 125 boating hours per frequent boater per year

0.4 million PWC users 0.1 million frequent PWC users (at least once a month) 1.5 PWC hours per occasional PWC user per year 50 PWC hours per frequent PWC user per year

SECTION ONE

09

COMMUNIT Y


A C T I V I T Y P A R T I C I P AT I O N C OA S TA L AC T I V I T Y PA R T I C I PA N T S: D E M O G R A PH I C & LO C AT I O N S E L E C T I O N

2018: SWIMMING/WADING

51%

10M

2018: WATERCRAFT

49%

43%

Swimming/ Wading

1.2M

57%

Watercraft

Female Male

Female Male

Figure 4

Figure 6

2018: SWIMMING/WADING PARTICIPATION BY GENDER

2018: WATERCRAFT PARTICIPATION BY GENDER

NT

49%

SA

4%

QLD

52%

VIC

6%

SA

52%

WA

6%

TAS

6%

NSW

6%

VIC WA NSW TAS

53% 54% 55%

9%

QLD

63%

12%

NT

Figure 5

Figure 7

2018: SWIMMING/WADING PARTICIPATION BY STATE

2018: WATERCRAFT PARTICIPATION BY STATE

CRAFT USE BY PARTICIPANTS

26%

54% 45%

OF SWIMMERS SAY THEY HAVE BEEN CAUGHT IN A RIP CURRENT UNINTENTIONALLY

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

10

KAYAK

STAND UP PADDLE BOARD

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


2018: BOATING & PWC

2018: FISHING Rock Fishing PWC

44% 50%

2.4M Boating &

50%

56%

43%

Boating

0.4M PWC

31%

2.9M Land-based &

69%

Land-based Fishing

57%

1.1M Rock

Female Male

Female Male

Figure 8

Figure 10

2018: BOATING AND PWC PARTICIPATION BY GENDER

2018: FISHING PARTICIPATION BY TYPE AND GENDER

PWC 1%

VIC

8%

0% NT 1% 5%

Rock Fishing

Boating

10%

WA

13%

SA

13%

5%

VIC

5%

NT

3%

WA

17%

15%

8%

SA

5%

QLD

15%

8%

NSW

5%

TAS

10%

15% 17%

6%

26%

8%

QLD

NSW

1%

Land-based Fishing

18% 19% 23%

TAS

Figure 9

Figure 11

2018: BOATING AND PWC PARTICIPATION BY STATE

2018: FISHING PARTICIPATION BY TYPE AND STATE

SAFETY EQUIPMENT CARRIED

97% 94%

PARTICIPANTS WHO HAVE BEEN RESCUED

3% 8%

LIFEJACKETS

MOBILE PHONE

SECTION ONE

11

COMMUNIT Y

LAND-BASED FISHING

ROCK FISHING


A C T I V I T Y P A R T I C I P AT I O N C OA S TA L AC T I V I T Y PA R T I C I PA N T S: D E M O G R A PH I C & LO C AT I O N S E L E C T I O N

2018: SURFING

2018: SNORKELLING & SCUBA DIVING Snorkelling

Scuba Diving

27%

21%

1.9M Snorkelling

45%

&

1.5M Surfing

0.4M Scuba Diving

73%

55%

79%

Female Male

Female Male

Figure 12

Figure 14

2018: SURFING PARTICIPATION BY GENDER

2018: SNORKELLING AND SCUBA DIVING PARTICIPATION BY GENDER

Scuba Diving 6%

VIC

4%

SA

7%

WA

7%

NT

7%

0% 3%

VIC

3%

SA

1% 9%

QLD

12%

TAS

7% 8% 9% 10%

QLD NSW

12%

3%

WA

12%

3%

TAS

2% 10%

NSW

NT

Snorkelling

14%

Figure 13

Figure 15

2018: SURFING PARTICIPATION BY STATE

2018: SCUBA DIVING AND SNORKELLING PARTICIPATION BY STATE

SURFER DEMOGRAPHIC

PARTICIPANT LOCATION PREFERENCES

20%

31%

70%

84%

OF ADULTS AGED 16-24 GO SURFING

SURFERS CONSIDER THEMSELVES BEGINNERS

SNORKELLERS CONSIDER UNDERSEA VISIBILITY AS THE MOST IMPORTANT

SCUBA DIVERS CONSIDER MARINE WILDLIFE AS THE MOST IMPORTANT

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


A C T I V I T Y P A R T I C I P AT I O N PA R T I C I PAT I O N F R E Q U E N C Y A N D E X PE R T I S E

Frequent

6.5

Occasional

3.5

1.9

1.7

1.6

1.0 0.7

Swimming

Land-based Fishing

0.7

Boating

0.9

0.8

0.5

Surfing

0.3

0.3

Snorkelling

Watercraft

0.6 0.2

Rock Fishing

0.2

Scuba Diving

0.3

0.1 PWC

Figure 16

2018: PARTICIPANTS (MILLIONS) IN COASTAL ACTIVITIES

Beginner

2%

24%

Intermediate

Advanced

4%

4%

30%

25%

Can't say

9%

1% 17%

23%

24% 22%

29%

56% 48% 55%

54% 43%

45%

42%

41%

29%

Snorkelling

39%

20%

19%

23%

23%

24%

28%

29%

Swimming

Rock Fishing

Land-based Fishing

Scuba Diving

Boating

PWC

Figure 17

2018: PARTICIPANT INDICATED LEVEL OF EXPERIENCE OR EXPERTISE IN COASTAL ACTIVITIES

SECTION ONE

13

COMMUNIT Y

31%

Surfing

35%

Watercraft


SWIMMING ABILITY C O N F I D E N C E I N C OA S TA L E N V I R O N M E N T S

Ocean

OF ADULTS SAY THEY ARE UNABLE TO SWIM OR ARE WEAK SWIMMERS IN THE OCEAN

45%

64%

64%

1/3

ALMOST 1/3 OF AUSTRALIAN ADULTS SAY THEY ARE COMPETENT OR HIGHLY COMPETENT SWIMMERS OVERALL

Overall

43%

can’t swim 50m in the ocean without stopping

57%

36%

No / Can’t say Yes

Figure 18

2018: ABILITY TO SWIM 50M WITHOUT STOPPING

Swimming ability overall Swimming ability in ocean

34% 32%

31%

26% 23%

16% 12% 10% 7%

6% 1%

Unable to swim

Weak swimmer

Average swimmer

Competent swimmer

Highly competent swimmer

Figure 19

2018: SWIMMING ABILITY OF AUSTRALIAN ADULTS OVERALL VS IN THE OCEAN

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018

2%

Can't say


8%

8%

8%

10%

27% Can float & gently

20%

swim for about 15 min 19%

I cannot float or swim I can comfortably float for over 1 minute and swim a little distance I can comfortably float and gently swim for about 15 minutes I can comfortably float and gently swim for up to 30 minutes I can comfortably float and gently swim for up to 60 minutes I can swim constantly for over one hour and float as long as I wish Can't say

27%

Figure 20

2018: UNAIDED SWIMMING ABILITY OF AUSTRALIAN ADULTS IN COASTAL AREAS

Unable to swim / Weak swimmer

5%

1%

38%

Average swimmer

31% 40%

30% OF ADULTS SAY THEY HAVE NEVER SWUM 50M OR MORE IN THE OCEAN

Can't say

Competent / Highly competent swimmer 2%

1%

37%

45%

40%

1%

51% 55% 71%

39% 31%

28% 27%

35% 31%

25% 33%

31%

PWC

31%

Boating

21%

30%

28%

27%

24%

24%

Swimming

Rock Fishing

Land-based Fishing

Snorkelling

Watercraft

Figure 21

2018: OCEAN SWIMMING ABILITY OF PARTICIPANTS IN COASTAL ACTIVITIES

SECTION ONE

15

COMMUNIT Y

10%

7%

Surfing

Scuba Diving


RISK PERCEPTION H A Z A R D PE R C E P T I O N O F C OA S T A N D C OA S TA L AC T I V I T Y PA R T I C I PAT I O N

R

Coast Beach

isk perception of coastal participants has been surveyed by SLSA for five years and has shown some clear disparities between percieved risk and reality. The National Coastal Safety Survey in 2018 asked coastal activity participants how hazardous they believe activities are and also how safe the same activities are. Figure 23 shows that when considering their ‘safety’ risk perception increases 9% on average. The most significant difference in perception is in snorkelling, which has become more prominent in both participation and drowning statistics in recent years.

46%

44%

41%

26%

23%

11%

Extremely or very hazardous

Somewhat hazardous

Not very or not at all hazardous

Figure 22

2018: HAZARD PERCEPTION OF THE COAST AND BEACH ENVIRONMENTS

Extremely hazardous / very hazardous Not very safe / not safe at all

63%

52%

42% 35% 32%

21%

12% 9% 6% Wading

14%

25%

25%

19%

17% 14%

30%

28%

26%

13%

7% Land-based Fishing

Swimming

Boating

Snorkelling

Watercraft

Surfing

Scuba Diving

PWC

Rock Fishing

Figure 23

2018: THE DIFFERENCE IN COASTAL ACTIVITY PERCEPTION WHEN ASKED HOW ‘SAFE’ IT IS COMPARED TO HOW ‘HAZARDOUS’ IT IS

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


C O A S TA L R E S C U E S AC T I V I T I E S A N D E Q U I PM E N T I N VO LV E D I N C OA S TA L R E S C U E S

Have you ever been rescued when participating in these activities Have you ever rescued someone when you were participating in these activities

23%

19%

14% 13% 12%

12%

8% 7%

7% 6% 4%

3%

3%

3%

3%

2% 0% Land-based Fishing

PWC

1% Snorkelling

Rock Fishing

Boating

Watercraft

Swimming

Scuba Diving

Surfing

Figure 24

2018: PARTICIPANTS IN COASTAL ACTIVITIES WHO HAVE EVER BEEN RESCUED OR PERFORMED A RESCUE WHILE PARTICIPATING IN THESE ACTIVITIES

3% 3% 6%

2%

2%

30% 9%

18%

60% Didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t use a

rescue device

37% Were rescued

60% None A board A lifejacket An angel ring / a life buoy A rescue tube Another flotation device Can't say, can't remember

37%

by a lifeguard 31%

By a lifeguard By someone I knew By someone else / a stranger Can't remember

Figure 25

Figure 26

2018: EQUIPMENT USED BY PARTICIPANTS WHO HAVE PERFORMED RESCUES

2018: WHO PERFORMED THE RESCUE FOR PARTICIPANTS IN COASTAL ACTIVITIES

SECTION ONE

17

COMMUNIT Y


SAFET Y PR AC TICES S A F E T Y M E A S U R E S S W I M M E R S TA K E I N C OA S TA L E N V I R O N M E N T S

1%

Rely on rips signs on the beach Depends upon the sea / water conditions

2%

I am a good swimmer

2%

I follow other people / swim where other people swim

3%

Calm water / no surf

3%

Don't care / can't be bothered

4%

Other

4% 5%

No rips on my beach / no rips where I go

6%

I know the beach well / I know where the rips are / I know it's safe

8%

Sometimes rips are hard to identify

11%

Because I swim between the flags / because of the flags

12%

I don't go far in the ocean / don't go deep / knee or waist high

17%

Lazy / don't always pay attention / forget

28%

Don't know what to look for / not able to identify a rip

Figure 27

2018: THE REASONS WHY AUSTRALIAN ADULTS DON’T ALWAYS LOOK FOR THE PRESENCE OF RIP CURRENT

Like secluded / quiet beach Like to visit other beaches Can't say

2% 4% 5%

I am a good / confident swimmer

6%

Feel safe where I go /swim

6%

I only go in knee or waist high

7% 12%

Too crowded / too many people

25%

No patrolled beach close to where I live

32%

Swim outside patrol hours

Figure 28

2018: THE REASONS WHY AUSTRALIAN ADULTS DON’T ALWAYS SWIM AT A PATROLLED BEACH DURING PARTOL HOURS

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


8%

25%

3%

38% Swim at patrolled

SLS recognises coastal and beach visitations in Australia are increasing and not everyone recreates at a patrolled location. 38%

beaches during patrol hours

It is essential that beachgoers understand the risks and hazards that exist and how to stay safe. This highlights the importance of public education initiatives to prevent coastal injury and drowning.

Patrolled beach during patrol hours only Patrolled beach, but not always during patrolled hours Unpatrolled beach Coastal Pools Can't say

26%

Figure 29

2018: USUAL SWIMMING LOCATION FOR COASTAL SWIMMERS

0 alcoholic drinks

8%

16%

1 or 2 standard alcoholic drinks

3%

6%

2%

17%

19%

11% 21%

20%

3 or more standard alcoholic drinks

3% 13%

1%

5%

14%

3%

13% 31% 91%

69%

70%

Rock Fishing

Watercraft

75%

75%

76%

83%

85%

Swimming

Boating

Surfing

PWC

Snorkelling

51%

Land-based Fishing

Scuba Diving

Figure 30

2018: THE NUMBER OF STANDARD ALCOHOLIC DRINKS COASTAL ACTIVITY PARTICIPANTS BELIEVE IS REASONABLE TO CONSUME BEFORE UNDERTAKING ACTIVITIES Note: where data doesn’t add up to 100% there were participants who answered ‘can’t say’.

SECTION ONE

19

COMMUNIT Y


F E AT U R E : N O N - F ATA L D R O W N I N G N O N - FATA L D R OW N I N G OV E R V I E W 2 0 02-15

T

2,190

he focus of drowning prevention research has long been on fatal drowning. However, this is only part of the total drowning toll. Non-fatal drowning incidents are more difficult to quantify but represent a significant part of the total impact of drowning.

Beach Other Large area of water Stream of water Area of still water

1,870 1,607 495 173

Between 2002 and 2015, there were 6,158 cases of non-fatal drowning recorded across all aquatic environments (including swimming pools, bath tubs and natural waters (Fig.31)). Beaches, the only quantifiable coastal environment in this dataset, accounted for 495 (8%) of the incidents. This represents an average of 38 non-fatal beach drowning cases per year.

648

46 Swimming pool

It is likely that there are more non-fatal cases that have occurred within the coastal environment however, due to hospital coding limitations they are indeterminable at this stage.

495

245

Natural water

Bath tub

Other or unspecified

Figure 31

2002-15: LOCATION OF NON-FATAL DROWNING INCIDENTS (n=6,158)

38

NON-FATAL DROWNING INCIDENTS BETWEEN 2002-15

491

77% 25% MALE

NON-FATAL DROWNING INCIDENTS PER YEAR

UNDER AGE OF16

Female Male

6 13 8 15

9 10

11 7

9

46

8

1

39

38

12

34 26

26

10 24

31

28

26 23

20 15

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

Figure 32

2002-15: NON-FATAL DROWNING INCIDENTS ON THE BEACH BY YEAR AND GENDER (n=495)

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018

2013-14

2014-15


F E AT U R E : N O N - F ATA L D R O W N I N G C O M PA R I S O N O F FATA L A N D N O N - FATA L D R OW N I N G AT B E AC H E S 2 0 0 4 -15

T

o calculate ratios of fatal to non-fatal drowning incidents, the total number of fatal beach drowning incidents were revised to match the much narrower definition of drowning used by the non-fatal data. Therefore, the number of fatal beach drowning cases in this section is lower than reported in other sections of the report.

RATIO FATAL : NON-FATAL

1:1.08

The average ratio of fatal to non-fatal drowning from 2004 to 2015 is 1:1.08. This indicates that for every fatal drowning on a beach, there are 1.08 non-fatal beach drowning incidents.

0-4 YEAR OLD RATIO FATAL : NON-FATAL

FATAL DROWNING

75+ YEAR OLD RATIO FATAL : NON-FATAL

NON-FATAL DROWNING

1:38

The rate is highly variable across age groups – young children (0-4) show the highest ratio (38.00) indicating that for every fatal beach drowning there are 38 non-fatal ones. On the other end of the spectrum, the oldest age group (75+) represents the lowest ratio (0.38) indicating that for every three fatal beach drowning deaths one non-fatal drowning occurs.

1:0.38

For more information, see the Coastal Safety Brief – Beaches on www.sls.com.au/publications

Non-fatal

Fatal

97 92

88 82 52 62

71

67

83

25

46

62

52

38

57 35

43

33

55

31

25

32 58 45 29

2004-05

36 28

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

32

32

31

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

23

2011-12

Figure 33

2004-15: FATAL AND NON-FATAL BEACH DROWNING INCIDENTS BY YEAR (n=816)

46

44

SECTION ONE

21

COMMUNIT Y

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15


C A PA B I LI T Y SECTION T WO

10,249 48,371 RESCUES PROFICIENT MEMBERS

1,371,455 VOLUNTEER PATROL HOURS

1,095

314

377

IRBs

Clubs

Helicopter Missions


C A PA B I LIT Y

S

urf Life Saving (SLS) has significant capability to provide coastal surveillance patrols and aquatic search and rescue (SAR) operations, working in close partnership with police and other emergency services. These services are expertly delivered and managed by the 40,371 Bronze Medallion holders and 8,000 Surf Rescue Certificate holders (totalling 48,371 proficient surf lifesavers) through the 314 Surf Life Saving Clubs. This is alongside 700 fulltime, seasonal and casual lifeguards. Surf lifesavers and lifeguards receive specialised training to industry best-practice standards under the Australian Qualifications Framework ensuring the community receives consistent service of the highest quality across the nation. Radio communications provide support to all services via SLS coastal radio networks or government radio networks, which are connected to SLS communication and operation centres. These centres provide operational support, data management and when required coordinate the SLS emergency response system. VOLUNTEER SURF LIFESAVERS Our volunteer surf lifesavers are provided with fit-for-purpose equipment designed to operate in the hazardous and challenging conditions that SLS services encounter. Surf lifesavers utilise thousands of rescue boards and rescue tubes mostly around the red and yellow flagged patrol areas. They are supported by 1,095 inflatable rescue boats, allowing surf lifesavers to quickly navigate the surf zone and inshore environment. Roving surveillance patrols that actively monitor stretches of coastline near a primary patrolled areas are vital to the SLS drowning prevention strategy. Surf lifesavers undertake these patrols using 503 side-by-side (SSV) and 4WD vehicles. SLS services extend beyond the red and yellow flags to provide surveillance and emergency response in isolated and hazardous coastal areas. Agile craft such as 162 rescue water craft (RWC) and six jet rescue boats (JRBs) allow surf lifesavers to access white-water areas such as coastal bars and rocky coastlines.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

A fleet of 12 offshore rescue boats (ORBs) and 10 rigid-hull inflatable boats (RIBs) further extend the SLS response capability providing longer range surveillance, blue-water rescue and SAR operations.

SLS SERVICES EXTEND BEYOND THE RED AND YELLOW FLAGS TO PROVIDE SURVEILLANCE AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE IN ISOLATED AND HAZARDOUS COASTAL AREAS. AUSTRALIAN LIFEGUARD SERVICE The Australian Lifeguard Service (ALS) is a national lifeguard provider of beach and pool lifeguard services to 64 local government councils and land managers across Australia. It is the largest supplier of professional lifeguards in Australia. ALS operations are fully integrated into the 24-hour surf emergency response system and work with SLSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s volunteer lifesaving services including the strategically located Westpac Lifesaver Rescue Helicopter Services. ALS patrols provide a range of services, from single-day patrols on periods of peak attendance (i.e. public holidays) to 365-day services for local governments. They are a crucial component in offering a seamless service to the community during peak periods. Several councils around Australia operate internal lifeguard services. Statistics for those services have not been included in this report. WESTPAC LIFESAVER RESCUE HELICOPTERS For rapid, isolated or complex rescues, nine Westpac Lifesaver Rescue Helicopters provide aerial support to lifesaving services and further extend our surveillance and SAR capability. These important assets also support police and other emergency services in a range of emergency and disaster situations.

24

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


SILVER MEDALLION BEACH MANAGEMENT 9,959

SILVER MEDALLION IRB DRIVER 8,062

GOLD MEDALLION (ADVANCED LIFESAVING) 734

SILVER MEDALLION COMMUNICATIONS CENTRE OPERATOR 57

BRONZE MEDALLION 40,371

RADIO OPERATOR CERTIFICATE 6,390

SILVER MEDALLION ADVANCED FIRST AID 209

FIRST AID 12,455

IRB CREW CERTIFICATE 14,653

SPINAL MANAGEMENT 7,171

ADVANCED RESUSCITATION TECHNIQUES 9,878

SILVER MEDALLION AQUATIC RESCUE 599

Figure 34

2017–18: QUALIFICATIONS HELD BY BRONZE MEDALLION HOLDERS 40,371 proficient Bronze Medallion holders also are proficient in eleven other lifesaving awards, totaling over 70,000 additional lifesaving qualifications. This highlights the large amount of additional volunteer training our surf lifesavers undertake to ensure they are highly skilled first responders.

9,878 142

Advanced Resuscitation Techniques [AID]

12,455 1,551

First Aid [AID] 734

Gold Medallion (Advanced Lifesaving)

14,653

IRB Crew Certificate 6,390 1,704

Radio Operator Certificate Silver Medallion Advanced First Aid [AID] 209 Silver Medallion Aquatic Rescue

599 9,959

Silver Medallion Beach Management Silver Medallion Communications Centre Operator 57 Silver Medallion IRB Driver

8,062 7,171

Spinal Management

Award held by Bronze Medallion holders Award held by non-Bronze Medallion holders

8,000

Surf Rescue Certificate (CPR Endorsed)

Figure 35

2017–18: TOTAL QUALIFICATIONS OF SURF LIFESAVERS

SECTION T WO

25

CAPABILIT Y


S U RF LIFE SAVIN G S E RVI CE S

Figure 36

2017â&#x20AC;&#x201C;18: SURF LIFE SAVING SERVICES There are 314 Surf Life Saving Clubs around Australia: 129 in New South Wales, 58 in Queensland, 57 in Victoria, 31 in Western Australia, 22 in South Australia, 14 in Tasmania and 3 in Northern Territory. The Australian Lifeguard Service provides 231 lifeguard services around Australia: 90 in New South Wales, 79 in Queensland, 37 in Victoria, 17 in Western Australia, 2 in South Australia, 1 in Tasmania and 5 in Northern Territory.

Darwin

8 137 48 24

Brisbane

219

Perth

Sydney

Adelaide

94 0

1,000km

Canberra

Melbourne

SCALE

15

Hobart

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

26

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


M E M B E R S H I P C A PAC IT Y

17,910

Bronze Medallion

Surf Rescue Certificate (CPR Endorsed)

8,629 6,220 4,431

3,513

NSW

QLD

2,944

1,324

1,406

1,040 VIC

620

WA

639

SA

78

149

TAS

19 NT

Figure 37

2017–18: PROFICIENT SURF LIFESAVERS There was a total of 40,371 proficient Bronze Medallion holders and 8,000 Surf Rescue Certificate holders.

12,344

Male

Female

6,558 5,535 3,752

3,256

NSW

2,879

QLD

VIC

2,697

2,115

1,555

WA

1,138

490

SA

256 TAS

86

72 NT

Figure 38

2017–18: PATROLLING SURF LIFESAVERS There was a total of 42,740 members who performed a patrol. This includes 7 unspecified gender.

12% 12%

14% 17%

2017-18: PATROLLING SURF LIFESAVERS

5% 2%

36%

36%% 36

Board 17% 14% 18 18%%

Board Rescue Tube RWC No Gear IRB Other

No Gear 14% Rescue Tube 18% Board 36% IRB 12% RWC 17% JRB/ORB/RIB Helicopter 0% Surfboard 0% Other 2%

62%

MALE 0%

FEMALE

Figure 39

2017-18: EQUIPMENT USE IN RESCUES

38%

SECTION T WO

27

CAPABILIT Y


A S S E T C A PA B I LIT Y

Figure 40

2017–18: SLS MAJOR ASSET LOCATION AND SERVICE RANGE SLS maintains a fleet of 162 rescue water craft (RWC), as well as 6 jet rescue boats (JRB), 10 rigid-hull inflatable boats (RIB), 12 offshore rescue boats and 9 rescue helicopters. Their locations and service ranges are depicted on this map.

Key to Asset Location

Darwin Jet Rescue Boat ( JRB) Rigid-hull Inflatable Boat (RIB) Offshore Rescue Boat (ORB) Rescue Helicopter

Brisbane

Perth

Adelaide

Sydney Canberra

0

1,000km

Melbourne

SCALE

Hobart

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

28

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


RESCUES

Figure 41

2017â&#x20AC;&#x201C;18: RESCUES PER LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (LGA) SLS lifesavers, lifeguards and lifesaving services performed 10,249 rescues across 119 LGAs around Australia.

Key to Rescues per LGA 1 - 9 Rescues

Darwin

10 - 49 Rescues 50 - 149 Rescues 150 - 399 Rescues > 400 Rescues

185 2,841 726 250

Brisbane

5,299

Perth

Sydney

Adelaide

855 0

Canberra

Melbourne

1,000km

SCALE

93

Hobart

SECTION T WO

29

CAPABILIT Y


P R E V E N TAT I V E A C T I O N S

Figure 42

2017â&#x20AC;&#x201C;18: PREVENTATIVE ACTIONS PER LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (LGA) SLS lifesavers, lifeguards and lifesaving services performed 1,529,494 preventative actions across 119 LGAs around Australia.

Key to Preventative Actions per LGA 1 - 1,449 Actions

Darwin

1,500 - 4,999 Actions 5,000 - 19,999 Actions 20,000 - 99,999 Actions > 100,000 Actions

6,233 702,185

63,013

Brisbane

11,355 500,149

Perth

Sydney

Adelaide

Canberra

0

Melbourne

1,000km

SCALE

237,334 Hobart

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

30

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018

9,225


FIRST AID

Figure 43

2017â&#x20AC;&#x201C;18: FIRST AID PER LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (LGA) SLS lifesavers, lifeguards and lifesaving services performed 65,296 first aid treatments across 119 LGAs around Australia.

Key to First Aid Incidents per LGA 1 - 49 Incidents

Darwin

50 - 349 Incidents 350 - 649 Incidents 650 - 2,999 Incidents > 3,000 Incidents

577 35,156

5,136

Brisbane

1,391 19,357

Perth

Sydney

Adelaide

Canberra

0

Melbourne

1,000km

SCALE

3,598 81

Hobart

SECTION T WO

31

CAPABILIT Y


F E AT U R E : B E A C H S A F E T Y EQUIPMENT FUND

T

Beaches and inland waterways were identified as high-risk locations for drowning deaths as part of the Australian Water Safety Strategy 2016-2020.

he Australian Government, through the Beach Safety Equipment Fund (BSEF) provided Australian Surf Life Saving Clubs with $8 million of additional funding over five years (2013-2018) to purchase vital safety equipment. Looking after the safety and welfare of over 300 million visitors to Australian beaches is the responsibility of the world’s largest volunteer water safety organisation, Surf Life Saving Australia.

The BSEF equated to an additional $1.6 million per year for five years, providing on average approximately $5,000 per year to each of the nation’s 314 Surf Life Saving Clubs. The BSEF has achieved its intended purpose to deliver coordinated financial support to Surf Life Saving Australia’s affiliated clubs to purchase over 10,000 pieces of vital rescue and first-aid equipment as detailed on the right.

The Australian Government worked with Australia’s key water safety agencies to identify priority areas to promote water safety and reducing both fatal and non-fatal drowning incidents.

Trigg Island Surf Life Saving Club members and the Hon Michael Keenan MP, Member for Stirling, Western Australia. Photo is from Stirling Times (2018) .

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

32

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


DEFIBRILLATOR

OXYGEN RESUSCITATION EQUIPMENT

FIRST AID KIT

222

339

138

120

FUEL CELLS

IRB HULL

SPINAL MANAGEMENT

IRB MOTOR

MOTOR PROPELLER GUARD

OTHER RESCUE & LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT

RADIOS & ACCESSORIES

TRAINING EQUIPMENT RESCUE MANIKINS

SIDE BY SIDE VEHICLE

PPE INCLUDING LIFE JACKETS

RESCUE TUBES AND ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

TOTAL EQUIPMENT RESCUE BOARDS

10,245


D R O W N I N G A N A LY S I S SECTION THREE

110 DROWNING DEATHS COASTAL & OCEAN

80% MALE

20%

FEMALE

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS 2004-18

Rip Currents

19%

Medical Condition or Injury

26%

Alcohol/Drugs

19%


SECTION HEADING S E C T I O N 01


N AT I O N A L O V E R V I E W 2 0 0 4 -18: 14 -Y E A R R E V I E W

No Cause of Death listed

150

Cause of Death listed

0.6 128

Number (n)

90

89

85

110

108

102

95

89

119

118

80

0.5

80 69

0.4

60 0.3

30

0

0.0 2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

Figure 44

2004-18: 14-YEAR TREND OF NATIONAL COASTAL DROWNING DEATHS National coastal and ocean drowning death numbers and crude drowning rates for 2004-18 are illustrated above. The 2017-18 rate per 100,000 population is 0.44, exactly on the 14-year average.

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

0.44

14-YEAR AVERAGE RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION

Swimming

2016-17

2017-18

99

14-YEAR AVERAGE DROWNING DEATHS

Attempting a Rescue

2004-18

2004-18

2017-18

31

4

35

2017-18

4

Scuba Diving

Boating 2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

19

28

4

0

Watercraft

Snorkelling

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

8

3

6

10

Rock Fishing

Fall

2004-18

2017-18

12

10

2004-18

2017-18

4

3

Figure 45

2004-18: 14-YEAR AVERAGE VS 2017-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY Nationally, the number of activity types being undertaken when coastal and ocean drowning deaths occur varies over time. In 2017-18, the number of drowning deaths while swimming/wading, boating and snorkelling were above the 14-year average, while watercraft, rock fishing, scuba diving and fall related incidents were below the 14-year average. The number of drowning deaths while attempting a rescue were the same as the 14-year average.

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

114

120

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

36

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


2004-18: KEY DEMOGRAPHICS IN COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING STATISTICS

3% 2% 1% 2%

16%

The 25-34 year old age group represents 19% of all drowning deaths. The 50-64 year old age group accounts for 24% of all drowning deaths. 51%

51%

Australia Asia Europe Oceania North America Africa South America

Australia

24%

86% 14% MALE

Figure 46

FEMALE

2004-18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY REGION OF BIRTH Region of birth is currently known for 68% of all coastal and ocean drowning deaths (n=948). Half (51%) were born in Australia. When breaking it down to countries, the top 3 are Australia (n=486), UK (n=83) and China (n=59).

25-34 YEARS OF AGE

15%

&

50-64 YEARS OF AGE

10% 9%

12%

8% 7%

9%

6% 5%

6%

4% 3%

3%

2%

0

0%

12-1 am 1-2am 2-3am 3-4am 4-5am 5-6am 6-7am 7-8am 8-9am 9-10am 10-11am 11-12pm 12-1pm 1-2pm 2-3pm 3-4pm 4-5pm 5-6pm 6-7pm 7-8pm 8-9pm 9-10pm 10-11pm 11-12am

June

May

April

March

February

January

December

November

October

September

August

July

1%

Figure 47

Figure 48

2004-18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY MONTH

2004-18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY TIME

The highest percentage of coastal and ocean drowning deaths occurred in the month of January (n=210), followed by December (n=172) and March (n=160). Sixty-three per cent occurred outside of the summer months. Shading denotes seasons.

Incident time is currently known for 79% of all coastal and ocean drowning deaths (n=1,101). The highest density of fatalities occurred between 1pm and 5pm (n=427).

SECTION THREE

37

DROWNING ANALYSIS


N AT I O N A L O V E R V I E W 2 017-18: 1-Y E A R R E V I E W

I

110

n the National Coastal Safety Report 2017, SLSA commenced reporting on coastal aquatic fatalities other than the drowning deaths it traditionally covers. These include fatalities due to medical conditions, injuries, marine wildlife and other causes. Coastal aquatic fatalities occur during a range of activities and in a range of locations, impacting on the community similarly to drowning related incidents. They often have long term, devastating impacts to family, friends and loved ones in addition to those who are involved in trying to save their lives. Through research we can obtain greater understanding of how these other coastal fatalities occur and be better informed to undertake and implement preventative education and awareness campaigns and services. We can also ensure that the SLS community and other emergency services are appropriately skilled and informed to address such situations.

63

DROWNING DEATHS

88

OTHER AQUATIC FATALITIES

22

COASTAL

OCEAN

13%

51%

In 2017-18, a total of 110 coastal drowning deaths were recorded. However, SLSA recorded a further 63 coastal fatalities taking the total number of coastal aquatic deaths to 173.

Coastal Drowning Deaths

36%

Acknowledging that 36 per cent of coastal aquatic deaths is not as a result of drowning creates a range of challenges for the greater community, SLS and all other aquatic emergency service agencies. Understanding the type of incidents that occur and the contributing elements and causes that lead to the fatality will assist all to help reduce incidents in the future.

51%

Coastal Drowning Aquatic Fatality Ocean Drowning

Figure 49

2017-18: OVERVIEW OF DROWNING DEATHS AND FATALITIES PER CATEGORY

60 Ocean Drowning Aquatic Fatality Coastal Drowning

50

Number (n)

40 30 20 10 0 NSW

QLD

VIC

WA

SA

TAS

Figure 50

2017â&#x20AC;&#x201C;18: OVERVIEW OF DROWNING DEATHS AND AQUATIC FATALITIES PER STATE

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

38

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018

NT


Coastal drowning death Coastal aquatic fatality

Darwin

Coastal drowning death or aquatic fatality

4 23 | 9 13 | 11 6|8

Brisbane

39 | 21

Perth

Sydney

Adelaide

Canberra

0

Melbourne

1,000km

SCALE

20 | 6 Hobart

6|7 Figure 51

2017-18: COASTAL DROWNING DEATHS AND COASTAL AQUATIC FATALITIES BY STATE In 2017-18 there were 110 coastal and ocean drowning deaths and 63 coastal aquatic fatalities. Red numbers indicate coastal and ocean drowning deaths per state. Blue numbers indicate coastal aquatic fatalities per state. The black number indicates both coastal drowning deaths and aquatic fatalities combined where the total incident number was lower than 5.

SECTION THREE

39

DROWNING ANALYSIS


N AT I O N A L O V E R V I E W 2 017-18: 1-Y E A R R E V I E W

Male

14

Female

0.06

12

Number (n)

10

0.04

8 0.03 6 0.02 4

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

0.05

0.01

2 0

0-4

5-9

10-14 15-19

20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39

40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74

75-79 80-84

85+

0.00

Figure 52

2017-18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY AGE AND GENDER (n=110) The age group representing the highest rate of fatality is 40-44 (0.05 rate per 100,000 pop.). This is also the age group where females made up almost half (46%) of the drowning deaths. Overall, 80% (n=88) of fatalities were male.

6%

8%

7% 3%

2%

32%

2%

3%

20%

32%

4%

Swimming/ Wading

9%

42%

Swimming/Wading Boating Snorkelling Rock Fishing Attempting a Rescue Fall Watercraft Jump Other Unknown

9% 25%

42% Beach 28%

Beach Offshore Rock/Cliff Bay Jetty

Figure 53

Figure 54

2017-18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n=110)

2017-18: LOCATION OF COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS (n=110)

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths occurred while swimming or wading (n=35), boating (n=28), snorkelling (n=10) or rock fishing (n=10).

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths occurred at a beach (n=46), offshore (n=31) or at rock/cliff locations (n=22). Beach locations show a decrease (48% in 2015-16 and 43% in 2016-17) while offshore and rock/cliff locations show an increase from last year (26% and 15% respectively in 2016-17).

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

40

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


25

14-year average drowning deaths 22

Number (n)

20

17 15

15 13

10

12 8

7

5

4

4

August

September

6

1

1

0

July

October

November December

January

February

March

April

May

June

Figure 55

2017-18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS PER MONTH (n=110) Of the 110 coastal and ocean drowning deaths, 47% (n=52) happened over the summer months (Dec-Feb) which is the highest on record from 2004 (average n=37). Dark-red squares indicate the 14-year average drowning deaths per month.

5% 22%

10%

26%

31%

31% 27%

42%

Less than 1km

27%

More than 50km 42%

<1km 1-5km > 5km Ocean

17%

<10km 10-50km >50km International Unknown

Figure 56

Figure 57

2017–18: DISTANCE FROM DROWNING LOCATION TO A LIFESAVING SERVICE (n=110)

2017–18: DISTANCE FROM RESIDENCE TO DROWNING LOCATION (n=110)

Thirty-four individuals (31%) drowned within 1km of the nearest lifesaving service. Almost half (45%) of incidents happened further than 5km from a lifesaving service.

Twenty-nine individuals lived less than 10km from the drowning location. 57 individuals (52%) lived more than 50km from the incident location or were international visitors.

SECTION THREE

41

DROWNING ANALYSIS


3 2 2 2 3 2

DARWIN

D R O W N I N G L O C AT I O N S

2

2 0 0 4 –18

2 2

3

2 5

206

169 169

2

4

2 2 2

2

2 3

Figure 58

2 5

4

2004–18: COASTAL DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY

2 4

PERTH 3

2 3

KEY TO DROWNING ACTIVITY

2

3

2 2 3

2 4 2 2

2

2

2 2 2

5

2

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

3

0

1,000km

SCALE

42

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


2

3 7 2

2 3

2 2

2

2 2

31

5 2 2

236

2

3

2 2 3 2 2 2

BRISBANE

105

2 5 2 8

1

2 5 2 2

2

5 2 2 2 9

2 3 3 2

4 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 2 2 8 2 2 2 2 3 6

2

2

2 2

2

3 8 2

2

4 2

ADELAIDE

3

SYDNEY

8

2

213

2 3 2 2 2

2 2

2

3

2 2

2

2

2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 2 2 2

2

HOBART 9 2 2

3 3

2

3

2 4 2 3 4

5 4 2

2 5

2

5 2 3 9 3 2 5 3 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 2

3 5 2 2 2 5 3 3 2

4

4 4 12 4 2 2

CANBERRA

MELBOURNE

4 3

2

3 3 3 3

66

6 2 2 2 2 2

12 2 3 3 3 5 5 7 2 2 13 11 6 9 3 3 3 21 8 4 4 3 2 2 11 11 6 5 4 2 8 2 4 3 2 2

2

7 2 3 3 3 3 2 4 2 6 17 3

2

529

3

2 9 2 5 4

2 5 2


F E AT U R E : A L C O H O L A N D D R U G S

A risk factor for drowning, non-fatal drowning and injury associated with aquatic activity is alcohol and drug misuse. Nineteen per cent (n=257) of drowning deaths that occurred on the coast are attributed to alcohol and drugs. Males aged 20 to 54 are highly represented (54%). Almost half (48%, n=124) of all cases occurred more than 5km away from the nearest surf life saving service.

18 41

74% AGED 20-54 87% 13% MALE

55

16

67

40

20

FEMALE

Both Alcohol and Drugs Drugs Alcohol

25

25

25

24 21

20

17 15

17

15

21

20

19 16

17

14

10 6 5

0 2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

Figure 59

2004-18: COASTAL DROWNING DEATHS ATTRIBUTED TO ALCOHOL AND DRUGS BY YEAR (n=257) The number of drowning deaths involving alcohol, drugs or both varies over time. Note that 86% of 2017-18 cases are still open in NCIS and no reliable toxicity data is available for these yet.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

44

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


40%

26%

26%

OF ALCOHOL RELATED COASTAL DROWNING DEATHS WERE 4 TIMES OR MORE ABOVE THE LEGAL LIMIT

40%

Both Alcohol and Drugs Alcohol Drugs Both Alcohol and Drugs

34%

MOST ENCOUNTERED DRUGS Figure 60

2004-18: ALCOHOL AND DRUG RELATED DROWNING DEATHS (n=257) Of the cases where alcohol and drugs were involved, 40% consumed alcohol only, 34% consumed drugs only and 26% had both in their system.

LOCATION OF DROWNING

43% 17%

THC (CANNABIS)

2.

AMPHETAMINES

3.

PRESCRIPTION

12% 6% 30% 3%

BEACH

2%

3% 4%

18%

1.

30% Swimming/ Wading

6% 7%

21% 7%

OFFSHORE

Swimming/Wading Boating Watercraft Fall Rock Fishing Snorkelling Scuba Diving Attempting a Rescue Land-based Fishing Other Unknown

Figure 61

2004-18: ALCOHOL AND DRUG RELATED DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n= 257) ROCK/CLIFF

SECTION THREE

Swimming (n=76) and boating (n=54) are the two activities with the highest amount of alcohol and drug related drowning deaths.

45

DROWNING ANALYSIS


S N A P S H O T: R I P C U R R E N T S 2 0 0 4 -2 018

DROWNING DEATHS

262 AVERAGE DROWNING DEATHS PER YEAR

4

49

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

0.09 19 15-39

21 19

PER 100,000 POPULATION

127

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS, BORN IN AUSTRALIA OR OVERSEAS

32

YEAR OLD MALES

10

DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY 2% 2%

8%

1% 1% 1%

14%

71%

71%

Swimming/ Wading

86% 14%

Swimming/Wading Attempting a Rescue Watercraft Rock Fishing Snorkelling Fall Scuba Diving Land-based Fishing

MALE

FEMALE

RIP-CURRENT DROWNING DEATHS 2004-18 30

28

Number (n)

25

15

23

22

20

17

20

18

16

9 10

0.09

15

14

10

0.12

20

18

0.15

0.06

11

0.03

5

0.00

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

46

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018

2017-18

2016-17

2015-16

2014-15

2013-14

2012-13

2011-12

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

2004-05

0

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

30


S N A P S H O T: B O AT I N G 2 0 0 4 -2 018

DROWNING DEATHS

262 AVERAGE DROWNING DEATHS PER YEAR

10

54

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

0.08 19 60-75

39 33

PER 100,000 POPULATION

53

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS, AUSTRALIAN BORN

YEAR OLD MALES

42

31

LIFEJACKET USE AT TIME OF INCIDENT

28%

60%

92% 8%

60%

MALE

No

12%

No Yes Unknown

FEMALE

BOATING DROWNING DEATHS 2004-18 30 0.15

25 21

20

21

20

9 10

10

14 11

20

18

19

15

0.12

21 17

14 13

0.09 0.06

13 10

0.03

5

0.00 2017-18

2016-17

2015-16

2014-15

2013-14

2012-13

2011-12

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

0 2004-05

Number (n)

25

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

30


S N A P S H O T: R O C K F I S H I N G 2 0 0 4 -2 018

DROWNING DEATHS

167 AVERAGE DROWNING DEATHS PER YEAR

0

4

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

0.05 12 40-65

33 2

PER 100,000 POPULATION

110

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS, BORN IN AUSTRALIA OR ASIA

YEAR OLD MALES

12

6

REGION OF BIRTH 21%

95% 5%

2%

3%

47%

5%

47%

MALE

Asia Australia Europe Oceania Africa Unknown

Asia 22%

FEMALE

ROCK FISHING DROWNING DEATHS 2004-18 20

18 16

Number (n)

15

0.10

16

0.08

14 12

12

10

12

0.06

10

9

9

5

10 0.04 0.02

6

4

0.00

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

48

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018

2017-18

2016-17

2015-16

2014-15

2013-14

2012-13

2011-12

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

2004-05

0

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

19


S N A P S H O T: W AT E R C R A F T 2 0 0 4 -2 018

DROWNING DEATHS

105 AVERAGE DROWNING DEATHS PER YEAR

0

21

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

0.03 8 25-39 55-64 94% 6%

18 3

PER 100,000 POPULATION

42

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS, SURFERS, BODY BOARDERS & KAYAKERS

YEAR OLD MALES

AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS & SURFERS

YEAR OLD MALES

17

4

TYPE OF CRAFT 9% 3%

2% 2%

4% 50%

MALE

Surf Board Body Board Kayak Kitesurfing Canoe Surf Ski Windsurfing Other

50%

13%

Surf Board 17%

FEMALE

WATERCRAFT DROWNING DEATHS 2004-18 14

14

0.06

9

7

11

0.04

3

4

0.03

5

0.02

5 3 2016-17

2015-16

2014-15

2013-14

2012-13

2011-12

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

2006-07

0 2005-06

0.05

8

7 5

3

10

2017-18

6

9

2004-05

Number (n)

12

0.00

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

15


NEW SOUTH WALE S

60

9%

53

Number (n)

30

0.8

48 46

45

40

40 35 35

37

39

37

29

0.5

23

20

0.7 0.6

33

29

0.4 10

4%

34%

5%

34%

Swimming/ Wading

8%

0.0 2017-18

2016-17

2015-16

2013-14

2014-15

2011-12

2012-13

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

0.3 2004-05

0

3% 3% 3%

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

50

10% 21%

Swimming/Wading Rock Fishing Boating Watercraft Attempting a Rescue Snorkelling Fall Scuba Diving Other Unknown

Figure 62

Figure 63

2004–18: 14-YEAR TREND OF NSW COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n=529)

In 2017–18, coastal and ocean drowning deaths in New South Wales (NSW) were just over the 14-year average of 38. The rate per 100,000 population was 0.49, just under the average 14-year rate.

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in NSW occurred when swimming/wading (n=178), rock fishing (n=110), boating (n=53) and using watercraft (n=43).

Swimming

Attempting a Rescue

2004-18

2017-18

0.17

0.18

Boating

2004-18

2017-18

0.03

0.03

Scuba Diving

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.05

0.06

0.02

0.00

Watercraft

Snorkelling

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.03

Rock Fishing

Fall

2004-18

2017-18

0.11

0.08

2004-18

2017-18

0.02

0.03

Figure 64

14-YEAR AVERAGE VS 2017-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING RATES BY ACTIVITY In 2017-18 drowning death rates (per 100,000 population) were lower than the 14-year average in watercraft, rock fishing, attempting a rescue and scuba diving related incidents. The yearly rate of incidents related to swimming/wading, boating, snorkelling and falls was higher than the 14-year average.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

50

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


DROWNING SNAPSHOT

2004–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS 2 5

3

2

2 2

2

5 2 2 2 9

2 3 3 2

4 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 2 2 8 2 2 2 2 3 6

2017–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS 2 9 2 5 4

5 2

2

2

CANBERRA 5

2

12 2 3 3 3 5 5 Attempting a Rescue 7 2 2 3 3 13 11 6 9 3 Boating 2 21 8 4 4 3 2Scuba Diving 11 11 6 5 4 2 Rock Fishing 8 2 4 3 2 2 Fall

SYDNEY 4 4 12 4 2 2

6 2 2 2 2

2

2

Attempting a Rescue Jump 3 3 4 2Boating Snorkelling Scuba Diving 2 Swimming/Wading 2 Rock Fishing Watercraft Fall Other Attempting a Rescue Jump Unknown Boating Snorkelling 2 Multiple instances per Scuba Diving Swimming/Wading activity at the same location Rock Fishing Watercraft Capital city Fall Other Jump Unknown Snorkelling 2 Multiple instances per AVERAGE AVERAGE FATALITY RATE Swimming/Wading activity at the same location NUMBER Watercraft Capital city Other Unknown 2 Multiple instances per PER 100,000 POPULATION activity at the same location Capital city 2

5

0.52

38

89% 11%

COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

39

FATALITY RATE

0.49

PER 100,000 POPULATION

DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY 13% 3% 3% 5%

36%

5%

36%

Swimming/ Wading

5%

13% 18%

Swimming/Wading Rock Fishing Boating Watercraft Attempting a Rescue Snorkelling Fall Other Unknown

DROWNING DEATHS BY LOCATION 5% 13%

MALE

FEMALE

49% 33%

Beach

49%

Beach Rock/Cliff Offshore Bay

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

20-29

YEAR OLD SWIMMERS/ WADERS

&

45-54 YEAR OLD ROCK FISHERS

62%

LESS THAN 1KM FROM A SURF LIFE SAVING SERVICE


QUEENSLAND

0.6 24

17 15

10

0.4

16 13

12

11

12

0.3

10

2017-18

2016-17

2015-16

2013-14

2014-15

2011-12

2012-13

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

0.0

2006-07

0

2005-06

0.2

2004-05

5

4%

2% 2%

4%

0.5

19

19 15 Number (n)

23 23

22

20

4%

4%

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

25

33%

33%

10%

Swimming/ Wading 15% 23%

Swimming/Wading Boating Snorkelling Watercraft Attempting a Rescue Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Other Unknown

Figure 65

Figure 66

2004–18: 14-YEAR TREND OF QLD COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n=236)

In 2017–18, 9 coastal and 14 ocean drowning deaths were recorded in Queensland (Qld). From 2004 to 2018, there has been an average of 17 coastal drowning deaths per year, which is an average rate of 0.36 per 100,000 population.

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in Qld occurred when swimming/wading (n=77), boating (n=55), snorkelling (n=35) and using watercraft (n=23).

Swimming

Attempting a Rescue

2004-18

2017-18

0.12

0.06

Boating

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.02

Scuba Diving

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.09

0.20

0.01

0.00

Watercraft

Snorkelling

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.04

0.00

0.05

0.06

Rock Fishing

Fall

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.00

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.00

Figure 67

14-YEAR AVERAGE VS 2017-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING RATES BY ACTIVITY Drowning death rates (per 100,000 population) were lower than the 14-year average in most activities in 2017-18. Exceptions are boating, attempting a rescue and snorkelling incidents.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

52

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


DROWNING SNAPSHOT

2017 -18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

2

2

3 7 2

2 3

23

BOATING

83% 17%

2 2

2

43%

COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2

MALE

2 5 2 2

2

FEMALE

3

DROWNING DEATHS BY LOCATION

2 2 3 2 2 2

BRISBANE 2 5 2 8

1

2

3

4%

7 2 3 3 3 3 2 4 2 6 17

26% 2

AVERAGE NUMBER

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

0.36

17

70%

70%

Offshore

Offshore Beach Jetty

PER 100,000 POPULATION

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

25-34

YEAR OLD SWIMMERS/ WADERS

&

60-64 YEAR OLD BOATERS

87%

GREATER THAN 5KM FROM A SURF LIFE SAVING SERVICE


VICTORIA

25

Number (n)

15

12%

22

20 0.5

19 17 14

15

15 11

10

10

11

0.4

16

0.3

10 10

0.2

5

2017-18

2016-17

2014-15

2015-16

2013-14

2011-12

2012-13

2010-11

2009-10

2008-09

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

2004-05

0

0.1

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

23 20

5% 2% 2%

4% 6% 7%

0.0

34% Swimming/Wading Boating Watercraft Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Attempting a Rescue Snorkelling Fall Other Unknown

34% Swimming/ Wading 8%

20%

Figure 68

Figure 69

2004–18: 14-YEAR TREND OF VIC COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n=213)

In 2017–18, the number of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in Victoria (Vic) showed an increase from 2016-17 and was above the 14-year average of 15.

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in Vic occurred when swimming/wading (n=73), boating (n=42) and using watercraft (n=17).

Swimming

Attempting a Rescue

2004-18

2017-18

0.09

0.19

Boating

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.02

Scuba Diving

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.05

0.03

0.02

0.00

Watercraft

Snorkelling

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.02

0.02

0.01

0.02

Rock Fishing

Fall

2004-18

2017-18

0.02

0.02

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.00

Figure 70

14-YEAR AVERAGE VS 2017-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING RATES BY ACTIVITY In 2017-18 drowning death rates (per 100,000 population) were lower than or equal to the 14-year average in boating, watercraft, rock fishing, scuba diving and falls. The yearly rate of incidents related to swimming/wading, attempting a rescue and snorkelling was higher than the 14-year average.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


DROWNING SNAPSHOT

2004–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2017–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

MELBOURNE

2 3 9 3 2 5 3 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 2

3 5 2 2 2 5 3 3 2

4

2 3

5

2 2

2 3

2 4 2 3 4

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock 2 Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

Attempting a Rescue 2 2 Boating 4 4Scuba 3 3 Diving 4 2 2 Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling 2 Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the AVERAGE same locationFATALITY RATE Capital city

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling 2 AVERAGE Swimming/Wading Watercraft NUMBER Other Unknown 2 Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

15

20

FATALITY RATE

0.31

PER 100,000 POPULATION

DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY 10% 5% 5%

60%

5% 5%

10%

60% Swimming/Wading Boating Rock Fishing Watercraft Attempting a Rescue Snorkelling Unknown

Swimming/ Wading

0.26

PER 100,000 POPULATION

DROWNING DEATHS BY LOCATION 10%

85% 15% MALE

20%

70%

FEMALE

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

30-44 YEAR OLD SWIMMERS

&

60-64 YEAR OLD BOATERS

70%

Beach

Beach Bay Rock/Cliff

50%

BETWEEN 1 AND 5KM FROM A SURF LIFE SAVING SERVICE


WESTERN AUSTR ALIA

30

4%

26

24

Number (n)

20

1.0

20

15

15

17 12

10

9

8

10

0.8

16

15

13 0.6

12 9

0.4

5

5%

10%

12%

0.0 2017-18

2016-17

2014-15

2015-16

2013-14

2011-12

2012-13

2010-11

2009-10

2007-08

2008-09

2006-07

2004-05

2005-06

0.2

0

5%

1.2

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

25

2%

2%

26%

Swimming/Wading Boating Rock Fishing Snorkelling Watercraft Scuba Diving Fall Attempting a Rescue Other Unknown

26% Swimming/ Wading

19%

16%

Figure 71

Figure 72

2004–18: 14-YEAR TREND OF WA COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n=206)

In 2017–18, coastal and ocean drowning deaths in Western Australia (WA) dropped to below the 14-year average of 15 after a record high in 2016-17. From 2004 to 2018, the average rate per 100,000 population is 0.62.

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in WA occurred when swimming/wading (n=53), boating (n=39), rock fishing (n=33) and snorkelling (n=24).

Swimming

Attempting a Rescue

2004-18

2017-18

0.16

0.08

Boating

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.00

Scuba Diving

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.12

0.12

0.03

0.00

Watercraft

Snorkelling

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.06

0.00

0.07

0.12

Rock Fishing

Fall

2004-18

2017-18

0.10

0.08

2004-18

2017-18

0.03

0.04

Figure 73

14-YEAR AVERAGE VS 2017-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING RATES BY ACTIVITY Drowning death rates (per 100,000 population) were lower than the 14-year average in most activities in 2017-18. Exceptions are snorkelling and fall related incidents.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

56

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


DROWNING SNAPSHOT

2017–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

23%

13

BOATING

85% 15%

2 2

MALE

3

2 5

FEMALE

2

4

2

DROWNING DEATHS BY LOCATION

2 2

2

2 3 2 5

4 2 4

PERTH 3

3

2 2 3

2 3

31%

2 4 2 2

2

2

2 2 2 2

5

38%

38%

Rock/Cliff

3

31%

Rock/Cliff Beach Offshore

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

25-34

YEAR OLD SWIMMERS/ WADERS & SNORKELLERS

&

65-69 YEAR OLD BOATERS

62%

GREATER THAN 5KM FROM A SURF LIFE SAVING SERVICE


SOUTH AUSTR ALIA

15

6%

Number (n)

9

5 8

10

9 7

6

4

3

6

7

0.8 0.6

7

6

3

2017-18

2016-17

2015-16

2013-14

2014-15

2011-12

2012-13

2010-11

2009-10

2007-08

2008-09

2006-07

2005-06

2004-05

0.4 0.2

2 0

3% 3% 3%

1.0

12

11

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

13

12

4% 4% 5%

0.0

2% 2%

37%

37%

Swimming/ Wading 31%

Swimming/Wading Boating Fall Scuba Diving Snorkelling Watercraft Attempting a Rescue Land-based Fishing Rock Fishing Other Unknown

Figure 74

Figure 75

2004–18: 14-YEAR TREND OF SA COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n=105)

In 2017–18, the number of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in South Australia (SA) dropped below the 2004-18 annual average of 8. This year, the rate per 100,000 population was also lower than the average of 0.46.

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in SA occurred when swimming/wading (n=39) and boating (n=33).

Swimming

Attempting a Rescue

2004-18

2017-18

0.17

0.17

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.00

Scuba Diving

Boating 2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.14

0.12

0.02

0.00

Watercraft

Snorkelling

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.00

0.02

0.06

Rock Fishing

Fall

2004-18

2017-18

0.01

0.00

2004-18

2017-18

0.02

0.00

Figure 76

14-YEAR AVERAGE VS 2017-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING RATES BY ACTIVITY Drowning death rates (per 100,000 population) were lower than the 14-year average in most activities in 2017-18. Snorkelling related incidents are the exception.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

58

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


DROWNING SNAPSHOT

2017–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

6

2 2

2

FATALITY RATE

0.35

PER 100,000 POPULATION

3 8 2

2

2

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

4 2

DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY

ADELAIDE

3

8

2

2 3

17%

2 2 2 4 3

50%

2 2

33%

AVERAGE NUMBER

50%

Swimming/ Wading Swimming/Wading Boating Snorkelling

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

0.46

8

PER 100,000 POPULATION

80% 20%

DROWNING DEATHS BY LOCATION

MALE

FEMALE

50%

50%

50%

Beach

Beach Offshore

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

25-29 YEAR OLD BOATERS

&

45-54 YEAR OLD BOATERS

67%

GREATER THAN 5KM FROM A SURF LIFE SAVING SERVICE


TA S M A N I A

8

8

8

1.5%

7

6 5

5

5

5

1.5

5

4

4

3

4

4 1.0

3

2

2

2

0.5

2017-18

2016-17

2014-15

2015-16

2013-14

2011-12

2012-13

2010-11

2009-10

2007-08

2008-09

2006-07

2005-06

0

2004-05

1

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

Number (n)

5

4% 3%

2.0

6

1.5%

6% 8%

47% Boating

8%

0.0

47%

9% 12%

Boating Swimming/Wading Rock Fishing Scuba Diving Fall Watercraft Attempting a Rescue Snorkelling Land-based Fishing Unknown

Figure 77

Figure 78

2004–18: 14-YEAR TREND OF TAS COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n=66)

In 2017–18, there were 6 coastal and ocean drowning deaths in Tasmania (Tas). This is above the 14-year annual average of 5 but lower than last year’s high of 8.

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in Tas occurred when boating (n=31), swimming/wading (n=8) and rock fishing (n=6).

Swimming

Attempting a Rescue

2004-18

2017-18

0.11

0.06

Boating

2004-18

2017-18

0.03

0.00

Scuba Diving

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.38

0.23

0.07

0.00

Watercraft

Snorkelling

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

2017-18

0.06

0.00

0.01

0.00

Rock Fishing

Fall

2004-18

2017-18

0.14

0.00

2004-18

2017-18

0.07

0.06

Figure 79

14-YEAR AVERAGE VS 2017-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING RATES BY ACTIVITY Drowning death rates (per 100,000 population) were lower than the 14-year average in all activities in 2017-18.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

60

NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


DROWNING SNAPSHOT

2004–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2

2

HOBART 9 2 2

AVERAGE NUMBER

5

3 3 3 3

2

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

2017–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

6

FATALITY RATE

1.14

PER 100,000 POPULATION

DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY 17%

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

0.93

67%

17%

Boating

PER 100,000 POPULATION

85% 15% MALE

FEMALE

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

25-29 55-59 YEAR OLD BOATERS

YEAR OLD BOATERS

67%

Boating Swimming/Wading Fall

DROWNING DEATHS BY LOCATION

33% 33%

33%

Rock/Cliff 33%

67%

Bay Rock/Cliff Offshore

GREATER THAN 5KM FROM A SURF LIFE SAVING SERVICE


NORTHERN TERRITORY

6

6 3.0 2.5

4

4

2.0

3

3 2

3

1.5 1.0 0.5

2017-18

2016-17

2014-15

2015-16

2012-13

1 2011-12

2009-10

2007-08

2008-09

1 2006-07

2004-05

0

1

2010-11

1

3

2

2013-14

2

19%

Rate (per 100,000 pop.)

5

2005-06

Number (n)

5

32% 6%

32% Boating

3% 7%

0.0

Boating Swimming/Wading Attempting a Rescue Jump Fall Land-based Fishing Other Unknown

13%

10% 10%

Figure 80

Figure 81

2004–18: 14-YEAR TREND OF NT COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

2004–18: COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY (n=31)

In 2017–18, coastal and ocean drowning deaths in Northern Territory (NT) remained at 3, just above the 14-year average of 2.

The majority of coastal and ocean drowning deaths in NT occurred when boating (n=10) and swimming/wading (n=4).

Swimming

Attempting a Rescue

2004-18

2017-18

0.12

0.00

Boating

2004-18

2017-18

0.09

0.00

Scuba Diving

2004-18

2017-18

0.31

0.81

Watercraft

2004-18

2017-18

0.00

0.00

Snorkelling

2004-18

2017-18

2004-18

0.00

2017-18

0.00

0.00

0.00

Rock Fishing

Fall

2004-18

2017-18

0.00

2004-18

0.00

2017-18

0.07

0.00

Figure 82

14-YEAR AVERAGE VS 2017-18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING RATES BY ACTIVITY Drowning death rates (per 100,000 population) were lower than the 14-year average for swimming, attempting a rescue and fall related incidents in 2017-18. Boating fatality rates were higher than the 14-year average.

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


DROWNING SNAPSHOT

2004–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

3 2 2 2 3 2

3

DARWIN 2

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling 2 Swimming/Wading Watercraft Other Unknown Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

Attempting a Rescue Boating Scuba Diving Rock Fishing Fall Jump Snorkelling 2 Swimming/Wading AVERAGE Watercraft Other NUMBER Unknown 2 Multiple instances per activity at the same location Capital city

2

2017–18 COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

0.95

PER 100,000 POPULATION

87% 13% MALE

FEMALE

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

30-44 YEAR OLD BOATERS

FATALITY RATE

1.22

PER 100,000 POPULATION

DROWNING DEATHS BY ACTIVITY

33%

67% Boating

67% Boating Jump

DROWNING DEATHS BY LOCATION

33% 33%

33% Offshore 33%

67%

Bay Jetty Offshore

GREATER THAN 5KM FROM A SURF LIFE SAVING SERVICE


GLOSSARY

unsafe for coastal activities. The warnings are calculated based on wave height, swell direction and swell period and must exceed the predetermined limitations to be in effect. Drowning – The process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid; outcomes are classified as death, morbidity and no morbidity. Drugs – A medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced to the body. The category includes therapeutic, over-the-counter and illicit drugs. Emergency response – An action taken by an SLS entity in response to a call for assistance from an emergency management organisation. Falls (trips/slips) – Events that result in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or other lower level. First Aid – Assessments and interventions that can be performed by a bystander (or by the victim) with minimal to no equipment. Fishing – Attempting to catch a fish. Foreign ethnicity – Describes an individual who identifies with a cultural group other than Australian based on heritage, language or shared customs. This identification is extrapolated from reported data such as the individuals’ country of birth and the main language spoken at home. Hazard – A source of potential harm. ILS – International Life Saving Federation. Incident – Any unplanned event requiring lifesaving services intervention. Inland – An area that is beyond the line of mean high water or within a landward distance of five times the width of the coastal inlet/river mouth. Inshore – The coastal water area within 500m of the low tide area of the foreshore. International – Describes an individual who is confirmed to reside overseas and/or is a temporary visitor to Australia. IRB – Inflatable rescue boat. IRD – Incident report database. A web-based portal used by SLS services to electronically record incident reports. Jetty – An artificial structure that projects out into the water from land. JRB – Jet rescue boat. Jump(ing) – The activity of launching off a cliff, rock platform, pier, jetty. Aka tombstoning (UK/Europe/North America). Lake – An inland body of water surrounded by land. Lifeguard – An individual who undertakes patrols at a beach or another aquatic environment. He/she is typically a salaried member, qualified in public safety and aquatic rescue.

Adult – For the purpose of this report, adults refer to a person 16 year of age and over. Advanced Resuscitation Techniques – A certification providing the skills and knowledge required to use specialised equipment in the provision of resuscitation in line with the Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC) guidelines. ALS – Australian Lifeguard Service. Apply First Aid – A certification providing the skills and knowledge required to provide a first aid response to a casualty. Attempting a rescue – Trying to retrieve a person in distress and deliver them to a place of safety. AWSC – Australian Water Safety Council – also Australian Water Safety Conference. AWSS – Australian Water Safety Strategy. Bay – A body of water partially enclosed by land but with a wide mouth, affording access to the sea. Beach – A wave-deposited accumulation of sediment – usually sand, but ranging in size up to boulders – deposited between the upper swash limit and wave base. Blackspot – An area with a concentration of coastal/ocean incidents and a high probability/risk of ongoing recurrence. Boating – Using either a powered vessel or sailing boat for pleasure and/or fishing. Bystander – A person who is present at an incident but not part of it initially. Coastal – Describes the foreshore, seabed, coastal water and air space above a large body of water (harbour/bay/inlet), including areas up to 3nm offshore and of which the landward boundary is the line of mean high water, except where that line crosses a river/inlet, the landward boundary at that point shall be the point upstream that is calculated by multiplying the width of the river/inlet mouth by five. (Adopted from the Resource Management Amendment Act 1993 – New Zealand). Coastal drowning death – Where the location of the death is on the coast, in the ocean up to 3nm offshore or inland up to five times the width of the inlet/river and the cause of death includes drowning or immersion. Coastal fatality – Where the location of the death is on the coast, in the ocean up to 3nm offshore or inland up to five times the width of the inlet/river and the cause of death does not include drowning or immersion. COD – Cause of death. Crude drowning rate – A comparative rate of drowning to the size of the population in a given area. Dangerous surf warning – An alert issued by the Bureau of Meteorology indicating that surf conditions in an area are

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PWC – Personal water craft, also known as jet ski. Rescue – The retrieval of a person in distress, delivering them to a place of safety and the application of first aid and basic life support as may be required. Resuscitation – Prevention or restoration of life by establishing and maintaining a person’s airway, breathing and circulation. RIB – Rigid-hull inflatable boat. Rip current – A seaward flowing current of water moving through a surf zone. River – A natural stream of water flowing into an ocean or bay. Rock/cliff – A rock platform that may or may not have a high steep face. Rock fishing – Attempting to catch fish from a coastal rock platform or off a groyne. Rock shelf – A section of rock above or below the water level that projects out from the coast. RWC – Rescue water craft. Scuba diving – Swimming underwater with the aid of scuba equipment for recreational or commercial purposes. Service season and hours – Vary between states due to climatic factors, but in the context of this report, the season is for the period July 2017 to June 2018. Snorkelling – Swimming with a snorkel and face mask. SurfCom – SLS radio communications centre that assists in managing the communications of lifesaving operations and data collection. Surf lifesaver – An individual who undertakes patrols at a beach or other aquatic environment. He/she is typically a nonsalaried member qualified in public safety and aquatic rescue. Surf Life Saving Club – A SLS affiliated not-for-profit organisation that has volunteer members who provide coastal safety services to the community. Swimming – Moving through water by moving the body or parts of the body. Territorial sea – The seaward limits of Australia’s maritime zones, from the coastline to 12nm from the low tide line. Total Service Plan – An assessment of current and future lifesaving resources, trends, national blackspots and coastal safety issues combined with evidence-based mitigation strategies to address these issues. Toxicity – The degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances is toxic or poisonous to an organism. In the context of this report, toxicity refers to alcohol or drug used by a drowning victim. Wading – Walking through water while partially immersed. Watercraft – A piece of non-powered recreational equipment used in water. Examples include surf boards, stand-up paddle boards, boogie boards, windsurfers or kayaks.

Lifejacket – A buoyant or inflatable garment or device designed to keep a person afloat in water and increase their likelihood of survival. Lifesaving Service – A coordinated group that exists to provide aquatic safety services to the public. This includes Surf Life Saving Clubs, Lifeguards, SurfCom, RWCs, RIBs, JRBs, ORBs, Rescue Helicopters and 4WD units. Local Government Area (LGA) – Also known as local councils, LGAs include cities, town, shires, municipalities or boroughs. Marina – A boat basin offering dockage and other service for small craft. Medical – For the purpose of this report, medical refers to an aquatic incident that was caused by a medical episode, e.g. a heart attack or epileptic seizure. NCIS – National Coronial Information System. Non-fatal drowning – A subset of drowning, the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/ immersion in liquid, where the outcome is classified as morbidity and no morbidity. Offshore – Describes the coastal water area beyond the surf zone and inshore area from 500m to 12nm. Ocean – The seabed, water and air space above the water between 3nm and 12nm (the Australian territorial waters limit) offshore. Ocean drowning death – Where the location of the death is in the seabed, water or air space above the water between 3nm and 12nm offshore and the cause of death includes drowning or immersion. Ocean fatality - Where the location of the death is in the seabed, water or air space above the water between 3nm and 12nm offshore and the cause of death does not include drowning or immersion. ORB – Offshore rescue boat. Other – An uncommon known activity not otherwise listed (e.g., paragliding, aircraft crash). Patrol – Service undertaken to monitor activities in/around an aquatic environment and respond accordingly through either preventative actions or rescue operations. Patrol flags – Red/yellow horizontally divided flags which are set after performing a risk assessment to determine the most suitable area for swimming. The flags identify a zone for swimming and bodyboarding within a patrolled location. Patrolled location – A location supervised by a lifesaving service. Preventative action – Direct action taken to reduce or eliminate the probability of a specific rescue, first aid or other reportable incident from happening in the future.

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GLOSSARY


REFERENCE

DROWNING DATA ANALYSIS SLSA collects incident data from SurfGuard, the IRD, SurfCom, the National Coronial Information System (NCIS) and by monitoring media reports for drowning incidents. The information is verified with the assistance of each state/ territory SLS entity and compiled for analysis by SLSA’s Coastal Safety Department. The following variables are used to match drowning cases from more than one data source: incident date; location; age; gender; and incident description. The NCIS is considered the ‘gold standard’ when there is a discrepancy in the detail collected from different data sources. Deaths are excluded as a coastal drowning if they are reported as ‘intentional deaths’, they are inland locations, or ‘drowning/ immersion’ is not a contributory factor as noted by the coroner. Coastal incidents that are deemed intentional or not due to drowning/immersion are logged as coastal fatalities instead.

METHODOLOGY The National Coastal Safety Report 2018 contains information on Australian community behaviours and attitudes to the coast; SLS capability and membership capacity; rescues and emergency response; and coastal drowning deaths for the period of 1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018. This information is correct as of 24 July 2018. All care is taken to ensure the statistical information included within this report is correct. However, pending the outcome of ongoing coronial investigations and as SLS state/territory entities update their operational information, this data may be amended. Data in figures may not always add up to 100% due to rounding. THE AUSTRALIAN COMMUNITY ANALYSIS Information about community swimming ability, behaviours and attitudes to coastal safety, risk perceptions, safety strategies and rescues was gathered from the SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey. Conducted by Omnipoll Market Research, the latest survey was run online over the period 12 - 19 April 2018 among a national sample of 1,597 respondents aged 16 and above. The study was carried out in compliance with AS-ISO 20252 Market, Social and Opinion Research. To reflect the population distribution, results were post-weighted (on age, gender, geographic strata and education) and projected to Australian Bureau of Statistics data. The Australian population aged 16 and above (the reference population for this survey) is 18,712,000.

The non-fatal drowning data used in this report were made available by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). The authors are responsible for the use made of the data in this report. More detailed methodology can be found in the 2018 Coastal Safety Brief - Beaches. DROWNING DATA LIMITATIONS Over years of investigation as part of the NCIS process, some cases are amended prior to their closure, resulting in changes to the classification of cases in our datasets. Therefore, the number of coastal drowning deaths published in this report may be different from annual totals previously reported. In an effort to produce a timely report on our current year’s data we acknowledge that these figures will change. Each year, the changes that occur in the previous year’s report will be made transparent. The data in this current report are not the final figures as 86% of 2017–18 coastal drowning deaths reported remain open cases and 38% of cases do not have a cause of death (COD) listed yet. Once NCIS closes a case, SLSA modifies those with unknown intent and those where the cause of death is not drowning, from ‘coastal drowning’ to ‘coastal fatality’. Bars of two different colours are used to illustrate the incidents where a COD has not been listed on NCIS in Figure 44. The incidents are included in our annual totals and analysis, and they will remain so until a COD is listed other than drowning/immersion.

CAPABILITY AND RESCUE ANALYSIS SurfGuard, the Incident Report Database (IRD) and SurfCom management system (SurfCom) are web-based applications and part of a suite of applications that enable members, clubs, branches, state offices and SLSA to enter and access SLS operational (including rescues and first aids), capability (including assets and services), educational and administrative data. Information was extracted from SurfGuard to identify how many rescues were performed by volunteers, lifeguards and lifesaving services during 2017-18; and how many active surf lifesavers and award holders there were during 2017-18. The data was verified by SLS state/territory entities. Information about assets and services were gathered from each SLS state/ territory entity.

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NATIONAL COASTAL SAFET Y REPORT 2018


© 2018 SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTRALIA This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment Act 2006, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval systems or transmitted by any means (including electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without prior permission from Surf Life Saving Australia.

CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS REPORTS As part of the NCIS investigation process, some cases are amended prior to their closure and have resulted in changes to our datasets. This year SLSA has commenced a thorough review of its drowning database to update all cases to the same inclusion standards. Table 1

For enquiries concerning reproduction, contact SLSA on: phone 02 9215 8000; email: info@slsa.asn.au

CHANGES IN THE NUMBER OF COASTAL AND OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS AS PREVIOUSLY REPORTED 2014 NCSR

2015 NCSR

2016 NCSR

2017 NCSR

2018 NCSR

2004–05

89

89

89

89

89

2005–06

95

95

96

96

95

2006–07

98

98

102

102

102

2007–08

89

89

89

89

89

2008–09

89

89

88

88

85

2009–10

85

85

85

85

80

2010–11

69

69

69

69

69

2011–12

113

113

113

114

114

2012–13

118

118

118

118

118

2013–14

84

83

84

82

80

102

105

105

108

130

128

128

116

119

2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 2017-18

Every attempt has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright, but in some cases this may not have been possible. Surf Life Saving Australia apologises for any accidental infringements and would welcome any information to redress the situation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SLSA wishes to thank the following people and organisations for their contribution to the National Coastal Safety Report 2018: the Australian Government: Department of Health; National Coronial Information System: Leanne Daking; Omnipoll: Frederic Anne; Royal Life Saving Society Australia: Amy Peden & Alison Mahony; SLS state centres, branches, clubs, support operations and ALS; SLSA major national corporate partners: DHL , Holden and Westpac.

110

SUGGESTED CITATION: Surf Life Saving Australia (2018) National Coastal Safety Report 2018. SLSA: Sydney. REFERENCES • Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018, Australian Demographic Statistics, 2004–18 cat. no. 3101.0, viewed 26 July 2018, http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3101.0. • Australian Water Safety Council (2016). Australian Water Safety Strategy 2016–20. Australian Water Safety Council: Sydney. • Newspoll (2009) Surf Safety and Rips Study. Newspoll: Sydney. • Ryan, A, Rijksen, E, Daw, S (2018) ‘Coastal Safety Brief: Beaches.’ Surf Life Saving Australia: Sydney. • SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018). Newspoll/Omnipoll Online Omnibus April 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018. • SLSA Annual Reports.

67

This report was compiled by Shane Daw, National Coastal Risk and Safety Manager, Eveline Rijksen, Research Coordinator, April Ryan, Public Safety Coordinator, Nicole Gonzaga, Research Assistant and Keiran Stone, Lifesaving Operations Manager. Cover Image: Shane Daw. Design: Anika Martin. CONTACT INFORMATION SLS receives Government funding to commence valuable initiatives and programs. However, we rely on the generosity of the community and corporate support to ensure they continue. To help Surf Life Saving please donate to: Surf Life Saving Foundation­—slsfoundation.com.au For more information: Surf Life Saving Australia—sls.com.au Surf Life Saving New South Wales—surflifesaving.com.au Surf Life Saving Northern Territory—lifesavingnt.com.au Surf Life Saving Queensland—lifesaving.com.au Surf Life Saving South Australia—surflifesavingsa.com.au Surf Life Saving Tasmania—slst.asn.au Life Saving Victoria—lsv.com.au Surf Life Saving Western Australia—mybeach.com.au

REFERENCE METHODOLOGY


DROWNING S N A P S H OT

COASTAL & OCEAN DROWNING DEATHS

MALE

FEMALE Location

AT THE BEACH

OFFSHORE

ROCK/CLIFF

AT LEAST 5KM FROM A LIFESAVING SERVICE

Activity

32% SWIMMING

9%

SNORKELLING

25% BOATING

9% ROCK FISHING

3 13

6 20

23 39 6

National Coastal Safety Report 2018  

The National Coastal Safety Report 2018 is a comprehensive summary and analysis of community perceptions, activities on the coast, coastal a...

National Coastal Safety Report 2018  

The National Coastal Safety Report 2018 is a comprehensive summary and analysis of community perceptions, activities on the coast, coastal a...